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Technical Documentation

Diesel Engines
12 V 1600 Gx0.
10 V 1600 Gx0.
8 V 1600 Gx0.
6R 1600 Gx0.

Installation Guidelines

September, 2010

Table of Content

Page

1

Introduction ...............................................................................................................12

2

General.......................................................................................................................13

2.1

Abstract.......................................................................................................................13

2.2

Foreword.....................................................................................................................13

2.3

Safety Precautions ......................................................................................................14

2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.6
2.3.7
2.3.8
2.3.9
2.3.10
2.3.11
2.3.12
2.3.13

Stands.........................................................................................................................14
Glasses .......................................................................................................................14
Welding .......................................................................................................................14
Work Place..................................................................................................................15
Clothing.......................................................................................................................16
Electric Tools...............................................................................................................16
Air ...............................................................................................................................16
Fluids and Pressure ....................................................................................................17
Batteries......................................................................................................................17
Fire..............................................................................................................................18
Paint............................................................................................................................18
Fluoroelastomer (VITON) ............................................................................................18
Hot Surface Components ............................................................................................18

3

Transport and Storage..............................................................................................18

3.1

Transport.....................................................................................................................19

3.2

Storage .......................................................................................................................19

3.3

Installation Check........................................................................................................19

3.4

Initial Operation ...........................................................................................................19

4

Engine-Generator Set Room ....................................................................................21

4.1

General .......................................................................................................................21

4.2

Genset Foundation......................................................................................................21

4.2.1
4.2.2

Responsibilities ...........................................................................................................21
Construction ................................................................................................................21

4.3

Loads into the Foundation ...........................................................................................21

4.3.1

Static Load ..................................................................................................................21
Page - 2

Installation Manual Series 1600
4.3.2
4.3.2.1
4.3.2.2
4.3.2.3
4.3.3

Dynamic Load .............................................................................................................22
General .......................................................................................................................22
Single Resilient Mounting ............................................................................................22
Double Resilient Mounting...........................................................................................23
Generator Short-Circuit Torque ...................................................................................23

4.4

Ventilation System.......................................................................................................24

4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.3.1
4.4.3.2
4.4.3.3
4.4.3.4
4.4.3.5
4.4.4
4.4.4.1
4.4.4.2
4.4.4.3
4.4.4.4
4.4.4.5

Ventilation Overview....................................................................................................24
Natural Ventilation.......................................................................................................24
Forced Ventilation - Depression Ventilation System ....................................................24
Definition .....................................................................................................................24
Depression Ventilation ................................................................................................25
Forced Ventilation - Overpressure Ventilation System.................................................26
Determining Air Requirement ......................................................................................27
Guidelines an Data Source..........................................................................................28
Components................................................................................................................28
Louvers .......................................................................................................................28
Manually Controlled Louvers .......................................................................................29
Gravity Louvers ...........................................................................................................29
Fixed Louvers..............................................................................................................29
Electrically Controlled Louvers ....................................................................................29

5

Diesel Engine Series 1600 ........................................................................................30

5.1

Engine Component Identification.................................................................................30

5.1.1
5.1.2

Engine Serial Number Identification ............................................................................30
Series 1600 Serial Number Identification.....................................................................30

5.2

Engine Application Code Designation .........................................................................31

5.3

Engine Cylinder Labeling.............................................................................................31

5.4

Sound data..................................................................................................................32

5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
5.4.4

Explanation of the Sound Spectra ...............................................................................32
Engine Surface Noise (Mean Free-Field Spectrum) ....................................................32
Undamped Exhaust Noise...........................................................................................32
Engine Specific Noise Data and Spectra .....................................................................32

5.5

Air Inlet System ...........................................................................................................32

5.6

Installation Requirements ............................................................................................33

5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.6.5
5.6.6
5.6.7
5.6.7.1

General Air Filter System ............................................................................................33
Air Cleaners ................................................................................................................34
Inlet Screens ...............................................................................................................34
Rain Caps and Inlet Hoods..........................................................................................34
Inlet Silencers..............................................................................................................35
Restriction / Maintenance Indicator .............................................................................35
Pipe Work ...................................................................................................................35
Pipe work material specifications.................................................................................36
Page - 3

...................................................2 5........39 Pipe Work .....................................................................37 Air inlet restriction calculation ..............................6................................6 6..........54 Page .....................................................................................................................7................................................................................................43 Back Pressure.............................................40 Restriction Measurement.....................................2.3 5..................................................2 5................................................3.................................3.....10 Sizing Guidelines ................38 Inlet Location..49 Outlet Location .........................................................................................7..............37 Air Inlet System Restriction .........3.......................................................4 Testing ..................7.....................51 Exhaust Back Pressure Measurement...40 Temperature Measurement ....41 6.....................1 Exhaust System Description......3 6....8.........................................................................51 Exhaust Temperature Measurement .........................2 5..................................................................1.......................2 6.............................37 Restriction / Maintenance Indicator ............................................................................................7.............40 Test.......................7...2 5................7.....5......................................................................................................39 Flexible Connection.............................4 6....41 6..........44 Pipework ........................................................................................................................6...................5 Maximum Inlet Air Flow ...............................................................50 6..37 5.........................................................................36 Hose Connections......9 6....................39 5..............3.........................5 6...................................4 ..........................................7.............................................................36 Closed Crankcase Breather System......................48 Noise.................................................................52 7 Cooling System ........................3.......................8..............1 Function description .........39 5....................................................6........3.......3 Exhaust System Design Requirements and Guidelines...................4 5......................3 6.....................................4....................................................................................................................9 Diffusers..............3.......................................8 5......1 6............................................................................2 6............1 5...........8................................................43 6..51 6......8 6...................................................................................................................44 Flexible Connection / Exhaust Bellows .4 Requirement...............................3......................................1 6...............................5 Test............................3....................................7...................................................................................1.2 Turbocharger.......................................................................1 5........4.....................3.....................................................1 5............40 6 Exhaust System ........................50 Spark Arresters ....................7 6.................................................49 Drainage .........41 6........................................8.......................................................2............................8 Testing Requirements ......................................49 Exhaust Silencer Location .................................................................................................................4................................................................................7 Design Guidelines ..4................1 5..............................................................50 6.................37 5............................................2 Instrumentation .....................48 Exhaust Insulation...........................................54 7.....................................................................................50 Instrumentation ................................................................................

..........................................................3 7.............................67 Page .....................5 7........................................................63 7...................Installation Manual Series 1600 7...............................................................................................12 7...4 7...................................62 Maximum Ambient Capability ....................................................54 Engine Coolant / Jacket Water Circuit ............62 System Deterioration or Degradation.............5.61 Maximum Static Height .....55 Charge-Air Cooling.............................................................................5.....................................3..............................65 Heat Transfer Capability................................................................................................................................................................1 7................................................1 7................................................4 7......64 Coolant Pump Flow ...........................59 Cooling System Pressurization.....................3.....2 7.........................2 7......62 Auxiliary Air-Cooled Cooler Cores ........................................5............................55 7.........7 7...........................................................................................................3......6.........1 7......................67 Noise Limits...........4 7........4.....................................64 Engine Operating Temperature ........................................................................3 7.66 Space Constraints...66 Ground Effects .............................................3 Series 1600 configuration.......................5..........................................................................5........................................................................................6.......2..........2 7..4................................................5 7.............19 System Components ..............54 Conventional Radiator..................3 Types of Radiator Cooling System ......15 7.....................................64 Charged Air Intake Manifold Temperature...............4......5..............................61 Minimum Coolant Temperature .........64 Additional Heat Loads ..5.......6............................................6....................16 7..........................8 7....4.......................................5..............................................................................................................3 7.............................66 Altitude ....................................63 7......6........54 7...........................................................................6....... and Contraction ...........1 7.........................13 7....4.56 De-Aeration..........5..............................65 Ambient...6 7.........................6..6.11 7.......6...........56 System Drain.................................3 Radiator Cooling System................................54 7...................2...............5.........................3.........6 General Considerations.............................. Expansion ......................1 7...................................................................................................56 System Coolant Capability ............................10 7......5......................57 Drawdown Capacity .....................................4 7.......................6..............................3.................................................54 7..................................................2 Cooling System Overview .................................................................14 7......5...............................................................................................59 Water Pump Inlet Pressure ...................6 Cooling System Design Considerations.....................................................................................3...........5.4 Cooling System Configuration ............4....62 Coolant Selection .....................17 7......................6..64 Heat Rejection and Coolant Flow .................................................................2 7..................................................................6.........................5....................................65 Coolant Type......................5 Cooling System Performance and Installation Requirements ....................................................5...6........5...........3..5.............6..4............62 Coolant Heaters ..2 7............................54 7..........................64 Engine Heat Rejection.....................................................6...........5 .................5..........................4......1 7..................................................62 Heat Rejection.........18 7...................4..............................................................................62 End-Product Questionnaire (EPQ) .................3..............2 7..............................................................................................................................2 7............6............54 Rapid Warm-Up Radiator ........55 7...................63 Design Temperature Requirements........................................................................................................5 7..................................65 Environmental Effects and Operating Conditions .................5........................9 7...........................................................3 7...........56 System Fill ..................................................................................66 Enclosures .......55 Maximum Coolant Temperatures ....................1 7....................61 Coolant Flow Rate / External Pressure Drop ......6............................

..................................72 7.................5..................................................3.................................................................................6.......................3.........................................................67 Cooling System Components ......................................................................................................3 7..........5 7..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................67 Coolant Plumbing.....................................................71 Homologation and Qualification of Third Party Radiators............................4...................7......................2 7..................................92 Fuel tank ......................5.............3 7...........................................................................1 8.............4 7.................8 7............................................6 7...............................................................................3 Design and Installation Guidelines ......70 Water Pumps .........................7.....6.....................................................71 Belt Driven Engine Cooling Fan...........3................................................................1 7..7 7........................................................................................................................................3...............................................................6................................6 7.........7..........................................6................6...................5 8........................3.....8..90 8.........3......................72 7..........................89 8...........3 8.......................................................................69 Water Cooled Exhaust Systems .......3.................72 Fan Drive Belt ...............................................................1 Engine Fuel System Description......................6............6..............................................................................69 Expansion Tank Design ..........................................83 Cold Running Engine (Overcooling) ..6..5 7......................................................6..............................76 7................5.......7...........................................................70 Radiator ..........4 8..72 Series 1600 TD or A/AC........91 Fuel Heater ....................91 Fuel restriction...........2 7.......4 7.....................................................7....72 Severe Duty Cycle....6............2 Fuel System Description......................4 7.90 Fuel Filter Configuration .............................6........................6......1 8.....................89 8..........7 7..............6..........................................................................................2 7....................................................6.........5...2 8...........6..................................................7.....................1 7...............91 Water Separation ...............71 Fan Drive Selection .............................................................73 Instrumentation .83 7.........2 8.....................6...................67 Flexible Connections ......3 Fuel Lines ............7 7..................................94 Page .................7..........................................85 8 Fuel System ............92 Fuel tank material....................2 Engine Overheat ............6........................8..4 System Description ..................93 8....................................................9 7.............5........................7...............4 Fuel Specifications ......91 Fuel Coolers................................................75 Types of Tests...6................6..........6............5...........5.....................6 8..........................7..6....................................................1 7....................................72 Coolant Heaters .....................1 7...............................3...........................................89 8.....................................2 7......1 7..........................6..........................................................................................................................................................................3 7...........6...................................................73 Test Preparations..........7..........................92 Fuel tank sizing .........................8 Cooling System Diagnostics and Troubleshooting Guide .................................................................70 Radiator Design Data .7..................3......70 Radiator Selection.69 Fill Lines....................................6...........................................92 Fuel tank design................10 Tilt Operations.......................................................................................................................................7 8...................................................7 Cooling System Evaluation Tests ................................6.....................................................................72 Air Re-circulation Baffles .6 ............................72 Cooling System or Duty Cycle Changes......................................................................................7............6...................3..........................................................70 MTU Radiator.....67 Vent Lines .........................................................................................3 7...

..........12 Testing Requirements ..........................100 9................................................................................................................................................................7 Oil Replenishment Unit....................2...............9 Priming.....................................................................................................................95 9 Lubrication System ............................2 9........................................................100 10 Electrical and Starting Systems ....6........1 9.....................97 9...................................................2 Description .......101 10...................................................................100 9................................................................................1 General ...................5 Testing requirements.........................................8 Tilt Operation........1 Electrical System Description ...........100 9.................................................6..............................97 9....Installation Manual Series 1600 8.................................99 Oil Pan Sight Gage.....................................................................................1 8.................................................................................97 9.....................................................................................3 9........................................99 9.............................98 9................2...........................................11 Fluid Specifications and Recommendations ........................................97 Operational Description.............98 Electrical Level Monitor ...6 Oil Level Measurement ..........................101 Page ................................................97 9................................................................98 9.....100 9...............................................................2 System Description ...................................2 Cranking requirements .........................4 Lube Oil Heating Aids..........................10 Crankcase Venting ...............................................................98 Oil Level Dipstick.........................................................................................6..............................................95 Test.......7 ..................................3 Oil Lines ...................99 9...............................5 Oil Filter Configuration............................................................2 Instrumentation ...................................................................97 9..........5.97 9...............................................................................................................................4 General Possibilities.....6...........1 9..............................................................................................................................5.............................................................................................................................101 10.....................................95 8.......................................................................................

.........5......................2 Torsional Vibration Analysis ...................................................................................................................................108 11........................................................1.....102 10.........................4 Diesel Powered Generator Set ....................5..............1 General ...............................102 10.....................108 11........................................................................................................................................................108 11..........2 10...............................1 10....................................................................................5 Engine / Generator Resilient Mount Selection ....................109 11..........................5....................................................................5.............................................110 11...............106 Alternator Mounting ...............................................1 10..........114 Page ............................................................................................................................................................3.........................105 Alternator .......2 Battery.............5.......................................................2 Electric Starting Motors ...............5 10....102 10..................................101 Starter cables ..........................................................................3 Starting Motors.......................3....1 10.111 12 Torsional and Bending Vibration Analysis..........106 Wiring of MTU Gensets ........3 Bending Vibration Analysis.................112 12..............................6 Resilient Mounting Elements Configuration .........................................110 11......3................................112 13 Electronic Controls ..111 11..3 Isolation Efficiency..1.......3.................8 .............................4 10......................................................................5 Installation Guidelines .5...............................1 General ...............107 Grounding Requirements ...................................4 Battery Charging Alternator ......................102 Redundant Starting ................................................................................................................101 Starter lockout ...................................................107 11 Engine Mounts .......................................107 General .............................................................................................................................................................................10......................................5..............101 10......112 12.102 Cranking Motor...........................................................................................2 Natural Frequency..........7 Resilient Mount Installation.....................................................................................................................3 10.......................................2 10...112 12...........................................................5.........1 10....................................................................................................................................5..............................Flanged / Mounted Generator ..................................

