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# Synthetic report regarding the period 01.10.2015 – 31.12.

2015
Project no. 65 / 01.10.2015
(PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1043)

The process of obtaining biogas by anaerobic digestion of biodegradable organic waste is
a convenient solution for solving the world's energy deficit. But bio-chemical reactions to
achieving maximum amount of biogas requires in-depth knowledge of the occurring phenomena.
To this end, they developed various mathematical models.
In 2002, the International Water Association (IWA) has developed Anaerobic Digestion
Model no.1 (ADM1) [1,2]. It describes the physical and chemical phenomena that occur during
fermentation, consider the four stages of digestion (hydrolysis acidogenesis, acetogenesis
methanogenesis) and how these stages appear to digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
model that leads to the necessity of knowing many input parameters. This can be time consuming
and costly in terms of experimental approach. For this reason, it often is preferred to use
simplified models to assess the kinetics of the biogas process in different types of biomass [2-9].

Table 1. simplified mathematical models for estimation of biogas production through
anaerobic digestion and microbial growth respectively.
Mathematical
model

Mathematical relation for biogas production estimation

Type Monod

Kinetic equation

Type Moser

Type Hill

Type Haldane

(Andrews)

Type

uncompetitive
(Haldane)

∙ 1

∙ 1

where: Af = coefficient of speed limitation stage for the rapid deployment of the substrate; As =
coefficient for limiting step used for very fast or very slow speed of the substrate; Af (s) =
coefficient of speed limitation stage or very slow or rapid use of the substrate; b = percent of
initial volatile solids remaining in the effluent; ks = saturation Monod constant for half-acid
substrates (g / L); Ks = half Monod saturation constant for volatile solid equivalent (g / l); kn =
half saturation constant Hill for acid substrates (g / l); Kn = saturation constant Hill on half for
volatile solid equivalent (g / l); ki = inhibition constant of the substrate for the acid substrates (g /
l); m = adaptation coefficient of acidogenic / methanogenic bacteria; n = coefficient of adaptation
for acidogenic bacteria to complex substrate degradation; Rf = recalcitrant fractions; Rmax =
maximum specific biogas production (mL / g VS / day); R = Specific biogas production (mL / g
VS / day); So = the initial concentration of volatile solids (g / l); Sh = acid substrate generated
concentration (g / l); µ = growth rate of the bacteria (/ day); µmax = maximum speed of bacteria
growth (/ day); VS = volatile solids.
Similar to bacterial growth phase, the increased rate of production for biogas from
anaerobic digestion is at process beginning and then decreases. This development was described
by means of statistical mathematical models of linear, exponential or gausienne. type

Table 2. Mathematical models which describe the evolution for speed of biogas
production
Mathematical

Model equation

model
Liniar

where: y = biogas production speed (L/kg/day) in time t (days); t = time
(days); a = line origin or free term (L/kg/day); b = gradient of regression line
((L/kg/day2).

∙!

Exponenţial

where: y = biogas production speed (L/kg/day) in time t (days); t = time
(days); a, b = constants (L/kg/day); c = constant ((1/day).
Gaussian

" .\$∙

!"!% '
&

where: y = biogas production speed (L/kg/day) in time t (days); t = time
(days); a = constant (L/kg/day); b = constant (days); t0 = time at which
maximum speed of biogas production appears (days).
Also, time evolution for the total amount of produced biogas can be described with the
help of mathematical models of logistic growth, exponential growth through maximum or
modified Gompertz models.
Table 3. Mathematical models which describe the time evolution of total biogas
production
Mathematical model

Model equation

Logistical growth
1

Exponential

"(∙!

where: y = cumulated biogas production (L/kg) at time t (days); k =
kinetic constant for reaction speed (1/days); t = time (days); a, b =
constants.
"(∙!
growth
∙ 1

through maximum

where: y = cumulated biogas production (L/kg) at time t (days); A =
biogas potential production (L/kg); k = first order kinetic constant
(1/days).

Modified Gompertz

*+ ∙,

") -

λ./ 01

where: y = cumulated biogas production (L/kg) at time t (days); A =
biogas potential production (L/kg);
= maximum speed for biogas
production (L/kg/day); λ = delay period (days).
Relative to solid state fermentation phenomena in bioreactors, a mathematical model was
proposed for a conventional column fixed bioreactor. The following hypotheses were considered
in the mathematical model [10, 12]:
- axisymmetric domain;
- laminar and incompressible flow;
- neglected viscous dissipation;
- constant physical properties (ρ, µ, Cp, k);

- internal heat generation.
Considering the above assumptions the mass conservation equation can be written as
23
2

4 35

The momentum equation is given by
2
35
2

4 355

46

4 7

38

9

5

The energy equation is given by
2
3:
2

4 5 3:

6

4 λ4;

The thermal conductivity of the fermentation medium might be obtained by using some of
the the empirical models, which is a function of the packing density of the bed and moisture.
The system of the partial differential equations is solved with finite volume – finite
element code along with the boundary conditions. The velocity-pressure coupling is solved using
some of the SIMPLE-like method. A staggered grid is used with a series of discretization
schemes. The commercial Ansys Fluent solver is used for this purpose.
Ansys Fluent has the modeling capabilities for a wide range of incompressible and
compressible, laminar and turbulent fluid flow problems. Steady-state or transient analyses can
be analyzed. In Ansys Fluent, a broad range of mathematical models for transport phenomena
(like heat transfer and chemical reactions) is combined with the ability to model complex
geometries. Examples of Ansys Fluent applications include laminar non-Newtonian flows in
process equipment; conjugate heat transfer in turbomachinery and automotive engine components;
pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers; external aerodynamics; flow through compressors,
pumps, and fans; and multiphase flows in bubble columns and fluidized beds [11].
The modeling of fluid flow and related transport phenomena in industrial equipment and
processes including porous media, lumped parameter (fan and heat exchanger), periodic of cyclic
flow and heat transfer, swirl, and moving reference frame models. The moving reference frame
family of models includes the ability to model single or multiple reference frames. A timeaccurate sliding mesh method, useful for modeling multiple stages in turbomachinery
applications.
Another very useful group of models is the set of free surface and multiphase flow models.
These can be used for analysis of gas-liquid, gas-solid, liquid-solid, and gas-liquid-solid flows.

