This unit will ena ble you to

w list~n to a rnini-lecture on CtJJ:ture sno~k~

r:I ecquire expressions of defining, a poJogising" and QOOlplf,3ining.

" brgwse texts, compare ana contrast valqes in different countnes,

~, sttldy pltrqsal verbs,

rY write an infortnal lettet

, ..

ai' explore ways of keeping records.

'hat ao you v,aiue", what do yoa tr:easure?:hat no you USfiifS: your ~thir:iJl :r:neasure? Ihat tQI2:stne list of YOPT: vp:lDes fJg}enda:.: oJeFafl,ce, b(Q;J;her/re)()Q., (!J( xenop}robia? Ihit'/! crireriif snapeyalJf vision.

-. ~ : ~ . =. - : - , : :. : ,.. '

.-

Expao

1 . Study this dictionary entry aOOullhe different meanings of the wordilvalue", lhen do the exercise below.

-1. val ue (t'l.O\d o-X:- If 'so I'ryeth Il1_g j S of val ue, it is usefu I' or irnp'Clittar'lt. I fit -[5- o:f If/:}

va I u~1 it ha s no usefu J nes?,- Or im po rtance, 2_ v~lue;, va1m~s u,alutng \la~e:d .(velb~:

If yotr value sornething or sO'i'heorre,you thin k that th~y me_ i_mportflrlt and YQi-r appreciate them.

3· valued (adjediv~f: nighly,e:stimatecl; Wflll-regtlrcl£ld

4;., vadue. (rfcSun)': worth of something in

terQl§ elf 1JJ:eljey .

5. va,lue valu~ _ va1:IJiog vqlued (verb):

When e*peit~value somethingl they d~cide 110w much money i:t u.: worth.

'6-. v:arue values: (noon), The. values-of a person or ifoup·;ar-e ~.he moral ]lTindpl~s

'and bel,iE;~ th~ think.are.irnportant, .

7. value values ();lQun~: A varue ,is a Ii,ra.rticular n~r[lber or qlldJjtity thah::an replace-a ,s-ymboLsuch as ~XI or ~yJ Tn iii rnatlrem ati tal ~preS5ipn. (TECrJ.NICAL)

Decide which meaning Ilva1ue'" has in each ex:ample with reference to the dictionary entry. a .. T aha r Ben j e 110 un - is 01 val ued Mo rocca n novel j st.

b. The Dollar "often goes down in value in the time of war.

c. Educators c-all for a return to traditional f?lmily values ..

d. What is the value of X in this equation: 2% +y = 9~

e. More experiments must be made to see- if this medicament has any value. f. Some experts value the potential revenue from taxes at around 50 million dhs.

g. The countries of South Asia share many cornrnon values.

h. This bracelet is really of-no value. l, If you value your health, you should give-LIP bad eating habits. j. Samantha puts a high value on her appearance.

2. Here is a list of global values·; Circle the ones familiar 10 you.

Hand in hand for global values

citizenship altruism

to.lerance co-exetence

partnership co-operation

initiative equity

3. Kelale these values with their meanings.

1. the ~bjlit)'io atiic:eptanti respect the.epiniensend beliefs- o.f ethers

2.theabilityfll liVe logether ill harmony

'3. the act of partidpating wi lb. o1hers and work~ng together towards the same end

4. selfessness:,. ;gene.i'o!iily, kindocs'i

6.1he,-abilily or opportunity to act before-othe·rs do

"7. the. set 'Of rights and duties a person has towards his own communi ty

82

(l" co~operati~n d. equi~

'e. resP9vsibi)lty LIon

g • .hannony

2. irresPQlISjb~lity'

3. selfiShness' 4.conffiet

5. individmility.

6. injustice

7. intolerance'

6. Find words in column A which collocate with words in column B.

5. Fill in the blanks with words from the list below.

appropriate, community, criteria, circumstence«. backgrounds, suitable, nations

Criteria for Universal Values'

'A value is universal only if itfulfils three (a) First, It must. be (b) atall

times-jn the past, at'lhe present, and in the future. It should also be (¢) fbr an humans ~

from different cultures, 01 opposite genders, and from various reii,gio.us (d) " Of! top

of that, a value has to be applicable under all. Ce) : amOFlg members .of a

f'amily, among citizens within a (f) , and between , (gl of the world.

7. Fill in the blanks with collocations from exercise 6.

a, , is concerned with educating children on the lava of their country and the readiness

to serve their cormnunitv.

h. A good citizen alwavs works for the af his community rather than seeks private

benefits or privileges.

Co Another aspect of citizenship is fulfilling one's towards society before asking. for one's rights.

d, makes of the world a picturesque, heterogeneous and pleasant place with regard to

the various cultures around the globe.

e. A person may experience when he moves to a cultural environment which is

different from h is own .

f. .. is the ability to think beyond boundaries of place, identity and culture, and recognise

.all human beings around the world as equal to us ..

• Gultute

• Civic .. Mpral

.. C~fturaJ ~ oJIJiIgol:r " Global

• edncatioh

• good

• shoCk

• citiz~S'b.ip .. ob1Jg~1ipns , .. diversity"

83

Culture Shock

. Get involved

· What problems maya person encounter when living in another country?

· Would it be easy far him/her to get integrated in that foreign country? Explain. • What do you think "culture shock;' means?

Listen and discover

1. listen to this miai-lecfure and compare your definition of J1 culture shock" (0 the one given by the lecturer.

2. Listen to the mlni-lecture again and find out how many stages "culture shock" has.

3. Listen again and take notes from the mini-lecture to fill in the chart.

••••• 1 •• ~: .~ ••.•. ~ .•. ~.~ E.~ ~ •.• _ •. ..:..'~' •••• r~ •. ~ •.• 'J...~, ~ r I'"

------------- Sociologist Ief..tvring Qncvllure shock

4. Listen again and match the stages of culture shock with these emotions.

• nngijlgjl?-

" "emJhtlif!i.1~SI"l1' .' a:ss.l.Itallce

5. Select the correct answer according to the mini-lecture.

a. When does culture shock happen? c. How does. the individual feel during-the second stage?

1. When you rneetforeign people for the first time 1. Strange and different

2. When you gp to live in a foreign country 2. Interested and amused

b. How does the individual feel during the- first d. How does the individual feel in the third stage?

stage of culture shock~. 1. Strong and self-confident

1. Lonely and homesick 2. Weak and depressed

2. Happy and excited

e. How does the individual feel during the fourth stage of culture shock?

1. Relaxed and comfortable

2. Afraid and anxious

6. Discuss with your partners which title might be the best for this mlni-lecture. a. How to Adjust to Culture Shock

h,. The StElge-s of Culture Shock

c. The Causes of Culture Shock

84

Have your say

- ---

TeU your mates about a relative of YOUlS who . lives ina 'fqreign country. Tal k about a, the problems he/she experienced in the host country.

b. how he/she managed. to ada~t, to the host country's cultural customs,

. Define Your Concepts!

1. How did the speaker introduce his definition of "culture shock"?

2. Match these terms with their definitions. Underline expressions used to define words,

Terms Definitions

3. Culture Lc~n he defined ~s principles or s.t(lndards of goodqeha;viow.

It. Values. V 2. referto [he: WIdely accepted tJ;a<.iltiO"lls withi'Ii:'i,l COWl rilun ity.

~If-------.......j

c.; Multi.lingualism 3. designates the beliefs:"I~lnguagei anti·.en'Ore way of lite ot,l<fpartIE~lar pe0ple.

d. Patrimon.y 4 .• means using 01: involving many languages.

~. Customs ,; ~ OI,n ~.descriQ:ed as th~ qrtlsti€" gnd irltel}ectu$ll hedtaae le~ by 'fdrm~r gen$"1;iJtol1s;

3. Fill in the chart with expressions used to define the terms in exercise 2.

4. With your partner, add more e)(pressions to the chart.

5. Look up these terms in the dictionary; and define

I--''''"'''--....;......-....:.:........_~='''-=-=~=~_::____;;.:--I them, using the expressions in the chart.

.L..u ,' •••••••••••• , •••••• " .•••••• ~ ••••••••••••••••••.•••••••• ,~ ••••••••••• ~ •••• , •••••••••••••••••••

a. pre] ud i ce

b. stereotypes

c. xenophobia

d. racism

e. diversity

f. nostalgia

••••••• ,~., ••• ~ •••••• I +- ~I •• '~ •• _ ••••• · •• 'u •••••• _ •• ~ •••••••• , •• r~""",.~,·.n~ ••••• , ••••• -.. ••••••• , .i ~ .

L.r.~ ••••••• , ••••• , •••• , •••••••••••• " .~ ••••• 4 ••••• ~ ••• "..L •• ' •• ,+- ••••.• ..L_ ••••••••• u ••••••• _ , ••••• *.i.h~ ~.·~ .••••••

1_ do apologise!

1. Read this exchange and answer the questions.

Barbara:' Tom.:

Barbara:

Tom:

I was, waiting for you in the cQffee shop but you dldn'tcotne .. l'rn awfully sorry. I realry forgot it.

Don't wClrry about it

Another time perhaps.

a. Wl1atdid Barbara cornplalnaboutr

15 .. What was Tom's excuse? What expression did he lise to apologise? c. Did Barbara accept Torn's excuse? What did she say?

2. Fill in the chart below. Add more expressions.

It's OJ< I do apologise. Sorry to say it, but you.... Enough is enough!

Setty about that Never mind! I've been patient long enough, but. .

l'tn not satisfied with the i'Vayyou.... Don 'f' worry about ft .

It's, not important. !'l'tI very sorry.

• ••••• , ••• "' •••• ~ •••••••••••••••• , .•••• ~~. ',' , •••••• ~ •• 4 _..... ~ ~ ~ , ,. __ •••• ~., •• + "'" ~ .• " h. t, __ ••• , ~ I •• ~ r •••• I •••• '~ •••• ~ ••• - .. ~ ._ ••• ~.'-'-'.I.r •• -. ~ . .-.- •• ~ ••••••••• I ._ •• _ ••••• 1" ~ •••

••••••.••••• ••••• ••• ~.M ••••••••• ~ •••••••••••••••. _ , ••• _ •• _~~ •• __ -t-.- ._._. __ •..• __ • ,_. __ •... __ .. h.,_~ r ••••• '" •••• ~ ••• ' r M •••• ~ •••• ~~ ••

3 .. Write a

situation.

rehearse it with your partner.

a. Apologise to your partner because you damaged his/her l-pod.

b. Yourpartner forgot to bring YOll a book he/she berrowed from you. e. You could not go to your partner's birthday party.

d. Your partner stepped on your foot.

85

Different but Equal

Because they come from different cultures, some tourists have some stereotypes about Moroccansano the Moroccan way of Ilvinganci thinking.

