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1.1 Automatic paper cutting machine

Paper-cutting arts have been around as long as paper. Different cultures have
different names for it, and different styles of execution. In Northern Europe, it is
called scherenschnitte. German for scissor cuts, it involves cutting symmetrical
shapes or silhouettes out of paper and displaying them against lighter or darker
color paper for contrast. Scherenschnitte is easier to do than it is to pronounce, so it
can be an enjoyable craft for children and adult paper crafters who like to
scrapbook and make cards and other paper creations. With practice, a skilled
paper-cutting artist can make elaborate designs.

Although paper cutting can be traced back to ancient China, credit is given
to German immigrants in Pennsylvania for turning it into a popular folk art. In the
1800s, paper cutting was referred to as "scherenschnitte", which means "scissor
cutting" or "scissor snipping" in German. Paper cutting involves making small cuts
into paper to create designs. Artists often create visually elaborate designs that
incorporate landscapes, flowers, trees, animals and hearts. Some basic techniques
will get you started on paper cutting.

The paper roll cutting machine the principal of paper cutting used in
industrial application.Paper cut occurs when a piece of paper or other thin, sharp
material. If we can use a loose paper sheet is usually too soft to cut , it can be very
thin , being then able to exert high levels of pressure enough to cut.


1.2 History of paper machine

Before the invention of continuous paper making, paper was made in
individual sheets by stirring a container of pulp slurry and pouring it into a fabric
sieve called a sheet mold. While still on the fabric in the sheet mold the wet paper
is pressed to remove excess water and then the sheet was lifted off to be hung over
a rope or wooden rod to air dry. In 1799, Louis-Nicolas Robert of Essonnes,
France, was granted a patent for a continuous paper making machine.[1] At the time
Robert was working for Saint-Lger Didot, with whom he quarrelled over the
ownership of the invention. Didot thought that England was a better place to
develop the machine. But during the troubled times of the French Revolution, he
could not go there himself, so he sent his brother in law, John Gamble, an
Englishman living in Paris. Through a chain of acquaintances, Gamble was
introduced to the brothers Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier, stationers of London, who
agreed to finance the project. Gamble was granted British patent 2487 on 20
October 1801.

With the help particularly of Bryan Donkin, a skilled and ingenious

mechanic, an improved version of the Robert original was installed atFrogmore,
Hertfordshire, in 1803, followed by another in 1804. A third machine was installed
at the Fourdriniers' own mill at Two Waters. The Fourdriniers also bought a mill
at St Neots intending to install two machines there and the process and machines
continued to develop.

In the USA the first recorded paper machine was Gilpin's at Brandywine
Creek, Delaware in 1817. This machine was also developed in England, but it was
a cylinder mould machine. The Fourdrinier machine was introduced into the USA
in 1827.


2. MECHANICAL DESIGN:2.1 Main Paper Roller

Figure 2.1 Paper roll

Meeting the paper roll industrys need for damage free roll handling with
maximum efficiency, Cascade offers a full line of paper roll clamps and roll clamp
damage reduction options to handle paper rolls regardless of diameter, weight or
type of paper. Cascade's rugged paper roll clamps handle paper rolls of every size
for industries from stevedoring to printing.


2.2 Tighting Rollers

Figure 2.2 Tighting rollers

General Purpose Self Tightening Eccentric Roller Grip for dumbbell and flat
samples. The roller is self-tightening, and operates using basic cam jamming
principle. It has a cross hatched, serrated finish and clamps tightly against a
horizontally grooved back plate.

2.3 Gripping Rollers

Figure 2.3 Gripping Rollers


Dimensions ( in mm)

Roller Diameter


Shaft Diameter


Table 2.1 Specification of Gripping Rollers


2.4 Clamps:-

2.4.1 for idlers

Figure 2.4 Clamp for middle idlers


Dimensions ( in mm)









Table 2.2 Specification of clamp


The 360 rotating paper roll clamp is suitable for lifting horizontal or
vertical paper rolls in a large range of diameters. The thin profile contact pad arms
prevent damage to the rolls and allow for compact stacking and retrieving. The
clamp uses the proven rotator with its direct worm/ring gear drive and clutch brake
system. The 360 rotation prevents roll edge damage when placing rolls down onto
surfaces that are not level.

