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Understanding Teamwork

Lily Gullion, Exercise Science, Dr. Roger Newman-Norlund, Exercise Science Department

Significant changes have been made throughout the application. Changes include clarifying the definition of
teamwork, explaining the link between this project and autism, and addressing the project design. I have included
pictures of the games, rewritten the objectives to focus on the importance of the games, and provided much more
information in the background section. Additional researchers agreed to join this project, so they have been added into
the list of experts.

Understanding Teamwork
Lily Gullion, Exercise Science, Dr. Roger Newman-Norlund, Exercise Science Department
Background
Humans are experts at predicting other people’s responses and working together with other people in social
situations. This ability to cooperate, which we know as teamwork, is at the heart of all social interactions. Teamwork
research is a budding field of study that seeks to understand the many interwoven factors that support human-human
cooperation (1-3). While most people exhibit proficient teamwork skills, some populations, such as those diagnosed with
Autism Spectrum Disorder, show significant impairments in cooperative teamwork abilities (4-7).
Based on previous work studying teamwork in adults, my mentor, Dr. Roger Newman-Norlund, has created five
theory-driven computer games which are designed to quantify teamwork skills (8-10). These computer games generate
numerical data that represent each player’s performance. I have spent the past year researching these games in a
community setting (YMCA in Irmo) and know firsthand the potential of these games as tools to assess social skills as well
as their limitations (i.e. required age, intelligence, motor skills). The games need improvement and further validation,
but local researchers do not have the expertise necessary for a complete analysis. We need to consult with experts in
the field of social motor control and explore the games’ effectiveness in children with social impairments.
Project Goals and Objectives
1. Develop and assess new data-analysis techniques to examine numerical data generated by the computer
games under the guidance of leading experts in the field of social motor control.
2. Validate the existing games and explore their effectiveness in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Research Statement
This study aims to validate and improve the computer games to make them more efficient at quantifying
teamwork skills. We plan to conduct preliminary testing in children with social impairments to provide information
about potential improvements to the games.
Project Impact
In this technological age, computer applications are easy to access and widely used in a variety of settings.
Certain populations, such as those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, could benefit from computer programs
designed to assess teamwork abilities and encourage teamwork behaviors. These computer games have the potential to
be used as a new therapeutic treatment for autistic children. However, before we can use these games as an
intervention for social skill deficiencies, we need to understand the best way to quantify teamwork abilities. The data
generated when two people play these games together needs to be analyzed differently than traditional data, which is
generated by individual participants operating in isolation. Researchers in the Netherlands possess unique
knowledge/experience that will help with this. By working with experts in this field and analyzing the data with their
help, I can put the finishing touches on making these games accessible, reliable, and informative.
Project Design
The computer-based games are simple to administer, and I have extensive experience using them with a variety
of individuals. The only equipment needed is a computer, two generic gaming controllers, and the software provided by
Dr. Newman-Norlund. The five games are designed to measure different aspects of teamwork and all involve two
participants using the joystick on their controllers to manipulate their character.

Test 1: The participants simultaneously lift a bar and ball up a screen and into a target area- addresses synchronization.
Test 2: The participants take turns chasing eachother around the screen- measures action prediction abilities.
Test 3: The participants each control one side of the car – measures complementary action.
Test 4: The participants take turns pushing a button to stack items- assess turn taking.
Test 5: The participants carry a bar to a goal location- addressses imitation and movement synchronization.

Drs. Harold Bekkering, Hein van Schie, and Ruud Meulenbroak, who are several of the world’s leading teamwork
skills researchers, are located at Radboud University in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, and have agreed to help me with
data analysis, critiquing, and improving the computer games. Together, we will localize the games to reflect the local
language and culture. [Note, language will not be a barrier with the researchers as related discussions will be conducted
in English.] I will teach the researchers how to run the games, and we will administer them to the participants recruited
through the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior at Radboud. The researchers who will be analyzing the
games already have labs with active participants, so I will not have to do any of my own recruiting. We will then
compare and contrast the results from tests run in Columbia to tests run in Nijmegen to ensure reliability between the
two cultures. Based on the expertise of these researchers, we will be able to address strengths and weaknesses of the
computer games. This step is crucial to understanding and changing the tests; we all need to collaborate to perfect these
games. Once we have thoroughly critiqued the games together, I will alter their design accordingly. Concurrently, I will
be administering the tests to children with social skill impairments. By extending the games into this environment,
unique data will be generated that will reflect the teamwork skills of those with social deficiencies. These results will
feed into the analysis of the games, and I can then alter them to address particular concerns. Critically, an assistant
professor at Radboud, Jessica Lust, is currently conducting teamwork research in pediatric autistic populations. Since
these populations are already available to me, the project’s goals are achievable in a short time frame.
Project Timeline
Before trip
-Continue
studying
literature
-Plan tasks and
coordinate with
mentors