Evaluate and comment on the following examples,

Impression Comment
a. Moroccans always hug and kiss each other on the cheeks when they meet
b. ill Morocco the laraera family is the better.
C-, Mothers have more power over the house and thechildren,
d. Moroccans are outgoing.
e. You should not.shake. Imnd$ whha Moroccan Woman unless.sheoffers her han.d firsr.
r., Moroccans have a preferenceIor male ablJtl:ten.
g. Moroccans drink tea-mere than water.
h. Moroccan 'families never serve food in separate plates.
i. The whole family gathers around one plate:
- ,.........,.,.,
~~~IJ.::ro[ll!Lq_ J
1. Re-aililie Introduction and the titles, then ness what the two stories are about. g

Unperli~a(lding someone from another culture can be. hard. We don't usuallv understand the way people from another culture. behave l:mca-us€ they are different, and we therefore perceive their behaviour as strange. We consequently develop n~.gative slere6type.s .about their whole culture, Unfortunafely, our judgernentslu'e oft~n errO!"U;JQU,'I. SQ remember; 'Different' does not mell!1'Wrong'; wq 'fire a,11 diH§!r~nt, but equal.

Here are twostones which illustrate this point,

Alone in the Dom inican RepubIicl, was sometimes "Qns,ide~ed odd or strange in the Dorninic,an -Repl,Jblic in terms of my being, used to havins, private space. For example, there wOl'lld be times when I would, want 10 slt.dowr. by .myself in my n.\~n rqom and just read a book. r\fld,a.llyt-i me I was r~?ding a book, my Dom in ican neighbours always assumed 1, was. study1ng. ltVJa.!f'C0ml:JIe:re;ly' ih1P()~5tble fQr them that alW(;)he Wd,Lll.d, ChOP5~' to Srt alone, all by themselves. and read for pleasure. Often fhey would stop: by with same food.to /help n'ie·shldy': Th is woti Id inevitably lead to long Conversations. Ftem the Domi~iffifl po.illt"c:lf v.iew, tbis wasagesture of-hospitality, And Dominicqns. plaGe 9 great value on hospirairty. Another example of my being considered :oddf was the fact that l Iivedalone and that/at times, I wanled to bl!:: by myself. It was han:d riO~ my Dominican neighbours 19 wndersrnnd this. Very few, if al1)'j people live by themselves in the Dominican Republlc.

Everyone hass family or is (;1Jrtne.ded td a fa.m.i.ly or lives with p family or ane~tencle:d la mil y. If J •

wanted to be alone, they would think I was sick and send someone over fostay with me. If I wanted to be alone much of the lime, they wQlJld think 1 w.as rude or (gnwir.1g,them, and theirreeling-s would be hurt.

Christina Wilflams, a Britisll e.~·leacher

Just a C u ltu r al ~ i su nde rsta nd in g Moroccan's ate per~ps, t~8 ftie-n.ul ies! and mort hospjt"~~le p,~?~le .I'~.e j ever met. When you fire In ,Mor0ctO,. everybody wants to tal k to you Or to mvne you for a meal. When you vlSlUhe:m ill the I r homes, theY:inS'lst~Jn showingYfilu the most cordial ~~ o'f.g,enemsity. But.thereis something I didn'j !.lm~erst&tnd c;luring my first triJ) frollil the St(jt~~ to MOf1?CGO. Hem'lieverytbing ~bo!Jtii.

Th,e ·gc:~):ne'is, a c.afe ill Tangie~. TQffi0I"f,oW is Satl,J,rd",y. I've j!.}st invited a Mt:1l"occan friend tQi,l picnicat the beach: Will he Clorne? 'Perhaps'} he; says 'j n Engl ishl trans!\3ting from the Arabi c '~nshaIl3h", whi,th IiwraUY' rnsans '!f,Gud is vvilling.' I'm :feel ing mlJr:t Wnat does he-riie'an by 'Perh"lips'J? Either he Wirnts to come or' he,doesri't. It's up to him. If he doesn'twant to corns, h'e_only has to say so .. Het'l.oosn't understand why I seem upset, ~ntJ I don't quite grasp wha: he nleans by {Perhaps'. Ql:Jf two cultures ·!::orifronf. each 'other across the teacups.

Only ~e\!er:al y~ar~ I~l.ter" re_~di[)g· a book about cu lture, did londerstand, He would tome, he: meant by 'lnshallah', 1 realised, thouSh late,_tn,at toJerallC8j g@nerosiJ;yand q:lrnpli<lll~ with or~.}s cornrnitments are values deeply rooted in the Moro~can cuhure. BradN~ron

86

2. S~im the two stories and check your guesses.

3. Read through the two stories, and find out the writers' countries of origin and the countries they talk about.

4. Fill in the table from the two stories.

5. Find phrases in the stories which support the ideas below.

a. Dominicans.are generous towards their neighbours.

b. Dominicans prefer family life.

c. Christina was annoyed by her neighbours! behaviour.

d. In the beginning, Brad thought his Moroccan friend declined the invitation.

e. Brad got angry because his MOroccan friend said 'lnshallah'.

f. Later, Brad understood that his Moroccan friend was really willing to go to the beach.

6. Take notes from the two stories to complete the following diagrams.

-\ _ /-i

" SoMe cLlltu~r' 0 !

- ••••••••••• +> •••••• ~ values. in Morocco ~ ························t

, I

I

........................... " i ;-_. -~ ,.\ '

I ,....................... • .

I

7. What other values can you add to the diagram about Moroecol

........................... \ __ / .

/ some c~lturpl-

..................... ~ values In the r+ _ ...

.Dorninican Republic"

............................ /':':

;;I. What is common between the Moroccan and the Dominican cultures? b. What values do these photos suggest to you?

Welcome in tne DominiCan Republic

87

Phrasal Verbs

1. Read the paragraph and answer this question.

Did Jamal manage to get a Visa to Eng.land? Why?

When Jamal went ro Casablanca to' apply for a visa to' Eng'brinrHthey :tnrrfe:tllrim down, The .reason was that he didn't 1l'lteftl~eir~4tiiremenif_i$. MOTe than that" be didn't-fill in {he apJlHcaJj'on appr6ptiately. He was so up~et, because he w.anted fo go to Eng;=liIDd to find outabGiuf tile English culture and pick up the English langl1!a_ge ~a:S.ily, Now; he is looking forward to ~eLtinga visa to the ilBA through tbfRGreel1 Card Iotrery.

f, .

2. Find iii the paragraph phrases (verb + preposition) meaning the same as the foIlowing words.

a. make a request for

b. rejected his request

d. discover, learn about

e. learn without difficulty

c. complete f. eagerly expecting or anticipating

3. Read these tips for understanding phrasal verbs; then do the exercises that follow.

Sometimes you can understand the phrasal verb by leoking atthe paftid~ {tne,socoriel word}. for ex'ample/1 tbe varfkle~ UP and DOWN oft.en retate toa pbysieEilly ·hlgher 01' a phySically lower positron. Sti!(1)cd up~ {)ut .up '( your hand) I "5~t down, pjck .up and pUt down are all exampl§$· af th is kind of phra5al verb, All partidf!s have a literal ni~arring :

uFl1!anGldown fl. lin ~a nd '0tJt § ,on1'Z and o~ i thrt1u~~~ (awayo ,9

_- nrr .

-,

4. Read the following sentences and replace the' words wfitte~ in bold type with the following phrasal verbs. MaKe any necessary changes, paymg attention to verb form.

hand aut

. 10,[1'g f@.r

,r,;Jut up WIth jptd@\,yn

write, d 0W'n dress up

rmnd in

look up

ear-out

a. The teacher distributed to students an article contrasting Moroccan and British cultural values,

b. When the students Were reading the article, they wrote down key ideas in their notebooks.

c. As the article ls rich in 11evJ vocabulary, the teacher told the students to search for the meanings of

difficult words in the dictionary.

d. ln th is artie le, students u ndersteod that people from both co,u ntries tolerate. d jfferent rei i gious, practices.

e. The article also shows that the Way people wear clothes differs from One country to another.

f. English people prefer to eat in restaurants.

g. Some students were looking forward to the discussion to begin so as to participate with their ideas.

h. When they finished the .disC1J!isiohj the teacher asked students to copy 'notes from the blackboard. i. At the end of the session, he gave them homework to submit later.

88

5. Fill in the blanks with the correct prepositions from the list.

6. Match the meaning 'on the right with the phrasal verbs on the left.

a. look for

b. come across c.set up

d. bring up

e. cheGk in

f. pickup

g. take off (plane) h. cut down

i. carry on

j. take up

1 . seek / search

2. establish

3. reduce

4. continue

5. leave ground

6. collect

7'. find by chance 8~educate a child

9. start a hobby or a leisure activity 1 a.register at a hotel or airport

7. Choose the correct synonym of the underlined phrasal verb in each statement below.

A. Intolerance brings about dislike.

<;I. causes to be seen b. causes. t-o 'happr::n c. prevents from happen~ng

B. Wl1en my father was abroad, he wentthrough hard time.

a. experienced b. travelled c. did

C. He didn't stay ina hotel. Some relatives put him up.

a. helped b. employed c. sccommodeted

D. Theil! probably put off this year's spiritual music festival.

a. arrange b. postpone c. schedule

E. Let's check in at the hotel and go on a quick tour around the town.

a. register b. pay c. stay

89

1. Read the following letter, and find out Mary's worries and enquiries prior to visiting Morocco.

Dear Mehdi,

My parents have finally given me their 01< to spend a couple of weeks with next summer. We'll certa i Illy have so much fun together, won't we?

But, I'm a bit panicky about this visit. Morocco is miles away; irs a new world for me- with customs and beliefs definitely different from the ones we've ,got here in Britain.

What I got through net search didn't in the least relieve my panic, and I still

have a couple of questions in mind: /llGpr; ,you'd lJe/p!

- Shall I stay in a hate! or will you put me up?

- What are the common ways- of greeting people in your country?

- Wha1 about table manners:? Do you use both hands when you're eating.?

- And clothes? Should I dress up or wear casual things?

I feel my dream to visit Morocco will come true at last; Till then, I count on you to tell me about the things above.

That's it for now. Keep in touch.

Mary

2. With your partner, answer Mary's questions. Share your findings with the whole class.

1. Write a reply letter to Mary, answering her questions. You may use the following format to write your letter.

Hi Mary,

Good news you're coming to Morocco! Welcome to this multicultural and exotic country. Get ready for the adventure, then.

The panic you Ire feeling is quite normal since it's your first visit. But you ne dn't worry that much.

I hope the following tips w_ould help you.

(end the letter)

(write your name,

90

4. The language of informal letters.

a. Which of these phrases would you find in an informalletler 1 Put a tick when appropriate.

o Dear Bill,

o Dear Mr Anderson,

o Let me know as soon as ... :J Yours faithfully,

o Best wishes,

o I'll be very grateful if YOLi .••

o Take care.

o lid liketo tell you about ...

D Unfortunately, your remarks were not relevant. o l.arn sorry-to inform you that. ..

D Why don't vou ...

o J was disappointed by the remarks you made.

o Bye for now.

b. Can you (orne up with other phrases we use when writing informal letters?

c. Match these phrases used in informal letters with their functions.

(

,)

~L.,to e:xprc;l~B' r~gar;d • 4i'tb fini"S1l the [ett'Eir

~J Why don't W!:'L.. . 'rl. Plffa'se- t er me< kllbWI ..

h~ WlI"jfesQOn. i. rake:_iare.

ji'Cquld Y{)LI dO'5Qn1et.hlngJf9r' 11~~~

6~tQ ask ~ ~X(J)b1r .

'J'. t~ ~~g'8est:Or invjte, - 8.tO:.a~k for a re~pOHS(fj 9. ,:0 reqLl€.st"sIDil(Je irrifQrmati,on ,

5. Exchange letters with your partner, correct his/her mistakes, and check whether he/she has respected the language and form of informal letters.

9l

U it 6

CULTURAL VALUES

Keep Record of your Study

Keeping records of your learning experience is a helpful and useful study skill Records help you memorise, retrieve and reflect on what you have been studying. You can use different ways to record and take notes about yo~r studies.

1. Choose among the following study skills the ones which are appropriate to your study style.

Notebooks: ¥ou. need to maintain notebooks in whiCh you record les:so()~t vocabulary, observations, homework and exerdses, In th l:S , way, you create useful r€!tetel"ICeS that complement. your textbooks and serve as individual study gl,Jides.lhey <,i,lso h~lp yo\,l while preparing feu yt')ur quizzes. tests, and exams" Follow your teacher's guldanceand advice in maintaining your notehooksand

C{)pyb-QoKSi, they are sigtrs 'of your commitment and rrretivation to study.. I '-' __ .

. "'_" "'n 1_"""" ... ~~ ......

lQl~S nr journals; You eankeepa personal log or jour-nal .in which you sum up, ";,~ I f:::.:. ~~ ....

yoqr school WGlr:k of the week and, reflect.on what happened,. You can also write: your persona I i hi pressiorrson how well you did in' you r studies a nd how, to i rnprova or pmfit. fnom yo.ur mistakes. As y~u can't remember 'everytAin:g.j there will'be a time when you want to go back-and look at your journal or notebook,

Blogs : ~19g;;(or web logs:) ~r:e-website5 where entries are made in journal style and dispjayetlin a' reverse chronnlogica-I order, As many, students do, you cankeep -~ blog where you expre'$S; y~urselr in writing and reflect on school a_c;:cpr:npHs,hrnent. In your blpg,. you-can cemblnetexr, images, photos and dtherri1edla Felatea toschcol subjects and life. It is p.(;)ssibJefo[ other s.rudents10 ViSit your b1o_g andleave comments, ageed

.... , 1.w.'~t~, .... ,,'PT'I - ..... _ I_,·~ mv"1 .-

..,. ~;:::;:~:...::~~~ :;m1lCiE.

...... ~ i,,1 ............ ,~...I t....~ I ... ~ ... ' .. _ y~ _~IIIO ,.,1.l;1li

_"'110..-.1:. _~_""""~_""""_""oiI ~ ..

:Z~~'7"':':~~"":~~~"';;:;~::."'41I,~::.t;~:-- ~I.>F

_ .. -.I--·-._"'oQ..."l~""" -~_....._..,.,..", -~ """-~"1-u,_ .... ~..,. ---......,.. ,~~k..~"". ~.._., ....

I ... -........ .. to .,..._ ___,_

........ ~

way for collaborative work.

Portfolios:, A Portfol io is a colJec.tipn of materi,<\I!:s that demonstrates to others what YOu, have done. Yo,uc~n include In yo:ur portfello your projects, test-papers, t:ompositio.tis~elMS presentations , ... etc. Begin your pmttello-e:ariyin the year to allow time to accumulate all your .accorhplishments and works. Use' a plastlr; 9J Raeer folder 'and {m-a;_n_g~'your materialin a chronologicalorder, Go back to your

pqrifolio frOIn time to time. to evaluate your progress.

2. Discuss with your peers your choices and show them examples of your work.

92

Good Manners

1. How do Indian manners differ from Moroccan manners? Read and find out.

Indian Manners

Feu: Indians, good manners are the first mark of a person s 'good.breeding. So there are some simple gnideliues to fellow when you a:re in India.otherwise you will be regarded as rude or vulgar. Gelltt.ra:l m(l"(z7l1lr-s

,.. If you;are in a mixedgroup-alway greet tb:eeld~ts and. the women first, Stand.up when an elder 'Or a: guest enters the room.

» Do not, address elder and seniors 'by their names. Try 'SiT/Madam' for strangers and Und!el Auntie' fOF familiar people. For ~ stranger who is not so old. it 1S better to suffix. the-name with. 'ji - > as a mark of re pect.

» Offer a glass of water-or p-teferably a cup of tea to anyone Wh0 steps .into yeur home or office, )Ii- Do not ~-sk tog many intimate questionsthe first time tlrat YOll meet ajierson,

>- Do not cornrnedt on personal appearances or clothes in a negalive way; if you cannot .say something complimentary, do notsayanything at all.

In 11J(/f4!1. Iwrne;s

>- Always take off your shoe~/sandals-before entering a room. At le-ast, . wait.for your host to. tell you-

that YOIil· need not bother.

)- Do. not sit until you are offered a seat.

>- Do nat s-hout'to be heard or laugh 'so loudly.

>- Keep your eyes down; db not keep gazing at people, or things around in the hou e. Table ltumflets

» Wash yOUI' hands before and after a meat

)- Wait uritil everyone else i sitting-doWn before starting to sat. "> Preferably eat with your tight hand.

>- Yon are not supposed te put YO-q.l1 elbows on the table while eating because it doesn 'f allow enough

space for tile person who is sitting next to you.

_).- Ask fat whatever you want.instead of reaching out directly: or painting at dishes. >- Do net make too muchnoise; do. 'l1ot talk with load in your mouth.

>. Do not.read while eating,

). Do riot talk on your cell phoil€ daring the meal and if you must .get up in-between, ask to be excused. » Help. clear the dishes.

2. Do a net search to find out the similarities and differences between Indian and Western manners.

Try these- web sites : www.cyborlik.com and W"\J\IW, westemsilver. com

93

Wife Carrying is a sport of carrying women in Finland. -----+-

Celebrating Women Across Cultures

its 5-6

Women play many crucial roles in society- mother, wife/ daughter, and colleague. Some women prefer outside careers while others choose to be homemakers, They play art important role in shaping tile child's early growth and education. In the workplace/ women have become a leading force in varied.apheres including decision making ones.

International Women's Day Is celebrated worldwide all Man::::h m-th cutting across borders and boundaries of cultural differences. Women are also celebrated in many-festivals arid are the main concern pf many tradltionsand customs. For exarnple, women are celebrated through a wife-carrylng international csrnpetiticrr if! Finland.

rff' Your project is to prepare a PowerPoint presentation where you include celebrations of women from different countries and cultures. Here are suggestions on how to proceed.

)- Find a partner or partners from your school to work with. Be sure that a member of your group

is familiar with Powerl'oint or any other presentation software. This might be an occasion for you to learn and practise presentational skills.

>- Do a net search and/or book search to find examples of celebrations from other parts of the world. Be sure to include celebrations-from different cultures, ethnics and religions. Here is a web site to start with: www.imow.org:

)- Include in your presentation photos, pictures, videos and short texts. Make your presentation

enjoyable by including humour and fun.

,._. Give in your presentation examples of international celebrations like mothers' day and women's day. )- Bring about examples of famous women leaders.

>- Seek help from your teachers or your peers whenever you need help. Your English teacher can edit and pro-ofread your texts. Yourcomputer science teacher can help with web search and presentational programs.

,._. Rehearse your presentation before del ivering it. You can act it in front of your friends before doing so in class.

)- Find til suitable limes-lot 'to schedule your presentation in the rnultlmedia room .. Check the presentational equipment in advance.

fiF As an alternative, you can design a poster or prepare an oral presentation,

94

1. Fill in the blanks with the correct words.

governed gender equal patriarchal prior/If witiihle feiTTtJle

a. In the past, political parties thought women Were hot for politics.

b. Political-parties should have more candidates.

c. Many people thought that women were not as strong as men, and were' by emotion.

d. In a SPci~ty, men have leadership and dominance in all domains .

e. At the moment, political parties put many women art their election lists giving thema high, _

f. Today women-are breaking boundaries on many fronts.

g. Yet they are stili strugglingfor recognition and treatment.

2. Rewrite these sentences using expressions like slso, too, ~long with, yet, despite, however; etc.

Example: Working women contribute to society's development. They improve their chHdren"s life.

______.., Working Women contribute to society's development. They also improve their children's life. a. Moroccan women have gained far-reaching rights. We still need to identify the needs of rural women. b .. Some women work fu II ti me in the ir jobs. They cook, clean J and ta ke ca re of the ch i I d ren,

c. The Morotcan law guarantees women's rights. The government revised thefamllvcode to-irnprove women's situation,

d. This code raises the .age of marriage for-girls from 1 s- to 18. It gives wives "joint responsibility" with their husbands in family matters.

-e. women suffer from negative stereotypes. They real ise re-ma-rkable achi-evements. f. Moroccan women have- already entered the parliament. Their number is limited.

3. Change the sentences from the active to the passive 'form. Example: They appointed Maria a nurse in the local h05pital. --.. Maria was appointed a nurse in the local hosp-ital.

a. Leila Abouzeid wrote "The Year of the Elephant".

b. They have awarded the Noble Prize to some outstanding women.

c. M~m should help women in the housework.

d. We need to improve rural women situations.

e. Susan is cooking dinner fOT the, special guest.

, f. Latrfa has produced new-tashionedcaftarrs.

g. The university will give a scholarship to first.women graduates.

h. The government must give mare jobs to skilled women.

i. Rachida Khalil ts going to perform a show in Mohamed V theatre.

j. A Moroccan woman professor has set up Argan oil cooperatives to sustain development.

95

This unit will enable you to

I have a dream What a wonderful

fF listen t.Q a song" on dtlzenshtp _ by Ben Harper:

~ review-and Ieern ways of asking for and giving advice,

1iiP read a .text about an active citizenship protect;

I1iP learn how to report statements, questions and

commends in the 'present and the past.

~ learn about study groups-a,nd hew to form one,

i em a citizen of.the world afld my_nome is. my ab(;)df2:

Rlver5/ fcJ,j(es and'~alley5 ·are my SeJurae5 ofi:7ife; . Tr~es, QirC/s Cii1(j r:nO'[JJJJaitl$ ere my pFi(i.&[

I enr a citizen of me, world and m'y home i5my ebode:

Seas., fishes ana oceans

L ere my sourees ,of-hope;

I

: 5horelines, ((::)(1<£ and beaches

: .are ,my clJ,(:17esJ

. 1 L:iJm' a citizen of fhfl world

I - -, . - -

~. ilnd my peace';5 y93ur eompenv:

I

: Nl_y cJJild'fePl, felatp..,1,e5'and itiends

r

~. -a_rtf,my sources tifstf'ength;

I

r teme citizen 0 mankind

: lind the waDle world is myabode ..

Gil Giigari~Sr.(l961.. ).

RIGHTS

t

RESPONSIBILITIES

t

Balancing Rights and Responsibilities

em tell the truth e. to be respeeted

gy to do :your personal best l, to respectothers

K. to earn your Ilveithocd

111. to have access to leisure facillties

Q. tobecencerned fer-the cornrnon goad g. to have-a ~qy in what happens

'5. to respect tn-eflq_g of.your country u, to be free to tell ye,ur opinion'

w. to particlpate in oo,mr~llunity. activi~ieg

1. Here is a list of citizens' rights and responsibilities. Work in groups and put each item (a • x) in the appropriate circles above. If you cannot decide on an item, put it in the intersection.

b. to believe In human dignity and equality d. to I 'e tolerant

f. to respect tRe rules ~nd laws h. to ha\le somewhere to live

j. to voJuhteer in y&ur cornmunttv service I. to respect-the envlronrnerrr

11. to have access to health care

p. to be siIfe

r~ ttl have Mte59 to education

t. to be free to niOye

v. to; pay taxes X. to vote

98

2. Read these definitions and explanations and find out the corresponding word or words.

Example: something your are- allowed or permitted ----+ right

a. giving up YQur time for free ~ __ _ _ _ ".

b. something you give up to help others ~" """ .. """._",,"' __ "' .....

c. an organisation that does riot work for the government. --+ _' .. _ .. _ .. __ ,." ......

d. attempting to influence public officials to take a desired action. ---+ _ _ .. ". __ _ _

e. the control of what can be said, written or published ----+ ,_"' __ _ .. _ _

f. organisation set up to provide help Or ass; ranee to those in need --+ " _, .... _, .. ,, .

g. term used to refer to <,L group of people sharing certaln values or having certain condltions in

common. ---+ __ _ _ _ .. __

h. the process by wh ich business. politics and culture operateona world scale ----+_ ........ _ .. ,_ ..... _ .... _

i. rights and freedoms to which every human being .. is entitled.--+ ... "'''_" .. ''' .. "" .... "''''''''''''_"".,,_,, ..

j. an organlsatlon that works for improving the conditions of employment. ----+ _-_ ... _ ... ",_.",_ ..

k. obligations' or matters over which a person is considered to have a legal or moral duty. ----+ .. -. __ "~ .. __ ._ .. '""

I. claims, privileges or entitlements, normally protected by iaw. ---+ , .. __ .... __ .. _

m. a native born or someone Who has been natu ral ised in a particu lar state or nation ----jo- __ ~.-

3 .. Check your answers with these words or expressions.

charity community respo nsi 5 i liti es
sacriftce, gimbal isation citizen
lob-hying human rlghts vol uriteeri ng
censorship trade union rr&hts
NGO 4. Learn about these idiomatic expressions.

Right as rain: Ifthings are right as rain, then everything is gningwe!l for you.

Right royal: A tight royal night is an extremely exciting, memorable and funny one. Right up my alley : H something is right up your alley, it suits you perfectly.

Right up your street: If something is right up your street, it is ideal for you.

99

"Excuse Me Mr.1I

I Get involved

1. One of our responsibilities as citizens is to take care of our environment.

Who/what is/are responsible for polluting our environmenU Discuss in class and suggest ways of preserving the environment.

2. Guess from the words in bold letters the theme/topic of the song.

3. Who do you think Mr. is?

Listen and discover

4. Listen to the song and check your answer to the questions above.

"Excuse Me Mr."

Ben Harper

Oh - excuse me Mr.

Do you have the ,

Or are you so that it stands still for you?

Exc;use me Mr.

I want you to lend me your r

Or are you not only but do YOU not ?

Excuse me Mr. but isn't that your oil in the sea, And the pollution in the air Mr.,

Whose could that be ?

So, excuse me Mr.

But I'm a toO.

And you're givln' Mr. a bad name, Mr. like yow,

And, 11m the Mr. from nut in front of your name, :

,

'cause it' s a Mr. I ike you that puts fbe rest of us to 'shame. :

I

It's a Mr. like you that puts the rest af us to shame.:

,

And live seen ,

Oh- I've seen ~,

I've seen ........ to know that live seen too ........

Excuse me Mr.

Can't you see the children dying "1

You say that veu carr't them,

Mr. vou're not even ..

Excuse me Mr.

Just take a ........ around.

OhJ Mr. just look up and you will, You'll see it's corningdown.

Oh, excuse me Mr. but, 11m a ........ too.

And you're.givin' Mr. a bad name, Mr. like you.

So, l'rn the Mr. from out in front Qf yOIJr name,

'cause it's a Mr, like you that puts-the rest of us to shame. it's a Mr. like you, puts the rest of us to. shame.

And live seen ........ ;

I've seen ..... ' .. , I've se~n ....... ,'

jive seen ........ to know that live seen too ........ _, JIve s_~en ........ /

Oh ~ live seen ........ to know that I've seen too ........

'cause Mr. when you're rattling on ........ gate.

By then it is too ........ 'cau!:>€: Mr. when YOLI get there,

They don't ask what you ..

A!I they'll want to know Mr. ,is what you ........ 5-0, excuse me Mr.

But 11m a ........ too.

And yov're givin' Mr. a bad name, Mr. like ... you.

50, 11m ........ the Mr. "from out in front of yOl,Jr name, 'cause lt's a Mr. like you pUI;S the rest ot Us to shame.

Mr. like you, puts the rest of us to shame.

Qh shame.

100

md Speak

Hen Harper

Birth name Born

Ben] am i n (: htise, Harper 'OctoQer 28" 1'§69

Claremont, California, United 5ta~~

Genre(s) Folk, Rock, Blues, Gospel, Reggae

Qc-topati:6n(s)Sjnger, .sdn~wri er, guita{ist In~rume~t(si GUitar, Drums

Yeats actiVe '994-present

Website , htfp;ij'w~,vw,ben1r.;J1per.netl

5. Listen and fill in the blanks with the missing words.

Have your say

6. Discuss in class the following extract from the song:

"They don't ask What you saved.

ALI they'll want to know Mr. is what you gave."

Advice please!

1. Here is an imaginary dialogue where Mr is asking for advice and the singer is giving advice.

The singer: Can't yousee the children dying? Mr. : What do you think I should do ?

The singer: I think you should help them.

Mr. : What do you suggest to help these children?

The singer: Maybe you should help feeding thernand curing their illness. Mr. : What would you do in this situati-on ?

The singer: If I were YO!), I would participate in building shelters and hospitals for them.

2. Underline expressions of 'asking for and giving advice'.

3, With your peer, complete the following dialogues and act them out.

101

it 7

CITIZENSHIP

1. What does "citizenship" mean for you?

2. Students from different nationalities were asked to define citizenship. The following statemenisare some of their replies.

A

"Citizenship i's a quality, through which a person can contribute to the progress and development
of the society from where he, receives- nourishment for his body and soul." ('Salasubra, India),
"C:i1izenship refers to the relationship between the individual and the state, and more arrrong'
indiyidl,.IJal~ within ,a state", ( fv1ononye, Sudan).
IfCrtizenship m~ans;'be-ing a member sf and supportir:~ one's community and country. Votins" conserving
natural resources, participating'in local community projects are all part of cttizenship. " (Kane, USA) R

c

Which of these definitions expresses better your opinion about citizenship? Why?

3. Give examples of organisations, associations or foundations that promote citizenship in your area, village, city or country. What do they do to service the people?

4. Skim the following text and take notes to fill in the chart.

••••••••• ~ ••• ,~* ••• , •• ~ ••••

AC1WE. crnze.tlSH1P

A good illustration of Citizenship in action can be found in a small village, about an houris jQt}rney from Fez: in the Middle Atlas reg-ion of MOfocco.

Prior to 2001, the majority of the chtldren in.that village had never seen a school, much less attended one. At a very young age;'1 most of them went to work in the countryside, tendih9 fields or herding goats, Those who were lucky enough to attend classes Were forced to walk several miles Over rough roads to the nearest school. In this drought-stricken region, Water was, often rationed; keeplng'the people supplied with sufficientwat€f meant endless treks-down the hi!! to the-village well on donkeys.

When the Medersat.c.om foundation decided to build a chool there, the community donated the land and provided much of the labour for construction, In keeping with Medefsat.comls phtlosophv; the school was situated in the physical centre of the community with the aim of making it a key driver in local development. The architectural style and building material reflected local traditions. What emerged was a complex of buildings that feature dorrresand graceful arches, punctuated by paved courtyards open to the-sky.

102

.A 'reliable water ~upplV wasprovided with the assistance of a foundation partner, the Drinking Water l)±ility (ONEP). 'When the doors of the school finally, opened in 2001; one of the school's two teachers/ Abdesselarn, had to show the chil(Jren how to operate the taps; without runningwater in their village, they had never used a water-tap.

Soon after the 's.tho~1 o.peD~q, -a re~rE}~ent<'!'tive of the Foundation met with the villagers anrl.~r-efjec~ed en .the f:lature of the --"-- __ _J partnership that Medersat.com has struck with rural communities

across-Morocco. "WeJ[1 finish the work and give you the Keys, because these-are yQurwaU~, YOUJ land, and YOl)renildr.en/ she told the assembled dti!wn of the village.

Adapted [rem: httpV!www.s.l.lergos.(JtgI(Mar.h (007)

5. Find in the text words or expressions that mean the same as

a. caring for, attending or looking after.

b. severly affected by a shortage of rain.

c. hard journey.

6. Answer these questions about the text.

a. Why was water rationed in the village?

b. Who contributed in the building of the school? How?

c. When Were children able. to attend the new school?

d. What is Medersat.com's philosophy about building schools?

7. look at these pairs of sentences from the text and distioguish the Icause' from the 'consequ.ence' within each pair.

8. What conclusions can you draw from the text about

• citizenship]

• the involvement of organizations in community life? ..

• the role of NGOs in community nfe?

Have Y.

9. Discuss in class the following statistics showing British students' opinions about citizenship.

Do you share. their opinions? What 'other qualities of agood citizen would you like to add to their list? Conduct a surveyor vote in your class for the qualities you appreciate mast.

103

Unit 7

CITIZENSHIP

He asks me if I can do it

1. Read the following sentences, then classify them in the chart below.

a. "Citizenship includes civic virtues and duties." the teacher always states.

b. "What is fa. I mess ?.'I, some students ask.

c. "Always express' your gratitude," my mother often r-eminds me.

d. "ls civility similar to politeness?", Brahirn wonders.

e. "How do you define a goodcitizenr" Brahim asks the teacher.

2. Now read and notice how the above sentences are reported.

a. The teacher always states [hat citizenship includes Civic virtues arid duties.

b. Some' students ask their teacher what fairness is.

c. My mother often reminds me to always express my gratitude.

d. Brahim wonders if civility is similar to politeness.

3. Report the following sentences as indicated.

a. "Responslbilitv means being in charge of ourchoices and our lives."

The quote: states , .. " .

b. "What does fairness involve?'!

Students .ask their teachers " , _ .

c. "Fai mess involves issues of equal ity and i rnpartial ity.'i

The teacher repl ies '" .. "' .

d. "Never judge others without prior knowledge. Judge them only on their character, abilities and conduct."

He a I w,a ys warns them , / and , .

e. "Did you watch yesterday's showabout citizenship]

My friend wants to know .

He told me .

1. Read this. excerpt from Kofi Annan's speech and do the tasks below.

"Leadership is needed mote than it was 60 years ag-o. In these days, the security of everyone of .. us is linked to that of everyone else. Global solidarity is both necessary and possible. Powerful states have a special responsibility to take 3CC{}Unt of .global views and interests. We can only do all these things by working together. ... We have achieved much since 1945/ but much remains to be done tomorrow,"

http:// www. uri. orgiNews/o5sg/sg/stori es/stetmer. ts_ fu! I. asp iste tJ D=40 (March 13th r 2007)

104

a. A spokesperson of the United Nation has reported Kofi Annan's speech. Study and notice the changes. Kofi Annan said that leadership JW$ needed more than iihed been 60 years hefore. He edded that in those days, the security of everyone of us .H-m. linked to thelt of everyoneels.e. He stated thgt. global solidsrtt» w.lS both necessary and possible. He also stressed that powerful states Iiad a specia) responsibility to take account of global views and interests. He insisted that they eauld only do, all these thing's by working together ... Finally, he de dated that they !tad achieved much since 7945, bot -much remaiIietl to be done the day alter.

b. NoW complete this table with changes from direct Lo indirect speech.

•• ..." ~ ' • I :. " ••• t.' .

.. • .. • .. • .. ~ 9 f ~ •• , , .

is bav~ havea-c.n i aved can

r'w ai liS"' tomC)t'fQW these

ago

_.. ~ .... .

...... ~ I. .. ~ • I - _. __

~ _ f," ~ ~. ~ ••• ~ ~.

~ ~ .. ~ , ~ '" ,,_ ..

I.

........... ) ...... "~""""""",,,

~-.;; •.• _.. .I', • !I.' ..

······'l'r· ... ··r .. ·· .. ············· ...... ····

2. Change the following sentences into reported speech. a. {'FiJI ill this application form to become. a member."

A member of an association told the volunteer .

b. "How can I help in sensitising people to became good citizens!"

The volunteer wanted to know .

c. "Don't underestimate voluntary work."

He advised the audience ; .

d. if A lot of people partrcipated in the campaign."

He reported T .

e. "l will participate in a conference on citizenship."

An n to I d Betty .~ -IjI.\I ••• • #l~.,,,.,

.~ C":

f."Are you invited there?" ~"b' .~'"

Betty asked Ann :1: ~ \

g. i~~~:s~~igha~·~.~~~.~~.i.~~.~~.~~~:..~~.~~~~::............................................ ~ ~ ~

h. ~~~~e~g~~n;e~~.~.~~~~.~:.~~.~.~~~.~~I .. r.~~.~~~:'~ C A f. & F IRe

AU Against eM ~ t.ahr

