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Unit

Rationale

Essential Question

Understandings

Thinking Tools

History Level 3 (ACHHK063)
 Community and Remembrance
 Days and weeks celebrated or commemorated in Australia (including
Australia Day, ANZAC Day, Harmony Week, National Reconciliation Week,
NAIDOC week and National Sorry Day) and the importance of symbols and
emblems. (VCAA 2016).
 To teach students in level three sequence from what happened from
beginning till end
 Letting students gain knowledge of special events that we remember and
respect.
 Gaining students’ knowledge about Aboriginal and Australian history of what
have happened.
 Letting students gain knowledge to why specific days Australians celebrate
 Who lived here first and how do we know?
 How has our community changed?
 What features have been retained?
 What is the nature of the contribution made by different groups and
individuals in the community?
 How and why do people choose to remember significant events of the past?
(VCAA 2016).
By the end of level three, students would be able to:
 Explain how communities changed in the past
 Identify events and aspects of the past that have significance in the present
 Students are able to sequence events and people in chronological order with
reference to key dates
 Pose questions about the past and locate information from sources (written,
physical, visual, and oral)
 Students are able to develop texts, including narratives, using terms and
denoting time
 Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS065)
 Use historical terms (VCAA 2016).
 Blooms taxonomy- A tool for categorizing questions and activities according
to six levels of thinking, remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing,
evaluating and creating
 Mind Map and Timeline
 De Bono’s six thinking hat
White hat (Asking questions) - What do we know? What do we need to

Year Level

Authors

Grade 3

Kimberley Bui

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know? How do we get this information?
Black hat (Judging) - What are the difficulties and weaknesses?
Green hat (Being creative) - New ideas? New opportunities? How can it
be improved?
Red hat (Expressing emotions) – What are my gut feelings?
Yellow hat (Being optimistic) – What are the strengths and
opportunities?
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking) – What’s been learned? What’s next?
Resources
Numeracy

Literacy












Reading books
My Country’ by Ezekiel Kwaymullina and Sally Morgan
‘The Red Poppy’ by David Hill
‘Anzac Biscuits’ by Phil Cummings
‘We are One’ by Jennifer Black
‘Whoever you are’ Mem Fox
‘The Big Book of Australian History’ by Peter Macinnis
Australian Anthem lyrics
Picture of the golden wattle
Picture of the Australian flag
Picture of the Anzac emblem being the rosemary
Coloured paper
‘Two Mates’ by Melanie Prewett.

Timeline of Gallipoli


Other
(eg - ICT, Excursion, Incursion ideas)
Anzac excursion- visit the Shrine of Remembrance
Harmony Day- Bring in an object that is special to
your family to school. Tell the class about your
object
Sorry day incursion- Invite the parents or
grandparents of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander
students enrolled at your school to come and speak
to students to the school
Sorry Day excursion- Plan a school excursion to an
Aboriginal community

e5 Phase: Engage
*Develops shared norms *Determines readiness for learning
*Establishes learning goals *Develops metacognitive capacity
Week/Session

Learning Intentions
What will students know or be able to do
after the lesson?

Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
Activities/Tasks

Success Criteria
How will you know? Evidence?

Week One:
Session One
focus:
Learning about
Australian history
and events.

Session One:
Learning Intention:
‘To find out about Australia’s history and
events that happened, and learning
about the meaning of the word
‘commemorate’.
Success Criteria:
The criteria would be successful by
students being able to show their
understanding and investigating skills
when discussing and completing work
together as a whole class. Children’s
discussions are an important aspect to
show educators that the children
understand what is happening, and is
able to share their knowledge through the
work that is happening in either
individual, small, or whole class activities.

Session One:
 Introduction to the topic being learnt ‘Historical terms and events
in Australia’ to students.
 Big book called ‘The Big Book of Australian History’ by Peter
Macinnis would be read to the whole class (Macinnis 2014).
 A class discussion: Discuss the meaning of the term
‘commemorate’, and scribe ‘Who we remember for someone’s
achievements’.
 The meaning would be first explained to the students by the
educator.
 Whole class: completing a mind map about different Australian
events that happened.
- What Australian events do we celebrate?
 Whole class: discussing and listing down important dates that we
celebrate in Australia referring to the mind map created earlier.
 Print blank calendars for students:
http://files.havefunteaching.com/fun-activities/arts-andcrafts/calendar.pdf. (Arts&Craft 2006).
 Students would be provided with a calendar worksheet, where
students can fill in the months and dates and mark the important
events taken place. Students can decorate and paste into their
workbooks.

Assessment: Formative
(Used to inform teaching and learning during
the learning process, Examples include self
and peer assessment, learning journals,
rubrics etc.)
Summative
(Point in time assessment such as end of unit
tests and assessment tasks)
Thinking tools
Session One: Formative:
 Observations during in-class activities; of
student’s non-verbal feedback.
 Questions and answer sessions, both
formal- planned and informalspontaneous.
 Conference between the instructor and
student at various points.
 In-class activities where students
informally present their results.
Summative:
 Project
 Performances
Inquiry Phase:
 Blooms Taxonomy: Remembering,
understanding, applying, analyzing, and
creating.
 Mind map
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
Black hat (Judging)

Session Two
focus:
Introduced to
learning about
Australia Day and
Australia’s history.

