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- Anaerobic Digestions
- 480002D_Biogas_AG
- About Cassava
- 09-061
- 58.IJASROCT201758
- Session 1 - Fundamentals AD
- Biogas Plant Design
- Continuous Digester
- Production of Biogas From Kitchen Waste and Cow Dung
- BioMethanation Plant
- Anaerobic acidogenesis biodegradation of palm oil mill effluent using Suspended Closed Anaerobic Bioreactor (SCABR) at mesophilic temperature
- Biogas EJSR Paper
- B1B2
- biogas
- Kinetic Modelling of the Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater Derived From the Pressing of Orange Rind Produced in Orange Juice Manufacturing
- BK11-C42 (Biotec Presentation June 12-12
- Anaerobic Methods of Municipal Wastewater Treatment
- Development of Anaerobic Digestion Methods for Palm Oil
- Anaerobic Fermantation Organic Wastes Biopxenor
- Food Waste as Biodegradable Substrates for Biogas Production
- Anaerobic Digester Design and Calculation
- 4. Civil - IJCSEIERD - Fixed Film Fixed Bed -Bharati Sunil Shete
- IESL Technical Paper Email PDF(FINAL)2012.11.05
- 2 Biogas Kristianstad brochure 2009
- Swine Waste Generation Collection Storage
- Bochure Rendering and Biogas Euro Industries Bvba
- Development of Volumetric Methane Measurement Instrument for Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Reactors
- Biomass
- InTech-Microbial_biopolimerization_production_from_palm_oil_mill_effluent_pome_.pdf
- lgdkjg
- dissemination activities an 3 te
- isi
- carte cioabla et al
- 2015-2016
- synthetic report resume

You are on page 1of 8

2015

Project no. 65 / 01.10.2015

(PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-1043)

**The process of obtaining biogas by anaerobic digestion of biodegradable organic waste is
**

a convenient solution for solving the world's energy deficit. But bio-chemical reactions to

achieving maximum amount of biogas requires in-depth knowledge of the occurring phenomena.

To this end, they developed various mathematical models.

In 2002, the International Water Association (IWA) has developed Anaerobic Digestion

Model no.1 (ADM1) [1,2]. It describes the physical and chemical phenomena that occur during

fermentation, consider the four stages of digestion (hydrolysis acidogenesis, acetogenesis

methanogenesis) and how these stages appear to digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.

The main advantage of ADM1 is its high precision. The disadvantage is the complexity of the

model that leads to the necessity of knowing many input parameters. This can be time consuming

and costly in terms of experimental approach. For this reason, it often is preferred to use

simplified models to assess the kinetics of the biogas process in different types of biomass [2-9].

**Table 1. simplified mathematical models for estimation of biogas production through
**

anaerobic digestion and microbial growth respectively.

Mathematical

model

Mathematical relation for biogas production estimation

Type Monod

Kinetic equation

∙

∙

∙

∙

∙

Type Moser

∙

∙

Type Hill

∙

∙

∙

∙

Type Haldane

∙

(Andrews)

∙

Type

∙

uncompetitive

(Haldane)

∙

∙

∙

∙

∙

∙ 1

∙

∙

∙ 1

**where: Af = coefficient of speed limitation stage for the rapid deployment of the substrate; As =
**

coefficient for limiting step used for very fast or very slow speed of the substrate; Af (s) =

coefficient of speed limitation stage or very slow or rapid use of the substrate; b = percent of

initial volatile solids remaining in the effluent; ks = saturation Monod constant for half-acid

substrates (g / L); Ks = half Monod saturation constant for volatile solid equivalent (g / l); kn =

half saturation constant Hill for acid substrates (g / l); Kn = saturation constant Hill on half for

volatile solid equivalent (g / l); ki = inhibition constant of the substrate for the acid substrates (g /

l); m = adaptation coefficient of acidogenic / methanogenic bacteria; n = coefficient of adaptation

for acidogenic bacteria to complex substrate degradation; Rf = recalcitrant fractions; Rmax =

maximum specific biogas production (mL / g VS / day); R = Specific biogas production (mL / g

VS / day); So = the initial concentration of volatile solids (g / l); Sh = acid substrate generated

concentration (g / l); µ = growth rate of the bacteria (/ day); µmax = maximum speed of bacteria

growth (/ day); VS = volatile solids.

Similar to bacterial growth phase, the increased rate of production for biogas from

anaerobic digestion is at process beginning and then decreases. This development was described

by means of statistical mathematical models of linear, exponential or gausienne. type

**Table 2. Mathematical models which describe the evolution for speed of biogas
**

production

Mathematical

Model equation

model

Liniar

∙

where: y = biogas production speed (L/kg/day) in time t (days); t = time

(days); a = line origin or free term (L/kg/day); b = gradient of regression line

((L/kg/day2).

∙!

∙

Exponenţial

**where: y = biogas production speed (L/kg/day) in time t (days); t = time
**

(days); a, b = constants (L/kg/day); c = constant ((1/day).