~~~~~~~~~~

~ t! M £M 8 £ 1 nnally change the ten.se of the words spoken.

Re orted Spee-Eh is usually u:ed to talk about. the ~ast, 50 we no. . ..

Sh~ said/ IIr.saw Il;m." She siud f/lat sl1e had s~en h';. h·· e ortin& verb (i.e. SiW5i iware slIyr!lB, ha Ihave~ld), But if simple presenl, present perfect or ft.rtu,: IS use In t ~ ~e are open-mmded." Margaret alW<ly$ says that the same tense is retained. M~aret says: l\-1orOcrt~np" ~erbs like 'say', 'tell', 'ask', and we may use the word

, . n-mmded. We use repo I o· . ..

Moroccan prop e are ope",,) d Inve'r'-11t~~c~·o~m~m~a:s~a~re:,:.n~D~t u~s~ed~ . ...-;~~SIllE;;;;;:~;;jiIIlllilE;;.::l:rm;;:~i?'

:that" to ;rweduce the report"" war 5.:.:: • .

I'I'T'""-=--=

105

i Z

CITIZENSHlP

1. Read the following advertisement and answer the questions below it.

Have you got talents, skills or experiencethat you would like to share with people world-wide! WowJd you like to contribute to global welfare?

Here is the chance you've been waiting for.

UNESCO is launching a volunteer program for global citizenship. Join our efforts to build a better world!

Interested? Fill in the Application form below and email it to unesco.erg ACT NOW, NO TIME TO WASTE!

a. What is UNESCO organising?

b. How can you participate in the program?

2. Read through the whole application form, then fill it in carefully.

Ie ion or GI. hal i iz in hi

I nstru ctions: Mark "X'! in the appropriate boxes. For other items, either print or type
responses,
1. Name: (first, last) 2. Age: ;i. Phone Number: 4. Email Address:
__ ._._ ________ &_~ •• __ • __________________ ~r __ & ___ _______________ 9._._.~_~._4_ ------ ........ -- ...... -~~ ..... -------.----- .. -- -.~------------ .... -.-.---- .. --------
5. Address: 6. Country, City, Zip Code:
~~- .. ---------------.-------~-~.- .......... - .. - ............. ~--------~ ... -.- ...... -- .. ~------------ .. -- .... -- .. - .... --~ .. --------~ .. --- .. -., .. - ...... ~ .. ------~.--- ... ~---.
7. What skills or qualifications would you liJ<e to use in your voluntary work?
Computer programming 0 Gardening D
Clerical or office work 0 Photography 0
Sign Language 0 Cooking D
First Aid 0 Public speaking D
Other (please specify) ....................................................................
8. Which general volunteer work categories are you most interested in?
Research D Construction Work D
Media D Carpentry D
Literacy 0 Electrical Maintenance D
Archaeology D Mechankal Maintenance 0
Disabled Care D MC2dical Care 0 106

,~~.~- ~ .. -~-.-~.~---------~~~~.~ ~.",-- - ~-~~ - -~ .~-~-----.-~-~~- ~~~-~-~..- -~ .. ~.~ ~ .. ~~.~~~-~~--~~~-~~~-.--~--~~~-.-~~--~-~-~~-- ~~- - ~~-

10. Have you volunteered before?

YES

D NO

D

9. Based on previous responses, what type of volunteer work would you like to: do,? (Please, describe any previous experiences, personal skills or education that would be beneficial for your voluntary work.)

--~--~.-* ~~ .. -~.-- -~ ~~~--------.-- - ----------~-~-- -~- - --- .. ---~~~~--'"'- -----~-~.------ ----.~ .. -.-.~--~ .. -

--~-~~--- .. -- __.. .. ----.--~~---_,._~~- .. ~~.- .. -~- .. -- .. -.--~-~----~-~y ~..,---- - ~--~,---~--::_:__-~-.-----------~---- --~ .. ---- ..

- --.. .. ~.~-~~---------~ .. ~.~~~- --- --------.--------,~.-.-- - ~......,-------------~-~...-, .. ,.-- .. , ----.~---~-------_.._--~--

If yes, describe your volunteer experience.

11. What are some of your objectives for working as a volunteer?

----~-.-.;- ~--__.__~--------~--,.-.~---y.~ -.- -----------.;-->-<-.--- --- ~--.~.~~ , - -----~------------~---~~.-.----.--.- ~~-,~-~--

1 3 . Signature: 14. Date:

.. ---------------- ... -.--.~- ... - ...... -~~- .... --;;;--::-'""-----~.-~-.-~- .. -- .. -~ .... - ... ----~-------------'~'--~~~.-'-- .. ~ . .._._---_.._~-----------_,-~-~,---~~ .. ~

12. Which months would you be available for volunteer work?

January 0 February D March D April D May D June

July DAugust D September DOttober 0 November D December

.......... ~ __ .---_::----~.------~------- .... -----___:__:-------- ... --~_._ ... ••• ~ ~~ __ · .. ..... ~ __,L ~_~_w~_.r;o

3. Before e-rnailing the application form:

a. Exchange your own completed application form with that of your partner, and compare your answer to his/her.

b. Get back to vourappllcation form, and include any modifications or suggestions your partner has made.

c. Submit the application form to your teacher for final editing,

107

nit 7

CITIZENSHIP

Study Croups

'Two heads are better than one' (Proverb)

Advantages of -studygroups

Study groups are a greaL way to boost your individual study. Cooperative study has many advantages : »- It- provides you with practice at working as part of a team.

»- It helps you socialise with others and integrate in a group.

)- It provides you with the opportunity to compare your studyskills wilh different ones. )- ltprovides you with the opportunity to get feedback on how well you do in your )- Members chile group support and help each other towards success and better

knowledge of the learning material.

)- Support and interaction within the group will help you stay motivated, Do you work in groups? Why or why not?

FDr«l~lJg a good study group

Group Work

Here are some- tips to help you form a good study group:

)- Socialise with most students in your class to find out which Ones you can work well with.

)- lnvite some students to study with you and evaluate their participation and commitment to group study. )- Keep your group to a moderate size. A group of 4 or 5 is usually a good size.

Set a meetlng'time that is appropriate for all members of your group. >- Choose a suitable location; comfortable and free of distractions.

)- Negotiate a contract of behaviour and help members to stick to it. )- Plan breaks and/or entertaining activities to keep group motivation.

). In group, set the tasks or objectives for each study session and Come prepared.

State two things you do in class.

Discuss these ideas with your peers. Do you agree or disagree? Support your ideas. )- Students can do better by sharing their skills and resources than by working alone,

)- A study group helps yO~1 over orne shyness about discussing in class.

)- One student should control the discussion ina study group.

) Students should take turns leading the group discussion.

)- Each student should study individually before the group meets.

). All members of the group must de their homework of preparing for the meeting.

)- Members of tile group should reveal their weaknesses so thatthey GIn strengthen them. »- The group should evaluate what they've done and plan the next meeting.

Take initiative and form a study group to prepare for your Baccalaureate exam.

108

Can you pass the British CitizenshipT est ?

The-government in Eng.land has launched aettlzenshlp test for foreigners- who want to become British. Here are some of the questions they might as-k.

1. Match these famous monuments in England with appropriate legends.

1. The English Channel separates Great Britain from 0 Sweden D France • 0 the Netherlands,

2. The main parts of Great "Britain a-reD Cambridge D Wales, ~ Scotland 0 Glasgow 0 Errgland.

4. The British are a nation of animal lovers. What must ?iOg·owners do ?

o Get.a licence 0 'Get the (jog sterilized D Get a collar with the owner's name and address

5.Whatls the minimum time yo_u must have been married before you can divorce?

D Six months 0 One year ::J TWo. years

1................................... 2 " .. ",. 3 ."" .. " .• "" .. "., , ..

2. Quiz: Tick the correct answer or answers.

o London

D Stratford-on-Avon

o Edinburgh

3. When did all 18-ye,ar·blds getthe vote? D 191 a

[l 19.28

6. The longest river in England IS.

D the Thames

D the Clyde

D the Severn

1 .. The oldest Brftish universities are situated in 0 london 0 Cambridge D Harvard D Oxford 'B. The: main political parties in England are D R~pubJican D Conservative D Democratic 0 l.abou 9. What was the first famou-s British pop-group from Liverpool?

D the Beatles 0 Deep Purple 0 Queen

1 O. Shakespeare's birthplace is

Big Ben

Windmill in Essex

Tower Bridge in London

o 1969

3. What do these pictures represent? Write a legend under each picture. Share with your peers.

a .. ,_,.", ,.,., ..

b .

109

c "., .

international affafrs..

-

a;: listen to -0 speech by a famous offici a 1-.

rF review and learn ways of responding to news items.

_. read, extract and orqanlse information from te~ts about

tnternatienal orqanisatlens:

~ write a formal @maiIL-

E7 boost your memory skills.

w- design a pos er,

, _

we-shere '8 common destiny«

. We Can rtrast.er tt. Quly if we fa€e it 'tog e;tlier. _ And that my rrienas:£ is why '~e naVe the

-

U ,. d- :~d ."' ."_ j] rtlte··· 1-"atlons. "

K~ftAnnoiH S~vt;!f1th ~_~grfltafY"fl.en--e(;,g1 f).f t.h~u11tt~iff>'Ji}r1_QfJ~ 200t &\Joker Pt!acr: .Pr;i.zr: tv.mlie'r www.un;oip (Neve'fnber .2oG6)

nit 8

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

1. Do net searches to find out the international organisations these acronyms stand for. a. UN: The United Nations

b UNESCO: ~ ..

c. UNICEF: .

d. UNHCR: .

e. WHO: ' .

f. FAD: I!IIII II •••• illI!I "' ..

g .. JCRe: ~"~ III •• ,I11 , , I11 •• ,,. , '.,.. ..

h. TI: ,,"t .ii. .••• lIlii

i.AI: .

2. Match these international organisations with their field of action.

, . fllg'htin'g epidemics around the work!

2. providing medica! care during disasters ~""""""_3. eliminating povertv and famine

4. safeguarding human rights

5. caring for refugees

6. regulating business ~ hange in the world

h. Amnesty lrrternatioria

c. UN High Commissioner for Refugees

d. Do tors Without Frontiers .(Med,e ins Sans Frontiers)

e. The World Health Organisation

f. WQrJd Trade Organisation

3. These terms belong to the jargon of international organisations. Put them in the appropriate columns.

chatter - general assembly - resolution - spokesperson - report - deputy declaration - diplomat - headquarters - congress - court - vice president constitution - council - commissioner -ambassador - secretary general

112

4. Match these words with their definitions.

a. charter beourt

c. sanctions

d. diplonl<1.CY e_ bilater,,1

f. violation

1 .mal'"li:!gement of relations 'between countries

2". measures taken by the Uhited Nations.to force a suite to conform to an i rrternational agreement or reselution

3. a Body of people, who look into and resolve conflicts b-~:tweel1 pe.qpi!:r,

organlsations or countries

4. wrttten statement of the main funcnons and prin jpl~s of an organisation

5. disrespect, disoaedtenee or refu:SQ1 tq ¢olnply with a law

6. involving or relating to two countrles

5. Fill in the blanks with words from the table above.

The United Nations (UN), wasestablished in the 405_ to maintain international peace and security.

According to its (a)"" .. , member-states are supposed-to refrain from the-use of force against other

member states. This document also calls on countries to settl"€ (bJ.: disputes by peaceful

means. That is to say, international discords should be solved by (c;) and negotiations. Any

......... ( d) of this princlple can result in severe-economic and polltical (e) The UN

has a m in The Hague (Holland) whosefunction is to look into conflicts between countries.

6. Complete the paragraph with words from the list.

headquarters- campaigns, lobbying nl#twork dOililtiqns founded

Amnesty lntematienal is an independent pressure group. It (a) ..

for the rei ease of i rnpr isoned or maltreated people beca u se of their po liti ca lor

religious beliefs. The movement wa-s (b) in 1961 anti has its

......... (c) in London. Amnesty international has a (d) of

voluntary local groups and individual members throughout the world. To

amnesty lnternational keep its independence (rom governmental influence, AI is financed by

......... (e) and benevolent contributions. AI'$ activities include campaigning- and (f) .

for political and religious freedom.

113

Unit 8

Get involved

Farewell Speech

Listen and discover

1. Answer these questions about the United Nations organisation. 3. When was the UN established?

b. What are its objectives?

c. Who is the previous secretary general of the UN?

d. Who is the current one?

2. What subjects do you think the UN should focus on?

3. If .. his farewell speech, Koffi Annan talks about his experience as

a UN secretary genera I. Can you guess ,Ban KJ·Moon,UN Secl'elary General

a, haw long he served in this post!

b. how many lessons he learned during this experience?

1'Wi!'

4. Listen to Koffi Annan's speech and check if you made the right guesses.

5. Listen to the speech carefully and fill in this chart with the lessons Annan learned.

THE, E:m;ST LESSON '

, . , '

_ ~ .... ~. ~ ~ •• ; ~~ '",.' ~. ;. ................ ' ~. _. ~ ~.,. ~ 7." ~ ... I ~ ~..,~. 4~ .......... ~:+~h~.~~;. .... ~+ .. ' ..... ,.,.~j.~.~·

. ~ ~ ,

4o ~,. ~,' , •••• ,~ ~ •••• ~ •• ...: ~. _ ~ ••• ~., ~ 4 ~ •• " .'~t •.• ! ~~ ~ •• ~~ •.• -"'~.~ ., •• ,.,.:"'.:. ~, ••

~

.... - ,'"-'-' - _ .. ; .. ,.~;.~- _ .••.• ,.""1:'''., , , :;:: ~. ,"-'''' ,,,

6. Complete these sentences from the speech.

a. To achieve securityin tile world, populations' must be protected from .

b. Through 501 idarity, countries can be .

Co What unites people is their .

d. II Non-state actors" are , ' .

e. Koffi Annan describes the UN as , .

7. Pick out from the speech sentences which support these statements. 3. Countries cannot be secure if other countries are insecure.

KoffiAonan

UN ex-Sec.retary General

b. Poor countries should benefit from the-world's wealth as much as rich countries.

c. Cultural differences among countries are beneficial.

d. .Governrnents should not be concerned only with 10ea.1 affairs, e .. Koff Annan is not satisfied with the work of the UN.

Have your say

8. Which one of the principles mentioned in the speech is the most important to you?

9. What other principles can change the world to a better place?

114

115

Good News! Bad News!

1. Read the following exchanges and answer the questions below.

Son: Did YOLl hear that? A new civil war ha~ broken in central Africa, Father: My goodness: I hope it won't last for long,

Son: But, the UN will send soldiers to establish order there. Father : G~,at! They'll 's,ureJy calm down things, there,

a. How did the father respond to the first piece of news? h. How did he react to the second one?

c. vvhat expresslons did he use in both cases?

2. Fill in the chart f.rom the list as suggested below.

'-Sorry fuj, hea r tha1l 5@unos great!

My. gQJ~,dnessl SWPe;ro!

Ci replt" !'i~W:sl

Are ~u Kjd~lng? I, can" believe ill

'Reall¥!' ,

Inkrecl'ibl{?!

3. Complete the exchanges with expressions hom the chart. a.

Rachid . We'H establish a clean-air association in our town. Would you like to join us?

Samy : , I wouldn't-miss such an initiative.

b.

Rachel : What was vesterdav's an ti-global i sation rally I i kef' Sam: Some' angry boys clashed with the Police!

Rachel: I hope there weren't any €;asualties!

Sam : Fortunately, there weren't.

4. Respond to these news items appropriately. Practise with your peers.

a. Greenpeace has declared that Morocco is making great efforts in favour of the environment.

b. Last Security Counci l's report says some countries are unwilling to stop their nuclear programs.

c. WHO has announced that no vaccination against avian flu is' available for the time being.

d. UNICEF will hold its annual summit in MOf0cco.

l1nit S

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

Get involveQ

Vote on the following issue. Justify your vote.

Who should watch over the world's peace and well-being?

D lndlvlduals 0 NGQs 0 Governments

o International Organisations

2. Skim through the four passages, and decide which organisations would interfere in the situations

depicted in the pictures above.

In theaftermath of World War III a lot of international organisations were created to help deal with problems and issues related to education, ecpnomy, environment, health, .... Some of the most prominent organisations are UNICEF, leRe, G reen peace, and Transparency International.