Session Two:
Learning Intention:
‘To have a good understanding of
Australia’s history, and how Australia Day
started. Discussing about the importance
of the national anthem’.
Success Criteria:
The criteria would be successful by
students being able to understand the
Australian history, and provide reasons to
why Australia Day is an important event
in Australia. By unpacking the national
anthem, students sharing their ideas and
knowledge about what the key terms
meant can show children’s understanding
of what the words are symbolizing. A
discussion would be conducted with
students and educator where students
can learn and share their knowledge with
the rest of the students. This would show
to the educators that the students would
either have some or a lot of knowledge
obtained by reading a book about the
country of Australia, learning about the
history, and unpacking deeply key words
and meaning in the ‘Australian Anthem’.

Session Two:
 Class discussion:
- What Australia Day is?
- How Did Australian history started?
 Picture storybook: ‘My Country’ by Ezekiel Kwaymullina and
Sally Morgan would be read to the whole class. (Kwaymullina &
Morgan 2011).
 Students would be learning about the Aboriginal community being
the first people to have settle in Australia. A worksheet is provided
for students. Worksheet would be printed before lesson starts:
http://www.teachthisworksheet.com/static_worksheets/getThumb/
1249/big/width:420/height:554. (Teach this 2016).
 Class discussion: About Australian animals. Listing different types
of well-known Australian animals.
What types of Australian animals can you name?
 Worksheet: Use scissors and glue to cut and match up the
appropriate animal name and picture.
 http://www.teachthisworksheet.com/static_worksheets/getThumb/
1254/big/width:420/height:554. (Teach this 2016).
 Whole class: The lyrics to Australia’s national anthem would be
handed to the students.
https://www.google.com.au/search?
q=aboriginal+worksheets&biw=1301&bih=630&source=lnms&tbm
=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjAsLysr43MAhWIMaYKHayYBdQQ_
AUIBigB#tbm=isch&q=australian+anthem+&imgrc=TwLZCvsbn0b
zVM%3A. (Fantastique 2013).
 View: YouTube clip of the national anthem would be played on the
screen. (Education2015).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFW-8-flxX0
 Educator with the students discuss:
Why is the Australian anthem important?
What does some of the words mean?
 Refer to: http://www.tedegan.com.au/docs/KutjuTeacherNotes.pdf.
(Nielsen 2011).

Yellow hat (being optimistic).

Session Two: Formative:
 Observations during in-class activities; of
student’s non-verbal feedback.
 Conferences between the instructor and
student at various points.
 In-class activities where students
informally present their results.
 Questions and answer sessions, both
formal- planned and informalspontaneous.
Summative:
 Projects (project phases submitted at
various completion points could be
formatively assessed).
 Performances
Inquiry phase:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Green hat (Being creative)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)

Session Three
focus:
Learning about the
Australian flag and
the importance of
signs, symbols, and
emblems that
represent Australia.

Session Three:
Learning Intention:
‘Understanding the importance of signs
and symbols of Australia, and about the
Australian flag’.
Success Criteria:
At the end of each session for one or two
weeks’ students are encouraged to learn
the content and then show their
understanding through their final
understanding to be an artwork or a
project that students can demonstrate
their understanding. For students to
make their own Australian flag and
labelling the important parts of the flag
demonstrates what students have
learned about Australia Day. The
evidence is shown through their artwork
and also by students being able to help
others when completing their work. This
is a way for students to help share their
understanding by helping others when
completing the task.

Session Three:
 Whole class: Put up a picture of ‘The Golden Wattle’ on the
whiteboard projector.
http://indianapublicmedia.org/focusonflowers/files/2010/03/golden
_wattle.jpg. (Focus on Flowers 2016).
 Ask students:
What kind of flower is it?
Why do you think this flower is important?
Where does this flower come from?
 Explain: The golden wattle is Australia’s floral emblem that
represents Australia. Explain why and read the information to the
students.
 View:
https://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/publications/symbols/factsheets/n
ational_floral_emblem.pdf. (It’s an Honour 2014)
 Task: In workbooks draw a golden wattle and write in one or two
sentences about the golden wattle:
Why it is an important emblem in Australia?
Where do you think the ‘Golden Wattle’ came from?
 View: Australian flag
 Whole class: Explain parts of the Australian flag. Discuss about
the union jack, the Southern Cross, and the commonwealth star.
http://www.teachthisworksheet.com/static_worksheets/getThumb/
1247/big/width:420/height:554. (Teach this 2016).
 Individual work: construct own flag, and label the parts of the flag
by following the picture of the Australian flag on the board.
 Reflection: Color in the map of Australia, and write down as much
as they can all the things they have learnt about Australia Day,
and Australia History.
What I know about Australia history?
What I want to know more about Australia day?
What I have learned?
 Print: http://www.kidzone.ws/geography/australia/mapaustralia.gif.

Session Three: Formative:
 Observations during in-class activities, of
student’s non-verbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on
student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both
formal- planned and informalspontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and
student at various points.
 In class-activities where students
informally present their results.
Summative:
 Projects (Project phases submitted at
various completion points could be
formatively assessed.)
 Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow hat (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
 K-W-L:
What I know?

(DLTK 2016).

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What I want to know?
What I have learned?

e5 Phase: Explore
*Prompts inquiry *Structures Inquiry *Maintains session momentum
Week

Learning Intentions
What will students know or be able to do
after the lesson?

Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Activities/Tasks

Success Criteria
How will you know? Evidence?
Week 2

Session Four:
Learning Intention

Session Four:
‘To find out what Anzac day is about’
Learning about
an Australian
event, Anzac
Day.