................................................114 Location of Sensors.................................................................2.........................1 ADEC System Description......................................................................4.....................................4 Components...............................1................................4 14..115 13................................Installation Manual Series 1600 13................3 14......................................................................1.......5 14.......................1........................................................................3...............................................................3 Message Format ......118 Unbalanced mass ..........................119 Drive disc concentricity......116 14........................................................................1 13.................................................................................................114 13.......................................120 Description ..............................................................................................2 14................................................................................2 Alternators and Couplings ...........................................118 Flywheel radial run out .................................................................................116 14 Flywheel Housing and Generator...............6 14........................2 14......3 Generator Alignment ......6 Engine Protection........................118 Proper seating of the Drive disc...........................................................................................................5 14.........115 13.......................................1 14............................................................3 13...................119 Flywheel Housing Venting ......................................................................................................1 14...........115 13...............2 14...........................1............120 Description ..........1.........119 Single Bearing Alternator..............2 14.............................................................2...2........121 Torsional and bending vibration analysis..........................120 Couplings ...........................................................119 14....120 Installation requirements ......................2........115 13......................120 Installation requirements ...............1............................1....................114 Harness..120 Installation requirements ...2............117 14......................................................................4 14...............................................................................................................................................1 Flywheel Housing and Flywheel ...................2..................4 ADEC Power Requirements .........2 Installation Requirements ........1....................115 13....................................114 13.....................................1..................................................120 Dual Bearing Alternator (Close-Coupled) .....1.......................1................2......4..................................114 SAM for Genset Application ..............1........................................2 14.5...........2......1................................9 .2................................................117 Angular Alignment ...1.................................................................................1 14...........1...................................................2........................................................1.............................................................3 14...........................2.......................8 Diagnostics and Service ....................................2.....1..........................119 Forces on Crankshaft .....................................................................................................1 Alternator Configurations / Designs ..2............2.........1.121 Page .............................................1..............117 General ......119 14.....................116 13........1 14........120 Description .............................5 Welding Precautions ..........1 14...7 Normal Engine Start ......................120 Dual Bearing Alternator (Remote) .........................................................................................................................2 13............1 14.................................................3........2 14..........

.10 ...4 Close-coupled dual-bearing alternator couplings........122 14......2.123 Page ...............................................................122 14......................5 Remote mounted dual bearing alternator couplings.....122 14............2...............2.....2....................14......5......2............5.........................................123 (No Break Gensets).........5................................2 Coupling (between engine and rotor) ...................5.3 Single bearing alternator couplings ..................121 14....2.......6 Standby Gensets with Permanent Inducing of Vibration and Forces ..6 Requirements for the axial endplay of the crankshaft and the alternator shaft .....................................................................5...................121 14...................

and other reproductive harm. • Always start and operate an engine in a well ventilated area. • Do not modify or tamper with the exhaust system or emission control system. Page . birth defects. • If operating an engine in an enclosed area. vent the exhaust to the outside.11 .Installation Manual Series 1600 PERSONAL INJURY Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer.

This symbol refers to notes concerning personal safety. If reference is made in the text to a detail provided with a reference number.1 Introduction Symbols The symbols used in the safety instructions are explained in the chapter “Safety instructions”. Example: (5/2) refers to fig.12 . Figures and References Details in figures are provided with reference numbers and reference lines if necessary. 5. This symbol indicates cross–references to other manuals. This symbol refers to notes about special MTU/ recommendations. the figure number and. reference number 2. Page . separated by an oblique. the reference number of the detail is written in brackets.

maintenance and repair personnel must therefore be guaranteed when planning and installing the engine.2 Foreword This document is a guideline for qualified personnel as an aid to the project planner. performance curves. The information contained in this document may not be complete and is subject to change without notice. This manual contains the following information: • • • General information on safety precautions.13 .Installation Manual Series 1600 2 General 2. manufacture or installation of these ancillary systems. All valid laws. The aim of these installation guidelines is to ensure that the generator set is properly installed. MTU/ make no representations or warranties regarding the information contained in this document and disclaim all liability or other responsibility for the design. The installation guidelines do not relieve those in charge of the system from their responsibility to perform accurate work and proper inspections by skilled and qualified personnel. and regulations must be observed. manufacturing and installing these systems. The equipment manufacturer is also responsible for furnishing complete service and safety information for these systems to equipment users. reliability. Easy access for operating. lubrication. and installation drawings Specific component and accessory information on various production models Information on the electrical. the following current technical documents should be consulted: • • • • • • • Engine installation drawings Schematic diagrams Sound spectra Technical engine data Accessory drawings etc. De-rating table Operating instructions Exclusion of Liability MTU/ will not accept liability for damage caused to the engine due to the customer’s installation if the installation requirements stated in this manual are not followed Page . ordinances. designing. The equipment manufacturer is responsible for developing. plant and generator set constructor and also for assembly companies that plan and carry out installation of MTU/ diesel engines.1 Abstract This manual discusses the proper installation and application of the MTU/ Series 1600 Oil & Gas and Generator Set Engines. In addition to the installation guidelines. including component qualification. and a long service life. exhaust. or the preparation or distribution to equipment users of appropriate information regarding these systems. Performance of the required maintenance work contributes to operational dependability. fuel. and air inlet systems 2. cooling. It is intended to be used by equipment manufacturers and contains MTU/ ’s recommendations for the ancillary systems supporting the MTU/ engines covered by this document.

• The engine must never be used as a grounding point.3. This documentation contains specially highlighted safety instructions. • Never lay the welding cable over or in the vicinity of any cables of the engine /generator set. • If operating an engine in an enclosed area. birth defects.2. and other reproductive harm. pullers and punches. These safety instructions must be observed and followed in order to prevent injury and material damage. PERSONAL INJURY Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the State of California to cause cancer. • Always start and operate an engine in a well ventilated area.14 . • Do not modify or tamper with the exhaust system or emission control system.2 Glasses Select appropriate safety glasses for the job. (less than 60 cm or 24 inches). the following must be done to avoid damage to the ADEC electronic controls and the engine: • Both the positive (+) and negative (-) battery leads must be disconnected before welding. 2. exhaust pipe). Welding currents could be induced into the cables. 2. and those safety precautions defined by law must be observed. • If welding must be carried out on parts connected to the engine (e. • The ground cable must be in close proximity to welding location.g. Safety glasses must be worn when using tools such as hammers. Adherence to the following safety measures is essential when installing MTU/ Series 1600 engines. Do not rely on either the jack or the hoist to carry the load. which may cause damage to the engine/generator set. which could lead to pitting of the mounts. • Welding on the engine or engine mounted components is NEVER recommended. This may cause burn and scorch marks on mounts.3. these parts must be removed from the engine prior to welding.1 Stands Use safety stands in conjunction with hydraulic jacks or hoists. vent the exhaust to the outside. NOTICE: When welding. accident prevention regulations. 2. Page . chisels.3 Welding Consider the consequences of welding.3.3 Safety Precautions General safety instructions.

or other restraining device at all times to prevent gas cylinders from falling. but stand them upright when in use. • Always close valves completely when finished welding or cutting.Installation Manual Series 1600 Wear welding goggles and gloves when welding or using an acetylene torch. Insure that a metal shield separates the acetylene and oxygen that must be chained to a cart. • Do not place gas cylinders on their sides. the gage end could strike an obstruction and fracture. Always perform welding or cutting operations in a well ventilated area. gas welding. Eliminate the possibility of a fall by: • • Wiping up oil spills Keeping tools and parts off the floor Page . • Do not drop. Observe the following precautions when using oxygen/acetylene gas cylinders: • Always wear required safety shoes. If a cylinder should fall resulting in the gage end breaking off. wear required safety equipment such as an arc welder's face plate or gas welder's goggles. • Use a chain. protective apron. 2. head protection. The gas in oxygen/acetylene cylinders used in gas welding and cutting is under high pressure. roll. the sudden release of cylinder pressure will turn the cylinder into a dangerous projectile. • Do not handle tanks in a careless manner or with greasy gloves or slippery hands. drag. resulting in a gas leak leading to fire or an explosion. or cutting.4 Work Place Never put lines to any use other than that for which they are intended. welding gloves.15 . and safety shoes. Organize your work area and keep it clean. check for fuel or oil leaks before welding or carrying an open flame near the engine. FIRE To avoid injury from fire. immediately clean up any spilled liquids.3. bracket. If a cylinder should fall due to careless handling. NOTICE: Cover the engine when welding in its vicinity PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from arc welding. Never use lines for climbing . PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury from slipping and falling. long sleeve shirt. or strike a cylinder forcefully.

16 . PERSONAL INJURY To avoid injury when working near or on an operating engine. use care when connecting battery cables. sandals or sneakers are not acceptable foot-wear when installing an engine. do not remove and discard safety guards. EYE INJURY To avoid injury from flying debris when using compressed air. Never use lines for climbing.3. guards or shields Check to be sure that all tools and equipment used to install the engine are removed from the engine 2. Check power tools before using. wear adequate eye protection (face shield or safety goggles) and do not exceed 40 psi (276 kPa) air pressure. remove loose items of clothing and jewellery. Page .3.3. Work shoes must be sturdy and rough-soled. Tie back or contain long hair that could be caught in any moving part causing injury. The magnetic switch studs are at battery voltage.A fall could result in a serious injury. 2. • • Reinstall all safety devices. After installation of the engine is complete: To avoid injury from rotating belts and fans.5 Clothing Wear work clothing that fits and is in good repair. 2.6 Electric Tools Improper use of electrical equipment can cause severe injury. Bare feet. Never put lines to any use other than that for which they are intended.7 Air Use proper shielding to protect everyone in the work area. To avoid injury from electrical shock.

See a doctor at once. These fluids can infect a minor cut or opening in the skin. • Get medical attention immediately. if injured by escaping fluid.8 Fluids and Pressure Be extremely careful when dealing with fluids under pressure. If you come in contact with battery acid: • Flush your skin with water. apron. To avoid injury from penetrating fluids. and avoid sparks or flames near the battery.9 Batteries Electrical storage batteries give off highly flammable hydrogen gas when charging and continue to do so for some time after receiving a steady charge. Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure. rubber gloves. Page . never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature. and boots). use care when connecting battery cables.Installation Manual Series 1600 2. To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid. do not put your hands in front of fluid under pressure.3. Electrical Shock To avoid injury from electrical shock. Always establish correct polarity before connecting cables to the battery or battery circuit.3.17 . work in a wellventilated area. 2. wear protective clothing. The magnetic switch studs are at battery voltage. Fluids under pressure can have enough force to penetrate the skin. Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield. HOT COOLANT To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant. Serious infection or reaction can result without immediate medical treatment. Always disconnect the battery cable before working on the ADEC system. • Flush your eyes with water. • Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid. Fluids under pressure can penetrate skin and clothing.

wear eye protection (goggles and faceplate) and neoprene or PVC gloves when handling fluoro-elastomer O-rings or seals. Fluoro-elastomer will decompose (indicated by charring or the appearance of a black. which will be installed by third parties and which are not part of the core engine (i.12 Fluoroelastomer (VITON) Fluor rubber (Viton) parts such as O-rings and seals are perfectly safe to handle under normal design conditions. Wash equipment and parts well with lime water (calcium hydroxide solution) before reusing if hydrogen fluoride condensate is expected. Discard gloves after handling degraded fluoro-elastomer.3. Fire Extinguisher Type A Type B Type C Table 0-1 Work Environment Wood. non-metallic fuel line surface temperatures don’t exceed 100°C / 212°F. exhaust piping). may cause severe burns (the symptoms could be delayed for several hours). nor during engine stop.2. which have been degraded by excess heat.3. Do not handle engine parts until they have cooled. To avoid injury from degraded flouro-elastomer parts. that neither during engine operation. sticky mass) and produce hydrofluoric acid. A potential hazard may occur if these components are raised to a temperature above 600_F (316_C) (in a fire for example).13 Hot Surface Components NOTICE: Hot-surface components. need to be installed and/or insulated in a way.3. if touched by bare skin.10 Fire Keep a charged fire extinguisher within reach. The correct fire extinguisher types for specific working environments are listed in Table 0-1. Be sure you have the correct type of extinguisher for the situation.11 Paint Mask off the ECM and EFC.e. 2. 3 Transport and Storage Page . NOTICE: Do not apply paint to the ECM or EFC. 2. The application of paint may affect the performance of the ECM and EFC. prior to applying any paint. Paper. This acid is extremely corrosive and. Textile and Rubbish Flammable Liquids Electrical Equipment The Correct Type of Fire Extinguisher 2.18 .3.

Installation Manual Series 1600 3.3 Installation Check All documents to do a proper installation check are provided in the MTU Business Portal (BP). Before the plant is put into operation. There should be no tools or foreign parts in the genset’s area of operation. not a complete generator package.see installation drawings.1 Transport The following information should be considered before transporting the engine: • • • • • • • Lift the engine only with suitable lifting equipment. Centre of gravity is shown in the engine installation drawings. Page . The lifting eyes are designed for the engine weight only. They are listed within a table in chapter “Commissioning Tools”. The lifting eyes installed on the engine are intended for lifting the engine only. and cover with an oil resistant cover. In the case of special packing (e. Lift the engine/generator set only using the provided lifting eyes on the generator set frame. If seaworthy packing (vacuum sealed air tight aluminium foil) is used.) must be in place. For detailed instructions on proper preservation of the engine refer to Service Publication Fluids and Lubricants Specification (A001063/0xE). The engine should only be lifted by utilizing the factory supplied lifting eyes . Transport generator set only when utilizing the crankshaft lock and when the engine vibration mounts are blocked (if vibration isolators are included). 3. do not use additional covering and monitor the moisture indicator regularly. with aluminium foil). 3.g. lift the engine by the lifting eyes of the engine-shipping skid or transport it with a forklift truck. 3. Store the engine/generator set in a dry room on the original wooden frame or other suitable frame.4 Initial Operation The plant may only be commissioned under the supervision of a qualified specialist in plant construction.2 Storage The following information should be considered before preserving the engine: • • • Preserve the engine/generator set in accordance with the preservation procedures outlined in the operator’s manual and Fluids an Lubricants documentation unless special procedures are applicable. the following conditions must be satisfied first: • • • • • All work on the plant must be completed All work has been performed correctly All safety equipment (protective grilles etc.19 . The section entitled “Initial Operation” in the Engine Operation Manual and in the Governor Manual are read and followed.

corrosion inhibitor oil and antifreeze) approved by the MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specification are used.20 .• • Fluids and lubricants (such as fuel. Page . The engine governor is checked and optimized in accordance with MTU setting instructions. greases. oils.

g.: • • • • • • • Engine (filled with oil.2. coolant and fuel) Alternator Radiator (filled with coolant) Piping (filled with coolant.2. The engine room should be configured in such a way that the appropriate components and the filling/draining points are freely accessible for maintenance and repair work.2 Genset Foundation 4. load-bearing capacity of which is designed to accommodate the heaviest individual component. fuel …) Skid Coupling Accessories Page . 4. 4. Appropriate action must be taken to even out foundation irregularities in the area of the genset contact surfaces so as to ensure a distortion-free setup. With approved non-crack.Installation Manual Series 1600 4 Engine-Generator Set Room 4.3 Loads into the Foundation 4.1 General The engine room should be • • • Equipped with a lifting gear.1 Responsibilities Structural design and construction of the foundation or the floor surface are not included in MTU scope of supply.1 Static Load The static load is the sum of the weights of all components like e.2 Construction The foundation or the floor surface should be manufactures from a single piece of reinforced concrete (without a layer of concrete or flooring).3.21 . The base skip can be secured to the foundation by means of dowels or bonding. The foundation and floor should be designed by an experienced supporting-framework planner in accordance with applicable regulations 4. oil-resistant paint to the surface of the foundation .

g.1 General Although MTU engines theoretically demonstrate complete mass balancing. 4.3.2 Single Resilient Mounting Figure 4-2 Page .2 Dynamic Load 4. The extent of this load is dependent on the resilient mounting configuration.Figure 4-1 4. Special load types such as e. dynamic loads are created by tolerance-conditioned free inertia forces and moments and by the dynamic share of the indicated engine speed moment.22 . These dynamic loads are introduced to the foundation via the base skid. shock and earthquake load transmissions cannot be dealt with here.3.2. The overall foundation is calculated from the total of individual loads.3.2.

