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1. When did Louis XVI ascended the throne?
2. To whom was Louis XVI married?
3. Why did the new king found an empty treasury? (2 reasons)
4. Under which circumstances more than a billion livres were added to debt?
5. Members of which estate paid taxes? Whom did these include?
6. Give another name for the members of the 1st estate and the 2nd estate.
7. Mention certain privileges enjoyed by the first two estates (4 privileges with any estate having any
number of privileges).
8. What was the population of France in
i) 1715

ii) 1789

9. What were the consequences of the increase in population of France? (3)
10. Discuss the circumstances which led to a subsistence crisis.
11. The 18th century witnessed the emergence of social groups. name the group.
12. How did the group mentioned above earned wealth?
13. Name two philosophers who put forward the idea of freedom, equal laws and opportunities for all.
14. Write the idea of government proposed by Rousseau and Montesquieu.
15. Give an important example of government for political thinkers in France.
16. What was the Estates General? When and where the assembly of Estates General called to pass
proposals to new taxes?
17. Who were denied the entry to the assembly?
18. Why did the members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in protest? (5)
19. What was the National Assembly? What did its members swore?
20. Who led the National Assembly?
21. While the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution, the rest of the France
seethed with turmoil. Justify.
22. When did the Assembly passed a decree abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes? What
were its consequences?

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23. When was the draft of the constitution completed?
24. Name the institutions among which the powers were separated and assigned?
25. Who were active and passive citizens? Give the criteria for people who were allowed to vote.
26. Who composed Marseillaise?
27. Why were people convinced that the revolution had to be carried further?
28. Who was the leader of the Jacobian club?
29. Write the literal meaning of sans-culotte.
30. The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the reign of terror. Justify.
31. What was the guillotine? After Whom was it named?
32.When was Robespierre convicted by a court?
33. When was Louis XVI sentenced to death and on which charges? Where was he executed?
34. What allowed the wealthier middle class to seize power?
35. Discuss the conditions which led to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.
36. State the different occupations of women of third estate who worked for a living.
37. How many women's clubs came up in different French cities?
38. What did women do in order to discuss and voice their interests?
39. State one of the main demands of women's clubs.
40. What were the laws introduced to improve the lives of women?
41. When did women in France won the right to vote?
42. Explain the triangular slave trade. Name the two important port cities of France.
43. When did Napoleon reintroduced slavery?
44. When and how was slavery finally abolished?
45. State an important law that came into effect soon after the storming of the Bastille in 1789. Explain its
merits.
46. Explain the rise of Napoleon.
47. Give two examples of individuals who responded to the ideas coming from revolutionary France.

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ANSWERS
3. Long years of war had drained the financial resources of France.
Added to this was the cost of maintaining an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.

7. The most important privilege was the exemption of paying taxes to the state.
The nobles further enjoyed feudal privileges. These included feudal dues, which were extracted
from peasants.
Peasants were obliged to render services to the lord – to work in his house and fields – to serve in
the army or to participate in building roads.
The church too extracted its share of taxes, called tithes, from the peasants.

9. There was a rapid increase in the demand of foodgrains.
Production of grains could not keep pace with the demand.
So the price of bread which was the staple diet of the majority rose rapidly.

10. Most workers were employed as labourers in workshops whose owner fixed wages.
But wages did not keep pace with the rise in prices.
So the gap between the rich and the poor widened.
This led to a subsistence crisis.

18. Voting in Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each
estate had one vote.
This time too Louis XVI was determined to continue the same practice.
But members of the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by one assembly as a
whole, where each member would have one vote.
This was one of the democratic principles that put forward by philosophers such as Rousseau in
his book The Social Contract.
When the king rejected this proposal, members of the third estate walked out of the assembly in
protest.

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21. A severe winter meant a bad harvest, the price of bread rose, often bakers exploited the situation
and hoarded the supplies.
After spending hours in long queues at the bakery, crowds of angry women stormed into the
shops.
At the same time, the king ordered troops to move into Paris.
On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille.

22. 4 August 1789. Consequences :Members of the clergy were forced to give up their power.
Tithes were abolished and lands owned by churches were confiscated.
As a result, the government acquired assets worth at least 2 billion livres.

30. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment.
All those whom he saw as ‘enemies’ were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary
tribunal.
If the court found them ‘guilty’ they were guillotined.

35. A new constitution was introduced which denied the vote to non-prosperous sections of the
society.
It provided for two elective legislatives.
These then appointed a Directory, an executive made up of five members.
This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one-man executive as under
the Jacobians.
However, the Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss
them.
The political instability paved the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte.

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