Success Criteria:
Students would be introduced to learning
about Anzac Day. Students are able to
have a conversation about stories
students have heard from either their
family members, or what they have learnt
at school about Anzac day. Students are
able to have an understanding of what
happened to the soldiers and why we
celebrate Anzac day on the 25th of April
each year. By reading and finding
information about Anzac day students are
able to ask questions and think of ways
to explain what Anzac day is, and how

Session Four: Australian event: Anzac Day.
 Picture story book: ‘‘The Red Poppy’ by David Hill
would be read to the class. (Hill & Coleston 2013).
 Illustrations, comments, and key questions would be
asked and answered by educator and students to
develop knowledge and discussion. (Who, What, When,
Why?)
 View: video about Anzac Day on YouTube
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_7PRzZ_Z8xU.
(eTraffic 2015).
 Whole class: Discuss the word Anzac.
 View: Fact sheet about the word Anzac: (Somme 2015).
http://www.anzacfrance.com/anzac/history/the_meaning_of_anzac.
 Scribe: Educator write the letters of Anzac stand for on
the whiteboard. Then students would copy the word
Anzac into their writing books.
 Print: The timeline of Gallipoli print on a large A3 paper.
 Whole class: Timeline completed with students. Practice
their sequence skills, when done display on classroom

Assessment
Formative
(Used to inform teaching and learning during the learning
process, Examples include self and peer assessment,
learning journals, rubrics etc.)
Summative
(Point in time assessment such as end of unit tests and
assessment tasks)
Session Four: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s
non-verbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned
and informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
 In class-activities where students informally present
their results
Summative:
 Projects (Project phases submitted at various
completion points could be formatively assessed.)
 Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing

Session Five:
Students are
learning the
important signs,
symbols and
emblems of
Anzac Day.

we are thankful for the soldiers fighting
for our country. Students are able to have
a good knowledge of Anzac day and is
able to apply this knowledge by telling
their family and friends the meaning of
Anzac day, and what happened.
Session Five:
Learning Intention:
‘To understand the importance of signs,
symbols and emblems of Anzac day.
Finding ways to say thank you to the
soldiers who have fight for us in the war’.
Success Criteria:
Students would be learning about the
importance of signs, symbols and
emblems that represent Anzac Day.
Students would be applying their
knowledge of what has been learnt onto
their artwork or projects being made in
class. Students would show their
understanding by completing tasks, and
being confident in finishing the task set.
The evidence would be shown by their
completed tasks, which demonstrates
their understanding skills. Students
helping other students would be another
way of showing their understanding by
helping and sharing their knowledge with
others.

walls. (Gallipoli and Anzacs 2015).
http://www.gallipoli.gov.au/anzac-timeline/events-of-thegallipoli-campaign/august-1915.php.
View: YouTube story called ‘My Grandad marches on
Anzac Day’. (Frigo 2014).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vJdAVcJ13TU

Session Five:
 Picture story book: ‘Anzac Biscuits’ by Phil Cummings
would be read to the whole class. (Cummings & Swan
2013).
 View: Anzac emblem of ‘The Rosemary’.
 Discussion: Ask students if they know what the emblem
is. Educator would read information about the emblem
to student. (Australian War Memorial 2016).
https://www.awm.gov.au/commemoration/customs/rose
mary/
 Task: Give picture of a rosemary to be cut out and stuck
into their books. Once stuck students can write the
importance of the rosemary being the emblem of Anzac.
 Read: The important symbol of ‘The Red Poppy’.
 Print the information sheet out and educator reads to
students. (NZ History 2014).
http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/anzac-day/poppies
 Task: Use colored paper to make their own poppies.
 Materials needed: red and black paper, and straws.
Poppies would be used for display around the walls.
 Read: Information about the slouch hat would be read to
the students on the floor.
 Materials: red paper would be traced, yellow strips of
paper would be cut out, the front badge of the slouch
hat would be cut out as well
 Educator would explain to students how to make the
slouch hat by following and listening to the instructions.
 Reflection: reflection sheet that has two questions on
the sheet for the students to answer.
-What do I know about Anzacs?
-What do I thank the Anzacs for?


K-W-L:
What I know?
What I want to know?
What I have learned?
Timeline
Thinking hats: White, green, yellow, and blue.

Session Four: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s
non-verbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned
and informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
 In class-activities where students informally present
their results
Summative:
 Projects (Project phases submitted at various
completion points could be formatively assessed.)
 Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 K-W-L:
What I know?
What I want to know?
What I have learned?
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow (Being optimistic)

Session Six:
Students are
having an
excursion to the
‘Shrine of
Remembrance’
about Anzac
Day.

Reflections pasted on the back of hat when completed.

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Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
Red hat (Expressing emotions)

Session Six:
Learning Intention:
‘To show respect and learn information
about Victoria’s war memorial and iconic
landmark about Anzac Day’.

Session Six: Students are having an excursion to the
‘Shrine of Remembrance’ about Anzac Day.

Successful Criteria:
Students are having an excursion to the
Shrine of Remembrance for Anzac Day.
Students would be touring around
listening and seeing different stories,
statues, and more about Anzac Day.
Students would be able to know the
importance of Anzac day by being able to
identify information recalled in the
classrooms. Students would show their
understanding of what they have learnt
by completing a reflection sheet of what
students have learnt during their trip.