3.Installation Manual Series 1600 4.23 .3 Generator Short-Circuit Torque Short-circuit torque M depends on • • Alternator manufacturer Alternator model Figure 4-4 Page .2.3 Double Resilient Mounting Figure 4-3 4.3.

Depression Ventilation System 4.1 Definition Forced ventilation of the engine-generator set room is realized by engine mounted and electrically-driven fans.1 Ventilation Overview Engine-generator set room ventilation is critical to provide adequate air volume to dissipate heat radiated from: • • • • • The engine The cooling system The CAC system The generator The exhaust pipe The ventilation provides the adequate air volume • • • • To dissipate harmful emissions For engine combustion For a safe working environment To ensure applicable regulatory requirements are observed For MTU Onsite Energy radiator mounted cooling systems. Engine-generator set room ventilation methods are as follows: • • Natural Forced 4.4 Ventilation System 4. The air inlets and outlets should be arranged in such a manner to achieve the best possible degree of room ventilation without any so-called dead corners. It is advisable to route the flow of air past the generator first and then the engine. this in turn ensures a relatively steady supply of fresh air to the engine room.A value of 6 to10 times engine rated torque can be estimated as the short-circuit torque. Additional transverse forces of approx. Page .3.2 Natural Ventilation Engine -generator set rooms without forced ventilation devices relying totally an natural ventilation are not recommended by MTU Onsite Energy and therefore not covered in this manual.4. This load acts with 50 or 60 Hz alternately on both sides of the base skid in vertical direction and dies down after approx.5 s. H2O). Performance of the engine-generator set may be impaired if air circulation or cooling is inadequate.12 kPa (-0.24 . Depression ventilation is the simplest solution in this case. 4.3 Forced Ventilation . Depression is created when warm air is extracted from the engine room. 0. the engine-generator set room depression as measured between the inside and outside of the room must not exceed -0. 4.5 in.4. 20% of static load.4.4.

2 Depression Ventilation Figure 4-5 : Depression ventilation system by means of a front-end cooler system 1 Engine 5 Noise attenuation 2 Generator 6 Adjustable louvers 10 Adjustable louvers 3 Cooling + combustion air 7 Noise attenuation 11 Outlet air volume corresponding 4 Weather + rodent guard 8 Outlet air Page .4.25 9 Weather + rodent guard to cooling air volume .Installation Manual Series 1600 4.3.

3. • Fresh air is drawn in from a dust-free area. between the filter and the enginegenerator set room and create overpressure in the room. In this case.3 Forced Ventilation .4. for example.Overpressure Ventilation System The pressure in a force-ventilated engine-generator set room is marginally higher than atmospheric pressure.Figure 4-6 : Depression ventilation system by means of electrically-driven fans 1 Engine 5 Noise attenuation 9 2 Generator 6 Adjustable louvers 10 Weather + rodent guard Adjustable louvers 3 Cooling + combustion air 7 Noise attenuation 11 Fan arrangement corresponding 4 Weather + rodent guard 8 Outlet air to calculated air volumes 4.26 . the fans are located on the air inlet side. Page . The overpressure in the room corresponds to the pressurized air resistance. This ventilation method is usually used in cases where: • Filtering of the engine room inlet air is required.

4.3. Finalized values require recalculation taking on-site conditions into consideration.27 .4 Determining Air Requirement The calculations and guidelines provided below are approximate. The air requirement needed for adequate ventilation of the engine room can be calculated as follows: Page .Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 4-7 : Forced feed ventilation system 1 Engine 5 Noise attenuation 9 Outlet air 2 Generator 6 Adjustable louvers 10 Weather + rodent guard 3 Cooling + combustion air 7 Fan arrangement 11 Adjustable louvers 4 Weather + rodent guard 8 Noise attenuation 4.

1 Louvers The air inlets and outlets must feature louvers to allow fresh air into the engine-generator set room when the engine-generator set is operating and to prevent air flow when the engine-generator set is not in operation.3. The air resistance of the louvers depends on the size of the clear opening. air speed and the shape of the slats and must be specified separately by the louver supplier.4. Page .4.4 Components 4. 4. Furthermore.28 .5 Guidelines an Data Source Please refer to the MTU engine TVU data for guidelines and data required to determine the combustion air volume. foliage and small animals.4. The data can be found in the MTU Business Portal or obtained from the local MTU Onsite Energy authorized distributor/dealer. Louvers are generally installed in openings in the masonry or on the inside.4.4. louvers afford the ventilation system good protection against intrusion from water.

4. Louvers open at any power interruption. 4. This louver variant requires careful installation in the right position taking the direction of air flow into consideration.4.4 Fixed Louvers Fixed louvers afford the ventilation system good protection against intrusion from water.5 Electrically Controlled Louvers All functions on fully-automated engine-generator sets are controlled by an automatic control system.4. Gravity louvers afford the ventilation system good protection in the closed position against intrusion from water. electrically-controlled louvers may be installed which are actuated by electrical servomotors. The powered closed louver system is the MTU Onsite Energy preferred method. foliage and small animals.29 . 4.4. Page .servomotor opens louvers when active.4. All electrically-controlled louvers may also be controlled by a room air thermostat.Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 4-8 4. Powered closed .3 Gravity Louvers Gravity louvers are often used in engine-generator set rooms. In this case. foliage and small animals. The slats of the louver are kept open by the flow of air when the engine-generator set is running.2 Manually Controlled Louvers Louvers which are opened and closed manually may be installed for engine-generator sets which are started manually. The louvers must open when the enginegenerator set starts. 4.4.4.4.servomotor closes louvers when active. The slats close by their own weight when the engine-generator set is not operating. There are two types of systems: • • Powered open .

The following representative engine configurations can be found in the Business Portal (Installation Drawings): • • • • 6R Series 1600 G 8V Series 1600 G 10V Series 1600 G 12V Series 1600 G 5. Page .1.5 Diesel Engine Series 1600 5.2 Series 1600 Serial Number Identification The first two digits of every series 1600 engine are sixteen (16).1 Engine Component Identification This section explains the methods of engine identification used for the Series 1600 engines. The eleven-digit serial number designates whether the engine is: • • • A Series 1600 engine built in Detroit (DT) A Series 1600 engine built in Friedrichshafen (FN) A Series 1600 engine built in Suzhou 5. After this Number of cylinders and arrangement Description Production plant Location 3 6R 01 Friedrichshafen 5 8V 02 Detroit 6 10V 03 Suzhou 7 12V … … Series Number of cylinders and arrangement Production plant 1600 10V FN 16 6 01 Sequential build number 000005 This means that an engine with the serial number 16601000005 is the fifth 10V engine that was produced in Friedrichshafen.1 Engine Serial Number Identification There are serial number formulas assigned to the Series 1600 engines.1.30 .

Diesel Engine Application Code System 5. Normal varying load factors and/or constant dedicated loads must not exceed 75% of the limited running time power rating. the cylinder bank on the left is the A bank and the closest cylinder to the viewer on that bank is named A1. The generator set may operated at rated power for the duration of the utility outage. thus the A1 access cover is found directly below the A1 cylinder.31 .3 Engine Cylinder Labeling The Series 1600 cylinder labeling follows the ISO1204 nomenclature. For cylinder labeling. the viewpoint is taken from the rear of the engine looking forward. Application Application Group Code Gen Set Prime Power Gen Set Limited Running Time Power Gen Set Standby Power Figure 5-1 3B 3C 3D Definition This type of rating applies to heavy-duty diesel generator sets when used as a utility power source. the average load factor must not exceed 75% of the prime power rating. The cylinder block access covers are labelled A1 for left rear and B1 for right rear. From this position.Installation Manual Series 1600 5. It is subject to normal varying load conditions. This type of rating applies to heavy-duty diesel generator sets when used as a utility power source that will deliver rated power for up to 1000 hours per year. This type of rating applies to heavy-duty diesel generator sets when used in the event of a utility power failure. When averaged over a 24-hour period. Under these conditions the generator set may be operated for an unlimited number of hours per year.2 Engine Application Code Designation The next figure shows the diesel engine application code designation system. The right cylinder bank is the B bank and the closest cylinder to the viewer is named B1. Figure 5-2 Cylinder labelling Page . with an intermittent overload capability of 10% for no more than 1 hour in every 12 hours operation. The generator set will operate with an average load factor of less then 85% of the rated power and will operate up to 500 hours over the course of a year.

deviations are possible in the entire engine noise spectrum. The right-band column of the spectrum is headed “LA” and “LIN”. LIN stands for the unweighted (shown spectrally in the diagram).4 Sound data 5.e. the distance of the microphone from the enginee reference surface during the measurement.e. This sound pressure spectrum (in contrast to a sound output spectrum with the reference variable 1 x 10-12 W). merely logarithmically added up level of the spectrum in dB. If other air filters are useed. The spectra are based on measurements with MTU standard air filters.1 Explanation of the Sound Spectra Third-octave and octave spectra are shown. Note: Some engine manufacturers determine the engine surface noise without the intake noise (suction intake from outside). i.4. When comparing with MTU Engines. is 1 m. This normally corresponds to the standard setting-up conditions of gensets. 5. The cross bars shown underneath identify the sum level. The term free-field noise means that the level calculated in the test bay is reduced by the proportion of background noise (if present) as well as by the proportion reflected by the test bay walls. also referred as the “total level”.32 .4 Engine Specific Noise Data and Spectra All engine specific noise data and sound spectra are published in the MTU Business Portal. The measuring distance. outdoors.4. The spectrum is energetically averaged from measured values at 2 points at a distance of 1 m from the pipe outer edge under an angle of 90° to the pipe centre line. The free-field noise is recorded already. Tolerance: +5 dB for single 1/3-octave bands +2 dB for mean excess Note: Some engine manufacturers publish A-weighted spectra. 5. it is essential to ensure that the spectra are available in the same form. LA stands for the weighted-sum level in db(A). The spectra are shownin accordance with the standard unweighted in dB. i.4. 5. This produces lower levels. Only in this way is it possible to compare such spectra of of different engine manufacturers.4. i.e.5 Air Inlet System An internal combustion engine must receive an adequate supply of air for combustion to develop full rated power and burn fuel efficiently. there is no room level correction. This must be taken into account in the comparison with MTU engines and in the project configuration.e. the measured values already include the intake noise. 5. The performance of the engine is affected by the following factors: • • Combustion air volume Ambient air temperature Page . The reference variable is 2 x 10-5 Pa.2 Engine Surface Noise (Mean Free-Field Spectrum) The spectra shown are energetically averaged spectra from a number of measuring points that depend on the size of the engine.5. i.3 Undamped Exhaust Noise Since measurement of the exhaust noise (without silencer) takes place outside of the test bay.

At the beginning of the compression stroke.9 % may be used. The expanding exhaust gases turn a single stage turbocharger wheel. and engine life. fuel consumption. The pressurized intake charge is routed from the discharge side of the turbochargers.6 Installation Requirements The combustion air intake system should be designed to: • • • • • • • Prevent preheating of intake air Prevent exhaust gas re-circulation Ensure service friendly filter position Minimize debris ingress during filter element change Prevent water ingress Ensure the turbocharger does not support the weight of the air intake system Ensure the intake duct is isolated from engine vibrations in the case of remote installation 5. Page . must be adapted to environmental conditions. All series 1600 engines have: • Air to Air Charge Cooling (A/AC) – This features charge air connections on the engine that are connected to and from a radiator (air to air cooling). which drives an impeller. The parts and materials must be designed to withstand the working environment that applies to the system. which directs the air to ports in the cylinder heads. The complete engine air inlet system consists of the following components: • • • • • Air cleaner and associated pipe work Turbochargers Charge air cooler piping Charge air cooler (CAC) Intake manifolds The intake air enters the turbochargers after passing through the air cleaner. exhaust emissions. each cylinder is filled with clean air. and engine life. 5. The design of the air inlet system has a direct effect on the engine power output. Tests to determine the service life of an air cleaner are usually performed in accordance with SAE J726C and/or ISO 5011. MTU/ diesel engines must be fitted with combustion air filters. exhaust emissions. There are two main components to the application of an air inlet system: the air cleaner and the ducting (piping). through two intake valves per cylinder.6.1 General Air Filter System The air inlet system has a direct effect on engine output. Power to drive the turbochargers is extracted from energy in the engine exhaust gases.33 . dry. The turbochargers supply air under pressure to the intake manifolds.Installation Manual Series 1600 • Barometric pressure The function of the air inlet system is to furnish to the engine cylinders an adequate supply of clean. thus pressuring intake air. This charge air is then cooled by a charge air cooler (CAC) for improved combustion efficiency prior to entering the engine intake manifolds. These filters must satisfy allowable inlet restriction requirements. including pre-filters. The efficiency of the filter system. fuel consumption. Only dry paper air filters with a filter efficiency > 99. through the CAC to the intake manifolds. cool air for proper fuel combustion. The ducting between the air cleaner and turbocharger inlet should be airtight. and into the cylinders.

Determine desired service life. Noise spectrum data on TVU is based on measurement with the factory supplied single stage dry air cleaners. operating environment.34 . The choice of air cleaner depends upon the engine type. The service life of the filters can be increased by using dry air cleaners with pre–separation (centrifugal action pre-cleaners). contact MTU/ Series 1600 Application Engineering. application. In this case. with the coarser dust particles being separated out first. and desired service life. including the need for oil-bath air cleaners. 5. etc.6. Determine total air intake system restriction. Materials that contain rust. dusty. Select the appropriate cleaner from the manufacturer’s recommendations.6. In those cases. 5.3 Inlet Screens An inlet screen may be used with an air cleaner when larger airborne material is encountered in an operating environment. Page .) 5.2 Air Cleaners The air cleaners protect the engine from abrasive airborne contaminants. 5. 2.6. The inlet screen should be inspected frequently and cleaned as necessary. MTU/ recognize that oil bath air cleaners may be necessary in locations where dry type air cleaners are not readily available. This may be necessary in dusty environments or in conjunction with continuous operation. Choose an appropriate air cleaner as follows: 1.g. If any further questions remain regarding air cleaner selection. oil-bath type air cleaners are acceptable when used according to the air cleaner manufacturer’s guidelines and MTU/ air system requirements. moisture. 4. Determine the maximum engine airflow requirement and the clean and dirty restriction limitations from TVU. emergency power operation) single stage filters are normally sufficient. Heavy duty dry paper element type cleaners are recommended for use on MTU/ engines. (e. 3. mill scale or other deposits should not be used in the air intake system since they may cause excessive engine wear. Safety element is recommended in 3A and 3B applications.4 Rain Caps and Inlet Hoods The entrance to the air cleaner must be designed to ensure that no water or snow can enter the air cleaner. saline atmosphere. Define operating environment (e. the intake air is rotated by guide blades arranged at an angle. Dry paper element air cleaners must meet the following requirements: • • • • Sufficient filter efficiency Good structural integrity and quality workmanship Sufficient service life Easily accessible for maintenance with adequate space provided for replacement of the element.g. Rain caps or inlet hoods are required for applications that expose the engine air inlet to rain or snow. The service life is proportional to the dust holding capacity of the air cleaner. which cause excessive engine wear. In the case of short operating times.The filter configuration also influences the engine noise level. An inlet screen will prevent large airborne material from blocking air passage through the air cleaner elements.

Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 5-3 Rain Cap and Inlet Hood 5.6.6. 5. The installer should consult the supplier for specific recommendations. Factors contributing to high inlet restriction include: • • • • Small intake pipe diameter Excessive number of sharp bends in system Long pipe between the air cleaner and turbocharger compressor inlet High air cleaner resistance Air inlet restriction that is too high may result in: • • • • • Reduced power Poor fuel economy High combustion temperature Over-heating Reduced engine life 5.6 Restriction / Maintenance Indicator A restriction/maintenance indicator must be installed in the air system to indicate when air cleaner system maintenance is required. High inlet restriction may cause insufficient air for combustion.7 Pipe Work Page .35 . Air inlet restriction is an important parameter of the air inlet system. Care should be taken to ensure that the intake restriction is not raised above the allowable limit for clean air cleaners. Refer to TVU for maximum allowed intake air restriction.6.5 Inlet Silencers Appreciable reductions in noise levels can sometimes be achieved with the use of inlet silencers. Inlet silencers operate on the same principle as exhaust silencers.

Keep piping lengths short and minimize the number of bends and restriction incurred in the system. which are in line and close together.8 Hose Connections Use the following for hose connections: • • • • • Plain (non reinforced) hose sections to connect items of rigid pipe work. Use appropriate insulation or shielding to minimize radiated heat from these sources to the inlet system. High quality “Hump" hose is capable of meeting these requirements. The tube ends require a 2. Fibreglass piping between the air cleaner and the turbocharger compressor inlet is also acceptable.2 Diffusers Make any necessary cross-sectional changes in the piping diameter gradually rather than using sudden expansions or contractions (see Figure 5-2).6.Give careful attention to the pipe work and associated fittings used in the inlet system in order to minimize restriction and maintain reliable sealing.6.).0 and preferably 4.) minimum bead to retain hose and clamp connections. Stainless steel piping is recommended in environments that have saline atmospheres or high concentrations of salt. etc.7.7. oil spinner filter. rocker covers. Keep air ducts away from heat sources such as exhaust manifolds. Give careful attention to accessibility to service related parts (i. or have little relative motion.. Figure 5-4 Diffuser Configurations 5. Constant torque clamps to provide positive clamping and to prevent piping separation.09 in. Use smooth bend elbows with a bend radius to tube diameter (R/D) ratio of at least 2.0. etc. Page . 5.1 Pipe work material specifications Aluminium or aluminized steel seamless tubing should be used. 5. A short section of reinforced hose between the ductwork sections where significant relative motion or misalignment occurs.e.36 . Minimum number of hose connections to reduce risk of leaks that may allow ingress of unfiltered air MTU/ does not approve the use of hoses with internal coil spring insertions.6. MTU/ does not recommend the use of metered elbows of less than five sections.3 mm (0.

which allows both equipment and operating personnel to function effectively. the combustion air must be taken from outside the engine room. The vapour that is discharged from the crankcase breather on the valve covers is routed through an oil separator that routes the oil to the pan and the air to the inlet of the turbocharger.6. Hoses must be resistant to fuel.1.1 Maximum Inlet Air Flow The first step in the design of the air inlet system is to determine the maximum airflow requirement for the engine.7.7. Page .).37 . Additionally. 5. depression up to 12. the temperature rise inside the engine room must remain low with respect to the outside air. The main design criteria for the air inlet system includes: • • • • Maximum inlet air flow Air intake restriction Inlet location Temperature rise from ambient to turbo inlet Refer to the TVU data of the specific engine rating for limits on each of these criteria. 5. Closed crankcase breather systems vents crankcase vapour back into the air inlet stream of the engine. Important: For closed engine room applications adequate engine room ventilation must be provided for an environment.7.5 kPa (50” H2O) and temperatures of up to 150°C (302°F ). but no closer than 127 mm (5 in. 5.9 Closed Crankcase Breather System A closed crankcase breather system is standard for the Series 1600 engines.1 Restriction / Maintenance Indicator The restriction/maintenance indicator should be located in a straight section of tubing as close to the turbocharger compressor inlet as practical. 5.7 Design Guidelines The installed inlet system must be designed in accordance with the technical guidelines outlined in Section 4.2 Air Inlet System Restriction 5. The restriction indicator should be placed perpendicular to the plane of the bend where measurement on a bend is unavoidable. If this is not possible to a sufficient degree.Installation Manual Series 1600 • • Hoses used in the inlet system must be of adequate specification to withstand service conditions.2. Refer to TVU for maximum airflow values. lube oil. The fittings should be at right angles to the tube and flush with the inside of the tube.

2 Air inlet restriction calculation The restriction of the air inlet system is equal to the sum of the individual restrictions in the system. Air Inlet Restriction Calculation Rain Cap or Inlet Hood Restriction ________________ mbar (“H2O) Pre-cleaner Restriction + ________________ mbar (“H2O) Air Cleaner Restriction + ________________ mbar (“H2O) Piping Restriction + ________________ mbar (“H2O) Other ___________________ + ________________ mbar (“H2O) Total Air Inlet Restriction = ________________ mbar (“H2O) Figure 5-6 Air Inlet Restriction Calculation For the initial sizing of the air inlet system use the turbo inlet diameter.Figure 5-5 Static Pressure Tap The operating setting of the indicator should correspond to the maximum permissible inlet restriction for systems with dirty filters. and piping. air cleaners. Refer to TVU for permissible air inlet restriction values. Increase the pipe size or modify the piping configuration if the air intake restriction exceeds the maximum limit. 5.7.2. These include rain caps. provided that it is connected to a tapping point close to the turbocharger inlet. inlet hoods. When silencers. Page . cleaners.38 .

4 Pipe Work • • • • • • • • Consider the following when designing an air inlet system: Limit the use of bends or elbows. The air intake system should be designed with a minimum number of bends. 5. All air inlet connections should be securely fastened. engine air restriction is increased.5 Flexible Connection The purpose of flexible piping in the air inlet system is to allow for engine torque-over. To keep the restriction within specifications. Nitrile rubber becomes brittle and cracks under high temperature Premature failure of the turbocharger. Use the most direct route for piping to minimize the pipe length. obstructions and lengths of pipe. engine displacement. engine displacement. Protect air inlet piping from all sources of heat. Installing elbows back-to-back can result in higher losses than estimates would indicate.Installation Manual Series 1600 piping and engine room air inlets are insufficiently sized.7. or joints could occur if flexible piping is not employed.7. and facilitate alignment of the engine with the off-engine piping. NOTICE: Nitrile rubber is not an acceptable material for a flexible connection to the turbocharger compressor inlet.3 Inlet Location Position the air inlet such that it will: • • • • • Supply lowest available temperature level into air intake system Minimize inlet air temperature rise from ambient to turbo inlet Prevent exhaust fumes from being drawn into the air inlet system Minimize the ingress of dust and moisture Prevent the ingress of water and snow 5. properly sized components must be installed and maintained. charge air piping. Use long radius elbows rather than metered joints when an elbow is required. The rubber material must be capable of withstanding temperatures up to 150°C (302°F ). and thermal expansion. 5.8 Testing Requirements • • • • A thorough evaluation of the air inlet system will include: Complete descriptions and documentation of the system in the End Product Questionnaire (EPQ) form Adequate instrumentation Proper test preparation Page .39 .7. thermal expansion. Isolate off-engine air piping from the engine to allow for engine torque-over. Typically a rubber "hump" hose is used before the compressor inlet to provide isolation. 5.

Tests should be run on a production installation or an installation representative of the final installation. Refer to the engine installation drawing for the location of the air restriction gauge port.• • • Accurate tests Data analysis and documentation Diagnostics (troubleshooting) and corrective action (if necessary) These tests must be run on all new installations. Thermocouples should be located downstream of the pressure taps.2 Restriction Measurement Use a precision gauge or a water manometer capable of reading a minimum of 5.0 kPa (20 in. H2O).8. Take the measurement from the air restriction gauge port located in front of each turbo inlet.8. The appropriate section of the EPQ form must be completed for documentation of these tests.1 Instrumentation 5. 5. or whenever modifications have been made to the engine. 5.2 Test Thorough preparations prior to testing will ensure accurate results. Shutters must be fully opened and fan drive mechanisms fully engaged.1.1 Temperature Measurement Use a precision thermocouple and an appropriate read-out device to measure temperatures. 5.8. engine repowers. engine load. duty cycle. Engine should be at normal operation temperature and run at full load. Air inlet System Data Sheet Description Additional Information Ambient Temperature Air Inlet Temperature _______________ Measured @ Turbo Inlet °C (°F) _______________ °C (°F) Air Inlet Restriction: • “A” Bank • “B” Bank (Series 1600) (Series 1600) _______________ _______________ mbar (“H2O) mbar (“H2O) Note: Refer to TVU for permissible air inlet restriction values Figure 5-7 Air Inlet System Data Sheets Page . air inlet system. or environmental operating conditions.40 Measurement . • • • • Confirm all instrumentation and equipment is calibrated and in good working condition.1.8. Refer to Figure 4-12 for the location of the thermocouples.

The following illustration details the standard components of a turbocharger. See Figure 6-1. and installation requirements for the Series 1600 engine exhaust system. These exhaust gases expand through the exhaust turbine to drive the turbocharger compressor wheel.2 Turbocharger All turbochargers convert exhaust gas energy into compressed intake air. Page . 6. Condensation from exhaust lines pollutes ground water.41 .1 Exhaust System Description Refer to Business Portal (BP) for a schematic of the Series 1600 exhaust system. Appropriate measures must be taken with regard to: • Protection against contact • Fire protection. Exhaust lines can reach temperatures of over 600º C (1112º F). This section describes the functions.Installation Manual Series 1600 6 Exhaust System The purpose of the exhaust system is to remove the exhaust gases to an appropriate discharge location and to reduce the exhaust noise to an acceptable level. The exhaust system consists of: • • • • • Exhaust valves Exhaust manifold Turbocharger Exhaust piping Muffler Exhaust gases exit the cylinders through exhaust ports and into the exhaust manifold. The gases then exit through the exhaust pipes and mufflers to the atmosphere. 6. PERSONAL INJURY Exhaust gases are harmful to your health. application.

the exhaust gases flow from the engine and through the turbine housing causing the turbine wheel and shaft to rotate. Figure 6-2 Schematic Turbocharged Air Flow Diagram After the engine is started. compresses it. The compressor wheel. See Figure 6-2. is mounted on the opposite end of the turbine wheel shaft and rotates with the turbine wheel.42 . Power to drive the turbocharger is extracted from the energy in the engine exhaust gas. The gases are discharged into the exhaust system after passing through the turbine housing. in the compressor housing. and Page .Figure 6-1 1 2 3 Standard Turbocharger Assembly Compressor Housing V-Band Clamp Centre Housing 4 5 Turbine Housing Centre Housing Bolt The turbocharger is designed to increase the overall efficiency of the engine. The compressor wheel draws in clean air.

starter.Installation Manual Series 1600 delivers high-pressure air to the charge air cooler and then to the intake manifolds and then to the engine cylinders. etc. Ensure that the configuration is favourable for the flow. Adequate clearance must be provided for the complete exhaust system. rather than metered joints when an elbow is required. Where practical. The exhaust system components must not pass too close to filters. In the design of an exhaust system. engine displacement. Stationary generator sets which operate inside a building must have an exhaust system which will remove the exhaust gases to a safe area and which will keep both noise and temperature at acceptable levels." Use long radius elbows. After the turbocharger exhaust outlet the pipe size should be at minimum the diameter of the exhaust outlet.43 .3 Exhaust System Design Requirements and Guidelines The exhaust system for Series 1600 generator set engine must function under a variety of environmental conditions. When designing an exhaust system with one muffler. fuel system components. use the most direct route for piping to minimize the pipe length. 6. Screens must be fitted at the outlet to prevent small animals from entering. Condensation must be carried to a collecting tank and must be disposed of properly. and thermal expansion. fuel lines. The exhaust discharge should be free of obstructions that could restrict the gas flow and increase the system back pressure. Exposure to rain and snow and subjection to both thermal and mechanical stresses are inherent to equipment operation. On-engine exhaust system must not be insulated as this may cause damage to the engine. Drainage possibilities must be provided in the exhaust line. several factors must be considered: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Exhaust flow System back pressure must be less than allowance in TVU Exhaust piping must not generate any force onto the exhaust turbochargers Noise reduction System heat loss to the surroundings System size and space available System routing alternatives Isolation of off-engine exhaust piping from the engine to allow for engine torque-over. 6. alternator.1 Sizing Guidelines The following provides practical guidelines for exhaust system sizing: • • • • • • Limit the use of bends or "elbows. the cross sectional area of the common pipe should be the sum of cross sectional areas of the individual pipes connected to the exhaust outlet. Installing elbows "back to back" can result in higher losses than estimates would indicate. The exhaust discharge must be of a suitable design to prevent moisture from entering the engine via the exhaust piping. Page .3. Exhaust piping of multiple engines must not be joined together into a common pipe.

MTU/ can perform a back pressure calculation for an additional cost. the exhaust system sees a side-toside motion of the engine. it may also be necessary to install additional exhaust bellows. These limits can be found on TVU.2 Back Pressure The design of the exhaust system must keep the resistance to gas flow (back pressure) as low as possible and within the limits specified for a MTU Series 1600 generator set engine. piping. Page . They should be designed for axial expansion absorption (in the longitudinal direction and also be suitable for slight angular (bending) and lateral (thrust) deformation as shown on Figure . Any of the following factors can cause excessive backpressure: • • • • Small exhaust pipe diameter Excessive number of sharp bends Long exhaust piping between the turbocharger and the muffler High muffler exhaust resistance Backpressure that is too high may result in: • Non compliance with EPA certification • Reduced power • Poor fuel economy • Increased combustion temperature • Increased exhaust temperature • Engine over-heating • Reduced engine life For the initial sizing of the exhaust system use the exhaust outlet flange diameter. Due to torque-over.6. Increase the pipe size or modify the piping configuration if the calculated back pressure exceeds the maximum limit. Premature failure of the turbocharger. exhaust bellows installed immediately downstream of the engine are required. The design of the exhaust system should keep the back pressure as low as possible. If the exhaust system incorporates complicated geometry. Engine torque-over produces a twisting or rolling of the engine about its roll axis. Due to thermal expansion of the exhaust piping and the movement during start/operation of the engine. muffler.3 Flexible Connection / Exhaust Bellows The purpose of a flexible exhaust connection is to allow for engine displacement. and to facilitate alignment of the engine with the exhaust system piping.3. All calculations should adjust for STP exhaust flow rate. to allow for thermal expansion of the exhaust system. 6. or misalignment. thermal expansion. Torsional stresses (twisting) must be avoided. The exhaust system will produce a certain back pressure on the exhaust gases. or joints could occur if a flexible connection is not used. The direction of movement for flexing should be designed perpendicular to the centre axis of the pipe for proper flexible exhaust pipe installation. Depending on the length of the exhaust plumbing.44 . The recommended design for flexible connections or exhaust bellows are multi–walled metal bellows. Exhaust pipe joints and flexible connections should be free from leaks. We recommend a back pressure calculation for the entire exhaust system from the turbocharger to the discharge to ambient air. Similar calculation methods as those shown in the previous chapter can be used for calculating exhaust back pressure. Premature failure can also occur if the flexible connection used is not flexible enough to compensate for displacement. Flexible pipe has minimal ability to function along the axis of the pipe in an "accordion" action.3. manifold. The largest engine displacement normally seen is due to torque-over.