Gaussian

∙

" .$∙

!"!% '

&

**where: y = biogas production speed (L/kg/day) in time t (days); t = time
**

(days); a = constant (L/kg/day); b = constant (days); t0 = time at which

maximum speed of biogas production appears (days).

Also, time evolution for the total amount of produced biogas can be described with the

help of mathematical models of logistic growth, exponential growth through maximum or

modified Gompertz models.

Table 3. Mathematical models which describe the time evolution of total biogas

production

Mathematical model

Model equation

Logistical growth

1

Exponential

∙

"(∙!

**where: y = cumulated biogas production (L/kg) at time t (days); k =
**

kinetic constant for reaction speed (1/days); t = time (days); a, b =

constants.

"(∙!

growth

∙ 1

through maximum

**where: y = cumulated biogas production (L/kg) at time t (days); A =
**

biogas potential production (L/kg); k = first order kinetic constant

(1/days).

Modified Gompertz

∙

*+ ∙,

") -

λ./ 01

**where: y = cumulated biogas production (L/kg) at time t (days); A =
**

biogas potential production (L/kg);

= maximum speed for biogas

production (L/kg/day); λ = delay period (days).

Relative to solid state fermentation phenomena in bioreactors, a mathematical model was

proposed for a conventional column fixed bioreactor. The following hypotheses were considered

in the mathematical model [10, 12]:

- axisymmetric domain;

- unsteady regime;

- laminar and incompressible flow;

- neglected viscous dissipation;

- constant physical properties (ρ, µ, Cp, k);

**- internal heat generation.
**

Considering the above assumptions the mass conservation equation can be written as

23

2

4 35

**The momentum equation is given by
**

2

35

2

4 355

46

4 7

38

9

5

**The energy equation is given by
**

2

3:

2

4 5 3:

6

4 λ4;

**The thermal conductivity of the fermentation medium might be obtained by using some of
**

the the empirical models, which is a function of the packing density of the bed and moisture.

The system of the partial differential equations is solved with finite volume – finite

element code along with the boundary conditions. The velocity-pressure coupling is solved using

some of the SIMPLE-like method. A staggered grid is used with a series of discretization

schemes. The commercial Ansys Fluent solver is used for this purpose.

Ansys Fluent has the modeling capabilities for a wide range of incompressible and

compressible, laminar and turbulent fluid flow problems. Steady-state or transient analyses can

be analyzed. In Ansys Fluent, a broad range of mathematical models for transport phenomena

(like heat transfer and chemical reactions) is combined with the ability to model complex

geometries. Examples of Ansys Fluent applications include laminar non-Newtonian flows in

process equipment; conjugate heat transfer in turbomachinery and automotive engine components;

pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers; external aerodynamics; flow through compressors,

pumps, and fans; and multiphase flows in bubble columns and fluidized beds [11].

The modeling of fluid flow and related transport phenomena in industrial equipment and

processes including porous media, lumped parameter (fan and heat exchanger), periodic of cyclic

flow and heat transfer, swirl, and moving reference frame models. The moving reference frame

family of models includes the ability to model single or multiple reference frames. A timeaccurate sliding mesh method, useful for modeling multiple stages in turbomachinery

applications.

Another very useful group of models is the set of free surface and multiphase flow models.

These can be used for analysis of gas-liquid, gas-solid, liquid-solid, and gas-liquid-solid flows.

**For these types of problems, Ansys Fluent provides several multiphase models such as:
**

the volume-of-fluid (VOF), mixture, and Eulerian models, as well as the discrete phase model

(DPM). The DPM performs Lagrangian trajectory calculations for dispersed phases (particles,

droplets, or bubbles), including coupling with the continuous phase.

Examples of multiphase flows include channel flows, sprays, sedimentation, separation,

and cavitation. The accurate and reliable turbulence models are a vital component of the Ansys

Fluent suite of models. The turbulence models provided have a broad range of applicability, and

they include the effects of other physical phenomena, such as buoyancy and compressibility.

Particular care has been devoted to addressing issues of near-wall accuracy via the use of

extended wall functions and zonal models.

Various modes of heat transfer can be modeled, including natural, forced, and mixed

convection with or without conjugate heat transfer, porous media, etc. The set of radiation models

and related to the modeling participating media and can take into account the complications of

combustion.

A particular strength of a code is its ability to model combustion phenomena using a

variety of models, including eddy dissipation and probability density function models. A host of

other models that are very useful for reacting flow applications are also available, including coal

and droplet combustion, surface reaction, and pollutant formation models.

Using Matlab language and Ansys Fluent, there will be investigated various simplified

mathematical models in order to describe the experimental process of anaerobic digestion and at

the same time, to understand the phenomena that occur in the process and the parameters that

influence the course stages of digestion (biomass type, temperature, pH, etc.).

Relative to the practical approach (experimental part), the chosen substrates are going to

be mixtures of cereal degraded material (eg. wheat, barley, rye) and waste water from local

sources (eg. beer factory, local treatment plant).

