EDUCATION IN INDIA Sr.

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DESCRIPTION
Population: Growth rate: Birth rate: Death rate:

FIGURES
1,166,079,217(2009 est) 1.548% (2009 est) 22.22 births/1,000 population (2009 est) 6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est)

SEX-RATIO
05 06 07 0-14 years: 15-64 years: 65-over: 31.1% (male 190,075,426/female 172,799,553) (2009 est) 63.6% (male 381,446,079/female 359,802,209) (2009 est) 5.3% (male 29,364,920/female 32,591,030) (2009 est)

LITERACY RATE
08 09 Whole Country Youth Literacy Rate Male Literacy Female Literacy 66% (2000-2007) 82% (2000-2007) 75.26% 53.63%

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EDUCATION IN INDIA INDIA’S STASTICS OF LITERCY Description Total Rural Urban
Literacy rate No. of literates Literacy rate

Persons
64.8% 361,870,817 58.7%

Males
336,533,716 75.3% 223,551,641 70.7% 112,982,075 86.3%

Females
224,154,081 53.7% 138,319,176 46.1% 85,834,905 72.9%

No. of literates 560,687,797

No. of literates 198,816,980 Literacy rate 79.9%

Persons (%)
State with Highest Literacy Rate State with Lowest Literacy Rate UT with Highest Literacy Rate Kerala (90.9) Bihar (47.0) Lakshadweep (86.7) Dadra & Nagar Haveli (57.6)

Males (%) Females (%)
Kerala (94.2) Bihar (59.7) Lakshadweep (92.5) Dadra & Nagar Haveli (71.2) Kerala (87.7) Bihar (33.1) Lakshadweep (80.5) Dadra & Nagar Haveli (40.2)

UT with Lowest Literacy Rate

District with Highest Literacy Rate District with Lowest Literacy Rate

Mahe, Aizwal, Pondicherry Mizoram (96.5) (97.6) Dantewada Tripura (30.17) Dantewada Tripura (39.75)

Aizwal, Mizoram (96.26)

Shrawasti UP (7.7)

• THE PRIMARY AND ELEMENTARY EDUCTATION
The Indian government lays emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen years (The Indian government has also banned child labor in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. 80% of all recognized schools at the Elementary Stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the Country. However, due to shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers from massive gaps

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EDUCATION IN INDIA
including high pupil teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor level of teacher training. Education has also been made free for children up to the age of 14 or class VII under the Children's Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009. There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalize primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the existing primary education system. 85% of the DPEP was funded by the central government and the remaining 15 percent was funded by the states. The DPEP, which had opened 160000 new schools including 84000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education to approximately 3.5 million children, was also supported by UNICEF and other international programmes.[ This primary education scheme has also shown a high Gross Enrollment Ratio of 93– 95% for the last three years in some states. The current scheme for universalization of Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is one of the largest education initiatives in the world. Enrollment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low.

• GOVT. SCHEMES FOR ELEMENTARY EDUCATION (SSA)
SARVA SIKSHA ABHIYAN (SSA) ‘EDUCATION FOR ALL’ Is an educational development programme started in 2001 at the time of BJP led NDA Govt. The programme was started under the 86th Amendmenat that is about free and compulsory education for the age group of 6yrs to 14 yrs. The programme has six sub-programmes running under SSA. They are ICDS, AANGANWAD, KGBVY etc.

• Objectives
• • • • • •

All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre or Alternate School by 2003 All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007 All children complete eight years of schooling by 2010 Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010 Universal retention by 2010.
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EDUCATION IN INDIA

Right to Education Act (2009)
• What is Right to Education Act?
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act was passed by the India parliament on 4 August 2009 which describes the modalities of the provision of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution The National Commission for Elementary Education will monitor whether the norms and the every parameters of Right to Education are followed or not.

• Brief Background of the Bill
The present Act has its history in the drafting of the Indian constitution at the time of Independence, but is more specifically to the Constitutional Amendment that included the Article 21A in the Indian constitution making Education a fundamental Right. This amendment, however, specified the need for a legislation to describe the mode of implementation of the same which necessitated the drafting of a separate Education Bill. The rough draft of the bill was composed in year 2005. It received much opposition due to its mandatory provision to provide 25% reservation for disadvantaged children in private schools. The sub-committee of the Central Advisory Board Education which prepared the draft Bill held this provision as a significant prerequisite for creating a democratic and egalitarian society. Indian Law commission had initially proposed 50% reservation for disadvantaged students in private schools. The government drafting this piece of legislation, however, lost the elections, and the new government came up with its own version. This passed the approval of the cabinet on 1 November 2008, was tabled in Parliament in 2008 and passed in 2009.