Excursion: Students would be walking in class groups
touring, and listening to the ceremonies and war
memorials being placed.
Students would be walking around with a clip board with
a worksheet writing down things that they found
interesting, and things that they have learnt.
What I know?
What I want to know?
What I have learnt?
When going back to school, if there is still time get
students to share what they have written down to share
to the rest of the class and teachers.
Educator gives students an evaluation sheet to
comment on how the day went

Session Four: Formative:
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned
and informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
Summative:
 Performances
 Student evaluation of the course (teaching
effectiveness)
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
 K-W-L:
What I know?
What I want to know?
What I have learned?
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
Red hat (Expressing emotions)

e5 Phase: Explain
*Presents new content *Develops language and literacy *Strengthens connections
Week

Learning Intentions
What will students know or be able to do
after the lesson?

Blooms Taxonomy: Application
Activities/Tasks

Success Criteria
How will you know? Evidence?
Week 3
Session
Seven:
Learning
about an
Australian
event,
Harmony Day

Session Seven:
Learning Intention:
‘To find out what Harmony Day is, and
what family diversity is’.
Success Criteria:
Students would be able to show their
understanding by relating to relevant
literature from books and class
discussions. Students and educator would
be able to help students understand the
meaning of harmony day and family
diversity. The criteria would be successful
by students being able to explain to the
class and teacher the meaning of family
and relating to how family relates to the

Session Seven:
 View: YouTube Clips: ‘We are One’ by Jennifer Black
to the whole class. (Jennifer Black 2009).
 Whole class discussion: Explain about ‘Harmony Day’
educator
 View: document to read and explain to students
http://www.forteachersforstudents.com.au/site/themed
-curriculum/harmony-day/facts/. (Kids Media 2015).
 Print: A worksheet called ‘Harmony Day’.
http://www.teachthisworksheet.com/static_worksheets
/getThumb/1027/big/width:420/height:554. (Teach this
2016).
 Task: Completed by students drawing pictures. The
worksheet includes students to answer:
- What is the official date of harmony day?
- Why harmony day is important?
- What symbolizes harmony day?

Assessment
Formative
(Used to inform teaching and learning during the learning
process, Examples include self and peer assessment,
learning journals, rubrics etc.)
Summative
(Point in time assessment such as end of unit tests and
assessment tasks)
Session Seven: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s nonverbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
 In class-activities where students informally present their
results
 Homework exercises as review for exams and class
discussions.
Summative:
 Projects (Project phases submitted at various completion
points could be formatively assessed.)
 Performances.
Thinking tools:

meaning of harmony.



Video: YouTube- The video is about students
discussing how we can create harmony in our world.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRamw0YtRPs.
(Harmony 2015).
Activity: Create a harmony day medal.
http://www.harmony.gov.au/wpcontent/uploads/2013/11/medal.pdf. (Harmony 2016).
From the document read before, read to students
about family diversity, with explanations involved.
Share: let children share who is in their family, and talk
about how families are the same and different.
Task: Provide worksheet where students can fill out a
profile about themselves...
https://s-media-cacheak0.pinimg.com/736x/5a/3c/3b/5a3c3b8c09c6603b6a
23c00490626006.jpg. (Pinterest 2016).
Homework task: Students bring home the worksheet
to complete with their parents, and brought back the
next day. Students either draw or paste a family photo,
and then at the bottom write about their family.
http://www.allkidsnetwork.com/worksheets/family/imag
es/family-worksheet.jpg. (All kids network 2006).

Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow hat (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)

Session
Eight:
Students are
learning the
important
signs,
symbols and
emblems of
Harmony Day.

Session Eight:
Learning Intention:
‘Understanding the important signs and
symbols of harmony day, and learning
about family diversity’’.
Success Criteria:
Students would be able to show their
understanding of harmony day and family
diversity through the following art activities
planned for the lesson. Students are able
to express themselves and their families by
sharing with the teacher and other students
in the class any similarities and differences
students have compared to others. This is
shown through students investigating skills
in being able to identify and learn of other
students in the class.

Session Eight:
 Task: Students would be using the mirror to look at
themselves and use color pencils to draw their selfportrait. To match as close as possible the color of
their skin, hair and eyes.
 Materials: provide students with little individual
mirrors, and color pencils
 Present: students are asked to present their portrait to
educators and other students for discussion.
 View: Orange is used to support for cultural diversity
and inclusive Australia. (Harmony 2016).
http://www.harmony.gov.au/media-hub/
 Discuss: the symbol color of orange for harmony day.
 Explain: why people wear orange, and what does the
color orange mean.
 Sharing: Ask each student individually to stand up and
share with the whole class about their family. Students
can ask the student presenting any questions or
comments.

Session Eight: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s nonverbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
 In class-activities where students informally present their
results
Summative:
 Projects (Project phases submitted at various completion
points could be formatively assessed.)
 Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)

-

Session
Nine:
Learning
about an
Australian
event,
National
Reconciliation
Day,

Red hat (Expressing emotions)

Session Nine:
Learning Intention:
‘To find out what National reconciliation day
is’
Success Criteria:
Students are able to learn about a new
Australian event called National
reconciliation day. Students are able to
learn the content using books and
information presented in class by the
educator. After finding and understanding
the information students are then able to
explain what National Reconciliation Day
is.