Paper roll clamps increase productivity in your roll handling operations. Our
360 degree rotating pivot arm design effectively handles rolls in either vertical or
horizontal positions.

Right line clamps feature heavy-duty rotators; hardened pivot pins and
bushings; large-diameter, single-piece cylinder rods; and hardened cast steel
contact pads. Paper roll clamps are ruggedly constructed of high quality
components that are designed to perform under the most demanding conditions


2.4.2 For Gripping roller Clamp

Figure 2.5 Clamp for Gripping Roller


Dimensions ( in mm)









Table 2.3 Specification of clamp


They are designed to handle just about every type of paper including
newsprint, kraft coated or tissue. Slim tapered contoured arms allow the operator to
slide easily between adjacent rolls without causing paper damage during roll pick
up. Large curved pads and smooth arm movement ensure positive clamping and
excellent friction upon contact with the roll and during roll rotation.

Sharp edges and corners on Total Paper Roll Clamps have been eliminated
from both the clamp body and arms to reduce paper damage when contact is made
with the roll.
Smooth continuous rotation is achieved via a patented ring gear that
outperforms all conventional ball or roller bearings.



Figure 3.1 Plant Design in Pro-e

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Here deep groove ball bearing is used for axial load. The smaller shaft has
outer diameter of 15 mm. Hence bearing with inner diameter 15mm is selected.

4.1 Deep groove ball bearing 6004-ZZ

Figure 4.1Bearing a) Side view b) Actual view

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4.2 Measurement of Bearing

Model: 6004-ZZ
Structure: Deep groove
Type: ball
Inside Diameter: 20mm
Outside Diameter: 42mm
Thickness: 11mm
Bore Size: 20mm
Material: steel GCR - 15
Seals Type: Zz

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5. Pneumatic Cylinder:Pneumatic cylinders (sometimes known as air cylinders) are mechanical

devices which use the power of compressed air to produce a force in a
reciprocating linear motion. Like hydraulic cylinders, pneumatic cylinders use the
stored potential energy of a fluid, in this case compressed air, and convert it into
kinetic energy as the air expands in an attempt to reach atmospheric pressure. This
air expansion forces a piston to move in the desired direction. The piston is a disc
or cylinder, and the piston rod transfers the force it develops to the object to be
moved Engineers prefer to use pneumatics sometime because they are quieter,
cleaner, and do not require large amounts or space for fluid storage. Because the
operating fluid is a gas, leakage from a pneumatic cylinder will not drip out and
contaminate the surroundings, making pneumatics more desirable where
cleanliness is a requirement.

Figure 5.1 Pneumatic Cylinders (3D)

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Figure 5.2 Actual Cylinder Use in Project

5.1 Rod stresses:Due to the forces acting on the cylinder, the piston rod is the most stressed
component and has to be designed to withstand high amounts of bending, tensile
and compressive forces. Depending on how long the piston rod is, Pneumatic
cylinder 5stresses can be calculated differently. If the rods length is less than 10
times the diameter, then it may be treated as a rigid body which has compressive or
tensile forces acting on it. In which case the relationship is:
F is the compressive or tensile force
is the cross-sectional area of the piston rod
is the stress.
However, if the length of the rod exceeds the 10 times the value of the diameter,
than the rod needs to be treated as a column and buckling needs to be calculated as
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5.2 In stroke and Outstroke:Although the diameter of the piston and the force exerted by a cylinder are
related, they are not directly proportional to one another. Additionally, the typical
mathematical relationship between the two assumes that the air supply does not
become saturated. Due to the effective cross sectional area reduced by the area of
the piston rod, the in stroke force is less than the outstroke force when both are
powered pneumatically and by same supply of compressed gas. The relationship
between the force, radius, and pressure can derived from simple distributed load
Fr = e P
Fr is the resultant force
P is the pressure or distributed load on the surface
e is the effective cross sectional area the load is acting on.