These misalignments reduce the theoretical permissible axial expansion absorption capacity.45 . as the possibility of slight lateral and angular misalignments cannot be excluded as a result of installation tolerances and engine operation.Installation Manual Series 1600 axial Figure 6-3 angular lateral Allowable Misalignment The permissible axial expansion absorption range should not be fully used. Page . Figure 6-4 shows thermal expansion of exhaust pipe work related to temperature.

thermal expansion as a result of exhaust temperature.46 .Figure 6-4 Thermal Expansion as a Function of Temperature The exhaust bellows must be expanded when installed. Page . The pre-stress required in the exhaust bellow is determined from distance between fixed point and bellow. Refer to Figure 6-4 for thermal expansion values with respect to exhaust temperatures and to Figure 6-5 for schematic representation of the installation.

etc. ensure that each have identical compensation characteristics. inspect the exhaust bellows for possible damage caused during transport. In the case of exhaust bellows equipped with an internal sleeve.e. After installation. remove clamping pieces. When installing or conducting maintenance around the exhaust bellows.47 . caused by welding).Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 6-5 Flexible Fitting / Exhaust Bellow Installation Observe the following recommendations in order to prevent common installation errors: • • • • • • • • Prior to installation. Keep the exhaust bellows free of foreign matter (dirt. Page . Prevent electrical currents from passing through the exhaust bellows (i. Ignoring these instructions may result in costly damage to the exhaust turbochargers. especially if exhaust bellows will be insulated. installation aids. ensure that the internal sleeve will not make contact with the exhaust bellow when the engine is in operation. Protect the exhaust bellows against welding spatter. cement. Electrical currents can destroy the exhaust bellows. When exhaust bellows are installed in parallel. insulation material.) that could hinder the full range of exhaust bellow motion. and transport safeguards (if present). care must be taken not to cause damage that may hinder the intended performance of the exhaust bellows.

3.5 Exhaust Insulation MTU/ does not allow any insulating of engine exhaust components (exhaust manifolds. All exhaust pipe joints and connections should be free from leaks. Isolate exhaust piping from the engine to allow for engine torque-over. 6. when it is not feasible to plumb a series of engines separately and exhaust from several engines are piped into a common manifold. turbochargers.48 . Refer to Figure 6-6 for a schematic representation of two acceptable exhaust bellow connection configurations. it becomes necessary to provide the means of closing off the exhaust of each engine on the line to avoid serious damage to an engine that is not running. MTU/ must be consulted.6. pipe sizes must become quite large to avoid excessive back pressure. The insulation protects the surroundings from the exhaust system’s high surface temperatures. but for some applications the exhaust system needs to be insulated. Mounting points should be on structurally sound members rigidly mounted on all three axis and located directly downstream from the flexible exhaust connection or “Y” connection. etc. Typically the exhaust piping is unprotected.4 Pipework The exhaust piping must be secure. With exhaust joining Separate exhaust routing Fixed point Exhaust joining Compensator Engine Figure 6-6 Engine Exhaust Bellow Connection Configurations Individual exhaust lines for each engine are recommended in multiple engine installations. In cases where insulation of engine exhaust components is required. However.3. NOTICE: Never allow the engine manifold or turbocharger to support the weight of the exhaust system.). and thermal expansion. In addition. engine displacement. Design consideration should include the following: Page . Refer to the installation drawings for additional information on the exhaust system interface. but still allow for thermal expansion and contraction.

49 . Use one of the following to prevent entry of rain and snow with vertical exhaust systems: • • • Fit a flap to the end of the exhaust tailpipe (this is not always acceptable due to clatter at low engine speed) Turn the tailpipe end through 90 degrees to give a horizontal outlet or turn outlet downward. causing pressure pulsations in the exhaust pipe. will prevent unnecessary noise from these sources. A properly matched muffler can achieve efficient attenuation with minimum exhaust restriction. Leakage from the exhaust system pipes and joints is a possible noise source. or lack of maintenance of the exhaust system. 6.7 Outlet Location Select the direction and location of the tailpipe exit to prevent the following: • • • Re-circulation of the exhaust into the air inlet system Re-circulation of the exhaust across engine cooling radiators Excessive noise emissions Vertical outlets must have some means of preventing water entry when not in operation. misalignment. Rain cap 6. Proper selection and installation of the pipes and joints. These pulsations lead not only to discharge noise at the outlet. A small drain hole may be incorporated in the lowest part of the exhaust system if the manifold has a downward exit and a curved pipe redirects the exhaust vertically upwards. In more critical situations. Do not use a drain hole on • Page .8 Drainage The exhaust pipe can accumulate a considerable amount of condensed moisture. double wall piping helps to reduce radiant noise. especially when the pipe is long. The noise arises from the intermittent release of high-pressure exhaust gas from the engine cylinders.3. Use one of the following to prevent entry of rain and snow with vertical exhaust systems: Fit a flap to the end of the exhaust tailpipe (this is not always acceptable due to clatter at low engine speeds) • Turn the tailpipe end through 90 to give a horizontal outlet A small drain hole may be incorporated in the lowest part of the exhaust system if the manifold has a downward exit and a curved pipe redirects the exhaust vertically upwards. In extreme cases a condensate trap and drain at the lowest point in the system may be necessary to avoid internal corrosion. coupled with good maintenance procedures. The likelihood of leakage increases during engine life as a result of wear.) Thermal insulation for exhaust components in applications that may be sensitive to the additional radiated heat Insulation or clearance to prevent damage to surrounding components 6. Care should be taken with pusher fan applications that the drain hole is located to prevent possible contamination of the radiator core from the slight exhaust leak.6 Noise The exhaust system is one of the principle noise sources in many types of applications.Installation Manual Series 1600 • • • Exhaust system components capable of withstanding 700°C (1292°F) exhaust gas temperatures before the turbocharger (Exhaust gases can be as high as 485°C (903°F) leaving the turbo. but also to noise radiation from the exhaust pipe and muffler shell surfaces.3.3.

An exhaust silencer located outside may only need a protective screen. Insulating the piping that leads to the exhaust silencer is easier when the exhaust silencer is outside on a wall or roof. rather than insulation. A stainless steel spiral causes the exhaust gases to rotate. Spark arresters must be properly sized and cleaned regularly to prevent exhaust restriction limits from being exceeded. Servicing and draining an exhaust silencer when located inside is easier than when it is located outside. 6. 6.3. throwing the hot carbon particles against the outer casing and cooling them before discharge (see Figure 6-7).3. 6. due to possible contamination of the radiator core from the slight exhaust leak. because excess heat and noise may not be a concern. Different advantages exist between locating an exhaust silencer inside and locating one outside in the case of a stationary unit. Figure 6-7 Spark Arrester Special spark arresters or flame traps must be fitted to both inlet and exhaust systems to prevent explosion from engine induced sparks when flammable gases are present in the atmosphere.4.9 Exhaust Silencer Location Locating the exhaust silencer close to the engine results in the best overall noise reduction.10 Spark Arresters Spark arresters enable diesel engines to operate in hazardous areas by reducing the discharge of hot carbon particles through the exhaust pipe.50 .1 Requirement A thorough evaluation of the exhaust system will include: • • Complete descriptions and documentation of the system in the End Product Questionnaire (EPQ) form Adequate instrumentation Page .applications with a blower fan.4 Testing 6.

engine repowers. 6.2 Instrumentation 6. The exhaust back pressure should be measured while the engine is operating under full load at rated engine speed conditions.Installation Manual Series 1600 • • • • Proper test preparation Accurate tests Data analysis and documentation Diagnostics (troubleshooting) and corrective action (if necessary) These tests must be run on all new installations. The exhaust system design needs to be corrected to reduce back pressure to within acceptable limits if the measured exhaust back pressure exceeds the limit shown on TVU. Refer to Figure 6-8 for the required configuration of the exhaust back pressure measurement port.4. using a suitable fitting installed in the exhaust pipe within 127 mm (5 in.4. Thermocouples should be located downstream of the pressure taps. Refer to Figure 5-12 for the required configuration of the exhaust temperature measurement port. Use a Magnehellic™ gauge or equivalent that measures in millimetres (or inches) of mercury to record the exhaust back pressure.3 Exhaust Temperature Measurement Use a precision thermocouple and an appropriate read-out device to measure temperatures.) of the engine exhaust outlet flange. 6.51 . the operating back pressure should be measured with a gauge. Page . The appropriate section of the EPQ form must be completed for documentation of these tests. or whenever modifications have been made to the engine’s exhaust system.4. These measurements must be done at all engine exhaust discharge locations. These measurements must be done at all engine exhaust discharge locations. The exhaust temperature should be measured while the engine is operating under full load. rated engine speed conditions.4 Exhaust Back Pressure Measurement Once an exhaust system is installed.

52 .Figure 6-8 Static Pressure Tap The instrumentation should be placed perpendicular to the plane of the bend where measurement on a bend is unavoidable.5 Test Thorough preparations prior to testing will ensure accurate results. Engine should be at normal operation temperature and run at full load. Refer to Figure 6-9 for a sample data sheet for the exhaust system test. • • • • Confirm all instrumentation and equipment is calibrated and in good working condition. 6. Shutters must be fully opened and fan drive mechanisms fully engaged. Tests should be run on a production installation or an installation representative of the final installation. Page .

Figure 6-9 Exhaust System Data Sheets Page .53 Measurement C (F) C (F) mbar (“H2O) mbar (“H2O) .Installation Manual Series 1600 EXHAUST SYSTEM DATA SHEET Description Additional Information Exhaust Temperature: • “A” Bank Turbos • “B” Bank Turbos Exhaust Back Pressure: • “A” Bank Turbos • “B” Bank Turbos (__V Series 1600) _______________ (__V Series 1600) _______________ (__V Series 1600) _______________ (__V Series 1600) _______________ Note: Refer to TVU for permissible backpressure values.

thus reducing the possibility of cavitations. Proper size and location of these components are critical to having a balanced system.3 Radiator Cooling System 7. duty cycle. Installation drawings can be found on the Business Portal (BP). The Series 1600 engines have a two circuit cooling system. All Series 1600 engines are equipped with fully blocking thermostats and require a rapid warm-up cooling system.54 . Refer to the installation drawing for the specific model for engine cooling system connect points. 7. External bleed and fill lines as well as radiator core air vents are connected to the de-aeration tank. Conventional radiators are not allowed for cooling Series 1600 engines.3. A centrifugal-type water pump is used to circulate the coolant.3. This is accomplished by having the de-aeration tank (integral or remote) separated from the radiator core. As a result. modern engines require that the turbocharged inlet air be cooled. One circuit is commonly Page .4 Cooling System Configuration 7. Another advantage of this rapid warm-up system is its ability to place a positive head on the water pump. charge air cooling (CAC) has become an integral part of all cooling systems.3 Conventional Radiator Conventional radiators do use fill and vent lines.1 Function description A well-designed cooling system is a requirement for satisfactory engine performance and reliability. Technical data for installation design can be found in TVU.1 Series 1600 configuration Due to demand for higher horsepower and emission control requirements. 7. and environmental conditions is essential in designing and packaging the total cooling system.2 Cooling System Overview A radiator along with a fan is used to effectively dissipate the heat generated by the engine. This reduces warm-up time and maintains coolant temperature near the thermostat operating temperature. While the most conventional cooling method is a skid mounted radiator and an engine driven fan.4. other common methods of engine cooling are: • • • Coolant to coolant heat exchanger (plate type heat exchanger) Remote mounted radiator with electrically driven fan Cooling tower 7. Thorough knowledge of the application.3.7 Cooling System 7. The fill line coolant return flow capabilities must exceed the flow into the tank under all operating modes.2 Rapid Warm-Up Radiator The rapid warm-up cooling system eliminates coolant flow through the radiator core during closed thermostat operation. 7.1 Types of Radiator Cooling System Radiator cooling systems can be classified into two broad categories: rapid warm-up and conventional. 7.

into the cylinder heads. supplying a denser charge of air to the engine. Upon starting a cold engine or when the engine coolant is below the thermostat opening temperature.4. The engine coolant is drawn from the radiator and circulated through the oil cooler by the water pump. When the coolant temperature reaches the thermostat full-open temperature. restricting the bypass system. Refer to TVU for the Start to Open and Fully Open thermostat temperatures. Properly operating thermostats are essential for efficient operation of the engine. and then to the thermostats.2 Engine Coolant / Jacket Water Circuit The function of the engine coolant and water jacket is to absorb and remove the heat developed in the cylinders during the combustion process. the bypass system is blocked off.5 Cooling System Performance and Installation Requirements 7. through the cylinder block. Full blocking-type thermostats are used in the water outlet passages of the engine coolant circuit to control the flow of coolant to provide fast engine warm-up and regulate coolant temperature.55 . 7. As the coolant temperature rises above the thermostat opening temperature. The coolant then passes through the radiator where the coolant temperature is lowered by the airflow created by the revolving fan. the thermostats remain closed and block the flow of coolant from the engine to the radiator. the thermostats start to open. through the thermostat housing and typically into the upper portion of the radiator.5. and allowing a portion of the engine coolant to circulate through the radiator.3 Charge-Air Cooling In charge-air cooling systems the pressurized intake charge air is routed from the compressor side of the turbocharger. and Contraction Page . and all of the coolant is directed through the radiator. Expansion.4. During this period. 7. through the charge air cooler (CAC) piping. Charge air effectively reduces the temperature of the compressed air in the intake manifold. The other is referred to as the after-cooler circuit which is used for cooling the charge air prior to combustion. the coolant passes from the cylinder block up through the cylinder head. all of the coolant in the engine is re-circulated through the engine and is directed back to the suction side of the water pump via a bypass tube to aid engine warm-up. When the engine is at normal operating temperature. into the CAC. and then to the intake manifold.1 System Components Adherence to the following performance and installation requirements is required (design data for a specific model can be found on TVU): • • • • • • • Maximum Coolant Temperatures System Fill System Drain De-aeration System Coolant Capacity Drawdown Capacity Coolant System Pressurization. The coolant is then supplied from the water pump. the heat absorbed by the oil is also removed by the engine coolant in the oil-to-coolant oil cooler. 7.Installation Manual Series 1600 referred to as the jacket water or engine circuit. In addition. All Series 1600 engines have the oil cooler located down stream from the jacket water coolant pump.