Session Nine:
 View: YouTube video of National Reconciliation day.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2Osm967tdI.
(Reconciliation 2015).
 Discuss:
- What was shown in the video?
- What students think National Reconciliation day
means?
- What is the key messages?
- What do you think the video is telling us?
- What did you see in the video?
- Who is Reconciliation Day celebrated for?
 Student’s responses: written on poster paper to be
presented on the classroom walls.
 Read: ‘Two Mates’ by Melanie Prewett to the whole
class. (Prewett & Prewett 2012).
 Explain: What does the term ‘Reconciliation’ means in
the context of National Reconciliation Week?
 Read and explain the definition of ‘Reconciliation’ to
the students and ask questions about some key words
that is important.
 Show and explain to students the symbolic meaning
of the Aboriginal flag to the student. (NAIDOC 2016).
http://www.naidoc.org.au/indigenous-australian-flags
 Materials: red, black and yellow colored paper to
make the Aboriginal flag.
 View: The Aboriginal flag to follow and make the flag.

Session Nine: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s nonverbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
 In class-activities where students informally present their
results
 Homework exercises as review for exams and class
discussions.
Summative:
 Projects (Project phases submitted at various completion
points could be formatively assessed.)
 Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)

-

Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow hat (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)

e5 Phase: Elaborate
*Facilitates substantive conversation *Cultivates higher order thinking *Monitors progress
Week

Learning Intentions
What will students know or be able to do after
the lesson?

Blooms Taxonomy: Analyzing and Synthesizing
Activities/Tasks

Success Criteria
How will you know? Evidence?
Week 4
Session
Ten:
Students are
learning the
important
signs,
symbols and
emblems of
National
Reconciliatio
n Week.

Lesson Ten:
Learning Intention:
‘To find out the important signs and symbols,
and find possible ways to build better
relationships that represents National
Reconciliation week’
Success Criteria:
Students will be presenting their understanding
of National Reconciliation Week through their
art creations. Students would have the
knowledge of being involved in building
positive, and respectful relationships between

Lesson Ten:
 Whole class discussion: summary lesson of what
was learnt about Reconciliation Week.
 Materials: Colored A4 paper, scissors and drawing
materials.
 Explain: Creative activity making a personal
walking footprint bookmarks (Reconciliation 2016).
https://www.reconciliation.org.au/wpcontent/uploads/2014/04/NRW-Teaching-andLearning-Ideas.pdf
 Instructions: Educator and students are able to
make personalized bookmarks by using their
footprint. They can either trace their feet or make a
footprint using colored paper.

Assessment
Formative
(Used to inform teaching and learning during the learning
process, Examples include self and peer assessment,
learning journals, rubrics etc.)
Summative
(Point in time assessment such as end of unit tests and
assessment tasks)
Session Ten: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s nonverbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
 In class-activities where students informally present their
results
Summative:
 Projects, Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
Students would use this knowledge to
elaborate and express how and what students
can do to build a relationship with Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people.

Session
Eleven:
Learning
about an
Australian
event,
NAIDOC
Week.

Session Eleven:
Learning Intention:
‘To find out what NAIDOC week is.’
Success Criteria:
Students will be introduced to learning about
NAIDOC week by reading recommended texts,
handouts, images, and videos. Students would
be visually engaged in the videos, images, and
book being shown by listening, and frequent
questioning and commenting about Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people. The
evidence would be shown by student’s
participation, and through their participation in
the whole class work.

Reflections: Students then would then be given out
a small piece of paper that says ‘What have I learnt
about Reconciliation week’ and the sheet of paper
would be paste behind the footprint.
 Present their personalized footprints to the class
 Activity: ‘Speech Bubbles. Students are to record
their thoughts on what they pledge to do to Walk
the Talk.
 Preparation: Educator would prepare big A3
speech bubble cut-outs on colored cardboard.
 Explain: meaning of pledge means and give
students time to reflect and write down what they
pledge to do. Share when completed.
Session Eleven:
 View: Open up the information and read about
NAIDOC week: (Reconciliation 2016).
https://www.reconciliation.org.au/wpcontent/uploads/2013/12/Five-Fast-Facts-NAIDOCWeek.pdf
 Explain: Educator would read to the students on
the information and would be explaining key terms
that students do not understand.
 Class discussion: Looking at Aboriginal
photographs and asking students:
 http://australianativeart.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/aboriginal-art.jpg (Art
2016).
 http://www.murumittigar.com.au/wpcontent/uploads/2015/05/turtlee1433910923318.jpg (Muru Mittigar 2015).
 http://www.photoz.com.au/slides/Aboriginal
%20Culture%203-11.jpg
(Art 2016).
How do you feel?
What do you see?
What do you think is happening?
 View: YouTube clip of how NAIDOC week is
celebrated (Weave Youth 2015).

Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
Red hat (Expressing emotions)
Session Eleven: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s nonverbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
 In class-activities where students informally present their
results
 Homework exercises as review for exams and class
discussions.
Summative:
 Projects (Project phases submitted at various completion
points could be formatively assessed.)
 Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2B7g6kYCKtM
Whole class discussion: Learning about Indigenous
history by providing books from the library.
 Read: ‘ABC dreaming’ by Warren Brim.
 Task: Writing the alphabet in their workbooks from
A-Z naming each Aboriginal item, material, art, or
animal that begins with the letter. Students would
be able to make their own ABC book about
Aboriginal culture.
 Class task: Creating an Indigenous Australians
word wall vocabulary. (TeachStarter 2015).
https://www.teachstarter.com/teachingresource/indigenous-australians-word-wallvocabulary/
Session Twelve:
 View: Image of the Aboriginal flag
 Explain: Discuss with students about the Aboriginal
flag:
- What do you think the red symbolizes?
- What do you think the black symbolizes?
- What do you think the yellow circle in the middle
symbolizes?
 View: http://www.naidoc.org.au/indigenousaustralian-flags. (NAIDOC 2016).
 Materials: black and red A3 paper, and a yellow
circle paper for students.
 Task: Creating own Aboriginal flag
 Reflection: Asking what each color of the flag
represents. Students would have to fill the sheet in
and paste it behind their flags.
 Educator would put the image of the flag on the
projector for students.
 View: Educator read to students about the ‘Dahari’
Torres Strait Islander headdress wear for dancing.
http://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/dhari_a_krar/ho
me. (Dhari a Krar 2016).
 View images of the ‘Dhari’ headdress:
http://www.ozoutback.com.au/Australia/tsidance/sli