Formed by .a group of North Am.erleaD actlvtsts in 1971, Gfaei1peace is a n(!i[l;;prqfit organis@tionl WiI:J:l a' presence in marlY i:ountries !ncross the, world. To rnalntainIts tridependence, Grsenpeace does not as;:cspt donations 'from governments GT

corporatlons !;tut re-lies, 011 cpqtriQutionsfroIT] individual :~uRPQrters<'tT:ld foundation gr:afl~:' As 1'1 glQbaJ Qrganj,~ti01l1 Greenpe?,ceclocuses, onthe most cruci~! wpddwide th~ats to our pJanetl5 bi0dj",ef~ity and elwjronment.

Creenpeatec.ampq:igns_ to:

-Step climate chaogc~ -Proteet forests -Save the oceans

-Denounce ~netic engineering -Stopthe nuclear threat -Eliminate toxic chemic;:alS'

Iii pursuhlg:-ifs miSs'ion, -Oreenr:1eace has no permanent allies or enemies. It promotes open, informed 'deb;;lte about sodefyl~en'\li (on mental drelces. It' uses research, J65bying,. and non "violent a iplomacy to raise

thelevel and, GJl,I'i!lity elf pulllk: awareness. . ,.

Gref2;t'lj»eace surrrs. up, itS mis,sion-in 'one long Qanner: II,Wllen the lasrtree is C!,Jt~ the last rl"er !l?oiS9Jleg,ang

tbe Iast fisb dll)ao, we:;wiH di,~t.:oyer t~at"we ,car{t.>e3:t,fnoney; .. u W\'VVII.gr€':e'npeace-,org (july 2007)

GrO\Ming frt)F8 th~ SWif:lS- ~en:ry Dunant's !ipQfltaneolJs g~stu~et'o I;qlfl; w:oul'ld~

C· soldiers, the hltl!rn:rtion:aI GGrnmlttee ,-'Of the Red ·Cms-WOesceJlt (ICRq -\III'Wi, founded in 16.63. It is an independent and neutral or,ganlsat;ioneM_sHring_

. . I'iWliarii:ta,i"lan protetti.onand assistance for vleum5 of war and armedviolence. .

___ The 'leRe has.aperrnanentrnandate under interrrat'tonallaw to take impa}tial action for

p,risqners, the. w.QLJn~ed andsicJsr and civifjilllsaffeqtegb~ conflicts and disasters. With its headquarters in Geneva, the.ICRC is base;d -(tl 8rpuI';ld ~Q wUlltri€w<;;lm~ has (I total of '12,0'00 st:n:_ff .. It coOfgir.r,ate? the, activities -an,cl i nterventiD.I;I5. 9f

n?:tional Red C~f)SS; antl~l'!d GJese:eflt sGicietie~ 8rorJOO the~lobe. ..

Th~:ICRC i5JUl'1d,~ by ~or1trjbl)tiQns from gp\(emmentsi, !1J'!tjo~a;l Red,tro~s- 9;Od. R.ed Cte~GenLsociet~, sl)prmn;nienal organi~ations (Such . as., the Eu ropean Cotr:rtn~ssiorl) I a'n,u prlW~t~ sources" A.II"funOIh.g (5 Voluntaty. ThelC R;C does not wairlo receive funds l3eCote it res [!lbnds ~a ur::gertt needs ih theiield, al)d (!oun'lS on the goodwill of its contr'ibutoiSo to jJ revide the fu nds-as qui ckly as possih le.Tlte JeRe uses- a white fl ag, w [til a roo cress or a red crescent. This fla-s- is universally rec0gni$edas a symh61 of assistance for the victims of armed conflicts: and nattrral disasters. In use sincethe nilJe.t~n~h 'century) th·js'lQgo unfortLfna!@-ly d~e.s not please all countries of the world. To resolve th_i~ LSSI,Jej th~ States party. to the G~neva "Co:rweRtions, .suring,a d.ipl9l!1latic conference in .QecE;!mber 2.QQs_:_.

itgr~~_(l't).n t!_tH,lltematj\l~'§!mbJem : The Red Crystal. www.icrc.otg (july 2007)

l16

UNret}, ,esta:!i;;lished by~UN General AS'!iembly in '-946 in PQst:Wo~lo War II, i.s tb~ world's leaoing organisatlen working specifico;i!ly (,Or children. Il wdrk-s With 10 ,a~ carflmllnities,and governments ~I! aver the wori(;ho J:.Irqviqe emergen.,cy r~!i'e.f Gjnd run tong-fertll de.velopment prOf}f-arnmes. in ~lr1¥a5 ~u~l a~ ~'e;:lJ1hr edl{CHti9h .~n_~·chlld pro~ction. UNICEFs gleba] reaeh allows It to qellver ,9 ststance whe~e rt IS needed most. It upholds the UN Convention on the 'Rights of the Cklld a'n'd enqeavolJrs to hold the rritematibnal community resfiQnsil3l~'fCJr-their prorrrlsesto children. It also WO[~.S- tG raise qwareneSS: of Issues affecting ~hi Idren around 'the world 'an'S labby gOlJernm-ents to's'upport

children's rights. . ' .

An @rUNltEF(S f)rogramhles areeritirely dependel'lton voluntruy (;(Jntribu,rJons., UNIOEF ~ais~s funds ferthese pro:grammes thr'Q:ugn dor1atlon!h the SCIre of caros aJ1C'l gl ns; , partnerships wifh c:ompani£t'> i!..fld spedal events. ,

IM'I,vw.unicef.org Quly 2007)

~. ·nall.yfQuAded in Germany in 1'99~1 Transparency Intatnalional (TlJ f5~a'not:for- profi:tahd politically non-partisan' otgan'lsati'On. It !eads,[lie'fi~ht aa_ainstt':ofruption anq itt; dev~,tin~r irtlRad" on n]en/ women and CIhilqren around the world. Thanks, tG it$ fI1embets~·dona.tiot1Si TI ha.noeskills, tools, ex}*friencej expertise aild broad wa:rtidpatimi to' fight corruption orrthe ground, ~ well as fhrough glpq.al.ancl regional initiativ~~.

['lis ;nissioo is to ~.reat~'~hanHetowaFd'i a worldfre_€Qf-eQrfl4ptiof'!Md hl:i be 11(. Tl plays.a lead r'€Ile iii imprtivi'ng the Ilves of rnilllo"ns arQlJnd the world bV raising awarenessand diminishing indflferenea-and t<Qh:~rance of {;cm:upt!on.

n btjngs together relevant pl~yel1r from g'OVernmem,; Gi¥iI sQtiety, busifie:t'5 and the rl1"€!(lla to promote transparMcy hi electiotis; in pu hi ic admi n lstrarkm and, in business. lta!,~p U$#S cam paigns:-to I o~by'gpyem ments to ilT!f!ll~mell~ anti-corruptienrelorms, www.amnestY;QI.g (july 200?)

3. Read the four passages about 1nternational organisations, and fill in the table with the required information.

4. Complete these sentences from the four passages.

a. Greenpeace doesn't accept donations from governments because ..

b. leeR providesassistance to , , " c.· ..

c. UNICEF is concerned with chlldren's , ..

d. TI collaborates with , .

5. Go back to the passages; and guess from context what these words mean.

a. non-profit; b. fong-term:...... c. non-partisan : .

lntematicnal Organisations resort to many ways to raise people's concern and awareness, For example, they lise:

... posters, leaflets! pamphlets ... .... rallies

fir campaigns

[.. media (TV, websites .... )

6. Which of these, do you think, is the most influential medium? Why?

117

Un-f 8

INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS

Link your Sentences

1. Read the following paragraph and match the underlined words (a-f) with the titles (146),

WHO

Wb~n diplomats met to form the United Nations in 1945., one ofthe things they discussed was setting - up a global health organisations. AS a refi]ilt~ World Health Organisation was set up. on 7 Apdl1948

~ a; date we·110W celebrate every year as WO.tId Health Day. WHO is responsible for providing leadership on gleba! health matters. It a150 accounts for sbaping the health research agenda .sucb as I setting norms and standards, providing technical support to countries, monitoring and assessing health ttend'S,~ health is a shared responsibility, WH()1s job is to provide equitable access to essential care and collective defence against transnational. threats. In brief WHO'5 greatest eencern must always test with disadvantaged and vulnerable groups; that is to say, tbe groups who often live in remote rural areas Of Shanty towns and have little political voice,

Adapted/rom.: www.who.int (May, 2007)

2. Read the following information about the use of linking words, then do the tasks below ..

In your writing, ygu are expected to present coherent arguments by linking ideas together. You are also required to po in tout s·] III i I arities, high I i._ght d ifteren ~_eSI j ustifystatem e n ts an d provide exam p les and co n c I us io n s .

. Here are some common linking words and their use.

When to use them

toa"Od ih-Formation or idea'S or,emp·'liasi'se-

. -", ~

iii stat-ermen'b

118

A., Choose the correct word to fill in the blanks.

a. Zahra got an award from UNESCO she was the- first to fight illiteracy in her village.

(even though -because - but)

b. .. the school is far away, Zahra attends all afternoon classes.

(Howeve» - Although - Beceuse)

c. She.gats higher marks studying: in difficult conditions.

(although - despite - however)

d. Her patents were illiterate. _I they didn'tsend herto school when she was young.

(If - Since - Consequently)

e. UNESCO works to promote dlfferent fields of interest education, science and culture,

( likewise -ex~mple - 5f,lch as )

B. Rewrite the following sentences, using-the words between brackets.

a. [arnal is illiterate. He is a member in different human rights organisations. (despite)

b. He is respected by 'all his neighbours. They-choose him as their spokesman, (because)

c. Many organisations denounce human right violations. There are still many victims. (although)

d. Saffle people aren't volunteers in any NGOs" They help :people solve their problems. (yet)

e. Governmental organisations receive-financial support from the government. NGOs rely on benevolent donations, (whereas)

t. Greenpeace is a noon-profit organisation, Its work is voluntary, (therefore)

R£MEMBEft , . TI . ble the writing ~a flowfmm one idea to-:

d /'nk 'deas when wntlflg, ley ena

Linking words.are use to 1 _ .1. TI re three main types of linking-words:

the next ;n a logical and mhesrve way, lere a '.

_;.l .' tw parts ot a

r,. k' word They are usea to jom a

. . . Th e the most common form 0 In mg ., _

• Con/unctioOS. . eyat' . . I U5ed in the middle of a sentence. _.

sentence together and are gene:ai : rk hard (l,rrd they organise their work ·effectively.

International OrganlsatlOn5 wo ~d . /' k ";.leas from one sentence to the next and

nectors are use to In ro ed 11

• Sentena' connectors: Sentence con _ • different functions and are) placat t e

, . phs coherence. Sentence connectors peTtorm

to give paragril

beginning of iii sentence. . . nt Besides: it is a non-profit organisation.

. Its t reserve the enVironme •. q_ h d at the

Greenpeace WOIi 0 P . ed •. ., lauses together. T ey are ,U e. .

• Subordinatots: They are linking words that are us to Jom c

tginning or in the .. rnidd/€ of a sentence.. k h. d they can't solve all problems. . h . ali nal organisatIons war. aT I . d AIt110Ug mtern o. " I\le allroblems although they work har .

International organisations can t so P . _ ......... ---"'"!!1illS:l'!!'$'"

"4£iJ i:==u: i 1 == j! I •

119

nit 8 '

INTERNATIONAL OR&ANlS(%TIONS

a

oT

a

ns

1, Read this Internet advert and answer the questions below.

GLOBAL CAMPAIGN FOR

Millions of children are unable to go to school because it's miles away or because their parents can't afford the expenses. As they become adults, they probably won't earn enough to send their own children :i to school.

So the cycle of poverty will NEVER stop if WE continue to be CARELESS. You can make a change!

You can help eradicate illiteracy and poverty from the world I Join our ONE MILLION Email Campaign.

Send.an email to the United Nations.

Urge this organisation to give priority to literacy, Here's the UN email address: inquilies@un.org

For more details on our campaign, visit our web site: www.campaignforeducation.org

a. What is this Internet advert about?

b. How can you take part in this campaign?

2. Write and e-mail to the Secretary General of the United Nations to support this cause.

120

CompoS'e

Options .. I Help .. --l

J

t-- 5petrtng ...- Cancel

-- 1·~

_j

Show BeC

Plain Text

I Times New Roman v I ~ B L J1

I Dear Mr Secretary General.

Yours Smccrcly,

L

3. Make sure your e-mail meets the standards of a formal one. Check if you have

a. written a prompt and meaningful subject line.

b. focused your message on One topic.

c. used a formal greeting and eliding.

d. avoided informal language used in a-malls with friends.

e. proof-read your message and corrected all spelling mistakes,

4. Exchange vour e-mail with your peer for final improvement.

121

YOY need tOP'eview o}IQUr C'(J/,u:S~ 11J.at~rialsmgul{t'I·ly CH'ti:lc pI~rp().s:efully fa develop your me.fitory .skills. Thej"oZZ(jwflJ?K !:tr:,.u'figi:~~ h~.lp ypu organise you"f$elf" improve-your n1f#7n(:j)ry, f}n,d-,:eview well.

1. Use Acronyms.

An acronym is an invented combination of letters" Each letter is a cue to, or suggests, an item you need to remember. For example; you can use the acronyrn.:SQ4R to remember the reading method we suggested in unit 3 (Survey ~ Question -:)Read -) Review ~ Recite -,) Reflect).

Go back to the reading text in this unit and review the acronyms used. (Pages 116~ 117)

2. Use Chaining.

Use diagrams or graphs to organise vocabulary or ideas into a cha in. Th is will he I p YOU unde rstand re lati 011 sh i ps betwee n ideas or vocabularvand provide an easy-to-remember image.For example, if you need to remember this list of vocabulary

(trees logs soft cut wood paper grow mill water) ,

turn it to a-graph like this one------------~ Use this chaining technique to draw a diagram of key vocabulary related to international organisations.

3. Use Concept. or mind-mapping.

A mind map isa chart ordiagrarn used to represent ideas, concepts! tasks and procedures. These are usually arranged round a ce ntra I key word or idea. You can read an important text and turn it to aconcept map. Here is an example of ~a mind map about an article on "Learning how To Learn". The Key idea is in the big circle and supporting ideas in smaller circles. You can develop this map by branchlng detailed ideas to the small circles. Notice that only the most important words or phrases are used in the map.

Use a mind map to summarise key ideas in one of the

suggested reading texts about international organisations. ~~~~~2~~lIm~~ ..__ ............

122.

Attitudes Towards the UN

PtloplSi-altlid tid the world halJe!differel1tattitucies towards the. Ul1"itea N atkins and it~;'-ann$< bodies I ike U N IqF and . ONEScO. Some are quite sat~fled wi h [his: international (}~anisatIGnf& entJe.wol:Jrs t~ esta.~lisb brclerind!w~H~~rr:1g;.

Many others have re~etvatjQrul,ciliQliJt its per;tormance. T:b~.4rfFer~l1c;e in attitud~.~ is P03fity due tQ~cuk!J,F@J'ba~kgt~t;m~~. and political interesis. ~."

1. study the graph below and discuss with your partners the different attitudes.

Ev I a i n f m U

. ,

G

" _.~ " b

75 .. I "111'~1 ~:~~ .," __ ', "

'"'"..... _ .. _ ._- . .,8

2. In your opinion, what factors determine attitudes towards the U.N.? Give examples from the graph;

3. Which of the following attitudes do you share?

II The United Nations has failed to achieve any srgnificaht achievements In establishing peace in the world. The United Ngtions.llas little influence oncurrent affai'f$/'

Steven Kull

IIWe'd like to, ~ee the UN as an honest broker ln dlseutes between countries. The UN has to avoid d0iJble~standard approaches to' world affairs. It should deal with all countiies (poor or rich, powerful or weak) on an equal footing,"

Hassan Barari

" I can't imagine what the world was like before lhe UI"1 ited Nations was created: We~ve reached 50 much stahl litv, peace and.solidarltv thanks to this organisatlon."

M. Dawson 4. Conduct a survey in your class about the U.N. Compare the results with the graph.

123

Global citizenship means being concerned with the world's stability, prosperity and well-being. It means jaking action to help. solve the world's 11105;t urgent problems and issues: poverty, war, env i ronrnent degradation, etc. Acti on may take man y fo rills: carnpa i gns, ra II les, petition s, volunteer work, etc. Work's· of art -including poems, drawings or songs- may also be effective means to raise awareness about those issues and problems.

Design a Poster

7ff Imagine your school organised a poster exhibition. Take part in this activity. Posters should revolve around these global topics: poverty, child abuse, war and environment degradation.

;r Here are tips to help you:

)- Choose the topic that appeals to you most.

)0 Think of a situation that would illustrate the problem very well. )0 Sketch the situation. Use appropriate colours.

)- Avoid obscene images.

)0 Deviseexpressive logans in English, Arabic, French or Amazigh. > Avoid indecent words ana phrases.

)0 Show the poster to your teacher for final improvement )0 Hand in your poster.

-yT Here are samples of posters

124

1. Go back to 'Expand Your Vocabulary' in units 7 and 8 and do this crossword puzzle. 1 2 ~ 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 2 3 4 5 6' 7 8 9 10 11' 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

I',' ,~ .' :1,\< . if!, ~~ Ii t'S: • lil> e., ~, ~
:i· . .,..
i/ I'''' '®
:'if I",
,~!" .. ;:',' I''''t.~ fi' es "'I', " '" IA1! ; i\l"
,., , "<Ill,," " 1".:. Mil .' ~ '.,.'
8 I~' ~, ~'., !:::> ' '"'''' t:! i~ !'~ '~:i!1
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oif:wl j. r~"" ' ' I~~,'l' i,~&: Iftl- 1* :~'~ I~
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t ..... 1*" If''l'l ' ". ,1~' Ir),~; :;j;./" i%, ,":', I' ~;rf4 8:!J,-", II~
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~ ":~ ,[;,rt ~ I"'x... I~'~/! l:f 0W' aes' I""" VJiii' r~ "" ~ I~ 1%
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'el :, I"·,,, -- '" <
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~ J'! ,~ f{!.~ , "oF;i; 0, . ," 'WI Across: ___

2: obligations and tasks

6: helping and assisting without being paid 9: head offices

11: an official announcement or statement 13: a famous NCO 'for environment

17: national resident in a country

17: opposite of obligations

Down: +

5: group of people with common values

living in a particular area 11 : mternanonalisarion

, 4: operation, movement or activities to achieve sorneth i ng

2. Read this dialogue between a Greenpeace activist and a journalist. Report the dialogue to a magazine. Journalist: Eatth is being endangered, Wh;~.t should we.doj

Activist We should preserve our natural resources and combat nuclear industry. Journalist: Tell us about your campaign against nuclear weapons.

Activist: It is: an international campaign. Many NGOs are participating and demonstrating against

these 111a55 destruction weapons.

Journalist: What do you suggest mass media do?

Activist: I suggest YO!J follow our campaign closely and showall the damage these weapons can cause.

3. Fill in the- chart with the phrases below.

Sorry to 'hear that! Are you kidding?

Sounds great! My goodness! Superb!

I can't believe it! Really?

Great news!

Incredible!

••• • _. ~" __ ;' ~ •••••• ; •• , 104 -: •• ~. ~-.~ ••••••••• 0 ••• ~ ••• ' • ,-, .

............................ t-' h ••• ;O' ••• __ ·.-.- ••• , +u ~ ••• ~ H.

•••••••• t .........• _ • ._ ~ _._. ._.i~ ..•• __ .•••...••. " •.

• II •• n .. , _.' ••• ;; •• ~~~ •••••••••• ,._.,' to ••••• U.f •• H ••••••••• ,u •• ~u •••••••• ~ ••

•••• u •••• , ••••• ,., ••• , •••• ' ~ ••••••••••• _.· •••••••••.•.•• , •• : •• ' •.• ~ .• , ••• ' .

125

This unit will enable you to

and te<;:hnology.

6P read ~ t€xt about bietechnoJogy"

BP' review- and study ways .of eMptesslli1g wishe:s·.-

J.W' ream and practise. how to write an 8xpositgryessay.

~ ejq:>lo~e, -digital <:,.urtu're and now it shapes ol,lreveryday life;

, :.. _ \101.=

TsFour "drtecf: ttaur. r day after day .. ":,~/

You findyour5€/f. , unable to stay awa;y._ ... ,

From the gift and tfre cf/t'se'Qfi technolog'Y'~4v Our complJter: ., - .. , eJf:lr Gen phone. ,.1, Are just two exempie« of.- .. ~I The gift ii1 nd the eu rse ot technology. ~ t,! ! ! !

1. Can you distinguish between science and technology?

Here are some definitions. Complete them using either "science" or "technology" .

.......... extends our abilities to change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials: to A move things from one place to another: and to reach farther with our hands, voices/ and senses.

8

.... is a process for producing knowledge. The process depends on both making careful observations of how the world works and making sense out of those observations .

.... is the formal process of investlgating natural phenomena. It produces information .and C Knowledge- about the world .

.... ls the goal-oriented process of designirrg and buildrncg tools and systems to exploit D natural phenomena for practical human means. Engineers work within the constraints. of natural laws and. ocietal needs to create ....