5.2.1 Outstroke:Using the distributed load equation provided the e can be replaced with area
of the piston surface where the pressure is acting on.
Fr = (r2) P

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Fr represents the resultant force
r represents the radius of the piston
is pi, approximately equal to 3.14159.

5.2.2 In stroke:On in stroke, the same relationship between force exerted, pressure and
effective cross sectional area applies as discussed above for outstroke. However,
since the cross sectional area is less than the piston area the relationship between
force, pressure and radius is different. The calculation isn't more complicated
though, since the effective cross sectional area is merely that of the piston surface
minus the cross sectional area of the piston rod. For in stroke, therefore, the
relationship between force exerted, pressure, radius of the piston, and radius of the
piston rod, is as follows:
Fr = P (r12 r22)
Fr represents the resultant force
r1 represents the radius of the piston
r2 represents the radius of the piston rod
is pi, approximately equal to 3.14159.

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5.3 Pneumatic dcv:-

5.3.1 Solenoids:A solenoid is a coil with an iron plunger inside it. When current flows in the coil,
the plunger becomes magnetized and tries to move out of the coil. If a spring is
used to resist the movement, the distance moved is directly proportional to the
current in the coil. Solenoids are used in relays where they operate an electric
switch. They are also used in hydraulic and pneumatic valves to move the valve

Figure 5.3 Solenoid Coil

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A direct acting solenoid valve would have the plunger pushing directly on
the valve element as shown. This is more common in pneumatic valves.

Figure 5.4 5/2 Direction Control Valves

Figure 5.5 Actual 5/2 DCV Use in Project

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Often the valve may be manually operated by pushing the plunger with a
screw driver or by turning a screw on the side. This is very useful when checking
to see if the valve has stuck. Modern solenoid valves are really pilot valves. A
second small electrically operated poppet valve is fitted at the end which lets oil/air
through to the end of the piston and so pilot operates them. The valve shown is a
pneumatic solenoid/poppet operated and spring return. When the solenoid is
activated, the valve switches. When the solenoid is deactivated, the valve switches
back; hence it is a two position valve.

Figure 5.6 5/2 Solenoid Operated Direction Control Valves

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If it is required for the valve to stay switched when the solenoid is

deactivated, then another solenoid is needed at the other end to switch it back as

Figure 5.7 5/2 Both Side Solenoid Operated Direction Control Valves

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Figure 6.1 Dc Motor

A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC)

electricity. DC motors were used to run machinery, often eliminating the
need for a local steam engine or internal combustion engine. DC motors can
operate directly from rechargeable batteries, providing the motive power for
the first electric vehicles. Today DC motors are still found in applications as
small as toys and disk drives, or in large sizes to operate steel rolling mills
and paper machines. Modern DC motors are nearly always operated in
conjunction with power electronic devices. Here high torque is needed so
only 10 RPM motor is used.

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Figure 7.1 Proximity Sensor

A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects

without any physical contact.

A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam

of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in
the field or return signal. The object being sensed is often referred to as the
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proximity sensor's target. Different proximity sensor targets demand different

sensors. For example, capacitive photoelectric sensor might be suitable for a plastic
target; an inductive proximity sensor always requires a metal target.

The maximum distance that this sensor can detect is defined "nominal range".
Some sensors have adjustments of the nominal range or means to report a
graduated detection distance.
Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because
of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between sensor and
the sensed object.

Proximity sensors are also used in machine vibration monitoring to measure

the variation in distance between a shaft and its support bearing. This is common in
large steam turbines, compressors, and motors that use sleeve-type bearings.
International Electro technical Commission (IEC) 60947-5-2 defines the technical
details of proximity sensors.

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Figure 7.2 Proximity Sensor

Proximity sensors are the most common and affordable solution for no-touch
object detection. The most commonly-used proximity sensor is the inductive type,
which generates an electromagnetic field to sense metal objects passing close to its
face. This is usually the easiest sensing technology to apply in applications where
the metal objects to be detected is within an inch or two of the sensor faces.
Atonics offers 12 products of 6 different types of proximity sensors,
inductive and capacitive, and maintains No. 1 market share in Korea for more than
10 years and still endeavoring to advance product quality and sensing reliability up
to the top level of global marketplace. If you are looking for the most cost effective
and reliable proximity sensors, Atonics is the answer.