Session
Twelve:
Students are
learning the
important
signs,
symbols and
emblems of
NAIDOC
Week.

Session Twelve:
Learning Intention:
‘Learning about the importance of signs and
symbols that represent Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander culture.’
Success Criteria:
Learning about the importance of signs and
symbols that represent Aboriginal culture by
exploring the meaning of colors on the
Aboriginal flag and other symbolic features
through creative activities.

White hat ( Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow hat (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
K-W-L:
What I know?
What I want to know?
What I have learned?

Session Twelve: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s nonverbal feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at
various points.
 In class-activities where students informally present their
results
Summative:
 Projects, Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)


des/2003053004.html. (OzOutback 2016).
Show student’s images of how Torres Strait
Islander people dance with the headwear.
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=XO3Lb61AUCk.
(Ludo 2010).

Yellow (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
Red hat (Expressing emotions

e5 Phase: Evaluate
*Assess performance against standards *Facilitates student self-assessment
Learning Intentions
What will students know or be able to do after the lesson?

Blooms Taxonomy: Evaluation
Activities/Tasks

Success Criteria
How will you know? Evidence?

Session Thirteen:
Learning about an Australian event, National Sorry Day
Session Thirteen:
Learning intentions:
‘Introducing what ‘Sorry Day’ is by relating to NAIDOC week’.
Success Criteria:
Collect information about what sorry day is, and revising the

Session Thirteen: Lesson Thirteen:
 Incursion: Organize an Aboriginal person to come
into the classroom to have a talk to the students
about their culture.
 View: https://www.reconciliation.org.au/wpcontent/uploads/2015/05/Sorry-Day-PDF.pdf.
(Reconciliation 2016).
 Read: Explain to students what the document is
about. Identify any key terms that needs to be
explained for students to easy understand.
 View: Educator read the narrations and explain

Assessment
Formative
(Used to inform teaching and learning during the learning process,
Examples include self and peer assessment, learning journals,
rubrics etc.)
Summative
(Point in time assessment such as end of unit tests and assessment
tasks)
Session Thirteen: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s non-verbal
feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at various
points.
 In class-activities where students informally present their results
 Homework exercises as review for exams and class
discussions.

importance of symbols of ‘National Sorry Day’ and the Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander flags.






Session Fourteen:
Students are learning the important signs, symbols and emblems
of National Sorry Day.
Learning Intention:
‘Learning about the importance of signs and symbols that
represent Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture about
Sorry Day.’
Success Criteria:
‘Use research skills to investigate the importance of signs and
symbols that represents ‘Sorry Day’.

what is happening in the images to students:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=_fNvEm8wlPw&nohtml5=False. (Monasekar
2009).
Explain students about ‘The Stolen Generation’.
View:http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalcultu
re/politics/a-guide-to-australias-stolengenerations#axzz45TqjYrr7. (Creative 2016).
Discuss with students:
What do you see in these images?
Can you see how they are feeling?
What do you think the image is telling us?
Open up images of the Aboriginal and Torres
Strait Islander flags and revise the importance of
the colors and what they mean.

Session Fourteen: Australian event: Sorry Day
 View: Torres Strait Islander flag. (Wikimedia 2015)
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/
1d/Flag_of_the_Torres_Strait_Islanders.svg/1280
px-Flag_of_the_Torres_Strait_Islanders.svg.png
 Read: http://www.naidoc.org.au/indigenousaustralian-flags. (Slideshare 2015).
 Explain and discuss with the students about the
Torres Strait Islander flag:
 What do you think the green represents?
 What do you think the blue represents?
 What do you think the black represents?
 What do you think the white represents?
 View to students:
http://image.slidesharecdn.com/kooriclubtsiculture
-130823055512-phpapp02/95/koori-club-tsiculture-4-638.jpg?cb=1377464699. (Antar 2016).
 Materials: green, blue, black, and white paper.
 Print: The ‘Dahari’ symbol template- students to
cut and paste in the middle of the flag

Summative:
 Projects, Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow hat (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
Session Fourteen: Formative:
 Observations during in- class activities; of student’s non-verbal
feedback.
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at various
points.
 In class-activities where students informally present their results
Summative:
 Projects, Performances.
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
Creating
 De Bono’s thinking hats:
White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)



Session Fifteen:
Students are learning the important signs, symbols and emblems
of National Sorry Day.
Learning Intention:
‘Reflecting on what has been learnt by going to excursions, and
creating visual pieces’.
Success Criteria:
Reflecting and showing students understanding by visiting
Aboriginal communities, and creating visual artefacts to reflect
on what has been learnt during the week’.