The initial step is to prepare the solid materials in order to be mixed with the waste waters.

In this sense there is performed size reduction to a measure of about 1-2mm. After this step,

preliminary measures are taken in order to determine the general characteristics of the cereal

material and preliminary measurements are made in order to determine the partial characteristics

for the mixture of cereal degraded material and waste waters.

**Tables 4 and 5 underline preliminary analysis performed on the liquid mixture between
**

waste waters and cereal degraded materials.

**Table 4 – General characteristics for material mixtures (part 1)
**

Sample

Residual water

TS

OTS

Conductivity

Acetic

Propionic

Butyric

Valeric

(g/l)

(g/l)

(mS/cm)

acid

acid

acid

acid

(g/l)

(g/l)

(g/l)

(g/l)

57.29

49.48

5.53

2.10714

0.20112

0.0588

0

32.84

20.04

4.09

0.3054

0.31464

3.90144

0.02046

45.31

38.59

4.22

2.09592

0.1695

0.19716

0

48.24

42.2

4.97

2.0709

2.3202

0.79698

1.0104

24.63

21.04

5.00

1.57296

1.79988

0.70728

0.9681

40.53

36.2

4.93

2.6142

2.17374

0.6231

0.93822

treatment plant

+ wheat

residual water

treatment plant

+ barley

residual water

treatment plant

+ rye

residual water

beer factory +

wheat

residual water

beer factory +

barley

residual water

beer factory +

rye

**Table 5 – General characteristics for material mixtures (part 2)
**

Sample

Density

3

(g/cm )

pH (-

NH4+

log

(mg/l)

cH+)

Residual

1.01

3.97

189

0.993

4.55

84

0.995

3.95

138

1

3.98

153

0.989

4.27

93

0.996

4.1

120

water

treatment

plant + wheat

residual water

treatment

plant + barley

residual water

treatment

plant + rye

residual water

beer factory +

wheat

residual water

beer factory +

barley

residual water

beer factory +

rye

**Further analysis are to be made for the solid substrates alone and initial testing at small
**

scale will be made in order to establish the fermentation potential in terms of biogas production

for the tested material combinations.

References

1. Batstone, D.J., Keller, J.; Angelidaki, I.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Pavlostathis, S.G. et al. The IWA

Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1). Water Sci. Technol. 2002, 45, 65-73.

2. Yu L, Wensel PC, Ma J, Chen S. Mathematical Modeling in Anaerobic Digestion (AD). J

Bioremed Biodeg. 2013, S4: 003. doi:10.4172/2155-6199.S4-003

3. Colussi, I., Cortesi, A., Gallo, V., Rubesa Fernandez, A.S., Vitanza, R., Modelling of an

anaerobic process producing biogas fro, winerz wastes. Chem. Eng. Trans. 2012, 27, 301 –

306.

4. Donoso-Bravo, A.; Pérez-Elvira, S.I.; Fdz-Polanco, F. Application of simplified models for

anaerobic biodegradability tests. Evaluation of pre-treatment processes, Chem. Eng. J. 2010,

160, 607-614.

5. Lo, H.M.; Kurniawan, T.A.; Sillanpää, M.E.T.; Pai, T.Y.; Chiang, C.F.; Chao, K.P.; Liu M.H.;

Chuang, S.H.; Banks, C.J.; Wang, S.C.; Lin, K.C.; Lin, C.Y. ; Liu, W.F.; Cheng, P.H.; Chen,

C.K.; Chiu H.Y.; Wu, H.Y. Modeling biogas production from organic fraction of MSW codigested with MSWI ashes in anaerobic bioreactors, Bioresource Technol. 2010, 101, 63296335.

6. Li, C., P. Champagne and B. C. Anderson. Evaluating and modeling biogas production from

municipal fat, oil, and grease and synthetic kitchen waste in anaerobic co-digestions,

Bioresource Technol. 2011, 102: 9471-9480.

7. Wu X., Jun Zhu, Curtis Miller, Kinetics study of fermentative hydrogen production from liquid

swine manure supplemented with glucose under controlled pH, J. Environ. Sci. Heal. B.

2013, Volume 48, Issue 6.

8. Kafle, G.K. and S. H. Kim. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas

production: Batch and continuous operation, Appl Energ, 2013, 103: 61-72.

9. Fedailaine, M., Moussi, K., Khitous, M., Abada, S., Saber, M., Tirichine, N. Modeling of the

anaerobic digestion of organic waste for biogas production. Proc. Comp. Sci., 2015, 52: 730

– 737.

10. Cunha DC, Souza JA, Costa JA, Rocha LA, CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN OF SOLID STATE

FERMENTATION BIOREACTORS, International Journal of Energy & Technology, 1 (1),

2009, 1–8.

11. Ansys Fluent 14.0 documentation. Ansys Inc. 2011.

12. Gonzalez-Gil G, Seghezzo L, Lettinga G, Kleerebezem R, Kinetics and Mass-Transfer

Phenomena in Anaerobic Granular Sludge, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 73(2), 2001, 125–

134.

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