2. Underline key words in each definition.

3. fill in this word map with branches of science and technology.

robotics

Technology

128

4. Here are pictures of science and technology inventions. Do you know their names?

7 _

10 _

6 ----------------

9 _

5. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word Dr words.

microwave oven mobile phone

e-ntails vacuum cleaner computer

dishwasher remote controller

When I returned home from work, I decided to watch TV. I took the (1) arrd zapped 10 my

favourite channel. BuE, the .electrlcitv went off a short time later. I took my (2) and ca-lled

my 'friend to help rile fix the problem. He was busy on his (3) sending and replying to

(4) or chatting,

I couldn't use a (5) to dean the carpet, so I had 0 take a brush and do it manually.

I couldn't use the (6) to heat my dinner and was obliged to have itcold. After dinner,

I couldn't use(7) and again, with my own hands, I washed all the dishes!

129

u

Listen to a Poem : Give me a Simple Life

Get involved

1. Guess from the title of the poem if the poet appreciates modern life or not.

Listen and discover

2. Listen to the poem and check your guess. Can you figure out the age of the poeti

3. Listen to the poem again and name scientific or technological inventions mentioned in the poem.

Add more inventions mentioned in the poem

4. Guess the meaning of the words "stool" and IIcushion" from the context.

5. Listen to the chorus/refrain of the poem many times and memorise it.

6. Look at this painting. How is it related to the poem?

Painting by Gizem Saka, a Turkish artist

7. Can you draw a picture or a sketch of the poetic image expressed in the chorus?

Compare and share your pictures.

8. Listen to the fourth paragraph/stanza of the poem and name two things the poet doesn't like about modern life.

Have your say

9. Try to rehearse the whole poem and compete with your peers reciting it.

10. Do you share the poet's attitude toward modern life? why or why not? Present your ideas in class.

130

nd S eak

Express Certainty and Uncertainty

1. Study the phrases used to express certainty and uncertainty, then fill in the table.

a. Consumers will undoubtedly turn to the Internet to buy goods and services.

b. I doubt if remote areas can Lise the Internet

E. It is crystal clear hat consu mers spend [ng for on line goods and servi ces wi II increase.

d. No one can deny that the growth will be faster and faster.

e. The staff won't be in the office until 11; they've got a meeting, f. They are sure to come-to an agreement by then.

g. They may go for Internet shopping or supermarkets; they haven 't decided yet.

h. lf they opt for the !ntemet, some users may experience technical problems.

i. They will probably choose supermarkets shopping.

j. I think rnanvusers prefer direct shopping,

I'k + . " ,,",,' h')

I e .. ,; , ,u "o.e'*pre55: UnGe'L£lIn,y ..

2. Review your grammar lesson about medals (pp 28-29) and infer other expressions of certainty or uncertainty.

3. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words or expressions from the list. (certainly, must, may, guess, probably, can, think)

a. When I leave school, I go to a university :of

science or I even geta job at a laboratory.

b. This " be the laboratory - there are instruments

and products of scientific research.

c. I'll come back to see the manager next week ,;=C!S;

If I am free. !

d.1 they are going to offer me the job as I have the ideal profile.

e. They will interview me about my past experience as they usually do.

f. I their wages are high and their technology is advanced.

g. I Will enjoy myself working in this laboratory ; I am fond. of science and technology.

4. Think of other alternative expressions to fill in the previous blanks.

5. Practise with your peers asking and answering questions.

a.What inventions would you expect for the next century?

b. Would science and technology find a cure for AIDS; AVIAN FLU,,,.!

c. What would the world look like in the future? d .... etc.

131

1 Th d 'B' t hr I . I' f ed bini rd ' I , I ,

.' e war . . 10 ec.no ogy IS orme com mang two war s. .. + , .

Infer its meaning from this combination.

2. Look at the pictures below and find out same applications of biotechnology.

3. Skim through the following text and write in your own words a definition of "biotechnology".

What is, hi otech noIngy?

Biotechnology (or bioengineering) refers to any change 'Of an 'Organism's genes tOr practical pU_DP_QS~_5 like disease contrcl, benercrops, cloning of pia nts and an i l11aI5/ ...

Biotechnolcgv is closely related to genetics which can be defined a-s the scientific study of genesr i.e. varlatiens in the charaeteristics -- resemblances, and differences -- of organisrnsarrd how these characteristics are inherited from generation to generation. Modern genetics is as much concerned with the 'Organism level of this process as it is with the cellular and molecular levels.

Wh~tare the current applications of "IotR(:hnology? Plants

Thanks to biotechnology, farmers are able toget rid of U8W\ln~~q

characteristics of plants and keep the ones that they desire, One example of this is the "FlavrSavr' tomato; this genetically engineered tornato )1afi a longer .shelf life 8.5 the ripe" phase lasts signjfican.tly longer before the rotting*~Qeglns. The-other famous example is the new type. ofpotatoes that resist' invasion by dangerous insects ..

Otheradvances in genetic engineering have made it possible to decrease the need for rertiHze'f5 by breeding plants that produce their own form' of effic:ient-fertillzers .. Farmers are looking for a greater crop prcductwhlle ha'ling to plant fewer crops. These are only a few of themany advances and prospects thatgenetic.engineering. holds for agriculture.

However, there are some negative side effects that must be worked out. Anexample ot this is a deeline in the, qualltv of taste, which would definitelv QU1M(eigh the benefits of a long shelf life Of resistance to insects!

~ ripe, == tei.l(jy 1D pick ai1d eal ~. WlI'irle = [;"*''8 l:Jac:( or vld

132

Genetic engineering can improve genes animals by reducing the possibilitv of diseases. .ln Cows, forexample, higher products of meat or rtrill<: Can be brought-forth. Genetic ",iariatidns can also promote faster growth, 'wh ich means less ti me' arid expense beft)!:€ the farmer c13 1'1 ach ieve rnarkervalue for an animal's meat.

However, the use of genetic engineering in livestock has not come with-out its problems. There have, been increased instances of mutation and, overgrowth, which has caused scientists to re-evaluate the effectiveness of genetically engineered livestock.

Livestock

Human disease control

Already bioengineeriri'g has grown into.a huge industry that createsa wide, variety' of medical products made by genetically enhanced DNA. A small representative sample of products currently available would include such drugs 'as insul in for treating diabetes, growth hormones for heart attacks, interferon for cancer, safer vaccines for Arbs.

The U$€ of genetic engineering In humans promises some extraordinary benefits, one of which is cure and prevention sf many tvpes.e! diseases that come from faulty genes Medi,cally, genetic" engineering has the potential to improve the I ives of h urns ns who' are su fferi ng from genetic.d isorders. However some cia i m- that ~eJ i in i Mati ng had genes ina POP u latio n will mil y narrow the d ivers/t:y 'of the wi der human gene poe I.

What are the issues in connection with biotechnology?

-.-.-----------~------------------------------------------.-----.- (look at task 7 for this misc<;ing porallraph)'

I'"

4. Read the text agaln and find out examples of benefits of biotechnology on human beings.

5. Read the text again and find out examples of problems related to biotechnology,

6. Answer these questions.

a. How can biotechnology help, farmers?

b. What effect c-an biotechnology have on livestock?

c. How can biotechnology help medically?

133

ave you

7. The last paragraph of the text is missing. Work in groups to discuss and write a small paragraph stating you r opinions about biotechnology.

tJni,t 9

ADVA8CSlN SCIENCE AND TECHNOlOGY

If Only

1. Samir is a peace-loving. activist. He is describing some of the drawbacks of science and

technology. Read and answer the questions that follow.

Science and technology have. contributed to human welfare and prosperity, However, we have made a mess of 0 ur world. The lat( .. er is polluted. OU,T mother land is. heating. I wish the world were clean .If all] Y OUI mather land were dirt-free. We have committed many criminal 'acts against HUT environment. I wish we were wiser, then we wouldn'tdevastate marty places because of massive arms. If only man didn't use atomic bombs in war .... Albert Einstein helped USA tb make. anatomic bomb, but after its fall on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, he regretted hay] ng done it. He wished he hadn't contributed to the destruction of two Japanesecities, I wish humans had beencautious.Jf they bad been so, they would have created healthy, liveable and respectful atmosphere for humanity and for the envirenment. Is ir too late? Absolutely riot! We got ourselves into this mess: we can certainly get .onrselves out ·of it",

a. What are Sarnir's wishes?

b. How does he express his. wishes? ls he talking about present or past. wishes?

c. What were Einstein's wishes?

d. How did he express his wishes? Was he talking about present or past wishes?

e. How do thesentences they use differ 'from each other?

2. Complete these grammatical rules about wishes.

, ,'- \ .or'

Present 'w/;n: Fwisff,%tiiiJillY, +. •• ;"., ••• ~ ••• ".~ •.• ~ •• +: :.~' .. ",.~;:;~ ,.: ; ..•.. : .

" . _.' . .': " I ': ~~- _ '~.": • _ 'v' .-'_.l , ~ I ,', ' ~"\' ~ , ':II:

P?St ,~f1Z _., J, W,1S1fif.l: wl$h1Jilitl! OD!y'~T.;~ ;.~:,~~.' ~ + " .. ·~·· •• ·;·;.r · ·~.···;···-7:..·~~ .

" ..' . .

3. Use these situations to express wishes. The first one is done for you.

a. Many workers are loosing their jobs; because of robots.( lobless people}

lobless people wish robots didti'! replace workers.

b. Some powerful countries used intelligent weapons in warsand killed many Innocents. (Human right activists)

c. My friend couldn't .Cl.11 an ambulance because hrs mobile phon-e did not work .(My friend) (;1. My mobile phone doesn't have a Bluetooth technology.If

€. Last Monday, I couldn't get up in the morning. I missed an interesting lecture on cloning. (f)

f. My uncle emigrated to continue his scientific researches in Canada. But he isn'tsatisfied there. (My uncle)

134

If I had had time, I would have done it

1. Read what Jamal said and answer the questions below,

'My brother won a najional award for his Iatestscientific invention. We celebrated it last night. A lot of people came. We had a lot of food. Unfortunately, 1 ate so .much that I had a stomach-ache. Lcouldn t get up in the morning because I didn't sleep early. 1 didn't go to school. I missed several lessons. I didn't do the test. The teacher gave me a bad mark because 1 forgot to 00 my homework" .

...... ::..,

a. What did Jamal's. family do last nrght?

c. Did he attend the lessons? Why?

~

b. Why did he have a stomach-ache!

c. Did he do the test? Why?

2. Now complete these sentences following the example.

a: .. If Jamal hadn't eaten a lot, he wouldn't have had a stomach-ache,

b .. If he early, he the morning.

c. He several lessons if he to school,

('I If he . _ .. _ .. _ to school, he the test.

e. The teacher a bad mark if ne the homework.

3. Complete this rule about conditional type 3 .

. ·1 ......._

[f + suPje.U-t '; :.;., .. ! + ,.~ '. + wn.ulEl ha.\lie tt-; ; ;';.':c .

............... -+ wotll~ 'ljave +, " .... ~. + if -f' ·subj~tt+ .,.'$;' .: " ••• ;:" ~ .. : ,.~_ ..

4. Rewrite the following sentences using conditional type three. Make- any necessary changes. a. My friend wanted to write a report on scientific progress last week but he had no reference books.

b. He couldn't connect on the- net because his father changed the pass-word.

c. He couldn't go to the cyber cafe because he had no money.

d. He wanted to try his school's.connection. but the multimedia room was occupied.

e. He went to the library, but he didn't find any relevant encyclopaedias. He couldn't get any information. r. Finally he borrowed some good books from his friend. Then, he was able to write his project.

5. Change the following sentences from wishes to conditional 3 as shown in the example.

Example: I Wish I hadn't eaten so much last night. I felt terrible then.

If I hadn't e-aten 5.0 much last night, I wouldn't have felt terrible.

a. I wi~h scientists had invented a cure for Avian Flu. There weren't so many victims then.

h. I Wish my father had bought me a computer last year. I could bea programmer then.

c. Health authorities wish people got immunised. They could improve their health ~1el'l.

d. He wishes his satellite receiver hadn't stopped working. He could watch the live conference about nuclear danger on the environment then.

135

lao.mes.

1. Read this paragraph and answer the questions below.

It i amazing how fast-cellular phones have developed .in terms of size and the functions they offer. The technology for cellular phones started in 1975, but it wasn't until 198-2 that the first commercia] cell phone network was established in the United States. Since that time, the cellular phone. has changed from a bulky machine to something that can. fit into the palm of your hand with a lot of useful functions and options other than making and receiving calls,

"

a. What were tire characteristics. of the first generation of eel! phones?

b. How are 'they different from modern tell phones?

2. Work with your partner to fin in this chart.

3. Using the information in the chart, write an article to your school Magazine in which you expose the characteristics of modern cell phones.

Opposite are prompts to help you write your article.

136

Introduction: Talk about the evolution of cellular phones ana their importance in modern-day life.

Qody paragraph one: Expose facts about modern cell phones' size and outward qualities. You may start your paragraph like this:

In terms ofsize, cell phones have becorne .

_Body paragraph two : Enumerate the different options and functions modern cell phones offer to people. You may start your paragraph this way:

As for the options and functions cell phones offer, we can mention ; , .

Conclusion " Concl ude you r artie Ie by recapitu lati ng the i rnportance of cell phones.

You may start like this:

Having said that, I maintain that cell phones .

4. Exchange your first draft with your partner for correction.

5. Correct your partner's draft, by checking the boxes below.

a. The introduction Is 0 relevant D to rewrite
b. Body paragraph 1 D .gives enough details D needs elaboration
c. Body paragraph 2 D exposes sufficient facts D needs further work
d. The conclusion D brings the article to a.smooth end D is irrelevant
e.-Linking words D are varied and suitable D others to be included
f. Vocabulary used is D multiple and appropriate D inappropriate
g. Spelling 0 ok, generally 0 serious problems 6. Get your article from your partner, discuss his/her corrections and suggestions, then write the final draft to hand in to your teacher.

137

Take Notes Effectively

Duringyonr study, yo~ need to take notes while' YOllr teaehersare e.¥p1ilit'lThg or dl;:'monstrating during- al-~.£Q[l. Train yourselftn take, notes quickly. a ndeffectlvely. Here are 3 scanned pages from students' notebooks in 3 different .. school subjects. Look at the format and organisation of the notes ' ~

I , ~

and decide which one can be more effective for stuoyand :

revision. Discuss your choice with your peers.

~tep One . Record

A

B

c

~ ~J."ll

11- ";IP .. ir~. _.J .• ;Il,It*~ioH'r"'

". .; ..... -""'",

One of the best note taking systems is called the Cornell System or the lR system. Here is an adapted version of this system.

Divide y:ou'rpaper into 2 columns: (~ staal I and.~ large I;)heJ~ Be an active listiilTlE"r antI r&lord fmp'arnrnt ihforrnatiof1 in ~ie·Jat;g:er, ri&hto-lianrl colemn. Be sel13Gtive and .use- sylilDolsi abbreviations, acronym.S', charts, .. {Av_oitl wmpJete s~l1tences1. In the- small left-haria colu m 11, show the drgan:iiSatidri of your notes .. Ygu ,Cq_O use ~i mple 1 istillg5 (1,?,3' .: QT @" b, c, ... :). time 5egu~nce or IDr~~r of -iQ_~a:li an d steps.

Surnmarlse the information in eaeh paS:!'! of notes, Write your~sumillafy at: jhe bottom of the pag~. Y.m,r- G;.ari also write·,questJ.ons ·aboiJJ a diffi·t:ult point to _ansWer tater.

Use- yotH summaries, as a ~5avrce for reviewirig end reciting. You can go back' to you r n0~ces to chE;ck- you r $U m rna des oranswer you r 9 uesti ons, If, necessary", use-other resources to supplement your-notes. R.eview your notes frequently 10 combat m·em.ory !S5E;.

Can you use- this system in other school subjects? Try it. 138

A

b SilTidlation

C Telepr.esence d VH'ttJfl 1 f0\H

e cybEl~ culture

f

h VlrtualC;::Qmin.tf~Ity

liSch:no

Digital Culturel!

B

2. Do you know what these pictures represent ~ Write ~ legend from table A under each picture.

1V-fiJlio'flS of North Americans uSe'ctlluputet$. ant! Internet ,eOtJ]jee:ti@n'S ,to p.a:ttidpate in an online' game like The Sims, Theyehoese their p~r$9na1-represent;nive,s in cyberspace an~ SpeDq hours interacting with each other througlr the futetQ~t

v-. _""'-" ...

"Iheyere €.bhvinced that they· are-members of a feal ttommuntty devel'opi1'lgci(S;

own rules, valuesand calture.

1. Are you familiar witb these digital expressions? Match expressions from table A with appropriate ones from B.

1 .

3

139

4 ~ .

This unit will enable you to

'go' learn a-ndexpar:w[ vocabularv ahlout brain dratn..

.

Y"" ~sten" to _an Interview with an Afrrcan sGientist'~

and effect.

~ Isa,n llDw to prepare for the exam,

-Eifleam al300t immigrants' 'Guftural reactions.

_ My Brarn

NIl" brain not: §j;(!}(fr; J51J! 5tain1:;;d.. My' brain 'es "S'fna 11- a_sa .gr-ailh My.QjSlflin remJhds meot the {JiJHJ;.

QfJwn.a t:. pain'! .

I wisk: -I (Jould flusl? itdawT:1 the tiralri

9C}fan,M-pp/ (19&0 -- ) www.poemhu.pter:cam (Febrttazy 2Q02)

BRAIN DRAIN 1. Brain drain refers to the emigration of skilled professionals to developed countries.

What do you think the reasons behind this emigration are? Complete the spider gram below.

2. Match the words in column A with those in column B to make collocations.

technology drain workers countries pay attention

attract developed high skilled

3. Fill in the gaps with the right words from the list.

Scientists, engineers, and talented university students from poorer countries are flocking to the industrialised world, drawn by the promise of better and working conditions. But

not everyone is happy with this . Governments of some countries

regard the phenomenon as a of human capital that must be restricted. Others view the

situation with some as countries of origin might also gain some benefit.

4. Match the words (a-j) with their definitions (1-10).

a. optimism

c. Physic!ist

d. Schot~r

e. Income

't. Gain

b. Skilled

i. Unskilled

b. experts G. situation

d .. 10$5

e. develeping 1. 'sa.lgJri}!s

1. Not vet fully developed

2. Having the ability 'to perform a task expertly and well

3. Obta i n sorneth i 11g: needed or wanted

4. The emigration of educated professionals: te other countrtes

5. An expert in physics

6. A person whopractlces medicine

7. ,Highly attractive

8. Revenue

9 . An educated person who has.galned mastery in one or more disciplines

10. Not havirl9 special skill Or {mining

142

5. Fill in the blanks with tbe correct words from the table above.

a. Human capital flight, or

______ I isan emigration of trained and talented individuals to

oth e r co u i1 tries, due to lac k of opportu n i ty in theircountri es of or i gi n.

b. The president of the World Bank urged countries 'fa invest in educationand

science to develop, economy and combat poverty effectively.

c. Anestimated 900,000 'Of highly professionals entered the American labour market

between 1990 and 2000.

d. Talented professionals emigrate to developed countries to earn

wages and

secure a better future.

c. A is a scientist who studies the properties arid interactions of matter and energy in

all their forms (liquid, solid, gtl.S:, and plasma).

6. Study the information in the table carefully and add more examples.

extraterrestrial, , , , , ..

inframll[Jh~rl , , .

underpaJd, , ..

overpopulated, , .

superson ie,. ' ~ .....................••.........•.

H ype:rs:ens:i-rive~ , " .

e'Xtta I~tr,a under over super Hyper

within, inside

less 'than, insu ffiCient ex€:essively, mpf-e than above, over, beyond above, over, excessive

7. Add appropriate prefixes to the adjectives between brackets following the example given. "Example: (Pa.id) workers prefer to emigrate sbroed to' improve their salaries,

_.._ Underpaid workers prefer to emigrate abroad to improve their salaries.

3. According-to-the (national) Organisation for Migration, Africa has been losing

20,000 professionals each year since1990.

b. An immigrant scientist in the USA said that the mystery of Bermuda triangle is something

(natural) _

c. The majority of highly talented professionals emigrate from (developed) to developed

countries.

d. Some youths are (excited), about emigrating to Europe not knowing the problems they

might face.

e. Many scientists and experts attended an (continental) conference on brain drain.

f. An African scientist presented (ordinary) ideas to turn brain drain into brain gain.

143

Turning Brain Drain into Bra-n Gain

Get involved

1. With your partner, answer the following questions/and then share your ideas with the whole class.

a. Which countries do African skilled and talented professionals emigrate to?

b. IS this emigration positive or negative for Africa and host countries? Explain.

2. Read the introductory paragraph and answer these questions. 3. What [5 Philip Emeagwali famous for?

b. What award did he get in 1989?

c. How is. he described in the media?