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Proximity sensors detect the presence of objects without physical contact.

Since 1983 Fargo Controls proximity sensors have been of the highest quality,
durability & repeatability to meet today's tough industrial requirements. We
provide a wide range of proximity sensors to meet all types of applications.
Typical applications include the detection, position, inspection and counting
on automated machines and manufacturing systems. They are also used in the
following machinery: packaging, production, printing, plastic molding, metal
working, food processing, etc

7.1 How Proximity Sensor works

A proximity sensor is a type of sensor which detects the presence of nearby
objects called target without any physical contact. There are different types of
proximity sensors such as inductive proximity sensor, capacitive proximity sensor,
ultrasonic proximity sensor, photoelectric proximity sensor. Depending on the type
of technology used proximity sensor emits an electromagnetic or electrostatic field,
or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for
changes in the field or return signal when target comes closer to the face of sensor.

There are different kinds of proximity sensors. They are

Capacitive proximity sensor

Inductive proximity sensor

Photoelectric proximity sensor

Ultrasonic proximity sensor

The advantages of the non contact proximity sensors are:

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No physical contact required with the target to be detected, therefore, no

moving parts so no friction and wear out.

Fast switching characteristics

Unlimited number of switching cycles since there is no mechanical contact

Can work in harsh conditions

Any type of target material can be detected

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Figure 8.1 Allen Bradley PLC

For a proven, small programmable logic controller solution, look to our

MicroLogix family. The MicroLogix 1000 controller offers control
capabilities in an affordable, compact package. The MicroLogix 1200
provides features and options to handle extensive range of applications. The
expandable MicroLogix 1500 controller helps you achieve high-level control
in a variety of applications. The MicroLogix 1100 and 1400 controllers
increase the application coverage with enhanced network communications at
an affordable price.

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8.1. Features

Contains isolated RS-232/RS-485 combo port for serial and networked


Provides four latching or pulse-catch inputs and four interrupt inputs

Includes built-in independent 20 kHz high-speed counter

Offers Programmable Limit Switch function

Includes two built-in -turn trim potentiometers with a digital output range
of 0...250

Provides program data security

Supports floating point data files

Expands up to 136 I/O points

Compatible with 1762 MicroLogix Expansion I/O modules (up to six

modules per controller)

Five levels of control available, providing a wide variety of features to suit

most applications

Offers similar functionality as traditional SLCs and PLCs, only in a smaller,

packaged form factor

Compatible with our PanelView Component graphic terminals

Shares common RSLogix 500 programming software and RSLogix Micro

programming software, providing an instruction set that is common to the
MicroLogix and SLC 500 controller families

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8.2. Software
RSLogix 500 programming software
The RSLogix family of IEC-1131-compliant ladder logic programming
packages helps you maximize performance, save project development time, and
improve productivity. This family of products has been developed to operate on
Microsoft Windows operating systems. Supporting the Allen-Bradley SLC
500 and MicroLogix families of processors, RSLogix 500 was the first PLC
programming software to offer unbeatable productivity with an industry-leading
user interface.

Flexible, easy-to-use editors

Common look-and-feel

Diagnostics and troubleshooting tools

Powerful, time-saving features and functionality

RSLogix programming packages are compatible with programs created with

Rockwell Softwares DOS-based programming packages for the SLC 500 and
MicroLogix families of processors, making program maintenance across hardware
platforms convenient and easy.
RSLogix 500 software is a 32-bit Windows ladder logic programming package for
the SLC 500 and MicroLogix processors. RSLogix 500 is compatible with SLC
500 and MicroLogix programs created with any of Rockwell Softwares
programming packages.

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8.4. RSLogix 500 software includes:

A free-form ladder editor that lets you concentrate on the application logic
instead of syntax as you write your program
A powerful project verifier that you use to build a list of errors you can navigate
to make corrections at your convenience
Drag-and-drop editing to quickly move data table elements from one data file to
another, rungs from one subroutine or project to another, or instructions from
rung to rung within a project
An address wizard that makes entering addresses easier and reduces keying
Search and replace too quickly change occurrences of a particular address or
A point-and-click interface called a project tree that lets you access all the
folders and files contained in your project
A customs data monitor to view separate data elements together and observe
Trending and histogram functionality for monitoring and displaying process
SLC libraries form storing and retrieving portions of ladder logic for use across
any of Rockwell Software's SLC programming software products.