6 (Cooling Index Test). or at other severe environmental conditions will require increasing the cooling capability of the system so the maximum allowable engine coolant temperature is not exceeded. This is also a requirement for interrupted fill. Refer to section 6. 7. above sea level.6 for drawdown capacity information. 7. must be provided so the cooling system can be drained to: • • • Prevent freeze problems during cold weather storage Remove all contaminated coolant during system cleaning Minimize refill problems due to trapped air or water pockets 7.5.3 System Fill The cooling system must have sufficient venting (air bleeding) to permit filling at a minimum continuous rate as stated in TVU for each specific model.5.5 De-Aeration Page .4 System Drain Sufficient drains. strategically located.56 . Operating with antifreeze.• • • • • • • • • • • • Water pump inlet pressure Pressure Cap with overflow line Maximum static head Minimum Coolant Temperature Coolant flow rate / external pressure drop Coolant Selection End Product Questionnaire (EPQ) Heat Rejection Maximum/Minimum Ambient Capability System degradation Auxiliary Coolers Coolant Heaters NOTE: It is not permitted to use zinc in parts that are in contact with engine coolant. The amount of coolant needed to complete the fill after the initial indication of a full system must not exceed the satisfactory drawdown amount. 7. The maximum ambient temperature at which these requirements are met is referred to as ambient capability.5.4. Refer to section 6.2 Maximum Coolant Temperatures Engine heat transferred to the coolant must be dissipated at a sufficient rate under all operating conditions so engine coolant temperature does not exceed established safe limits. Refer to TVU for the design values for a specific engine model.5.

the cooling system must be capable of expelling all entrapped air within 30 minutes while running the engine near rated speed. See Figure 7-2. the entrained air should be expelled within 30 minutes. The water pump must not become air bound.6 System Coolant Capability Total cooling system coolant capacity must be known in order to determine the appropriate expansion and de-aeration volumes required in the expansion tank. 7. This can lead to overheating and cause severe engine damage.Installation Manual Series 1600 After an initial fill.57 . When the removed coolant is returned to the system.5. This requirement also applies to air entrained during the drawdown test. Page . NOTICE: An air bound pump cannot adequately circulate coolant.

with or without a coolant recovery system. etc. The engine coolant capacity is found in TVU. radiator.). This volume must be provided.e. engine. plumbing. Page . A minimum 6% expansion volume must be provided in the expansion tank along with a 2% de-aeration volume and sufficient reserve volume to meet drawdown capacity.Figure 7-1 Percent Increases in Volume for Water and Antifreeze Solution The total capacity must include all cooling system components (i.58 . heater circuit.

It is essential that the cooling system is kept clean and leak-free. Drawdown requirements must be met at the maximum tilt angle. Pressure in the cooling system prevents cavitations. Expansion . apron.59 . System design must permit a reasonable loss of coolant from the full level (drawdown capacity) before aeration of the coolant begins. Additional expansion tank coolant capacity may be necessary if aeration begins before this point. The minimum drawdown capacity for Series 1600 engines is 10% of the total coolant capacity. The valve in the pressure cap unseats and allows the excess air out of the system.8 Cooling System Pressurization. and localized boiling. never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature. A pressure cap (relief valve) must be used. and Contraction The cooling system must be pressurized to operate properly.5. The pressure cap must be installed at the highest point in the expansion tank.Installation Manual Series 1600 7. Higher rated pressure caps may be required for high altitude and severe ambient operation. suction leaks. As the engine temperature increases.5. 7. Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure. that the filler cap and pressure relief mechanisms are properly installed and operate correctly. HOT COOLANT To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant. Cooling system components must be able to withstand the pressure applied by. Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield. and boots). The operation limits required for the pressure cap are stated in TVU. Pressure caps raise the boiling point of the coolant thus minimizing coolant or flow rate loss due to localized boiling and water pump cavitations.7 Drawdown Capacity Drawdown capacity is the amount of coolant that can be removed from a full system before the first sign of aeration or before the coolant pump begins to show cavitations. and that the coolant level is properly maintained. Page . the coolant and air in the system start to expand and build pressure. rubber gloves.

An overflow line must be installed in the fill neck to allow expulsion of surplus coolant (arising from thermal expansion in the cooling system) into a separate collecting tank. creating a vacuum in the system. allowing atmospheric air to flow back into the expansion tank.Figure 7-2 Coolant System Expansion When the engine starts to cool down. Shut–off valves are not permissible in these lines. Contact MTU/ Application Engineering if a coolant recover system is required. Page .60 . The vacuum unseats another valve in the pressure cap. the air and coolant contracts. Unhindered drainage must be provided.

Proper placement of the fill line (or make-up line) is required to provide a positive head pressure to the pump inlet.10 Maximum Static Height The maximum static height allowed on Series 1600 engines is stated in TVU and the pressure relief valve or cap must be sized so the limit is not exceeded.9 Water Pump Inlet Pressure The water pump inlet pressure must not be lower than atmospheric pressure (suction) when the engine is operating at maximum rated engine speed with fill cap removed and thermostat fully open. Refer to TVU for the maximum allowable external restriction for each cooling system circuit.11 Coolant Flow Rate / External Pressure Drop The coolant flow rate through the engine and radiator must be within tolerances stated in TVU.5.61 . This requirement must be met to minimize water pump cavitations and the corresponding loss of coolant flow. heat exchanger.5. For installations where exceeding MTU/ static height pressure limits is unavoidable. Keep restrictions to the water pump inlet such as radiator cores.5. consider a cooling package that utilizes an intermediate heat exchanger. the external restriction includes piping from the engine to the radiator. auxiliary coolers and the associated plumbing to a minimum.Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 7-3 Coolant System Contraction 7. 7. Engine and charged air coolant pump pressures will be affected by pump inlet restricPage . In addition to the radiator. and piping from the radiator to the engine. 7.

and cavitations erosion.5. Heat exchangers such as air-to-fuel or others are to be used and mounted either in front of the radiator or behind it. In general.13 Coolant Selection A proper mixture of glycol (ethylene.15 Heat Rejection The cooling system must be sufficiently sized to properly cool the engine and charged air circuits with the heat rejection values stated in TVU. 7. 7. 7. and Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) meeting MTU/ requirements outlined in the Fluids and Lubricants Specification (A001063/0xE) is required for year-round usage. Antifreeze concentration should not exceed limits stated in the Fluids and Lubricants Specification (A001063/0xE). 7.5.12 Minimum Coolant Temperature Refer to TVU for the minimum coolant temperature that must be maintained under all ambient operating conditions. Coolant pump pressures will also vary with the opening and closing of the thermostats.5.17 System Deterioration or Degradation A properly designed system should still be able to perform within specifications after normal system degradation occurs. 7. coolant temperature and viscosity.18 Auxiliary Air-Cooled Cooler Cores Heat exchangers in addition to jacket water and charge air cooler radiators are quite often part of the total cooling system. and installation modifications.5. 7.14 End-Product Questionnaire (EPQ) An End Product Questionnaire (EPQ) should be completed on new installations. A cold running engine can result in poor engine performance and reduced engine life. and pressure cap rating. The coolant provides freeze and boil protection and reduces corrosion. an EPQ is required within NAFTA. Follow SCA manufacturers’ recommendations outlined in the Fluids and Lubricates Specification (A001063/0xE).62 . 7. water. sludge formation.tion. Consult MTU Application Engineering to determine which form should be used for your engine application. Consider the following factors if auxiliary coolers are used: • • Greater restriction of air flow Increased heat load Page .5. propylene. MTU requires SCAs be added to all cooling systems at initial fill and be maintained at the proper concentration. engine and external flow restriction.5. or extended life organic acid). engine re-powers.5.16 Maximum Ambient Capability The cooling system size should be based on the maximum ambient capability required by the customer / end user.

19 Coolant Heaters Cold weather operation often requires the use of coolant heaters. Page . It is therefore recommended to configure the in-feed line as shown in the diagram below. 7. daylight 6 mm Air space Expansion tank to engine cooling system Cooler from engine Figure 7-4 Avoiding heat losses due to the thermo-siphon effect 7. Note: To prevent heat losses from the thermo–siphon effect when the engine is stationary.63 . The design process can be broken down into two phases: • • Consideration of heat rejection requirements Consideration of specific component design The following guidelines are presented as a systematic review of cooling system considerations in order to meet minimum standards. the following factors should be considered: • • • • Engine design Ambient temperature Outdoor or indoor installation Static or moving air Information on coolant heaters can be obtained from Business Portal (BP) and MTU Application Engineering. MTU requires that all coolant heaters be configured such that coolant is continually circulated through the engine to ensure a constant temperature across all engine components. the water column in the in-feed line to the re–cooler must be interrupted.Installation Manual Series 1600 Note: Provide access to the areas between the cores for cleaning purposes.6 Cooling System Design Considerations 7.6. When determining what heating power (Watts) and coolant temperature are desired for an application.5.1 General Considerations Many factors must be considered when designing the overall cooling system. Venting Max.

7.6.2 Design Temperature Requirements
7.6.2.1 Engine Operating Temperature
The first cooling system consideration is to establish what coolant and air temperature values must be
met for an application.
The engine coolant temperature rise and radiator coolant temperature drop values will be different
whenever the engine and radiator flows are not the same (partial thermostat open operation). Placing
auxiliary coolers between the engine and the radiator will cause the same effect. The maximum allowable coolant temperature represents the temperature above which engine damage or shortened engine
life can occur. Refer to TVU for acceptable engine coolant temperatures.

7.6.2.2 Charged Air Intake Manifold Temperature
Turbocharger air outlet temperature can vary greatly over the wide range of possible ambient temperatures and altitudes. The maximum entering air temperature and maximum altitude of a specific application must be considered when designing a cooling system. Refer to TVU for specific after cooler temperature requirements for the engine being installed.

7.6.3 Heat Rejection and Coolant Flow
Each engine model at a given power and speed level has its own individual performance values. The two
areas of performance that have the greatest effect on cooling system design are heat rejection and coolant pump flow. Refer to TVU for these values.

7.6.3.1 Engine Heat Rejection
Heat is rejected from an engine into four areas: jacket water, charge air coolant, exhaust and radiation.
The jacket water and charge air heat must be dissipated in order to meet engine coolant and intake
manifold air temperature requirements. The exhaust heat and radiated heat must be considered because
both often have an effect the air temperature of the air source for the fan and heat exchanger (i.e. when
the radiator is installed in the generator room). Any preheating of the radiator cooling air will decrease
the ambient capability of the radiator.
Total heat rejected to the coolant and air must be determined to properly size the radiator and fan arrangement so sufficient heat can be dissipated. This allows the thermostat to control the coolant temperature at an optimum operating level. Total heat rejection includes engine heat rejection and other
heat sources in the cooling system.

7.6.3.2 Additional Heat Loads
The following items will add an additional heat load to the engine coolant:


Transmission coolers
Hydraulic oil coolers
Air compressor cooling

The following factors or components will raise the temperature of the radiator inlet air and/or increase
restriction to air flow when selecting a radiator and fan:


Fuel-to-air coolers
Hydraulic coolers
Transmission coolers
Page - 64

Installation Manual Series 1600

Re-circulated engine compartment air
Engine radiated heat (blower fans)

The cooling system must be able to control the maximum engine coolant temperature below the maximum allowed regardless of the mode of operation. Maximum engine coolant temperatures are stated in
TVU.

7.6.3.3 Coolant Pump Flow
The coolant pump flow stated in TVU is derived from a laboratory engine operating under ISO 3046 /
SAE J1349 / SAE J1995 conditions. Actual engine installations often have substantially different plumbing arrangements and employ different coolants. Refer to section 0 for information about coolant flow.

7.6.3.4 Heat Transfer Capability
Heat transfer capability must be adequate for the given coolant, air temperatures, and coolant flows.
These capabilities should include reserve capacity to allow for cooling system deterioration.

7.6.3.5 Coolant Type
The type of coolant chosen for a cooling system can have an effect on the system performance. Water
pump flow and heat transfer characteristics are different for water than for antifreeze because the fluids
have different densities, viscosities and thermal conductivity. Refer to Fluids and Lubricants Specification
(A 001063) for approved coolants and additives.

The valid environmental protection regulations must be observed with respect to
proper disposal of coolant.

7.6.4 Environmental Effects and Operating Conditions
Consider both environmental and operating modes of the installation when designing the cooling system.
Reserve capacity and special selection of components are required for operation in the following extremes:










Hot or cold ambient temperatures
High altitude
Space constraints
Noise limits
Enclosures
Ground effects
Tilt operation
Arid, damp, dusty, oily, windy conditions
Full load, peak torque operation
Long-term storage or standby operation
Indoor/outdoor operation
Page - 65





Serviceability limitations
Infrequent maintenance intervals
Severe shock or vibration
System deterioration
Increase in local ambient temperature due to multiple engine operation

The heat rejected to the coolant generally increases when engine performance is reduced due to external conditions. Engine performance is adversely affected by:



High air restrictions
High exhaust back pressure
High air inlet temperature
Altitude

7.6.4.1 Ambient
Operating in extremely cold ambient, at light loads, or at idle will require conservation of heat energy.
Coolant temperatures must be maintained near the thermostat opening value. This controls engine oil
temperature and combustion air temperature at a satisfactory level for good engine performance and
reliability.

7.6.4.2 Altitude
As altitude increases air density decreases reducing engine and cooling system performance. Engine
power output must be calculated and adjusted according to environmental conditions in accordance with
Determination of Site Rating of MTU Diesel Engines. In the Business Portal MTU provides a calculation
tool (ESCM = Engine Site Condition Management) to calculate this value. The reduced atmospheric
pressure will lower the boiling point of the coolant. A higher rated pressure cap/relief valve may be required to suppress boiling.

7.6.4.3 Space Constraints
Cooling system design is often influenced by space constraints. Heat exchanger height, width, and depth
can be dictated by the application. This, in turn, limits fan diameter and heat exchanger surface area.

7.6.4.4 Enclosures
Enclosed power units cause many adverse effects on cooling such as:



Heat build up
Fan air flow restriction
Hot air re-circulation
Radiator core oil film and dirt build up

This produces the equivalent effect of operating in a high ambient. For example, an enclosed generator
power unit with a blower type fan will pick up heat from the generator, the exhaust system piping, and
the engine block as the air travels to the fan intake. The air going to the radiator could be 11°C [20°F] —
22°C [40°F] higher than the ambient. This means that on a 32°C [90°F] day, the cooling system has to
function as though it was 54°C [130°F] ambient. It is important to consider all these adverse effects and
design the system to maximize the ability to get cooler ambient air to the radiator inlet. It is also important to size the core and fan properly to account for this air temperature rise.