Worksheet: Students fill in what each color of the
flag represents. Students would have to fill the
sheet in and paste it behind their flags.
Educator would put the image of the flag on the
projector for students
View: Educator reads some important parts of
document
https://antar.org.au/sites/default/files/soh_school_
kit_smaller.pdf. (TES 2016).
Activity called ‘Sea of Hands’. Incorporate
children’s own hand designs and artwork within
the class. This enables students to make a more
personal response to the event.
Materials: Provide color paper for the students to
trace their hands and decorate their hands.
Reflection: A piece of paper would be filled out by
students, ‘I support Reconciliation Day because…’
and then attached on your hand.

Session Fifteen: Australian event: Sorry Day
 Excursion: Visiting an Aboriginal Community.
 Students would be attending the community and
participating in activities.
 Task: Give students a worksheet:
https://dryuc24b85zbr.cloudfront.net/tes/resources
/11228891/image?
width=500&height=500&version=1456745373462.
(TES 2016).
 Materials: Educator would trace out the
boomerang on colored A3 paper.
 Activity: Students can use pencils, and other
materials to make their boomerangs.
 Reflections: When students finish their creations
students can fill out a sheet saying what you have
learnt about Aboriginal culture’
What I know?
What I want to know?
What have I learnt?

Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
Red hat (Expressing emotions

Session Fifteen: Formative:
 Reflection tasks that can be viewed on student’s work.
 Question and answer sessions, both formal- planned and
informal- spontaneous.
 Conferences between the instructor and student at various
points.
Summative:
 Performances
 Student evaluation of the course (teaching effectiveness)
Thinking tools:
 Blooms Taxonomy:
Remembering
Understanding
Applying
Analyzing
Evaluating
 K-W-L:
What I know?
What I want to know?
What I have learned?
 De Bono’s thinking hats:

White hat (Asking questions)
Black hat (Judging)
Green hat (Being creative)
Yellow (Being optimistic)
Blue hat (Thinking about thinking)
Red hat (Expressing emotions)

References Week One:
Arts&Crafts 2006, Fun Activities, Have Fun Teaching, viewed 7 April 2016,
<http://files.havefunteaching.com/fun-activities/arts-and-crafts/calendar.pdf>.
DLTK 2016, Australia, KidsZone, viewed 7 April 2016,
< http://www.kidzone.ws/geography/australia/map-australia.gif>.
Education 2015, ‘Australian National Anthem- David Allen’, video file, viewed 7 April 2016,
<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFW-8-flxX0>.
Fantastique 2013, Australia Day is almost here…, A Moment in our World, viewed 7 April 2016,
<http://www.amomentinourworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Slide18.jpg>.
Focus on Flowers 2016, Golden Wattle, The Trustees of Indiana University, viewed 7 April 2016,
<http://indianapublicmedia.org/focusonflowers/files/2010/03/golden_wattle.jpg>.
It’s an Honour 2014, Floral emblem, Australia Celebrating Australians, viewed 7 April 2016,
<https://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/publications/symbols/factsheets/national_floral_emblem.pdf>.
Kwaymullina, E & Morgan, S 2011, My Country, Fremantle Press.

Macinnis, P 2014, The big book of Australian history, National Library of Australia.
Nielsen, C 2011, An Australian translation of Advance Australia Fair- Teacher Notes, Kutju Australia, viewed 7 April 2016,
<http://www.tedegan.com.au/docs/KutjuTeacherNotes.pdf>.
Teach this 2016, Australian Animals, Teach This Worksheet, viewed 7 April 2016,
<http://www.teachthisworksheet.com/static_worksheets/getThumb/1254/big/width:420/height:554>.
Teach this 2016, Australia’s National Flag, Teach This Worksheet, viewed 7 April 2016,
< http://www.teachthisworksheet.com/static_worksheets/getThumb/1247/big/width:420/height:554>.
Teach this 2016, The Aboriginal Flag, Teach This Worksheet, viewed 7 April 2016,
<http://files.havefunteaching.com/fun-activities/arts-and-crafts/calendar.pdf>.
VCAA 2016, AusVels, Victoria Curriculum and Assessment Authority, viewed 7 April 2016,
<http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/>.

References Week Two:
Australian War Memorial 2016, ‘The Rosemary’, Commemoration, viewed 8 April 2016,
<https://www.awm.gov.au/commemoration/customs/rosemary/>.
Cummings, P & Swan, O 2013, ‘Anzac Biscuits, Australian Culture.
eTraffic 2015, ‘eTraffic Presents: What is Anzac Day?’, video file, viewed 8 April 2016,
<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_7PRzZ_Z8xU>.
Frigo 2014, My Grandad Marches on Anzac Day, video file, viewed 8 April 2016,
<http://www.gallipoli.gov.au/anzac-timeline/events-of-the-gallipoli-campaign/august-1915.php>.
Gallipoli and the Anzacs 2015, Events of the Gallipoli Campaign- August 1915, Anzac Timeline, viewed 8 April 2016,
<http://www.gallipoli.gov.au/anzac-timeline/events-of-the-gallipoli-campaign/august-1915.php>.
Hill, D & Colston, F 2013, ‘The Red Poppy’, Creative New Zealand.
NZ History 2014, Anzac Day, Page 9- The Red Poppy’, New Zealand History, viewed 8 April 2016,
< http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/anzac-day/poppies>.