Wk 1 (5/30-6/6)
-Meet experts
and begin data
collection
-Localize games
to reflect culture

Wk 2 (6/7-6/13)
-Test participants
with Jessica Lust
-Analyze data
with experts

Wk 3 (6/14-6/20)
-Determine
specific features
of the computer
games to change
-Make
alterations

Wk 4 (6/21-6/27)
-Continue data
analysis and
document
techniques
-Enhance the
tests

After trip
-Write a
comprehensive
guide to the
games
-Teach local
researchers

Anticipated Results and Dissemination
The project will validate the computer games as tools to quantify teamwork skills and increase the games’
efficiency in data collection within different populations. We will also establish the feasibility and effectiveness of using
the games in a different population. The report that I will publish at the end of this project will be used to instruct
different researchers on how to administer the games, analyze the numerical data, and interpret the results. I will also
present the findings at Discovery Day. Our long-term goal is to implement these games in clinics everywhere, and to
make it simple for researchers and clinicians to quantify teamwork skills in a meaningful way.
Personal Statement
During the spring semester of 2014 (my freshman year), I worked with Dr. Newman-Norlund to direct an
afterschool camp which taught cooperation skills. This was my first exposure to the fascinating world of teamwork skills,
and I got a glimpse of how much more research there is to be done in the field. I am currently investigating the
computer games with a pediatric population, and I can see the potential that this research could have in many different
areas. Throughout the past year, I have been reading/assimilating the literature which Dr. Newman-Norlund introduced
to me, and I started recognizing names of prominent researchers who authored multiple journal articles about
teamwork, developmental impairments, and social skills. The process of communicating with these experts has been
exciting and daunting, and I am thrilled at the opportunity to meet and study under these influential figures. Not only
would I be able to gain extensive knowledge about the computer games and the data analysis process, but I would be
able to help make the program a useful tool at its beginning stages. This research project would enable me to combine
my passions for research and travel in a project of my very own, with the goal of helping countless researchers and
therapists assign a value to social functioning.

References
1. Bekkering, H., Bruijn, E., Cuijpers, R., Newman-Norlund, R., Schie, H., & Meulenbroek, R. (2009). Joint Action:
Neurocognitive Mechanisms Supporting Human Interaction. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1(2), 340-352.
2. Knoblich, G., Butterfill, S., & Sebanz, N. (2011). Psychological Research on Joint Action: Theory and Data in Brian Ross
(Ed), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, pp. 59-101, Burlington: Academic Press.
3. Sebanz, N., Bekkering, H., Knoblich, G. (2006). Joint Action: Bodies and Minds Moving Together. Trends in Cognitive
Science, 10, 70-76.
4. Riley, M, & Shockley, K. (2015). Interpersonal Couplings in Human Interactions in Charles L. Webber, Jr, & Norbert
Marwan (Ed), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, pp. 399-421, Springer International Publishing.
5. Stoit, A., van Schie, H., Riem, M., Meulenbroek, R.G. J., Newman-Norlund, R.D. & Buitelaar, J.K. (2011). Internal model
Deficits Impair Joint Action in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum
Disorders, 5, 1526-1537.
6. Rogers, S. J., & Pennington, B. F. (1991). A theoretical approach to the deficits in infantile autism. Development and
Psychopathology, 3(02), 137–162
7. Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M., & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic-child have a ‘‘Theory of Mind’’? Cognition, 21(1),
37–46
8. Newman-Norlund, R.D., Meulenbroek, R.G.J., & Bekkering, H. (2008). Anatomical substrates of cooperative joint
action in a continuous motor task: Virtual bar lifting and balancing. NeuroImage, 41, 169-177
9. Newman-Norlund, R.D., Noordzij, M. L., Meulenbroek, R.G. J., & Bekkering, H. (2007). Exploring the brain basis of joint
action: Coordination of actions, goals and intentions. Social Neuroscience, 2, 48-65.
10. Newman-Norlund, R.D., van Schie, H. T., van Zuijlen, A. M. J., & Bekkering, H. (2007). The human mirror neuron
system more active during complementary compared with imitative action. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 817-818.
11. Newman-Norlund, R. (n.d.). My Money. My Science. HART Project. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from
http://mymoneymyscience.com/index.html