Page - 66

67 . The number of connections must be kept to a minimum to reduce potential leakage. pavement) also influence the average air temperature that can get to the radiator. Operating location and/or government regulations may imply noise limits generated by a cooling fan. filters.5 Cooling System Components Consider the following requirements for all water connections made between the engine and the radiator. and require minimal maintenance.4.5 Ground Effects Ground effects (i. heaters.5.6. Local regulations and/or customer requirements should be considered when designing a cooling system. All connections must be as direct as possible. 7. etc. Lay the coolant pipes so that the lines are as short as possible and without sharp pipe bends to keep the resistance to a minimum level. Page . Fittings on the pipes (especially expansion / fill lines) must not reduce effective line size. Refer to TVU for permissible coolant pressure and flow loss.6. The resilient connections on the engine must be configured in such a way that unacceptable forces caused by vibration and thermal expansion do not act on the engine. Fan noise is directly related to fan speed which effects air flow. Bends should be smooth and have a generous radius.6 Noise Limits Noise limitations are another environmental concern that can affect the cooling system. Avoid metered bends.e. The piping must be secured at sufficient intervals. Steel is the recommended material. Pipe and hose connections must not be necked down or be smaller than the engine inlet(s) and outlet(s).5.6. 7.6. A flexible connection should be used whenever there can be relative motion between components of a cooling system.4.1 Coolant Plumbing Consider the following when selecting and fabricating coolant plumbing: • • • • • • • • • • • • • All piping must be clean and free from residues.Installation Manual Series 1600 7.4. Designing for the maximum ambient plus some anticipated air temperature rise must always be considered. Fitting sizes must be considered so minimum inside diameter requirements are not exceeded.6. 7. durable.2 Flexible Connections In resiliently mounted engines. de-aeration tank.6. Galvanized pipes or tanks are not permitted. 7. This is especially critical for applications where the engine must operate for extended periods on steep grades. The connection diameters and minimum inside diameters must be observed. 7. The pipe diameters must be selected to conform to the permissible pressure loss.7 Tilt Operations Cooling systems must perform satisfactorily at maximum tilt operation. it is necessary to fit flexible connections directly after the engine.

The following are suitable flexible connections: • • • Rubber unions Bellows Hoses The flexible connections must be resistant against collapse and rupture (overpressure or vacuum). Flexible connections must be arranged so that they can be visually inspected and easily replaced. Page . offset C Max. perm. oils. misalignment Make sure that pipe ends are rounded or chamfered and deburred. They must be routed at sufficient distances from moving parts and potential heat sources. fuel and treated coolant.68 . Figure 7-5 Hose Clamp 180° Indexed Position Refer to Figure 7-6 for a proper installation of the rubber unions Total union length C B Max. Beaded pipe ends should be used to prevent the hose from separating from the pipe. Two clamps must be used at each connection and indexed 180° apart (see Figure 7-6). perm. high temperatures. Ensure that they are not subject to abrasion during operation.

6. The vent lines must be located in the expansion tank in such a way to prevent splash on the Coolant Level Sensor. 7. Additional drains and vents may be required if this is not possible. etc. pre–heating unit.6. The lines must be as short as possible. should be considered to ensure proper system fill. These drawing can be found on the MTU Extranet. Venting of other installed components such as radiators. 7. All cooling systems for the MTU engines must be equipped with a separate expansion tank which performs the following functions: • Eliminates air bubbles in the cooling system Page . Connect the vent and fill lines to the expansion tank at the greatest possible distance from each other. vent lines should not be oversized as vent lines that are too large will increase fill line flow and possibly reduce pressure head applied to the coolant pump inlets.5.5. bending radius Up to 29 mm 140 mm 30 mm 750 mm 30 up to 59 mm 300 mm 50 mm 1900 mm 60 up to 99 mm 370 mm 65 mm 220 mm Over 100 mm 460 mm 70 mm 2500 mm Figure 7-6 Installation of Rubber Unions 7.4 Fill Lines Connect the fill line(s) to the bottom of the expansion tank.5 Expansion Tank Design The expansion tank should be designed as a closed vessel. The recommended vent line size must not be smaller than the connection point on the engine.3 Vent Lines Route the vent lines exiting the engine connections at a continuous upward slope to the expansion tank.5. All vent lines must be individually ported into the expansion tank above the coolant level. Vent points are clearly indicated on the installation drawings available on the MTU extranet. However. It must be as short as possible and connected directly upstream of the water pump as shown in the engine installation drawings. The expansion line must be connected to the bottom of the expansion tank. descend continuously. Refer to the specific model installation drawing for the fill line connection points. and be connected directly before the coolant pump(s).6. It is necessary to install vent lines to all the vent points on the engine and the charge air cooler circuits to vent the systems completely.Installation Manual Series 1600 Pipe outside diameter Pipe end spacing B Push–on length C Min. This will prevent aeration and preheating of the coolant returning down the fill line. All fill lines must have a continuous downward slope without droops to ensure good cooling system draining and filling capabilities. Larger diameter fill lines may be needed if other cooling system components are venting too much coolant to the expansion tank. Fittings on the fill lines must not reduce effective size.69 . The minimum fill line sizes must not be smaller than the connection point on the engine.

An over/under pressure cap has to be integrated. 7. Other design considerations include the following: • • • • • The expansion tank is a separate tank located at the highest point of the cooling system (normally arranged on the fan cooler) The maximum height of the expansion tank must not exceed static head requirement stated in TVU The expansion tank should have a liquid volume of at least 10 % of the total coolant capacity of the cooling system.6 Radiator 7.6. Bends should be kept to a minimum and they should have a generous radius (no metered bends).70 . 7. Air can also be introduced into the cooling system from a severely agitated or improperly designed top tank. as well as the associated plumbing must introduce minimal restriction to the cooling circuit. Proper venting of all components should be reviewed to prevent the introduction of air into the water pump. The expansion of coolant must be caught in the tank after a hot engine shutdown. The pump can easily become air bound if a large volume of air is trapped in the pump during coolant filling.6. and auxiliary fuel coolers. Pumps are sensitive to inlet restrictions. The lowest pressure in the entire cooling system is found at the water pump inlet.5. auxiliary coolers. Level sensors to monitor the coolant level must be installed at the proper height to warn of coolant loss prior to aeration of coolant Expansion tanks with nitrogen bladders are not permissible.5.2 Radiator Selection Page .6. Discharge flow can be seriously reduced and damaging cavitations can occur if the cooling system is not designed properly and if the pump inlet is highly restricted (operating under suction). or if air is fed to the pump when the pump is running. 7. This means radiators.6.• • • Absorbs coolant that has expanded as a result of thermal expansion Provides coolant reserves to cover leakage losses Builds and maintains the operating pressure of the cooling system.6. coolant type and aerated coolant. Water pump inlet restriction must be kept to a minimum to prevent cavitations and to provide proper coolant flow.6. This can reduce pump efficiency. All radiator interfaces a shown on the radiator installation drawings which are provided in the Business Portal (BP). Lines connected to the water pump inlet must have at least the same cross-sectional area as the pump inlet. The water pump inlet pressure must not exceed allowable limits (minimum and maximum) stated in TVU. including customer add-on features such as filters.7 Water Pumps A water pump is used to circulate the coolant throughout the cooling system.1 MTU Radiator The engines are delivered with matching radiators.6 Water Cooled Exhaust Systems Consult an authorized distributor or MTU Application Engineering when water-cooled exhaust systems are desired. 7. coolant temperature.6.

Use the largest possible fan diameter to permit operation at slower fan speeds. Cross Flow.71 . In the MTU Fluids and Lubricants Specifications the homologated products are shown. thus providing most effective fan performance. construction. Multiple Pass Series Flow. Round.6.6. It is possible that MTU will do an EPQ on the MTU scope of supply.6. performance and resistance to flow on both the fin side and tube side. Mechanical Bond Plate. are provided in the MTU Business Portal (BP): In the TVU data on the BP the latest information is shown concerning: • • • • Heat dissipation Coolant flow rate Allowed pressure drop Maximum and minimum temperatures All radiator interface to the engine are shown in the engine installation drawings. Serpentine. and design can be any of the materials and designs listed in Table 7-8.7 Fan Drive Selection Page . Heat exchanger materials.3 Radiator Design Data All relevant radiator design data like e. Tabulated Down Flow. The square core allows maximum fan sweep area. This keeps airflow restriction low. and Design Heat Exchanger Materials Heat Exchanger Construction Fin Geometry Tube Geometry Coolant Flow Table 7-7 Variations Copper. Construction.6. resulting in lower noise and horsepower demand. Welded. helps prevent plugging. Steel Lead Soldered. Brazed. and Design Choices All of these variations can have an effect on heat exchanger size. 7. No Lead Soldered. Square.4 Homologation and Qualification of Third Party Radiators MTU does not homologate third party radiators. Construction. 7. and promotes easier core cleaning. Internally Finned.6. Louvered.Installation Manual Series 1600 Heat exchanger cores are available in a wide variety of configurations.g. Materials. 7. Aluminum. even if it was designed according to the information given by MTU. Meeting the following design criteria will achieve the greatest efficiency: • • • • Utilize the largest practical frontal area in order to maximize airflow. but MTU will not take responsibility for any third party radiator. Keep core thickness and fin density (fins per unit length) to a minimum. Brass. Multiple Pass Counter Flow Heat Exchanger Materials. Non Louvered Oval.

6.7. 7.1 Belt Driven Engine Cooling Fan The Series 1600 is available with a factory designed fan drive.7 Cooling System Evaluation Tests Page . 7.3 Air Re-circulation Baffles Use baffles around the perimeter of the radiator assembly to prevent hot air that has passed through the radiator core from being re-circulated back through the core. 7.7.7. 7.10 Cooling System or Duty Cycle Changes Cooling system performance must be re-evaluated any time engine. the special coolant documents together with the installation instructions must be observed. Consideration must be given when an engine is used for prime power under several duty cycles. The crankshaft pulley is secured to the end of the crankshaft with bolts and hardened washers.6. etc. Refer to the MTU Extranet for installation drawings that show the belt drive configurations available on the Series 1600. or environmental operating conditions are different than originally accepted.7. To ensure correct installation of the cooler.6.5%.6. timing.6.8 Coolant Heaters Information on coolant heaters can be obtained through Business Portal (BP) or from MTU Application Engineering. 7. the mechanically driven fan cooler is included in the basic scope of delivery and is supplied loose with the engine.6. Conduct a reevaluation of the cooling system if load. Only blower fans are allowed on Series 1600.9 Severe Duty Cycle Cooling systems must perform satisfactorily under all operating modes. The vibration damper is clamped between the crankshaft pulley and crankshaft. Results will vary based on the application.7.6. The cooling capability of the system may be seriously hindered if these baffles are not utilized. 7. are changed due to potential increased heat load or reduced cooling system capacity. The maximum is 98. duty cycle.2 Fan Drive Belt Nominal belt efficiency is expected to be around 97%. NOTE: Do not substitute any other bolts or washers.4 Series 1600 TD or A/AC With this engine design. but the above numbers should be sufficient for estimating parasitic losses.. Contact MTU Application Engineering to determine what size pulleys are available.72 . 7. cooling system. The engine cooling fan drive can be mounted on the front of the engine. The crankshaft pulley bolts and washers are specific parts.

1 System Description A complete system must be documented in the Detroit Diesel End Product Questionnaire (EPQ) form. A thorough evaluation will require: • • • • • • • Complete description and documentation of the system Adequate instrumentation Proper test preparations Accurate tests Data analysis and documentation Diagnostics (troubleshooting) Corrective action (as necessary) 7. trouble light) Water supply hose Diagnostic data reader or Detroit Diesel Diagnostic Link™ software Engine loading method Tape measure Flow meters and associated hardware (if necessary) NOTE: All instrumentation must be calibrated and in good working condition. engine intake air. Size and range should maintain data accuracy. photographs. Page . engine coolant out. Attach cooling system component prints. This will verify that the cooling system will perform satisfactorily in the installation by having adequate heat dissipation capability and coolant flow. and lube oil gallery temperatures until the coolant and engine lube oil temperatures are fully stabilized.2 Instrumentation The following instrumentation and materials are required to conduct a complete evaluation of the cooling system: • • • • • • • • • • Thermocouples and associated readout equipment Pressure gauges and associated hoses and fittings Thermostat Stop watch Light (flashlight. 7.73 .7.7. air and oil in relation to thermocouples and associated equipment.Installation Manual Series 1600 Cooling tests must be conducted on all new installations and engine re-powers. The same test must be conducted whenever modifications have been made to the engine or cooling system as well as changes in load. and sketches of the overall system to the EPQ. and exhaust temperatures may be measured to aid in trouble shooting cooling system deficiencies. duty cycle. This information will assist in determining system approval and also serve as a reference point if future difficulties are encountered. Other temperature measurements such as engine coolant in. or environmental operating conditions. Thermocouples and Associated Hardware This section discusses the attributes needed for coolant. installation drawings. Measure air.

A digital readout is preferred and should have 12V (DC) and 110V (60~AC) capability. All hoses must be full of the substance being measured. Hg to +30 lb/in. To avoid injury from scalding. The oil cooler bypass thermostat must be blocked to the minimum travel distance at full open temperature (see TVU-data). Page . Use a vent at each gauge to expel all entrained air and water and ensure no blockage in the circuit. Thermostats Both blocked open and operating thermostats are required. cleaned. thick wall transparent tubing with an appropriate temperature rating must be used. Additional pressure measurements may be required for analysis of the system. and securely joined for good electrical continuity. A thermostat must be blocked open to the proper dimension for obtaining correct data. It is also helpful to replace coolant return lines on heater. Inspect and replace thermostat seals if necessary. Make a visual check. flow direction.All thermocouples. air compressor.74 . ‘‘U" type manometer. Polarity must also be correct. A remote multichannel switch can be wired into the circuit if the readout box does not have sufficient positions for all the thermocouples. NOTE: Locating gauges at the same height as the measurement point eliminates the need to correct the readings. Ambient air thermocouples must be shielded from direct sunlight and not sense any radiated or re-circulated heat sources. Hose length should be as short as is practical. Replace de-aeration and fill lines with transparent tubing. NOTICE: All connections must be secured carefully and be routed so they do not kink and will not be damaged during testing. Use calibrated matched pairs to obtain accurate temperature differential values. The thermocouples must protrude into a high flow path and not touch surrounding surfaces.8 kPa (15 in. Install a sight glass in the engine water out line between thermostat housing and radiator inlet. and readout equipment must be compatible. coolant conditioner. The sump thermocouple must be in the oil while the engine is running. wires. Location of the thermocouples is critical. Radiator thermocouples must also be shielded from sunlight. filter.2 cm (30 in). and velocity greatly assists in analyzing test results and determining system acceptability. and other components that use engine coolant. All junction points should have wire insulation completely removed.2) compound gauge or 76. Full blocking thermostats must be opened so the coolant bypass circuit is completely shut off. Pressure Gauges and Associated Hardware To measure water pump inlet pressure use a 381 mm Hg to +206. Sight Glass and Transparent Tubing Observation of coolant aeration. Safety straps must be used with the sight glass and flow meters.