For these types of problems, Ansys Fluent provides several multiphase models such as:
the volume-of-fluid (VOF), mixture, and Eulerian models, as well as the discrete phase model
(DPM). The DPM performs Lagrangian trajectory calculations for dispersed phases (particles,
droplets, or bubbles), including coupling with the continuous phase.
Examples of multiphase flows include channel flows, sprays, sedimentation, separation,
and cavitation. The accurate and reliable turbulence models are a vital component of the Ansys
Fluent suite of models. The turbulence models provided have a broad range of applicability, and
they include the effects of other physical phenomena, such as buoyancy and compressibility.
Particular care has been devoted to addressing issues of near-wall accuracy via the use of
extended wall functions and zonal models.
Various modes of heat transfer can be modeled, including natural, forced, and mixed
convection with or without conjugate heat transfer, porous media, etc. The set of radiation models
and related to the modeling participating media and can take into account the complications of
combustion.
A particular strength of a code is its ability to model combustion phenomena using a
variety of models, including eddy dissipation and probability density function models. A host of
other models that are very useful for reacting flow applications are also available, including coal
and droplet combustion, surface reaction, and pollutant formation models.
Using Matlab language and Ansys Fluent, there will be investigated various simplified
mathematical models in order to describe the experimental process of anaerobic digestion and at
the same time, to understand the phenomena that occur in the process and the parameters that
influence the course stages of digestion (biomass type, temperature, pH, etc.).
Relative to the practical approach (experimental part), the chosen substrates are going to
be mixtures of cereal degraded material (eg. wheat, barley, rye) and waste water from local
sources (eg. beer factory, local treatment plant).
The initial step is to prepare the solid materials in order to be mixed with the waste waters.
In this sense there is performed size reduction to a measure of about 1-2mm. After this step,
preliminary measures are taken in order to determine the general characteristics of the cereal
material and preliminary measurements are made in order to determine the partial characteristics
for the mixture of cereal degraded material and waste waters.

Tables 4 and 5 underline preliminary analysis performed on the liquid mixture between
waste waters and cereal degraded materials.

Table 4 – General characteristics for material mixtures (part 1)
Sample

Residual water

TS

OTS

Conductivity

Acetic

Propionic

Butyric

Valeric

(g/l)

(g/l)

(mS/cm)

acid

acid

acid

acid

(g/l)

(g/l)

(g/l)

(g/l)

57.29

49.48

5.53

2.10714

0.20112

0.0588

0

32.84

20.04

4.09

0.3054

0.31464

3.90144

0.02046

45.31

38.59

4.22

2.09592

0.1695

0.19716

0

48.24

42.2

4.97

2.0709

2.3202

0.79698

1.0104

24.63

21.04

5.00

1.57296

1.79988

0.70728

0.9681

40.53

36.2

4.93

2.6142

2.17374

0.6231

0.93822

treatment plant
+ wheat
residual water
treatment plant
+ barley
residual water
treatment plant
+ rye
residual water
beer factory +
wheat
residual water
beer factory +
barley
residual water
beer factory +
rye

Table 5 – General characteristics for material mixtures (part 2)
Sample

Density
3

(g/cm )

pH (-

NH4+

log

(mg/l)

cH+)
Residual

1.01

3.97

189

0.993

4.55

84

0.995

3.95

138

1

3.98

153

0.989

4.27

93

0.996

4.1

120

water
treatment
plant + wheat
residual water
treatment
plant + barley
residual water
treatment
plant + rye
residual water
beer factory +
wheat
residual water
beer factory +
barley
residual water
beer factory +
rye

Further analysis are to be made for the solid substrates alone and initial testing at small
scale will be made in order to establish the fermentation potential in terms of biogas production
for the tested material combinations.

References
1. Batstone, D.J., Keller, J.; Angelidaki, I.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Pavlostathis, S.G. et al. The IWA
Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1). Water Sci. Technol. 2002, 45, 65-73.
2. Yu L, Wensel PC, Ma J, Chen S. Mathematical Modeling in Anaerobic Digestion (AD). J
Bioremed Biodeg. 2013, S4: 003. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.S4-003
3. Colussi, I., Cortesi, A., Gallo, V., Rubesa Fernandez, A.S., Vitanza, R., Modelling of an
anaerobic process producing biogas fro, winerz wastes. Chem. Eng. Trans. 2012, 27, 301 –
306.
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municipal fat, oil, and grease and synthetic kitchen waste in anaerobic co-digestions,
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swine manure supplemented with glucose under controlled pH, J. Environ. Sci. Heal. B.
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production: Batch and continuous operation, Appl Energ, 2013, 103: 61-72.
9. Fedailaine, M., Moussi, K., Khitous, M., Abada, S., Saber, M., Tirichine, N. Modeling of the
anaerobic digestion of organic waste for biogas production. Proc. Comp. Sci., 2015, 52: 730
– 737.
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Phenomena in Anaerobic Granular Sludge, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 73(2), 2001, 125–
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