Magellan Scholar BUDGET FORM

Student’s Name: Lily Gullion

Double-click on table to enter data
Research hours during semesters
when NOT enrolled in classes

0

$0.00

Fringe: Student salary * student fringe rate (What is fringe? See budget instructions or guidebook)
Enrolled in classes
$0.00
0.55%
NOT enrolled in classes
$0.00
8.29%

$0.00
$0.00

Materials/Supplies

Enter sub-total from below:

Travel

Enter sub-total from below:

$4,000.00

TOTAL:

$4,000.00

Amount requested for MGS award:

$3,000.00

NOTES:
1) Magellan Scholar awards are processed through “E” funds. All expenditures MUST remain compliant with E fund
procurement requirements. All budgets must be reviewed by department business managers prior to submission.
2) Participant support? Must attach approval memo from business manager – see guidebook.

Budget Justification/Description
Travel:

Flights: $2100- Greenville to Amsterdam and back (Delta, American Airlines, etc)
Lodging: $900- guesthouse at Radboud University for 1 month *This guesthouse is at a fixed rate and
available for 1 month stays by visiting researchers.
Food: $780- dining on campus at Radboud University for 1 month (20 Euros a day for 30 days)
Internal Travel: $220- Amsterdam to Nijmegen and back, visiting labs
Total: $4000- Magellan Scholar will cover $3000
Student has been awarded a Magellan Mini-Grant of $1000
NOTE: Expenses beyond the $3000 will be covered by the Mini Grant and then the student. If the student does not
receive adequate funding, the study will not occur.

STUDENT INFORMATION
Name :

Lily M. Gullion

Birth Date:

16-FEB

Student Type:

Continuing

Curriculum Information
Current Program
Bachelor of Science
College:

NJ Arnold Sch of Public
Health

Campus:

USC Columbia

Major:

Exercise Science

Major Concentration:
Minor:

Motor Development
Psychology

***Transcript type:ADVS Advising is NOT Official ***

TRANSFER CREDIT ACCEPTED BY INSTITUTION
Fall 2009:

-Top-

Greenville Tech Coll

Subject

Course

Title

Grade

Credit
Hours

Quality Points

CSCE

101

Intro to Computer
Concepts

A

3.000

12.00

FREN

109

Beginning French I

A

4.000

16.00

Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points
Current Term:

7.000

7.000

7.000

7.000

28.00

R

GPA
4.000

Unofficial Transcript
Spring 2010:

Greenville Tech Coll

Subject

Course

FREN

110

Title

Grade

Beginning French II

A

Credit
Hours
4.000

Quality Points
16.00

Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points
Current Term:

4.000

4.000

4.000

4.000

R

16.00

GPA
4.000

Unofficial Transcript
Fall 2010:

Greenville Tech Coll

Subject

Course

Title

Grade

Credit
Hours

Quality Points

BIOL

101

Biological Principles I

A

3.000

12.00

BIOL

101L

Biological Principles I Lab A

1.000

4.00

101

Introduction to
Psychology

3.000

12.00

PSYC

A

R

THEA

THE 101 INTRO TO
THEATRE

002T

A

3.000

12.00

Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points
Current Term:

10.000

10.000

10.000 10.000 40.00

GPA
4.000

Unofficial Transcript
Spring 2011:

Greenville Tech Coll

Subject

Course

Title

Grade

Credit
Hours

Quality Points

ARTE

101

Introduction to Art

A

3.000

12.00

HIST

111

US History to 1865

A

3.000

12.00

SOCY

101

Introductory Sociology

A

3.000

12.00

Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points
Current Term:

9.000

9.000

9.000

9.000

36.00

R

GPA
4.000

Unofficial Transcript
Fall 2011:

Greenville Tech Coll

Subject

Course

Title

Grade

Credit
Hours

Quality Points

ENGL

101

Critical Reading & Comp

A

3.000

12.00

HIST

112

US History Since 1865

B

3.000

9.00

MATH

111

Basic College
Mathematics

A

3.000

12.00

PSYC

001T

PSY 212 Abnormal
Psycnology

A

3.000

12.00

Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points
Current Term:

12.000

12.000

12.000 12.000 45.00

R

GPA
3.750

Unofficial Transcript
Spring 2012:

Greenville Tech Coll

Subject

Course

Title

Grade

Credit
Hours

Quality Points

ENGL

102

Rhetoric and Composition A

3.000

12.00

POLI

201

American National
Government

A

3.000

12.00

PSYC

001T

PSY 203 Human Growth
& Develop

A

3.000

12.00

STAT

201

Elementary Statisitics

A

3.000

12.00

Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points
Current Term:
Unofficial Transcript
Fall 2012:

Greenville Tech Coll

12.000

12.000

12.000 12.000 48.00

GPA
4.000

R

Subject

Course

Title

Grade

Credit
Hours

Quality Points

MATH

112

Trigonometry

A

3.000

12.00

PHYS

101

Physics of How Things
Work I

A

3.000

12.00

PHYS

101L

How Things Work I Lab

A

1.000

4.00

SPCH

140

Public Communication

A

3.000

12.00

Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points
Current Term:

10.000

10.000

10.000 10.000 40.00

R

GPA
4.000

Unofficial Transcript
Spring 2013:

Greenville Tech Coll

Subject

Course

Title

Grade

Credit
Hours

Quality Points

CLAS

230

Med & Scientific
Terminology

A

3.000

12.00

TECH

002T

TECH Health Psychology

A

3.000

12.00

Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points
Current Term:

6.000

6.000

6.000

6.000

24.00

R

GPA
4.000

Unofficial Transcript
INSTITUTION CREDIT

-Top-

Term: Fall 2013
College:

NJ Arnold Sch of Public Health

Major:

Exercise Science

Student Type:

New Freshman

Academic Standing:

Good Standing

Additional Standing:

President's List/Dean's List

Subject

Course Campus

Level

Title

Grade

Credit Quality
Start and End Dates R
Hours Points

BIOL

102

USC
UG
Columbia

Biological
Principles II

A

3.000

12.00

BIOL

102L

USC
UG
Columbia

Biological
Principles II Lab

A

1.000

4.00

CHEM

111

USC
UG
Columbia

General
Chemistry I

A

4.000

16.00

MATH

122

USC
UG
Columbia

Calculus for BA &
A
Soc Sciences

3.000

12.00

PEDU

100

USC
UG
Columbia

Topic:Zumba

A

1.000

4.00

UNIV

101

USC
UG
Columbia

The Student in
the University

A

3.000

12.00

CEU
Contact
Hours

Term Totals (Undergraduate)
Attempt Passed Earned GPA
Hours Hours Hours Hours
Current Term:

15.000

Quality Points

15.000 15.000 15.000 60.00

GPA
4.000

Cumulative:

15.000

15.000 15.000 15.000 60.00

4.000

Unofficial Transcript
Term: Spring 2014
College:

NJ Arnold Sch of Public Health

Major:

Exercise Science

Student Type:

Continuing

Academic Standing:

Good Standing

Additional Standing:

Deans List

Subject

Course Campus

Level

Title

Grade

Credit Quality
Start and End Dates R
Hours Points

EXSC

191

USC
UG
Columbia

Physical Activity
and Health

A

3.000

12.00

EXSC

223

USC
UG
Columbia

Anatomy and
Physiology I

B

4.000

12.00

PHYS

201

USC
UG
Columbia

General Physics I A

3.000

12.00

PHYS

201L

USC
UG
Columbia

General Physics I
A
Lab

1.000

4.00

PSYC

440

USC
UG
Columbia

Survey of
Personality

A

3.000

12.00

USC
UG
Columbia

Topic:
International
Healthcare-A
Service Learning
in Nicaragua

1.000

4.00

UNIV

290

CEU
Contact
Hours

Term Totals (Undergraduate)
Attempt Passed Earned GPA
Hours Hours Hours Hours

Quality Points

GPA

Current Term:

15.000

15.000 15.000 15.000 56.00

3.733

Cumulative:

30.000

30.000 30.000 30.000 116.00

3.867

Unofficial Transcript
Term: Summer 2014
College:

NJ Arnold Sch of Public Health

Major:

Exercise Science

Student Type:
Academic Standing:

Good Standing

Last Academic Standing:

Good Standing

Subject
EXSC

Continuing

Course Campus
224

Level

USC
UG
Columbia

Title
Anatomy and
Physiology II

Grade
B+

Credit Quality
Start and End Dates R
Hours Points
4.000

CEU
Contact
Hours

14.00

Term Totals (Undergraduate)
Attempt Passed Earned GPA
Hours Hours Hours Hours
Current Term:

4.000

4.000

4.000

4.000

Quality Points
14.00

GPA
3.500

Cumulative:

34.000

34.000 34.000 34.000 130.00

3.824

Unofficial Transcript
TRANSCRIPT TOTALS (UNDERGRADUATE)

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Attempt Passed Earned GPA Quality
Hours Hours Hours Hours Points

GPA

Total Institution:

34.000

34.000

34.000 34.000 130.00 3.824

Total Transfer:

70.000

70.000

70.000 70.000 277.00 3.957

Overall:

104.000 104.000 104.000 104.000 407.00 3.913

Unofficial Transcript
COURSES IN PROGRESS

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Term: Fall 2014
College:

NJ Arnold Sch of Public Health

Major:

Exercise Science

Student Type:
Subject

Continuing

Course Campus

Level

Title

Credit Hours

Start and End Dates

EXSC

303

USC
UG
Columbia

Perceptual-Motor
A
Development

4.000

16.00

EXSC

530

USC
UG
Columbia

Physiology
B+
Muscular Activity

3.000

10.50

EXSC

530L

USC
UG
Columbia

Physiology
A
Muscular Act Lab

1.000

4.00

LIBR

101

USC
UG
Columbia

Information
Literacy

A

1.000

4.00

PSYC

450

USC
UG
Columbia

Sensation and
Perception

A

3.000

12.00

PUBH

102

USC
UG
Columbia

Intro to Public
Health

A

3.000

12.00

Term Totals (Undergraduate)
Attempt
Passed Hours
Hours

Earned
Hours

Current Term:

15.000

15.000

15.000 15.000

58.50

3.90
0

Cumulative:

49.000

49.000

49.000 49.000

188.50

3.84
7

GPA Hours

Quality
GPA
Points

Unofficial Transcript
TRANSCRIPT TOTALS (UNDERGRADUATE)
Attempt Passed
Hours Hours

-Top-

Earned Hours

GPA
Hours

Quality
Points

GPA

Total Institution:

49.000

49.000

49.000

49.000 188.50

3.847

Total Transfer:

70.000

70.000

70.000

70.000 277.00

3.957

119.000 465.50

3.912

Overall:

119.000 119.000 119.000

Unofficial Transcript
COURSES IN PROGRESS
Term: Spring 2015

-Top-

College:

NJ Arnold Sch of Public Health

Major:

Exercise Science

Student Type:
Subject

Continuing

Course Campus Level

Title

Credit Hours

CHEM

112

USC
UG
Columbia

General Chemistry II

3.000

CHEM

112L

USC
UG
Columbia

General Chemistry II Lab

1.000

EXSC

342A

USC
UG
Columbia

Practicum in Life-Span Motor
Development

2.000

EXSC

351

USC
UG
Columbia

Acquisition of Motor Skills

3.000

EXSC

531

USC
UG
Columbia

Clinical Exercise Physiology

3.000

EXSC

531L

USC
UG
Columbia

Clinical Exercise Physiology Lab

0.000

PSYC

410

USC
UG
Columbia

Survey of Abnormal Psychology

3.000

Start and
End Dates