Philip Emeagwali is an AiriLan inventor and sclentist. He has been living in the USA for many yeal's. He won the 1989 Gordon Bell Prize, which has been called "Supercomputing'« Nobel Prize". He invent€d a, forrnula tnst allows computers to perform their fastest computations. He is described as "one of the great minds of the Information Age" and as "a Father ot the internet". He is the most searched scientist 00 the Ittteme: Listen to him answering some uuestion» eixnn Brain Drain in

a Psr: African Conference.

Listen and discover

3. Listen to the interview and answer this question.

What is Philip Emesgwali's country of origin?

4. listen again and choose the correct answer.

The main concernofthe speaker is to

a. describe the brain drain phenomenon.

b. explain brain drain's effects.

c. stop brain drain in Africa.

d. reverse brain drain into brain gain.

5. Listen and answer these questions.

a. How can the UN help in controlling brain drain?

b. Is brain drain responsible for Africa's problems? Explain.

c. How does Philip Erneagwali compare brain drain to slavery?

d. Why can't the speaker return to his motherland?

144

6. Listen again and correct these statements according to the interview.

a. It is possible to achieve a renaissance in AfrIca If these skilled professionals emigrate to other countries.

b. At the end of the 21" century, people will describe brain drain as modern freedom.

c. Philip can't return to his homeland because he prefersto live in the U~A

d. African countries can reverse brain drain by sending their skIlled but unemployed graduates abroad to do hi-tech lobs.

- : - Have 'your say ..

a. Describe these drawings and tell your partners which one represents brain drain better,

b. Think of another artistic way to represent bra.in drain.

EXPRESS REGRET

1. Anas is an engineer. He left his job last year to emigrate to Canada. Read what he is saying about his livihg conditions there, and then do the tasks below.

"l1jtr!.r SIFl.ndi:}'lg tHit)' frl.omhs in Canada, 1 began to feel hamestak. it's .too cold 10 live here. Also. 1 'didn 't {ike thf!- job: f,f only I had stayed in - m.y eountry! 1 am nOW iCJJl-ging for my country's climate ani! family Z{fe. I' ian't come back because I I08t -my job iI~ Morocco, If 1 hadn't abandoned rhy jab there, I wouldn't hav e stayed here 'Q day lott.ger. 1 thought ,,:litzt im'm(grarin.g to C:tln;aaa WQldC/ help me! make a lot qf money. U'f!{f(frt14natety, J was rm[.ucky. [ should tts:ve thought well be.fhr,e deciding to do that. J regret it now.I wish [were among my relatives. 't

a. How does Arias feel in Canada?

b. U nderl i ne expressions of regret in the paragraph.

2. Practise expressing regret, using the situations below.

a. A scholar who immigrated to the USA, but can't find work there.

~ • ~ ~ .• ~ •• ~ ~ ~ ••••••• ', •• ' ••• ' •• ' ~. ~ ••• 1." ••••• ~ ~ ~~". j. ' .. ' '. ~ •.. ,',., ". ' I.'. ' •• , ••• , •••••••• ~ ~ 4 •••• ~ •• ,. '., 4' ••••••••••••••••• , •• ,. * •••••••• ~. ~. 't-~. ~ •• 4.

b. A doctor who immigrated to Canada to improve his life but he found out that the cost of living in Canada is on average five times greater.

-----..- .

c. An immigrant who is farced to C0l11e back home.

-----..- .

d. Some- doctors in Canada are overworked and underpaid, and there is a quota on their salaries.

-----..- , .

e. A physician who suffers from racial abuse in the USA because he is an Immigrant.

-----..- .

145

Brain Drain

1. Study the table and answer these questions.

a. Which country holds the highest population of doctors?

b. Which country holds the highest number of immigrants?

c. Co Il'1 pare the percentage of immigrants 'from lower-income countries and those from developed ones-.

Which countries are more affected by brain drain?

d. What can you inferfrom the table?

country N(). 'of Total No. of %-of 'Yo of Im~igrants % of IlJlmi~rants
dJilctor'S ~r Immignll1ts Immi~nts ' from lower- 'from Deve oped
1'00 000 PO-E.ul~en in War urce lncome Countries Countries
United King,qQrn til 39,266 28,3 75 " 2,5.
Uni,~e_d Sb"ales 291l 20.ernn 25 (i>p~~2 ~fS-~ :
'C-anaaa :220 1 §_,7Pl 13,1 43r4 22,3
-
Au5tralia '271 14,34,6 29,5 40 33,.,
~ Perhaps the oldest question in ecohomlcs is why some countries are rich while.ethers are poor. Economic theory has emphasised that differences in the educa tional levels of tlye popu lation are an important part of the answer. Also, impreved 5cilooling opportunities sho,tJld raise incomes in developing countries. Yet/ white there is- little doubt that highly educated workers in many developing countries are rare, it is also true that many scientists! engineers, physicians, and other professionals from developing countries, work in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. This phenomenon, often referred 10 as "brain drain," was noticed as early as the 19605 and has been a controversial issue in the North-South debate ever since. One important implication of brain drain is that investment in education ill a develop-ing country may not lead to faster econernic growth if a large number of its highly educated people leave.the country. lf rneasores are not taken to motlvatehlghlv educated people 1;0 stay iii their countries, efforts to improve educational opportunities may be largely fruitless.

Brain drain increases the scarcity of highly needed skilled labour in developing countries and consequentIy reduces- long.-n.J11 economic growthand income. In addition; i( highly educated workers conthure tQ emigrate to richer countries, public funds spent on higher education may be, to a large extent, inefficiently applied. In order to devise policies that create rnetivation for the highly skilled workers to staYI a dear picture of their reasons for leaving has to be developed first. Psrt of the explanation may be tempting salaries, improving the qual ity of life', educational opportunities for children and job security. Imp!:ementirlg the right policies to counter brain drain wi II be of crucial i rnpo'tance for the econornicfun, re of the affected countries, and one of their biggest challenges,

But how widespread is brain drain? Which countries and regions areespecially affected? Which professionals, are more affected (engineers, physicians, physicists ... J? Unfortunately, attempts to answer these important questions quickly come up against a big barrier: there is no uniform svstern of statistics on the number and characteristics of international migrants, Also, source countrles typically do not keep track of emigrants' characteristics. Although some receiving countries, I ike the United States, Canada, Australia and, Western Europe, do so, their definitions of immigration differ. Thus, it is difficult to measure orectselv the flow and scope of brain drain.

Adapted from: www.lm{.orf/exlerna.l/pubs/ft/(iJr.ldd/1999/06karringl.htm (' De ember,l006)

C/lancterisiics of Immigr;mt MetJjCil/ GtiHlwles http://content.ncjm.org!q;i/reprintIJ5J/17/1810.pdf (February 2007)

2. Skim the text and find the countries which receive intellectual graduates.

146

3. Answer these questions from the text.

a. Why are some countries richer than others?

b. Is brain drain a new phenomenon?

c. How can we motivate highly skilled workers to stay in their countries?

d. Why is it difficult to measure the scope of brain drain?

4. Rearrange these ideas in the order in which they appear in the text.

amlgra~e to d~velQped countries.

-;; , •••• , .. ~ • ~. ; • 1> ;

............. ~ ...... ,' ..... , .

Co. Onere -~d:uel;\ted people are motivated, I!l~ ueW! dh"af .a~p(')rtl) n fties" wi II b come fruitful.

5. Fill in the chart with ideas that express cause or effect.

Thedefirni:clon .Qf iOteql'!ltional im(tlfgt'<tAtdiffer~'tr()rrl one country 'te another.

••• ~ •• to ••• t_ _ __ -~ _ _~,.

6. Which of the following are opinions, facts or examples? Tick the correct option.

Ii Perhaps the otde:st qu@~tl&ri'ln t'!<?onomics is why sO[l1e countriesare

rich whTle others are poor,

~ ',. ,", .'.~' ..... ~ ...... '.

C. Ca~,\i~~ ispne bf1'he Cm;lf1tl;'tes that retel\1e gt€!9t 'lllj!TI~r!i, pf. h~!eJleo:tlal~

from. t¥iJ1ln;trif$, lm'(f~!1ldi Ii!!, gewelp!'lF'FJ_erll.

7. According to you, what are the causes behind brain drain 1 How do you think we can turn brain drain into brain gain?

8. What can you infer from this pictures

tD their n;llive countrie« ?

147

Uni

B I

1

DRAIN

es rictive and

on-restrictive Clauses

1. Read this text and copy down clauses introduced by II whon, HwhichU or °whose".

a ,. .

b .

L. .

d .

Birou Anise, who is now the Secretary ofStaie in. Morocco, in.charge of nonformal education and. the eradication of illiteracy J has presented govemmenra! measures which aim at limiting the brain. drain. Mr. Birou explained that the low number of job offerS pushes many competent people to emigrate. Hence, these measures which are envisaged to stop braindrain jo 'u,s mainly on supporting and eneauraging projects il~ the .fie/as of research. and technology. Yabiladi

web site, whose aim is to kitep Moroccans all over the world ill touch. reports that the government will, support such projects financially. The government's aim is to. attract further in vestments .

. 4dtlptl!tI/rulIl: 11"'IIII,j71bWI'(I/Jtu'Of/1 (A1~l'dl 20Q7)

2. Underline the relative pronouns in the clauses you have copied.

3. Notice the situations (a-h) and answer these questions.

• What is the difference between these two sentences?

a. My brother who g,.aduated from the university emigrated to Canada.

b. My brother, who graduated from the university, emigrated to Canada.

• Which clause can we delete WIThout changing the meaning of (he' sentence?

.

4. Match these statements with the sentences above.

• I have: only one brother; He graduated from the university and emigrated to Canada.

• I have malt' than une brother and I am speaking about the one who graduated from the university.

148

5. Fill in the blanks in (a-e) with the corresponding restrictive or non-restrictive clauses in (1 ~5), Add commas where necessary.

a. Philip Emeagwali is from Nigeria,

b. African writers settle down in England or the USA.

c. Graduates will be given jobs with tempting salaries.

d. The Pan African Conference focused on reversing brain drain into

brain gain.

e. Countries also suffer from brain drain.

---- -

1 . wh leh took pJaG:e in -Illlrreis, USA o'nOc::toher 24f 2003

2. whose gr-ades are the highest

3. who write In English

4. w,hi:ch are developed

$, who i(:l knoWn all over the tJfSA:

6. Work with a partner to match the phrases (a-e) with (1-5) to form relative clauses.

;'

a. 'Capital-fligAt' I which is as problematic as brain drain,

b. One of the problems wh ich ~le Arab courrtries suffer from

c. My LJn~e, w~o,.gQt his university degree,

d. India, whose h!ghly skilled labour is If €ngineel'S,

e. Experts who came from aroundSf African countries

1. emigrated to Canada to continue his studie-s.

2. has remarkably succeeded in reversing brain drain !o brain gain.

3. is brain drain.

4. were given a special reception at the hotel,

S. refers to financial capital thaI is no longer invested in the country where its owner

I ived and earned it.

,I-. are not set off by comma5·

... ~ ILk BEl . f un or· pronoun, ",e.-v

Imli.~'" ,limit the m.eanlllg-o 3 no . . ted to Callaaa.

Restrictive ldependent) c ausesh cluated from the universIty ~'7lIgra. for non but are not

Ie . My brother Wi 0 gra Iy additional 111 Qlma

~::~es~ictiVe (independenht) dateusnecs e S~~~hey are set off by commads.

. oft e sen I .' edto Cana a.

essential to the meaning du ted {rom the univerSIty, erl'"!lgrat

ExamP/~: My brother, who .gra a _ ~

149

;"

u

1. This article is in disorder. Read it and answer the questions.

• ..

,g

@ To 'conclude, what. would happen if we forbade braia drain and keep all those talents inside the country? Will they be able to grow and be as productive as they want to? Or will they join the rows of unemployed people and create more problems for our society?

® At the first glance. Brain drain seems like a big Ioss. A considerable number of young people are leaving the country. It looks like the country is Iosing a lot of educated workforce. However, it seems a big advantage that talented minds are able to leave. the country and pursue their dreams elsewhere.

@ Another argument in favour of brain drain is that talented brains would like to ensure their own future and that of their Families. What is wrong with the desire to look for a better living standard in another country? I mean ,everyone Likes to improve his/her conditions. We, therefore, should not prevent anyone from the pursuit of this right.

® The first argument 1 would like' to mention is that individual talent would get the chance to grow in a favourable environmeut. They would get more support and have more opportunities to flourish. This would help talents grow and not be wasted. Here is a simple example: a very clever friend of mine received a medal in the national Math Olympics and graduated from university

with the best rums. For a while be unsuccessfully tried to get ajob. Finally, he decided to go abroad. Now be has a good job and lives happily in France.

® One further argument is that the experience that talented people gain abroad will be very useful if they decide at a.later stage to go back and settle down in their own countries. In of her words, the fact that highly educated people emigrate is not only good for themselves but is also good for their 'countries, and may also be good for the world.

Abide Ornar, Niger

150

a. What is the author's attitude to brain drain? For, against or neutral?

b. How many arguments does he give to support his p.oint of View?

2. The paragraphs of the article are in disorder. Put them in the right order by filling in this diagram with the appropriate letters (A-E).

( Parts ~H~e article

par~graphs _

~

",-. )

ArglJment .2

Conclusion

,"

••• ~. f ,,_- ..... '~ ; ,.) ......

',oj

'," .~:.~;.: .. , ~-

,

•• I ..._ •• I. ...... ~ •• ~ ......

What words or phrases helped you to re-order the paragraphs?

3. Work with your partner to fill in this table with ideas from the article. Add your own arguments if possible.

u U ••• n··· ~._.,! r ....••••••• ~: u·· .. ~ \> , '1 ·~ •• ,., , "1.~"'" •••• ,. '.~," ~ ••

• - _a •••• L ••••••••• , ',""" .; ••• , · •• : •• 1 · ·.~~ ' ~~ ,

4. Are you for or against brain drain?

Write an article to an e-magazine, using arguments from the tables above to support your point of view. You may use Ornar's article as a model.

5. Exchange YOUf articles. Make Sure you have D lncludeda good introduction.

D given enough arguments,

o used phrases and connectors to link yourargurrrerrts.

6. Rewrite your article to hand it in.

151

10

RAIN

Get Prepared to Succeed

Yew exams are approaching; ,get prepared to succeed, Preparing will raise YOl,lr selt-contldenc;.e, lower your anxiety and improve-your marks, Here is a strategy to help Y0U manage your exams and tests.

. Get ready for

.>: ,exam ~

Prepare ln~ R~(!.d Antwer ~ ba0urvey

You can remember this strategy using the acronym 'PIRATS'.

Read the tips and discuss them in groups. Circle the most important to you.

~ind students in your class to study with. Remember that two heads are better than one.

Students who study in groups make better grades.

)- Study ana review your lessons over a period or time, do not wait till the last moment to start preparing. )- Find out as much about the exam as you can (length of the exam, format, sections and type of questions, assessment criteria, etc)

)- Use_ past exam papers to practise. Remember that practice makes perfect!

[~I~m--p~ec-t~1 ----~~-----

I »..... lnspectvour exam paper carefully.

* ' look at allsections and pla_n vour tirne to allow some for all the questions, DOIl't panic] Recognise that it is normal to sometimes feel neNOUS during exams.

r--.

1 )- Read all the questions carefully. ). Take some time to think about the instructions' and what is expected from you.

:> Decide which order you will answer the questions.

"I A-n-s-w-e-r--'I

> Be sure you understand a question before you answer it. )- Do the easier questions first to boost your confidence.

)- Express yourself clearly and write neatly.

:> Don't spend too much time on difficult questions: mark them for later revision. )- Avoid cheating or helping others cheat.

1 Tum back 1

I »When you 'get to the end of the test go back, to the difficult questions you marked and try lo answer t )- Again do the less difficult ones first.

r-I S~u-rv-ey-'l

). Take some- time to survey all the exam papers to check if you answered all the questions. ). Proofread your answers and correct any mistak s.

). Take advantage of all the time allotted to the exam to re-read and thlnk again about your answers.

Apply this method in tests and in the mock exam.

them.

152

Cultural Reactions

Read what some skilled immigrants say about living in the USA. Who is satisfied and who is not satisfied? Explain.

I have been living in the USA fQI: the last 15 years. It ~s hEJrethat

I have made my home and my career. I am atelecorrrrnurtlcations marketing professional. with an advanced :,degree. ! love my work and _up till the recent years, I have never 'eltthalanythillgbutmy €jJual iflcatiofis· and hard work would be the basis for my career advancements. I might_hf.\ve been wrong <lbe.utthat

I have to say that the only thing rhar reallv shocked me in the USA was how unsupportive rnynative comrnuriitv w~s with me .

t~ lrtk the two countries arfiOtal1y differehti" th'a

qn~· is in Afriql and is predQl11inantly cGrnpesed of African tribes while the U;iA is a.country made up of ernigrantsfrern all over the world. There are differences in fcmQ, medf<;l,.~Aq other cultural pr.aciiGe~ ... As for

work, I was uhlucky because I ceutdn't satisfy my daily needs as I d1a when back Ih N 1geria.

Mounir (Marocco)

IIAs-a Moroc.can AmeJicil.n, and en executive atBoeing, I can speak directly to the benefit aod value ,thE} Moroccan professi_onals bring in f€lsteri.ng closer economic ties between OUr two countries. Th.ey also encourage a spirit of entrepreneurship and partnership aC:;fOSS our two-cultures:"

J long for Moroccql1 feed and social activities, I don';t like fast Iood which most Americans eat.

153

Conduct a Survey on Brain Drain

Conducting a survey is often a useful way of finding sorrrething out/ especially when 'human Factors' are under Investigation . .A well-designed survey should produce -clear results, That is, the results should be expressed numerically) and be capable of rigorous.analysis.

Ways to Get Information to write a survey

>- Li teratu re search: Th is i nvo I ves rev iew jng all read i I y a va i I a bl e materials. These materials can include books newspapers" magazines, annual reports, company literature, and any other published materials.

>- Talking with people: This is a' good way to get information during the initial stages of a research that is too new to be- fOUfid in the- literature. >- Personal interviews: They are a way to get comprehensive information .. They

involve one person interviewing another person for persona-lor detailed information.

~ Telephone surveys! These are the fastest methods- of gatheri ng I nforrnatton from arel a tivelv I arge sample. )- E-mail and "internet: They are of the most effective methods of gathering information. They are ideal for large sample sizes, or when the s-ample comes from a wide geographical area.

j;,-, Before you start your project

>- Make groups or teams of students

>- Check if the group or team includes students who are good at navigating the Internet and using the computer,

if What to include in y.our survey

'F Once you finish your project

). A brief de-finition of brain drain

~ Types. of countries affected by brain drain

>- Statistics of scientists and experts who have left their countries ~ Reasons that push these skilled people to emigrate >- Graphs re-presenting affected countries

)0 Pictu res, photos and cari catu res ill ustrati ng th is phenorneaen : ,

>- A conclusion that summarises your survey

~ give a copy to your reacherto evaluate. >- deposit one copy in your school archive . .,. .'>tick one in Y0l,.l.T school wall magazine for all students to read.

154

UJ1its 9-10

1. Rewrite the sentences as suggested in the example.

Bachir wha does not speak Ellg1(~h came back from England where he spent his holidays, this is What he says: ~f only I had learned English before.

1/1 had lectTne(i Eh.glish befoI'e, I would have communicated with English people.

a. An African scientist came back home-for good but rernal ned jobless.

b. A young employee abandoned his job and emigrated to Europe. He was surprised to find no work.

c. A university student didn't have a high grade to benefit from a scholarship abro:ad.

d. A jobless graduaie didn't have any money to apply fora visa.

e. Marouane Chemmakh was injured and couldn't join the Moroccan football team in the last important match.

f. A young man was expelled from Italy because he immigrated illegally.

2. Combine these sentences following the example. Use commas when necessary.

Example: Philip Emeagwaliis an Africa/l scientist in USA. His lamiT)! emigrated with him.

Philip Emeagwali, wh()sejamily emigrated with him, is an American scientist:

a. Philip gave a lecture. 111i.s lecture wasaboutreversing brain drain to brain gain.

b. I met Dr Anas. I-=Ie taught French at a university in Canada.

c. Driss Chraibi died in France in Mar~h 20Q7. H1:s novels are written in French.

d. Th'e organisation is non-profit. It campaigns against emigration of skilled labour.