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EDUCATION IN INDIA • Notable Points :•

The government rejected the bill quoting that it lacks resources to fund the bill which we feel is unreasonable since the budget for the bill is estimated to be Rs 4, 36,000 cr. The people of this nation are being betrayed by not being given the Right to Free and Compulsory Education through Central Government legislation. We need to make sure that people are given those rights. At the end the bill was approved by the cabinet on 2 July 2009. Rajya Sabha passed the bill on 20 July 2009 and the Lok Sabha on 4 August 2009. It received Presidential assent and was notified as law on 3 Sept 2009 as The Children's Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act.

• • •

• Features of Right to Education:

The government rejected the bill quoting that it lacks resources to fund the bill which we feel is unreasonable since the budget for the bill is estimated to be Rs 4, 36,000 cr. Provides for 25 percent reservation for economically communities in admission to Class One in all private schools; Mandates improvement in quality of education; School teachers will need adequate professional degree within five years or else will lose job; School infrastructure (where there is problem) to be improved in three years, else recognition cancelled; Financial burden will be shared between state and central government disadvantaged

• •

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EDUCATION IN INDIA • INDIA AT HIGH ON HIGHER EDUCATION
In its size and diversity, India has the third largest higher education system in the world, next only to China and the United States. Before Independence, access to higher education was very limited and elitist, with enrolment of less than a million students in 500 colleges and 20 universities. Since independence, the growth has been very impressive; the number of universities has increased by 18-times, the number of colleges by 35 times and enrolment more than 10 times (Annual Report, MHRD 2006-07).

THE CURRENT SCENE: India is today one of the fastest developing countries of
the world with the annual growth rate going above 9%. In order to sustain that rate of growth, there is need to increase the number of institutes and also the quality of higher education in India. Therefore the Prime Minister of India has announced the establishment of 8 IITs, seven Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) and five Indian Institutes of Science, Education and Research (IISERs) and 30 Central Universities in his speech to the nation on the 60th Independence Day. The outlay for education during the 11th Five Year Plan, which runs from the current fiscal to 2012-13, represents a four-fold increase over the previous plan and stands at Rs 2500 billion

• PROBLEMS IN INDIAN EDUCATION
One study found out that 25% of public sector teachers and 40% of public sector medical workers were absent during the survey. Among teachers who were paid to teach, absence rates ranged from 15% in Maharashtra to 71% in Bihar. Only 1 in nearly 3000 public school head teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence. A study on teachers by Kremer etc. found that 'only about half were teaching, during unannounced visits to a nationally representative sample of government primary schools in India.'

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EDUCATION IN INDIA
Modern education in India is often criticized for being based on rote learning rather than problem solving. BusinessWeek denigrates the Indian curriculum saying it revolves around rote learning. A study of 188 government-run primary schools found that 59% of the schools had no drinking water and 89% had no toilets. 2003-04 data by National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration revealed that only 3.5% of primary schools in Bihar and Chhattisgarh had toilets for girls. In Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh, rates were 12-16%

• FAKE DEGREES - A NEW ISSUE IN EDUCATION
Fake degrees are a problem. One raid in Bihar found 0.1 million fake certificates. In February 2009, the University Grant Commission found 19 fake institutions operating in India. Only 16% of manufacturers in India offer in-service training to their employees, compared with over 90% in China.

• KNOWLEDGE, BUT NOT SKILL ORIENTED EDUCATION
In Indian education system, the major problem is going between the skills and the knowledge. The students are not acquired with the proper knowledge and proper skills. Already up to 75% of India's 400,000 annual technology grads and 90% of its 2.5 million general college grads are unable to find work. That's not due to a lack of jobs, according to the National Association of Software and Service Companies (Nasscom)—it's due to a lack of skills.

LITERACY RATE of GUJARAT STATE
Total State Male Literacy Female Literacy 79.8% 75.26% 53.63%

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EDUCATION IN INDIA

• GUJARAT IN HIGHER EDUCATION – NOT PROPER EVOLVE
Higher education in Gujarat is lags behind 15 other states in India, including Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Nagaland, according to the UGC Annual Report 2007-08 According to the report, at present, Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in the state is much below the 9.83 per cent average — this despite the fact that Gujarat has 26 private and government universities and four agriculture colleges in the state. Higher education in the state is concentrated in few districts only, even though more pharmacy and engineering colleges are coming up. GER is the measure of access level in higher education, achieved by taking the ratio of people in all age groups enrolled in various programmes to total population, in the age group of 18 to 23 years. Incidentally, state education authorities have also admitted that Gujarat is traditionally lagging behind in terms of higher education. The 11 per cent GER in India is too low compared to 23 per cent of the world average or 36.5 per cent for countries in transitions. For developed countries, GER is around 55 per cent. The UGC Annual Report, 2007-08, suggests achieving nearly 15 per cent GER by 2012. The prevailing average GER of India is 10.8 per cent. At present, GER in Gujarat is too marginal in comparison to other states.

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EDUCATION IN INDIA

References :http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/main-features-of-right-to-education-bill2_100225813.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy_in_India http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_India http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/literates1.aspx http://www.newsweek.com/id/151682 http://www.indiaedu.com/education-india/elementary-education.html

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