Somme 2015, The Meaning of Anzac, Anzac France, viewed 8 April 2016,
<http://www.anzac-france.com/anzac/history/the_meaning_of_anzac>.
References for Week Three:
All kids network 2006, Family Worksheet: My Family Worksheet, Kids Worksheets, viewed 8 April 2016,
<http://www.allkidsnetwork.com/worksheets/family/images/family-worksheet.jpg>.
Harmony 2015, ‘Harmony Day 2015- SD23- Student Voices: How can we create Harmony in our world? video file, viewed 8 April 2016,
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rRamw0YtRPs>.
Harmony 2016, Create a Harmony Day Medal, Harmony Day, viewed 8 April 2016,
< http://www.harmony.gov.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/medal.pdf>.
Harmony 2016, 21 March: Harmony Day, Harmony Day, viewed 8 April 2016,
<http://www.harmony.gov.au/media-hub/>.
Jennifer Black 2009, ‘We Are One’ book for children read by the author and illustrator, Jennifer Black’, video file, viewed 8 April 2016,
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ten8VG_LRNg>.
Kids Media 2015, Harmony Day, Australian Education Resources, viewed 8 April 2016,
< http://www.forteachersforstudents.com.au/site/themed-curriculum/harmony-day/facts/>.
NAIDOC 2016, Indigenous Australian Flag, Celebrating NAIDOC Week, viewed 8 April 2016,
<http://www.naidoc.org.au/indigenous-australian-flags>.
Pinterest 2016, All About me, Preschool Worksheet, viewed 8 April 2016,
< https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/5a/3c/3b/5a3c3b8c09c6603b6a23c00490626006.jpg>.
Prewett, M & Prewett, M 2012, ‘Two Mates’, Magabala Books.
Reconciliation 2015, ‘National Reconciliation Week- 60 second CSA’, video file, viewed 8 April 2016,
<https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2Osm967tdI>.
Teach this 2016, Harmony Day, Teach This Worksheet, viewed 8 April 2016,
< http://www.teachthisworksheet.com/static_worksheets/getThumb/1027/big/width:420/height:554>.
References for Week Four:
Art 2016, Aboriginal Art’, Australian Native Art, viewed 9 April 2016,
http://australianativeart.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/aboriginal-art.jpg.

Art 2016, The Aboriginal Culture Picture, Art with Meaning, viewed 9 April 2016,
<http://www.murumittigar.com.au/darug-artwork/>.
Dhari a Krar 2016, Dhari a Krar: Headdresses and Masks from the Torres Strait, National Museum Australia, viewed 9 April 2016,
< http://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/dhari_a_krar/home>.
Ludo 2010, ‘Torres Strait Islander Dancers perform “Kab Kar” in Cairns, Australia, video file, viewed 9 April 2016,
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XO3Lb61AUCk>.
Muru Mittigar 2015, Darug Artwork, Muru Mittigar Pathway to Friends, viewed 9 April 2016,
<http://www.murumittigar.com.au/darug-artwork/>.
NAIDOC 2016, The Australian Aboriginal Flag, Celebrating NAIDOC Week, viewed 9 April 2016,
< http://www.naidoc.org.au/indigenous-australian-flags>.
OzOutback 2016, Dhari Headdress, Images of the World, viewed 9 April 2016,
< http://www.ozoutback.com.au/Australia/tsidance/slides/2003053004.html>.
Reconciliation 2016, National Reconciliation Week- Let’s walk the talk, Reconciliation Australia, viewed 9 April 2016,
<https://www.reconciliation.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/NRW-Teaching-and-Learning-Ideas.pdf>.
Reconciliation 2016, Five Fast Facts- NAIDOC Week, Reconciliation Australia, viewed 9 April 2016,
<https://www.reconciliation.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Five-Fast-Facts-NAIDOC-Week.pdf>.
TeachStarter 2015, Indigenous Australians Word Wall Vocabulary, Teaching resources, viewed 9 April 2016,
< https://www.teachstarter.com/teaching-resource/indigenous-australians-word-wall-vocabulary/>.
Weave Youth 2015, ‘NAIDOC Celebrations 2015’, video file, viewed 9 April 2016,
<http://www.murumittigar.com.au/darug-artwork/>.
References for Week Five:
Antar 2016, Sea of Hands: School Kit, Sea of Hands, viewed 10 April 2016,
< https://antar.org.au/sites/default/files/soh_school_kit_smaller.pdf>.
Creative 2016, A guide to Australia’s Stolen Generations, Aboriginal culture, viewed 10 April 2016,
< http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/politics/a-guide-to-australias-stolen-generations#axzz45TqjYrr7>.
Monasekar 2009, ‘Stolen Generations/ Australian Aboriginal Brief History’, video file, viewed 10 April 2016,
< https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_fNvEm8wlPw&nohtml5=False>.

Reconciliation 2016, Let’s Talk- Sorry Day, Reconciliation Australia, viewed 10 April 2016,
< https://www.reconciliation.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Sorry-Day-PDF.pdf>.
Slideshare 2015, Torres Strait Islander Flag, Koori Club, viewed 10 April 2016,
< http://image.slidesharecdn.com/kooriclubtsiculture-130823055512-phpapp02/95/koori-club-tsi-culture-4-638.jpg?cb=1377464699>.
TES 2016, Aboriginal Art Boomerang Design Sheet, TES Global, viewed 10 April 2016,
< https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/aboriginal-art-boomerang-design-sheet-11228891>.
Wikimedia 2015, Torres Strait Islander Flag, Wikipedia, viewed 10 April 2016,
< https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/1/1d/Flag_of_the_Torres_Strait_Islanders.svg/1280px-Flag_of_the_Torres_Strait_Islanders.svg.png>.