3. Review your vocabulary from unit 9 and 1 0 and do this cross word puzzle. 1 2 3 4 5 6 18· 9 1011 121314151611181920

1 .~

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

." i~,", >"
r .. ~ ~ r= .. ' : .. f7~ ::,'~ f I;H c:t' ,3. t;,,!' 'i':i!'" m .... :; .~ .. .~
I";%., ~~ <,~
~. ¥f:ii [;1 l~E . ::%: ~~s .~ . ~.~ ~ .~.
,.,. ~~- .". .;@'
< ~0 lit'-l k';; :; F 1;- I"" ~ '"
.& . , .. ;":. I"", .
. . "\ It; '~ £~ Ii:·
l~: :~ : ... ~ '",. f,e, ,. '1;;7@ ';;r :'.~"': t~,.~ .10' ~
'·r :i'1 [: ~:c ~;tt :;i\ ",;1'. *.~ [~ ,:_. ';f~ 1:~6 ;".i~' ." -. W' fi,. !M
'"
.{ ""- r-~_Z ',~. "':'" I"{ ~' .. : ... ~ I·' I"''" I"~ I~~
.. ,
r:i:~ ',', .~ ~ .. '" 1>: I:':" ~n L~?; ·c. \?!' r,y, W¥. .~ .. ~
{_c """'- ,..". If,.;.
l4~ W( :& '.~ r*4, ~,{ .'~' .. .,
I: f''''' ,$
f'~ rWi F~" ~.:;; i.tt: fm;: -::r. {"'~. r~ ~, ~# ~. IJ$. ,'! <, r~ 'llil
j '·'i "'~
F~} f·~t: :2~ I~~J r\ii li~ i') '-<:; ··"t) r::F ~~~ i ~: " I~!j '''#4 ~~ ~~ .
.' ·.~i, ,·ill
'r :k~! F;;. '~"' . ':, 1'1.0<: p."I: .- ~: ,- ~' pi>-. .~ 'c' .. ~.' .
. )3 "0;
c:;'" ::'T ~:~?': ~~ .;:. ~{ :~: I'~,~i I' .,. ,.
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A cross ----:JI>.-

1; not developed.

3: physics, maths, ... are examples of this

word

5: Techniques (hilt use I ivi ng organisms, 6: pay or remuneration

10: not skilled

14: machines, devices or systems that' have been invented

17: a two-word title in this book

19: the application of scientific advances

Down' ,

4: act of emigrating.

4': camera used for web services 8 : virtual presence

10: you can't access the web without it

Extra Reading 1.

THE GIFTS OF YOUTH

"Boulevard f Young Musicians" stival in Casablanca

Promoting Young Talents

Answer these questions about music festivals and discuss with your peers.

a. What artistic festival is held in your region?

b. What music festivals are organised across Morocco?

c. What's your favourite music style? Why do you like that particular type of music?

d. What are your favourite music bands?

e. What topics do they sing about?

f. What festival is featured in the picture below?

Read and dJscov.er··

- -

1. Survey the title and read the introductory paragraph; then jot down questions you expect the text to answer.

Mo t _people .believe there is one thing they do very well- one activity they excel at. It couLd be playing a sport p e ak i n g a langu age, singing cooking, designing websites, or even driving. They, therefore, seizeany opportunity to express their special talents and kills. Su h is the case of a handful of Moroccan gif-ted youths for whom "Le Boulevard des Ieunes Musicien ~. is the most favourable time to bring their musical genius into light.

The-festival started in 2000 as a one-day event with merely a few amateur artists playing on a dark small stage. Today, it bas become a massive four-day long celebration drawing over one hundred thousand of fans each year. An incredible success of an event run by a few voluntary and dedic-ated youngsters.

"Le Boulevard des Jeunes Musiciens' which Lakes place every June .in Casablanca, features musical acts ranging from Hip-hop, to Rock-metal and Fusion. It was originally started by a f small group of ambitious people who dreamt of building au alternative music scene in Morocco. The festival has become the most important platform for local distinguished youth. bands.

156

Extra Reading 1 THE GIFTS OF VPUTH

1 went there on thethird day, accompanied hy two' colleagues of mine. We have all quickly' figured out the secret of this festival' success: Moroccan youths have never seen anything like it. "The _ Boulevard is our place on the Sun" one e:uy was shouting in.French. The expression made me smile, seeing all those people escaping tbe sun for shade next to trees and fences.

Live concerts are rare 'in Casablanca and when there is one, most people cannot afford the pricey ticket. 50, the free adrnission.fee means that people carnefrom the farthest corners of town. They are !' allinsearch of a moment of ecstasy and joy, away from the' 50' mUJly frustrations of daily life. The Boulevard's .real driving force lies in the fact that it gives-the opportunity-for youngtalented musicians

to play i 11 front of thousands of people. For many of these creative musicians it is their sale occasion 1 to express. their gi fts and perform in public duringthe Whole year.

Moroccan music ha alway' been described as 11GP, with .a mixture of rnfluences: Arnazigh, African, Latino and Arab. In the festival, we have a highly skilful combination (if Rap. Rock, Reggae and Fusion: a celebration of diver. it)', creativ ity and universality.

In the do sing ceremony. we had the pleasure to listen to some bands who managed through the years to get to fame like Hoba Hoba spirit. Dayzin, Ll-Kayne, Fnaire and Darga. The.uitimate atmosphere and the eX'cited audience make of the festival H world of dreams. Apart from that, lyrics in clear Moroccan dialect express the hopes of a wholegeneration. for a better life and a rnore perfect world, not to mention their love of their country <'1" well. One of the bands "Midnight Shams," played the national anthem So passionately, giving evidence of their patriotic belonging.

At the ,same time, as a placefor cultural exchange and an arena of joyful friendship, I was impressed by the open spirit of this generation of young Moroccans. I came to. terms with the realisation that there is a deep love for life and determination to change things for the better. As someone put H clearly to me: "The Boulevard is a place of freedomand diversity.Tt's our greatest chance to share 9UI talents with others. II

adaptedji'011! Wlvn!,hbc .C{J .lIkJaJricaliv(!.~ (Mar.dl .2007)

2. Read the whole text and check whether your questions are answered.

3. Check if the items are mentioned in the text, and write them in the space provided.

• a. The place where the festival takes place .

- b. The date and duration of the festival. .

- c. Fe ma I e tal e nted rn U s ici ans ta ke pa rt in the festi val .

-d. Attendance to the festival is free of charge .

• e. Foreign participants in the festival. .

• f. Examples of music bands .

-g. The size of the audience .

- 'h. The music styles that feature in the festival. .

Hoba Hoba Spirit

157

Extr:a Reading 1 THE GIFTS OF YOUTH

4. Are these statements true or false? Justify your answers.

a. The festival was created thanks to some professional musicians.

b. In' the beginning, the festival was one week long. e. Foreign bands also participated iii the festival.

d. Songs covered different topics, including patriotism.

e. Similar music festivals are frequent in Casablanca.

5. Answer these questions according to the ted.

a. What was the purpose behind the creation ot+The Boulevard des Ieunes MusidenSI/,?

b. According to the writer, what things contribute to the success of "The Boulevard"?

c. What are the benefits of the festival 'for youngsters?

d. What musical styles are present in the festival?

e. Did the writer appreciate the festival? Justify.

6. Complete this summary from the text.

"Le Boulevard des James- Musieiens" is, held It is run by

........................................................ It enables gifted youngsters to .

........................................................ Apart from promoting musical talents, the festival is also

an opportunity for friendship and ..

.

7. Go through the text and find out words that you can associate with "talent".

8. Fill in this table with information about a festival held in your region, then use the information to write a paragraph about the festival.

Date the Festival was created

Purpose behind the festival

Duration of the festival

Admission to the festival (free/paid ?)

Participants

•••••••••••••••••••••. , ••••••••• 4 _ ., • ~ ~ ••••• , •• ~ •••

Other information

158

Extra Reading 2

8US'TAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

ArganCooperatives

1. In small groups, answer the foUowlng questions. a. What types of trees; are there In your area?

c. What type of trees are famous in Morocco?

b. What is the nearest forest to your area called] d What are the problems forests and trees face?

e. Have you ever heard of the "tree of life"? What is, its name?

2. Survey the text by reading the title and the first paragraph, then ask three questions you think the text will answer.

ntree

Dr. Zouhida. Charronf became first interested in the Ar~an tree while

she was in France. She explain • "At the end of the 19th century, a French writer who bad studied the Argap Rut said fhe tree contained rut active substance, Between then an d the start of mYi research, no one had tried to investigate this claim." She became more passionate - about Argan oil-as she discovered more molecular substances unique l

Argsn tree nuts to.it .. The oil is derived.from the ktjDlel found within themu or the fruit.

It is much sought tor use in traditional medicine 'and food, as wellas in cosmetics for skin, hair and nails. The oil ha twice as much vitamin E as olive oil and is rich in antioxidants. lr contains many essential fatty acids.Includmg omega 6, as well as a substance with anti-inflammatory properties.

Zoubida Charrouf, aMoroecan professcrat Rabat's Mohamed V University, Is.an A:tgan tree expert. She thinks that Atgan tree is a vital Moroccan resource.That is why she is trying, to combat deforestation of the Argall through setting up women's co-operatives. Her goal is io prqd u ce oi 1 and jo raise internari onal recognition ofthe product.

Charrouf received a doctorate on Argan trees and became one of the fir t people to campaign to 'ave it: She believes all parts of the tree can be used to provide a souree of income OT' food for tb'oS~ who exploit [neill. She is also intrigued by Argau's medicinal properties'. and proposed etting up a tnarket to sell the oil. This tree plays

-envircnmental as wen a socio-economic .roles and thuscentributes to sustaining developmenrin the-areas where it grows.

159

xtra Reading 2

sustAJNABLE DEVELOPMENT

Charrouf spent 15 years setting: up Argan oil processing co-operatives in the villa-ges of Tamanar and 'Fidzi near Essaouira. Her goal was to value women's expertise and protem Argan oil. This vital oil has alway been undervalued and sold at roadsides despite its nutritional, pharmaceutical, therapeutic cosmetic and environmental benefits.

"When I announced that I was planning to set up the first co-operative, some men weren't happy about their wives going out. When the women began bringing money home, men started coming to me on their wives' behalf," Charrouf recalls. So she worked with the Moroccan government to support the involvement of women in rural and sustained development, "An agreement bas been signed between the High Commission for Water and Forests and the 'Iarganine co-operatives. The aim is to replant. develop and cultivate Argan tree through ferest re-spacing " she noted.

Charrouf's other main activity is campaigning for better management of Argan products and increased recognition, of Argan oil. IfJ would like to see Argan oil given the statu 01' a 'high quality product. We, meet all the requirements for being a recognised label. If this- is achieved. only oil produced in the region according to the proper criteria can be called Argan. This will contribute to the development of the region and the conservation of the Araan forest II she stated .

. ~ .

Some people worry that Argan oil's growing popularity could lead to overexploitation. Charrouf counters this argumentsaying that the experiences of other countries show that reforestation rises with product demand. "It's the financial value of a tree that motivates people [0 replant it .,. Our national output is 4,000 ronnes per year. We'd need 400 co-operatives to produce this amount, and we're not there yet," she pointed out.

In Morocco.Argan tree i known as the "tree of Me" because ef it- many beneficia] properties, The.Argan forest provides a Living for around 3 million people including 2.2 million in rural areas. "It provides stability for the rural population and 1 thus slowing down the rural exodu ." Charrouf explained. Nowadays, Morocco is witnessing a reduction in the area and density of irsArgan Iorest. Since the beginning of last century, Its area has been reduced from. 1,400,000 hectares to 828.000 hectares. TJ)c density ha fallen from 100 tree to 3'0 trees per hectare. Charrouf estimates that 600 hectares are Jest every year. It remains that the more co-operatives we set up, the more we SU, tain development and provide a constant income for many families.

Adapl.ed..t)·om: WW\lI'.lIIag!uJrebia.('olll (April 20(7)

3. NoW read the whore text and check if your questions have been answered.

4. Read the text again and answer these questions.

a. Why was Dr. Zoubida Cherrouf interested in the Argan tree?

b. What are its benefits?

c. What is her aim behind setting up cooperatives?

d. What were men's reactions towards setting up the cooperatives! Explain.

e. Is Argan forest density increasing or decreasing? Explain.

160

Extfa Reading 2

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

5. Without going back to the text, decide if these statements are true or false. Justify your choice.

a. Many people were interested in the protection of the Argan tree before Dr. Cherrouf.

b. Before setti ng .u p her project, people used La give much importance to Argall oil.

c. Dr. Charrouf is tota Ily satisfied with what she has achieved.

d. The Argan tree. plantingcan diminish rural exodus.

6. Complete the following statements. When you finish refer to the text to check if your

answers are correct,

a. In order to make ofArgan oil a well-known product, Dr. Zoubida Cherrouf .

b. Dr. Zoubida Cherrouf says that no other study has focusedon the Argan tree Since ..

c. If Argan tree is given an international label, ..

d. As Argan tree has medicinal properties, Moroccans call it .

7. Now, with your partner, write a brief summary of the text using your: own words .

• ~ ••••••• 0'" "" •••••• ~ •• 0 - ~ , ~ *. "0 " .....................................• ~ •..............

8. Look carefully at this picture and suggest ways to prevent goats from devastating the Argan tree.

oeis revnging ArRRn tree 9. Do a net search to get further information about Argan tree and other benefits of its vital oil. Mini project. Compile a file about Argan tree including the following:

a. Where it grows in Morocco and elsewhere

b. Its' Life expectancy

c. Appropriate climate and weather

d. Its role in maintaining the ecological balance and preservingbiodiversltv

e. The benefits of its vital oil

f. The benefits of its cultivation

Present your project in class.

161

Extra Reading 3

WOMEN AND POWER

Moroccan Women Leaders in Focus

. Gellinvolv·ed

1. What do you think of women's performance in parliament, government, and city councils? Conduct a survey in your class and fill in this chart with the number of students who share each opinion.

Opi nions Women are more Women are as Wanien are less

cornpetent.than men competent as ,men competent than men ~~~--~------

N.um. ber or I students

2. Work with the group of students who share your opinion and discuss arguments to support or justify your point of view. Write-at least 2 arguments in the chart.

Opinions Women are more Women are as Women are less

competent" thanmen competent as menlcompetent than men

::'!Jpporti iig arguments

3. Exchange. and discuss arguments with the other groups.

\Read and discover-:

4. The following text reports on popular altitudes towards women in high positions in our institutions. Survey the first and last paragraph to find out if your opinion is voiced in the report.

5. Ask the questions you think the text will answer. Share your questions with your peers.

6. Read the text to find out if your questions are answered. Write the answers in your own words.

A survey conducted ill 2004 reports important resultsabout popular articu_des en-women's economic, social, political, and legal rights. Twelve groups" from different parts of Morocco and from different social hackgrounds P':flrti€ipated in _this survey, The PaJticiR~llts are l!sked whether women canservein higher positions in g:ovffffil11ent. 'Th.e results show thai there is ail iti'i::reaslhg acceptance of women as leaders, Tlre, increased presence of women in Morocco's politics, Parliament, .and government has cantributed to this acceptance. Participants offer concrete examples- of Women servingatimportant levels of government as: ministers or secretary of state.

Bven the group least open lp changes .in the status of women, express few objections about women running as candidates and serving as leaders. Some ofthe participants put a strong~r emphasis on.a woman being educated before she be~.oJlles a leader, The dominant vieweven .inthis most conservative demographic grou p is expressed by oneolderrnan from Ait Ourirr''lr 1S natural for WOIIutn tb be candidates."

Some .participants say education is vital to women's political participation, When. asked if WoIileg can participate in politics, vote, and run for office, a common response among participants is "if she is educated,' Other participants connect women's pelitical participation to their right La work.

A younger woman from R<1bahays, "If a woman works then she is to be present in political life as well," Partietpants view education and work for women as facilitating and. in part justifying; their participation in ;eolillcS.

_. --~=---~

162

There are differences of qpin~()n about whether women 'ca~ serve in the highest positions in ~ 'governmcnJ:; for example-several erdinerypeople havemore quesubttsabd'Ut whether a WO'lliafJ could - 'serve competently asa prime minister,

In ciI iseu ssi ug women in leadership, positious, a number of conflicting stereotypesabcut women ~ emerge, On the one band, some paltitipallts describe women as, bar-de'£; work:ing; TObre helpfulvcating, trustworthy; 'ami lessconuptible .than, men. On the other hand, other participants deseribe :women -8$ : too sensitive. irrationally emotional, weak, andpassive, These stereotypes cut across &entler, class.end regional-lines. 'Some women &~ that women are too weak to serve in tQPRq_siti'Q_n~ like Mhrister of t Interior; some men saY' that a woman would he bener than a man as a leader because. she would --be less' I ikely to accept bribes, and she would be less selfish ana arrogant than a man. Participants express broader acceptance Of wernettserving ill' positions where they are already present and ~_xpres'$' mere tio,ulJ(s abour a woman "s c;apaGity to serve in positions whese W~J61en have not' served, U participants can point to ttniorete examples of women :ser:ving in the position .. then there is generalacceptance that women could capably serve- in that positian, For ex am ple, tlre.paniolpants broadlyaccept the id€'a that women could genie as capably a!: , men on local government c,Qull<;.:Hsl1:Tnd the cemmon response was that women are a1i:eady doing, tfiis. Tms was .. alsb the response to questions about whether women can ae:-rve as, members of parliament, ministers, and advisors tothe klng-.....:w,aroen are alreadythere, and they can dothese jobs,

Extra Reading 3, WOM~N AND POWER

Warnell of Influence-

'Bm in the positions where, women have never Se:Ned in Morocco-as: mayors and as prinre " mirrister-i-partieipants are. somewhat' more divided over whether a woman can capably serve. Some " participantsagree that women could serve _in these positions. They ask wlly:sbe;should be prevented to £ram represent; n g the enti re tHy ;as mayor, if She: does a good JOD as a meni]jer representing pan 'of fbe city" They. alsoargue if she is a good miQi,st~" she should be. allowed to be-prime minister,

-- _ iI

Other participants disagree. €>ffeti-ng; a -va:hety of reasons w~ya woman cbuldl1ot'do ajob such -

as mayor or prime minister. For them, these tog leadership positions' require ,8. man's strong p~rson!Uity. Still 'Clthers maintain that a.wornan could capably-serve in these,po.SitionS-: as long as stu'r was, available and had Ii flexible ~cbed'ure- in the eoneep lion of these partipjpants 1 a married woman with a family would not fit the bill because, Q f her pri mary duties a t home.

Mllpll!dfrom: WOMiw's FREEDOM IN FOCUS: MOROCCO, By Bria/! Kntulis, 1004

163

Extra Reading 3 WOMEN AND POWER

7. Recall information from the text to answer the following questions.

a. What is the objective of the survey conducted in 20(}4?

b. What is the popular attitude towards women as political leaders?

c. What contributed to this attitude?

d. Some pa rticipants th i nk women should meet certa in cond lrions to participate in pol ltical life.

What are these conditions?

e. How do some participants. justifv their attitude in favour of women serving as prime ministers? f. Why do some participants disapprove of women serving-as prime or interior ministers?

8. Notice and study the following sentence from the text, then choose the best explanations.

7~ ~~ c«t 4¢I(Jd4 ~, , .means

a, women express positive stereotypes about women.

b. men express negative stereotypes about women.

c. both men and women express positive stereotvpes about women.

d. both men and women express negative stereotypes about Women.

9. Review your questions and answers and fill in this chart.

(

Ar.gum~n~ In favour of.w,omen s'ervmg III higher posltrott$

~ ... ; , •• y ••.•• ~ .~., ••.•. ~ .... ,.4. r'. ~.! •••• ,~, ~4';.' •• "'~ ~4- •• '.' ~ •• ~ ~ ....

;0- ... ~ ••••• "'-F" 4. , ••• ~ ..... ~ ••• ~ ~ 4 ~ ~ 'i. 14 ~ ~ .'.., ' •••• ~ .... ' •• ' t" *' 4. ~ ...... ,. ~ • ~ ~ ~ ' •

• • ". ~. ~ ~ •• , ..... ,.,. r;, •. ~ •• ",1,.,'. i •• ,.'.' ...... ,.~ •.•••• ,.~ •• '.'.1'" 11 •••••••••

,Mguments ~~n d~sf:ayour ~f.women ser~ing_m hls:her posttions

••• ~ ••• ,I, •• 4 ._ .. _ I .4' ••••• ~ ~ •••••••••• 4 ••• ~ • 4 •••• "4 •••• ~ ~ ••• ~ •••. , •• 4'

10. Go back to task one and two and ,comp.are or contrast the results of the survey in class with the report in the text.

11. Look at these pictures and names of other Moroccan women leaders. Do a net search to find out more information about them.

Hakbna Himmid« A..'isia. Ouadlaa Najm Mjid Aich,a Chenn«

12. Choose one of these women leaders and write a two-paragraph text about her. Include in your text information such as: biography, studies, field of interest, accompllshments, ...

164

Extra Reading 4 CULTURAL VALUES

Cultural Aspects From China

1. Brainstorm with your peers what you know about China and its culture.

2. You might go back to "study skills' in unit 3 and review the reading method SQ4R to apply to this text.

3. Survey the text below and guess what aspects of Chinese culture are described.

4. Ask a question about each section you think the text will answer.

5. Skim through the text and compare your notes with the information provided.

China and its culture have alwaysbeen a guzzle, for many foreigners, especially

~

those from Europe or the Americas. Thanks to Ibn Batteuta and his- sturies from t

Ch i ria. the Arab world has been -mrroduced to some aspects of Chinese life ..

and culture. Ofcourse, China has undergone tremendous, change since Ibn

Bartouta's era.

