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Learning Objectives

:
1. Understand and use the concept of gradients of curve and
differentiation.
Learning Outcomes :
1. Find the gradient of a chord joining two points on a
curve.
2. Find the first derivative of a function y = f(x), as the
gradient of tangent to its graph.
 

GRADIENT OF A CHORD
y
y = f(x)

Q

 

P

 
0

 

 Gradient of chord PQ =

 

x

GRADIENT OF THE TANGENT TO THE CURVE AND THE FIRST DERIVATIVE OF A FUNCTION
y
y = f(x)
 

 

 As the point Q moves nearer and

 

nearer to the point P such as ….as
shown in the diagram, the chord
PQ can be seen getting nearer and
nearer to the tangent at point P.

 

P

 
0

 

Therefore
,

 

 

x

= gradient of tangent to the
curve at
point P

y
y = f(x)
 

 

 

small change in y
P

 
0

 

 

 

small change in x
 

x
 Then,
 As

gradient chord PQ =

point Q approaches point P, , therefore

 

= gradient of tangent to
the curve at point P

 

In calculus , we denote

as

 

Hence represent s the gradient of tangent at a point P on
the curve
  is

also known as the first derivative of the function