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9. PROGRAMMING:9.1 Beginning Programming Using RSLogix500

1. Turn on the computer, and at the password prompt hit CANCEL.

2. On the desktop locate the Icon for RSLogix500 English (2), and open the

3. To begin select FILE and create NEW

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4. A window will open prompting processor name, type and driver

information. All you are concerned with is the processor type and name. Select
processor 1747-L542B 5/04 CPU 32K
MEM OS401.

5. Naming the Processor. The PLC5 and SLC500 processors are all eventually
going to be connected to a DH+ network and because of this no two processors can
be given the same name or node. We can avoid networking problems later by
using the same method of naming the processor and node #'s now:


Determine you bench number or location.


Determine the type of PLC you will be using. This should be a SLC504.


Determine the appropriate Processor Name using the format: 50XBYY,

where the X is the processor type (should be 4 from SLC504) and YY is the
bench number (bench #2 would be 02).


Enter the Processor Name in the above window.

Example: If you are using a SLC504 at bench 13, the Processor Name would be

After you have named the processor, click OK

After you have chosen the correct processor, your RSLogix window should
look like the one below.

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Configuring Input/output. The first step in writing a program is to configure the

I/O. This can be done automatically. You will need to look in the left window and
find and click on I/O

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9.2 Configuration

When the I/O CONFIGURATION window is open, select READ I/O

CONFIG. You will see the following window appear. The PLC must be connected
to the computer and be turned on for this to work.

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At this window, you must have the PLC connected to the computer, and
turned on! Once both of those requirements are met, simply click Read
I/O Configuration.

You will now be back to the first I/O Configuration window. When the I/O
module descriptions appear in the lower left, make sure they correspond to the
slots they appear to be in. If this matches, you can exit the I/O Configuration

You are now ready to begin programming. Below is an example of some of

the instructions you could put in a program. The symbols and abbreviations have

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not changed. Using the small arrows in the lower left, you can scroll through other
tabs for more instructions.

To add instructions to the program, first highlight the rung as shown below.

Once the red box is covering the rung number, simply click on the desired
instruction in the toolbar.

There are no changes in the addressing. Simply click on the item you wish to
address, and when the black box is around the item, enter the address.
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When you have finished your programming, select EDIT, then VERIFY
PROJECT. This will check the program for errors. Any errors will be listed at
the bottom of the window, as shown below.

Once you have finished your debugging and are ready to download your
program to the PLC, Locate the box shown below.

Use the arrow on the right side to view your other choices.

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Once you have downloaded your program you will be able to switch the
processor to REMOTE RUN, and monitor your program on the screen as you work
on the trainer.

9.3 Overview of RSLogix 500:The RSLogix family of IEC-1131-compliant ladder logic programming
packages helps you maximize performance, save project development time,
and improve productivity. This family of products has been developed to
operate on Microsoft Windows operating systems. Supporting the AllenBradley SLC 500 and MicroLogix families of processors, RSLogix
500 was the first PLC programming software to offer unbeatable
productivity with an industry-leading user interface.
These RSLogix products share:

Flexible, easy-to-use editors

Common look-and-feel

Diagnostics and troubleshooting tools

Powerful, time-saving features and functionality

9.4 Programming:38 | P a g e


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Figure 9.1 Ladder Diagram


10.1 Lay out (side view)

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10.2 Lay out (Top view)

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10.3 Lay out (side view)

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10.4 Pneumatic Cutter

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11. CONCLUSION:The automatic paper cutting machine has been successfully

introduced instead of manual cutting process by design and wooden material joint
the components of the machine. Only one operator is required for placing empty
sacks at the paper roll. Increased productivity,Safe operation Presence of paper
length is sensed at sensor and paper cutting operation.

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12. REFRANCES:[1] _cut_.htm



[5] - Properties



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