Its cities-have flow all the ingredients of modern ones witl1 shopping mulls, nightclubs, chic restaurant. lively markets, modem buildings ,anti more, FOl7 example, Beijing-the capital city- posts beautiful parks, nice gardens, massive boulevards, ana modern buildings, 'Iourists. and visitoI$ to. China are usually very impressed by the splendour of China's monuments and sites. Theyare also more impressed l:!y1he celtureand people JJrey meet or-contact. Here are some of their

~----~==~--~~

impres.'sions"abelInlifferent cultural aspects in China,

Food

"Eating is one of the great things about China. When first eating in a restaurant .in China,T was shocked to. see that the Chinese will eat all the part of an animal even its head. I've actually developed quiteattaste fOT fish headsthough pigeons heads are still disgusting for me.

I couldn't read the IneDIlS in restaurants (they rarely-use Hng1ish),. so I nevEif knew what T was ordering. S Qrnet1mes,,I would 8l'bitrarilypoin t at some Chi nese dishes and, sa;y

. Give me that one .. "

Once when r did this, the waiter said, "Thal's ketchup Sir." "Oh.wellthen, give me this 01;Ie," "That :i one is a plate of'toothpicks.'

In Chinese restaurants, it is usual to order a plate of tocthpicksat the end of the meal. Then everyone sit~ around", picking theirteeth. This might seeindisgustingtosQme of us whereas the Chinese don't understand that "Foreigners will eat ~ whole meal and then not use atooth pick."

The Chinese are madabout McDoI1p.Ldt\:, whieh bas the largest market share out of all tbe liS ~ fast food chains, Irenical ly unlike the west, it's considered, a reals tatuS symbol if you can eat 'at· these plates. Only the wealthy eat here and it is the dream of some of rnY'_POOf6I students

(despite the prices .being 11 third of that ill the UK) to. orne day eat at McDonaldsr,

165

Extra Reading 4

CULTURAL VALUES

Taboos

"When ] first arrived. I hugged il couple of female eoll e<!-gl,les. J even pu t my arm around the female, president of OUI college who is also a famous lawyer "in China. When r think back now I gel embarrassed as touching 10, this manner is reserved for lovers.

It's common to see two womenholding hands or sitting on each other's laps.

Male friends will.often _place their hands On your thigh and-even walk with their arm around your waist! Believe me these displays of affection still take a little.getting used to."

Entertainment

"The streets ate 'always full. of people _pJayitl'g! Playing Chinese Chess or outdoor ball games is a normal street scene. Notjust the young but also the old. You can go to a park at night and it's full of people-so me-ballroom dancing, others dancing to disco rmtsic, some playing their instruments ill the park, OtITefS playing sports and of course there-are martial arts. The ambience .is truly amazing. I explained to ~IIIII~I~ a Chinese friend of mine thai.parks at night in England couldbe dangerous places

\; inhabited by JUSt the iouDg.lt seemed a strange concept to him:

Family

"China still has the one child policy, if you pay a fine Qf about 5000 Yuan ($625) you can have a second child.rand for to,oGa Yuan you can have a third but restrictions apparently apply in respect to access to education and other social services, thus, niost Chinese have only one child ..

Children are certainly spoiled and on several instances local Chinese I spoke with criticized the policy believing their country wasraising a whole generation of spojledbrats!'

Transporfdtion

Sport

"Sport is Que of the great progressi veaspects for China, In the street, there are outdoer piu,g pong tables and climbing frames for adults.Ttseems sport is much more democratic in China compared to the west as: these facilities are ~ .... ~1tI!

free. The old and young use-climbing frames alike.

If you are inventive then you can work: all your upper body withcut the needfor weights or expensive gyms. With the Chinese-love for sport of all kinds especially basketball, it comes with 110 astonishment that China is becoming' a world sporting superpower. Expect China. to do extremely WeI] at the Olympics.'

http ;flwi v W .{<iIi!.mftlsi(l.cm"h·hil1(J-b~iJin.r? .rum (MardI 2007 J

'Despite the Chinese government eneouraging greater consumption of cars. ' with measures .suoh as a very lax driving test, outside the main cities, such as Beijing, bikes remain the dominant form of transportation. They have their - own very wide road Janes and Bike parking spaces.

I truly hope that this fnrrn of transportation remains populat in China not just ~ for the envlrcnment but also for the health.of the people. Reports ,in papers now :-suggeSt that China for the first time willsee a generation, of obese Children,"

166

Extra Reading 4 CULTURAL VALUES

6. Read each section of the text to find answers to your questions.

7. Take notes from the text to fill in this chart.

Cultural aspect

What is partlcular'ot typital about it?

food

••• ,. , •.•• ,. -."" •••••••••••• ....., .-" .. ~ •••••• -.~."'~ ••• -~~~ •••• ~ ••••••• ~ •••••.•• ~,. ~~, •••• ~~ •••• ~T"" n~"'" ~ '_._. , ~ : ..

, taboos

, .

• _ ••••••••• ~~-i~ ••• n ••• 'j~~ •••••• ,.~ ••• w~ •••• ~.~" •• , •••••••••• ~ •• , ••••••• _."' ••••••••••••• ..-~ •••• ,~ ........ , ••••• _._.'.~ •• r' •• i ••• r •••••• r_ ••••••••••• r ••••

e.rlterta.i nment

........... " u ~ t •.••••. 4 ••••• ~ •• r." t ~ i. +,~"" ·'I' ••• _ •••• hr+ ~ ~ _. •• -, ••••••••• <-+. ~4 n~ '," •• I I , , I. I ~ I i.' I

ramily

i •• _~I'I ~.~'; •••• :.' •• '~i" •. ~ Ii'· •• ~ •• - •• _ ·.·h~~~ ;: ; ••• ~- •• _ •• - ·1 •• ~., .-.~._._ •.•• ,. ,. ~ .- ••••. ~ ._ -.- •.•• ~ •••• ·.·._4 I I I _ .~_ •••• ,~, i .. ~ . ......: ii.. I I H_I' I I.' HI. I

sport

transportation

•• -~ •• , ~m.· ••••••• , ~. ~ 4' •• _ ••• ~ ••••••• ~~ •• ~_~ •.• ~ ~ ••••.• ~ ••••• ~~~~ ••• - ••••••• M ••••••••••••• '.~ •• "'.~"" ~ ~ .••••••• _, i. I •• ~. _ ••

8. Without going back to the text, recall information to answer these questions.

a. What aspects of Ch ina. areteurists impressed by?

b. What seems strange about dishes in China?

c. How are seniors treated ala dining, table?

d. What are some of the famous entertaining activities in China?

e. What i~ the most popul a r means ef transpertation rn Chi na r What advantages has th is 01'1 eh i nese health?

f. What kind of sport is 'available to adults in China?

g. Why do yOLI think China adopted the one-child policy?

9. Go back to the text and choose the appropriate meaning for the underlined words.

a. tremendous» :J great/ 0 littler D- rare

b. arbitrary e 0 logically, 0 randornlv, o passionately

c. ,disgusting:::: 0 pleasl ng, 0 borrl ble. 0 normal

d. wealthy = 0 rich, 0 poor, 0 ill

e. hugged -= a touched, a embraced, 0 carted

f. spelled brats = 0 unpleasant children/ 0 happy children, -D pleasant children

10. Work in groups and compare Or contrast Chinese cultural aspects with Moroccan ones.

11. There are other cultural aspects specific to the Chinese. Do a search to find an aspect not mentioned in the text. Write a paragraph about it and present your paragraph in class.

167

Unit 1 INFINIilVE I GERUND -------------------

Form Use

Infinitive ·~b +verh

- verb (without 'to')

_ Ot7 intitiitive al1. . [Jerun can be used 8.5 subject or compfemf:}ni of verb.

• raWlng IS nlY OJ y. • My bobbv is drawing.

Gerund Verb+ing

MODALS

, .PRESENT RJRM PAST FORM FUNCTION Examples
can -n~a¥ could / might possibility We can attend the show if you have lime.
will would reql,1e~ng assistance Will you lend me the last comic show ot.Gad Elrnaleh?
would rather - showing preference I'd rather watch Tom and Jerry than Mickey mouse.
have to, must had to obligation / certainty Students have to respect school rules, ~
ought to/shquld - advisabIlity You ought to revise your lessons before 11 lest. :,
neepll-t - lack of necessity Students needn't take their books. during exam days.
don t have to.- didn't have to IElCIf or necessuv anc They mustn't cheat in the exam. ,
nurstrft prohi!;lttion
must must Ila~ + past certainty The actor's face is redd ish. He must have felt embarrassed. ,
participle
QrVcould + pa~ partieipil! Possibil rty / probability Mr. isean I~n t platIng tOJ:lay. ,
carl/may rna y/m i ght + pasl pa rti ci pie He could I might. e tired. '~
.... .t.- - -~ ' ... -- --.C .... ==-=-- ="'- ,. -_. - - - -'" """""'" .' - "" Un.' ;t THE PAST PERCEr _

Form Use Example
h.ad + past .. fO f;Janty order ot two pa"';l adlon? • t 11M Pho-Mdlarrfaa I betcrel went put. I ~
particiolezhad been • In reported 5pe.ech • Steve told me that he had been away for the whole wee_~.
+ past participle • Ih conditional type three • If I had worked hard, I would hav~ got the prize. J
• To f{Xpre-;;s iii' past wish -I wish I had gone with you! de;
~ ~~~ ~ _,_ ~ -~- - .-==, ....... -_ .. ' .~- ~- "'''' .. -. ~ ~ Unit·~4 -_- THE FUTURE PERFECT -------------------

arm . S_€!

To describe an evef:lt the: has not Yli't happened but is expected or planned-to happen befare another statedtiirie.

r.,

\Ali II have +past Plil rticl pIe

-- THE PASSIVE VOICE --------------------

Form

Use

Example

ApproprfafE! form of /~to be" +

past participle

When It IS not necessary to mentionshe The house has been cleaned. doer of the ection.

when we:don"t know, Of n,we torgoUen Women's conditions have b.e'en improved recently. whQ did1he action.

whl!n we ,',IrE! interested rnp,.€! in the Many medals were awarded to Moroccan ection thsr: in the petsanw'/;-Q does it; women athletes.

\,Vhen <) spf1;aker,disdairns rest!Onsi/Jility (or The vase bas been broken! (Ins'tea;Q ofl have

disi:lgreeable announc~mBnl5. broken the vase.)

... ---.~---

-~

L...::......... '~ __ -_

~ .....:..:...-=---.,~ _--:-.=---:- ._:....:.L.,__ . . _

168

PHRASAL VERBS

( Farm

Use

Example

~erb+ prepPs'ition

A phras<tl v.e.rb i~,a verb. tombined with a pieppsftion to form 8 specific me.anir!f{.

The man took off his hat to greet the Princess. I

;/; .

.. ,,"~ _. -=-..:"-

."..... -

nit 7.i

c.

REPORTING SPEECH: STATEMENTS, QUfSTIONS/ COMMANDS IN PRESENT AND P·AST

....

Example

!~

Use

To describe a conversation that took place in the past

NB: When the reporting verb is in the present, there i~ no change in tenses •

She told me that she had participated in a forum about citizenship.

._

, tlnit n:

LINKING WORDS

linking. words WIlel1 to use them II
-and, also, <IS well as, moreover, further, to add information or ideas or emphasise a statement
in addition, additionally, next, secondly, thirdly
similarly, likewise, in the.same way, equally to make comparisons i
a-Itho\.lgh, however, vel, but, , despite to make concession
whereas, in CGlltHI:st,w!iil.€, conversely to S!lOW contrast
for (his reason, to this end, For this purpose, because, since, so that. to provide reasons
as, as.a consequence.as 4 resu It, henca.therefore, thus, sp to exprain results
for exar;ipli:!, for im;tance, in ether words, such as to provide examples
"u\ has been noted, finaUy, in brief, in short, to-su mrnarise, consequeritly, to draw conclusions ,
therefore, in cnm:lu5ioTI, so: in .other words, at:.cqrdingty
...... --". --, . - =- ,-= .~""=-~= ~. CONDITIONAL TYPE :3 + WISHES CONDITIONAL TYPE:3

Form Use Example
If + past perfect -+ 10 describe hypothetiGli conditions in If the leaders had been wiser, the war wouldn't
Would have + past the past and the results that the speaker have broken out, I
participle , imagini;s were pQSsi~le.
/,r'
,.._.,...."'" ;- WISHES

Form Use Example
,
I wish!1 wished/lf • To e pre'S past Wishes • Mn~randfather wishes he had had a cell phone in his childhood. ~
only + past perfect • To express regret • If only there hadn't been many victims in the second world war .. A'
. . -' . ~ _- , .. .. ~.--.-~ .. = ~___......,,~ .. _ .. ....__ .. ~.:- -- RESTRICTIVE AND NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSES

Use Example
• Resttictil(€ (dependent) clauses limitth€ meaning ofa My brother who graduated from the faculty of ,
noun or pronoun, they are not set off 9Y commas, medicine emigrated to Canada,
Np'!-.-restrlC;tlve r~naegenaenrJ. clau$e$._ supf:?ly My brother; Who graduated from the taculrv of
additional mformatronut are not essential to the I
meaning of the sentence, they 'are set off by commas. medicine, emigrated to Canada. ../'
-r- -. -= = rn - ..... q-""" ...... ."', ..... ~ .-~-,'- 169

r'h~rVetb

art up

add up

ask after

ask qut bad< up (88)

bargaJ n fpl" break down

break in

bring about bring round

bring lip (88) brush up

call of{

call on

care For (14)

check in(lo) at a I~. an aiqx;.tf..'il: come about

rom!,; across (8"8) somethirigor someone

come up count on cross our

cutdown On do ever drop in

ea l out ({l8) face UP to fall back on

M 11il1~

:: Meaning

fall for

thinking about itcare-fully

give away

away betray

to 5IDp resisting; to surrender abandon, devote, stop

I n1isQehwt!; not work prof1f'..rly logically nl, fmd the lotal inquire about

ask ft)r .Q dale

n"lOVe b<l\:l<wartl; move irrreverse, fill in (88)

I-Phrasm Vurb

figure Qut

be deceived, full in love pay bacl logirally find the answer to a pick: out pr/:iblem; solve a problem by pick up ISSl

add informal ion to a form; to put off complete (a farm) put on

to make an effortto discover or put through gel to. know (something)

make a "prolecti(:II1" copy t l¢ irno account

ID lose eontiUl emotionaJly or ll1enlillfy. stop VYorkitlg

enter by force

find out, (26)

get away ,get rid of

to escape

I dispose Qf; give away or throw

cause to happen give in

infiuenm someone to your polnt ] give over

of view give up'

raise; rear; to take-care of a child

to improve your knowledg€,

skilll or memory hand in, (~8)

cancel somethinB that has been

scheduled h,md out, (SH)

submit homework, ali assignment .. etc.

d islfi bute-

to Walt (espetially on the te Icphone)

L)ffer - especially with hope

ask someone for1ln answer I:ilke tare o(i ~upply care to; anend /walch.

hold on

hold out

PUI in for

Me nins lake revenge

choose; select

lifl; laKl: up, gel ,improve, buy apply for a job

postpone; delay; avoid

begin to wear: to dress oneself

-

to connect a telephone caller La dle number

run into

put lip with (88) tolerate; bear

meet by chance

to use all of (sorl"l€lhingJ and have no more left

run up ag<linsl (_encourrtf'r - usually-a problem)

see someone to say goodbye to SQrroon!"

run out of

start working

to start a journey mil ke am rigi:'ments arrive; appear

Irhd a solunon

brea k out to srart, USI:I;;J II Y su dele n Iy

brea k up (25) to end; 1 0 sepa rate,

to surrender oneself (I)sually 10 orr

'I "el about

someone], tn stop IlYing to do "

sorrethlng set off

to representor mean; to be a signcr short form ofsomelhlng resemble; (in appearance) provide care for; war,h orl IS heaJth

to remove anything fllat is worn on "the body (esf'IeCially clothes) gain control

speak to someone nega~vely

to consider carefully

discard; put in the garbage decrease the volume, refuse to 01" reject

happen to be In the end

wah until someone I Q)melh1ng I arrives

I stop .>Ieering

be <;1ireful oF; beware of to disappl&lr gradually

have courase to deal with informal[on work out exertise(usually in il gym, etc.)

use as a last resort I pass away to die }o build mus&Ie;, bodv tone, e«c

to report one's arrival; register for hold up raise; lift to a h igher-ih<i n-norrnal take care of
I ara hotel, conference, etc po"itior~
happen keep on continue ta ke off (813)
te} find (unexpe.t1l:dJy) Dr meet by lay off to ~top employing (a worl(er)
dlante. leave out forgeti omit lake over
let down to disappoint someone 1~11~~oft}
occllr look after ill rake care of think over
depend oil; rely all; trust look back on to remember and think about throwaway
I tom down (88)
show that something written the past
is wrong or unnecessary by look down on regard as inferior
making.an X across it look for, (88) lTy to find turn 0Ut
to reduce in size or amount. look fmvard (1 4) anticipate pleasan~y wail for-
do something again look like resemble (in appearance)
to pay a short visit, o~en without i 1001< up (32) 10 0 nd ,someth i of(. ina book wake up
warning, make SUL pretend W8l(:h out fq! (22)
have a meal in a restaurant mak-e IIp, C3) invent! create (imaginary) wear off set up (52) s.how up sort out[351 stand for

lake aFter

170

NB : The numbers between brackets indicate the pages where the phrasal verb first occurs.

be W;iI$;Were oE!en
bear bote borne - ..
. ',.,-'
beat bea:t beaten mean
become bernrn~ became meet
begin .b~$an bt18[,Jrl mtsle;;tcj
bite ,~bit pitten r;ni5take
bleed ble($ bled overdo
blQw "ble\ blown overtake
break :bn.~~e broken -pay
bring Q~a~ghf, brought put
brQflJ;l91~t bffila~j_~;st br9i;ldca~l '~ad
bulfCl butlt built rid
burs; b~tst burst ride
buy fi(Mgtit bought nn.g raJ;lS rung
east bast: cast rise r0se risen
catch catfgl'ft caught ruM ran ruh
cheese aMdse"! chosen s~y '$lUi said
come l-al1l1~ come see sa.w seen
CQ!lt cq.&t; cost , SE;!ek ;~W'1t sb,Wghl
cut cut cut "sell .sQ.1 sbl:d
-aeal aiea:fr dealt send ,'s~~ sent
dl'g d1 dug set sii!.f set
do dl done "shake "sHnol~ shaken
draw dreW drawn shine $hene shone
dream Ote.amecl!.ifreamt dreamed/dreamt shoot 'i~et shot
drive (ilIo""e driven ~ut s '~J shut,
drink dr!lr"k drunk sing $IJg, sung
eat ate eaten sir;i"~ $nk:~ S,tJ~K
fall fe1f fallen sit .sat ' ~
feed fed red sleep :~iept ~Ief~t
feel felt felt speak ' spoke si;>ok~n
fjg~t ft')U"gh~ tought .s-peeG1 ·s~e1 _ . sped
fjn~! f01Jn~ f~un.d 'spell :speltt$'pelledJ speJt (spelfedj
fly' flew: flown :spend ~p~nt spent
forbid for:badl=" forbidden spilt split, split
forget f6rgot forgotten spread ~rea:dl spread
forgive' fort-ave forgiven stand s ql~~: stood
freeze firdze; frozen steal ,stmE:: stol~n
,get gQ~' got 'stick l~tlitK stuck
gIve gaVe ,given sting Stung stung
go went gone ,stink : ,slati"k stunk
grow grew _ grawn Strike 'sWtk struck ~stricken)
hang h_a~g" (rflng<ffil,. hung (bal1ger:l) swear swore; swortl
hear heard " ' heard sweep .s~~Qt"" ~,wept
"hide Hit;!" hldtlen swim ,g~,m swum
hit hit hit swing 'sWfun, SWUJ1g'
"C"kl$
hold h~d held take tali) taken
hurt foJ'U"Ft hurt teach ta\:l" lit ,t~Llgbt
keep kemt I kept tear tOfft tom
knit ,kr1t ~knjhedl ", ,~ knif (kn rned) te'rl [pitt toJd
know 'knew know ~~jnk 1hoLlgh't thought
lay loitto faid throw threwt thrown
I~ad led -- led understand u"ciders't0Qd . underst,QQd
learn fe.am$rl/l\mmt leianietJ/i earn t wake ' .. I" • weken
wo's
lei:1v€! left left wear wdfEi' W0rn
len.c), lef1t tent wea.ve ' ,Wov;e,(vJ..ea.vedl 'wdven{wt":'avM)
let let l{lt w!¥tp ~p~ We!'ll
lia ,lay (Ii~) , lain.Ilied) Wjn Won woh
ligHt Irgh.tE1!d/lit lit write w,rQte' written
171 Homologue par Ie Departement de l'Education Nationale Le 31Juillet 2007 sous Ie n° : 06CB21307

Premier€ edition 2007

ISBN .: 9981 - 21- 081 - 1

2007/2248

49.00 DH

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