Installation Manual Series 1600 Sight glass and transparent tubing is useful during fill. Confirm all instrumentation and equipment is in good working condition and calibrated. only as a last resort because of added inlet restriction to the water pump. fan components. Light A flashlight or trouble light held against the sight glass or transparent tubing is helpful in observing coolant aeration. Normally a stopwatch.). Page . 7. etc. The loading method will vary with application and test site location. The container is needed to determine total cooling system capacity.7. and any other tests where the system is pressurized and high coolant temperatures are expected. operation. The flow meter should offer low restriction to the coolant flow. de-aeration. A flow meter that can regulate rate and measure capacity is ideal. These visual aids should be removed for safety reasons prior to air handling. graduated in 1 L (1 qt) increments is recommended for most cooling systems. and other related hardware are required to complete cooling system evaluation. and limitations of the individual flow meter. Tape Measure Size and distance measurements of radiator assembly. Use engine coolant in (radiator out). 3. and measuring water supply flow rate for fill test. flow and pressure vs. A light is also useful to look for top tank coolant agitation. Engine Loading Method The test facility should provide a method for fully loading the engine. Pressure Cap The pressure relief cap/valve must be functional and develop rated pressure. and drawdown tests. and coolant expelled during air handling test. Graduated Container A 12 L (3 gal) bucket. Flow meters and Associated Hardware Engine coolant out (radiator in) is the preferred location for measuring radiator flow. graduated bucket. Inside diameter of flow meters must not cause excessive restriction. drain.3 Test Preparations The following preparations are necessary before conducting the cooling system tests: 1. Water Supply and Hose A water supply and hose capable of flowing at minimum fill rate stated in TVU should be available to conduct continuous and interrupted fill tests. test procedures. 2. capacity check. in order to conduct cooling index tests. measure coolant removed during drawdown test.75 . Stop Watch A stopwatch is used in conjunction with a graduated bucket to set flow rate for fill test and to record time to expel all entrained air after filling the system (de-aeration time). Refer to the manufacturers instructions for correct installation. differential pressure. Understand overall cooling system circuitry and operation. Know how to use and operate all equipment. regardless of the type used (turbine. cooling index. and a valve on the hose are needed to regulate water flow to the required fill rate. and data analysis. engine speed maps.

and heater. and transmissions. apron.7. open. rubber gloves. 10. This may require removing hoses and even blowing air through coolant passages. prior to conducting tests. Run qualification tests on a finalized complete package installed in unit or vehicle. never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature. Check coolant concentration and take sample for possible analysis. 7. filter circuits. Drain entire cooling system completely. Perform fill tests with closed thermostats. 13. and boots). circuitry. 11. Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield. and transparent tubing. HOT COOLANT To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant. fan/fan drive. Flush system with a reputable cleaner if it is contaminated. Modify shutter controls. Shutdown and alarm settings should be determined. 6. no pressure cap. Be sure the test unit represents the final complete package to be released. etc. Locate test vehicle or equipment on a level surface for all stationary tests (except high gradeability applications). Install instrumentation. fan controls. Disarm high temperature and low coolant shutdown devices for these tests.4. if necessary to perform certain tests correctly. Obtain all available information on the specific cooling system to be evaluated such as radiator/top tank assembly print. 8. Flush cooling system with water to remove all residual antifreeze solution. 7. shrouds. sight glass. Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure. etc.4 Types of Tests The following tests and evaluations are normally conducted to determine system acceptability: • • • Fill and Capability Tests o Continuous Fill o Interrupted Fill o Total System Capacity o Draining Capability o Water Pump Air Test o De-aeration Test Drawdown Test Cooling Index Test The cooling system must be clean. The following factors can cause poor filling capabilities and possible water pump air binding problems: • • • Fill line routing (horizontal) Drooped de-aeration lines Incorrect de-aeration line location on the engine or de-aeration tank Page . 12. 5.76 . 9. Know cooling system requirements (specifications) for the application and engine configuration to be evaluated.

Installation Manual Series 1600



Horizontal vortex baffle located on the engine or de-aeration tank at fill line opening
Routing of coolant lines (drooped) not having a continuous slope
Coolant trapped in various cooling system components from a previous fill can prevent air from being
purged on the refill
De-aeration tank not the highest cooling system component

Continuous Fill
Perform the continuous fill test as follows:
1. Fill the system with water at a constant 11.35 L/min (3 gal/min) rate for Series 1600 engines with
cooling system completely empty and all drains closed, until fill neck overflows. The fill must be
timed so the amount of water can be determined.
2. Start engine (no pressure cap) and idle for approximately two minutes.
3. Increase engine speed slowly to high idle and hold for about one minute.
4. Reduce speed to idle and cycle up and down several times.
5. Make continuous observations throughout the test for aeration, coolant flow direction, and coolant
agitation in the de-aeration tank.
a. Stop engine.
b. Add coolant as required to achieve cold full level and record amount. Coolant should be at
the bottom of the fill neck extension or to the recommended cold full mark at the conclusion of the test. A satisfactory fill will not require more make up volume than the satisfactory drawdown capacity of the system. The amount of water during the initial fill plus the
make up will equal the total system capacity.
6. Verify that no flow in either direction occurs in the bleed line from the radiator to a remote mounted
de-aeration tank system while the thermostat is closed.
a. Verify that no air is being drawn down the fill line as a result of improper engine deaeration line size or location in de-aeration tank and excessive agitation of the coolant.
Interrupted Fill
Perform the interrupted fill test as follows:
1. Pour a measured amount of water into the cooling system fill neck as quickly as possible, using the
bucket. Allow coolant level to come to rest.
2. Repeat this procedure until fill neck overflows. The measured amount of water is the initial fill volume.
3. Start the engine and measure make up water.
Total System Capacity
Perform the total system capacity test as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Completely drain cooling system.
Fill to cold full level (bottom of fill neck extension), measuring amount (graduated bucket).
Start engine and run near rated speed (no load) for several minutes.
Stop engine and add water as required (record amount) until system is to the cold full level.

NOTE:

This amount plus original quantity equals total system capacity.

Draining Capability

Page - 77

Perform the draining capability test as follows:
1. Cool down engine until the thermostat has fully closed.
2. Drain system from supplied drain cocks.
3. Measure coolant removed to determine the amount still in the system. Difficulty on the refill can occur if an excessive amount of coolant remains in the system.
4. Refill system per previous procedure and determine if a satisfactory fill can be obtained.

NOTICE:
Cooling systems that cannot be drained completely may also experience freeze cracking
of components. Additional drain(s) and a caution notice should be provided by the OEM
to ensure complete draining of the cooling system..

Water Pump Binding Test
Determine if the water pump became air bound (pump discharge pressure goes to zero or does not vary
with speed change) after initial fill. If so, stop the engine immediately and determine the cause. The deficiency should be corrected and test restarted.
De-aeration Test
The de-aeration test should be run with a closed thermostat, clear Tygon™ fill line, coolant at the cold
full level (bottom of the filler neck vent, see Figure 7-10) and radiator pressure cap off.

Figure 7-7

Surge Tank Configuration

Perform the de-aeration test as follows:
1. Restart the engine and run near rated speed.
2. Record time to expel all entrained air (larger than pin head size).
3. Satisfactory de-aeration should occur within 30 minutes. If system does not appear to de-aerate,
check for:
Page - 78

Installation Manual Series 1600
o
o
o
o
o

Coolant agitation in de-aeration tank
High water pump inlet suction
Dirty cooling system or contaminated coolant
Exhaust gas leak into coolant
Water pump seal air leak

Drawdown Test
The drawdown test should be run with a blocked open thermostat, a clear Tygon™ fill line, coolant at the
cold full level and radiator pressure cap off.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Run the engine at rated speed.
Look for system aeration. The drawdown level is determined at the first sign of air.
Record the amount of coolant removed when aeration begins.
Run at maximum tilt angle for installations that operate at severe tilt angles for long periods of time.
The drawdown test has been successfully passed if the amount of coolant drained is greater than
10% of system capacity.

Cooling Index Test
A cooling index must be performed for both the jacket water and separate charge air cooler circuits when
SCCC is employed.
Perform the cooling index test with blocked open thermostats and the pressure cap installed.
1. Determine the cooling index requirement (air-to-water) as follows:

Figure 7-8

Cooling Index Requirement Sheet

2. Start the test with the cooling system at the de-aeration cold full level.
3. Operate the engine at rated speed and full load. The cooling system must be set for maximum cooling. All heat sources that will affect engine coolant or radiator air temperatures must be in operation

Page - 79

) may be required depending on the application. Various methods of loading the engine to determine cooling index include: o Driveline dynamometer o Towing dynamometer o Chassis dynamometer o Steep hill/heavy load o In operation load cycle o Stationary unit NOTE: Test results may be difficult to interpret if wind conditions exceed 10 miles per hour.80 . from the coolant out temperature: Figure 7-9 Cooling Index Measurement Calculation Sheet 5. etc. This information will not only be used to determine the cooling index. NOTE: The most effective way to increase cooling capability is by increasing air flow and preventing hot air re-circulation. shutters locked full open. 80% converter efficiency. Calculate a corrected cooling index. 6. air conditioner set for maximum cooling. 4. but for information needed for other areas of the EPQ or for diagnostic purposes. Note information during the full load test of the jacket water system. NOTE: Other load points (peak torque. appropriate ram air supplied. as well. Page .(fans must be in the full on position.). cab heaters in off position. Calculate the cooling index measurement by subtracting the true ambient temperature and the altitude compensation. 7. etc. This should be determined prior to the test.

81 .Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 7-10 Sample Jacket Water Cooling Index Test Sheets Page .

Figure 7-11 Sample SCCC Cooling Index Test Sheets Page .82 .

8 Cooling System Diagnostics and Troubleshooting Guide System diagnostics and troubleshooting covers: • • • Engine overheat Cold running engine Poor cab heater performance 7. Page .Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 7-12 Cooling Index Calculation Sheet 7. and life.1 Engine Overheat Coolant temperatures should not exceed maximum limit stated in TVU for a specific engine model so that metal and oil temperatures can be controlled for optimum engine performance.8.83 . fuel economy.

warning. b.Obvious overheat conditions are determined from the coolant temperature gauge. Sensor probes must be located (before thermostat) in a high temperature. Steam vapour or coolant being expelled through the pressure relief overflow tube is another indication of overheat. improper installation o Water pump -.Oil or other material depositing on heat transfer surfaces 5. collapsed hose(s). plugs. ADEC data. or shutdown devices.Over/under concentration of antifreeze or inhibitors.). water pump seal failure.Core selection inadequate for application o Incorrect coolant mixture -. corrosive water. etc.84 . and inadequate heat transfer capabilities during coolant side investigation." This term is used to indicate gravity flow rate through the core and should equal or exceed the coolant flow rate given on the performance curve (refer to chapter). exhaust gas leakage (cracked cylinder head or block. a. etc.Stuck. foreign objects in the system (shop towels. excessive agitation of de-aeration tank coolant. HOT COOLANT To avoid scalding from the expulsion of hot coolant. incorrect antifreeze or inhibitors o Contamination -. well mixed coolant flow path. incorrect bleed line installation o Pressurization loss -. o Coolant loss -. debris trapped between seats. Troubleshooting for Engine Overheat Troubleshoot for engine overheat as follows 1. Check for insufficient airflow. silicate dropout. The following are possible causes of insufficient air flow: Page . debris. or shutdown device.) o Core Coolant Flow Capacity . Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield.Core coolant flow capacity is often described as ‘‘free flow. sluggish. rubber gloves. broken o Thermostat seal -.Impeller loose or damaged o Aerated coolant -. The sensor must be free of scale and other contamination.Internal and external 4. worn. apron. missing. dirt. Check that the various temperature-monitoring devices are calibrated. Reduced engine performance or engine oil having a burnt odour is other indicators. internal or external leaks anywhere in the system o High restriction -. The following are possible causes of inadequate heat transfer capabilities: o Radiator selection -. Check for inaccurate gauge.Low coolant level. etc. Remove the cap slowly to relieve pressure.Worn. 2. The following may be causes of insufficient coolant flow: o Thermostat -.Radiator plugging (solder bloom). insufficient coolant flow. The design of the radiator inlet and outlet tanks must also offer low restriction to coolant flow.Defective pressure cap/relief valve or seat. 3. Check for insufficient coolant flow. damaged seals or gaskets. warning. and boots). Check for inadequate heat transfer capabilities. never remove the cooling system pressure cap while the engine is at operating temperature.

wind conditions. shutters not opening correctly. Also check the following: o Increased heat rejection or engine horsepower upgrade o Engine. incorrect start to open setting. insufficient fan to engine distance 6. See test procedures for determining these deficiencies.Radiator baffles damaged or missing. reverse core flow. insufficient fan to core distance. small air in or air out openings. Fan/Drives -.Tube/fin separation.2 Cold Running Engine (Overcooling) Extended low coolant temperature operation can adversely affect engine performance. o Air re-circulation -. Thermostat Leakage Test The following procedure should be used to determine thermostat leakage: Page .Not fully closed. misaligned. fan installed backwards or damaged. etc. contamination. Shroud -.Damaged or missing. The following are possible causes of inadequate heat transfer capabilities: o Incorrect fan/radiator match -. cab and fuel heaters.Improper drive engagement. etc. oil film. charge air fan removing heat faster than engine can supply. overfilled cooling system. standpipe too short or missing. Overcooling most frequently occurs at extreme low ambient temperatures during long idling or low speed and light load operation. not completely sealed Fan positioning .Excessive fan tip to shroud clearance.8. over concentration of antifreeze and/or inhibitors. etc.Top tank baffle not completely sealed. noise panels. incorrect fan placement in shroud. etc. installation. lack of markings to determine actual temperature. o Defective thermostat -. debris. thermostat coolant leakage. or cooling system modified o Increased engine loading.85 . winter fronts. improper sizing of de-aeration line or standpipe(s) so flow to the top tank exceeds fill line capacity. o Shutters/Controls -.Plugged core. fuel economy. higher altitude or temperature 7. out of calibration. sensor probe in poor location or not fully submerged in a high coolant flow area. Consider the following for cold running engines: o Inaccurate gauge. excessive leakage. 7. o Closed thermostat core coolant flow -.Moves air through core when not required. fan shroud and seal damaged or missing. Check or inadequate heat transfer capabilities. idle setting too low. opening temperature too low. change in duty cycle o Running at more adverse conditions than original system design permits.Installation Manual Series 1600 o o o o High restriction -. o Fixed fans -.Severest operating conditions not correctly Identified.Excessive low speed and load or idle operation. and engine life. o Core degradation -.Stuck open. addition of bug screens. o Insufficient engine heat rejection -. insufficient fan speed (drive ratio). improper calibration. damaged or bent fins. worn.

or both. Radiator Top Tank Baffle Leakage Test The radiator top tank baffle must be sealed so no coolant can flow through the core during closed thermostat operation. Overcooling may occur. Fill system with coolant. No coolant should leak past the thermostat when the thermostat is closed. Remove radiator inlet hose at the radiator to collect coolant in a container (see Figure 7-16). 3. 5. or both. Go to step 6. If leakage is more than a trickle. continue to step 5. Figure 7-13 Thermostat Leakage Check 2. Remove thermostat and visually inspect thermostat for obvious discrepancies. poor cab heater performance.NOTICE: No coolant should leak past the thermostat. If thermostat leakage occurs at this point go to step 4.86 . Replace defective parts. 2. resulting in poor engine performance. 1. resulting in poor engine performance. Plug off fill and bleed lines. Overcooling may occur. Start engine and accelerate to high idle and hold for approximately one minute. poor cab heater performance. 4. The following test procedure will verify if a leaking problem exists: 1. when the thermostat is closed. Drain the cooling system. See Figure 7-18 Page . 6. Calibrate thermostat to ensure it is not opening prematurely.

5. Take corrective action if leakage occurs. See Figure 7-18. 6. Observe level in top tank. Install sight glass with string (both ends) in the radiator outlet hose near radiator and before fill and heater return lines. 8. Test must be conducted with a cold engine. 4. 1. Conduct this test after thermostat and top tank baffle leakage tests have confirmed no problems in those areas. Remove radiator inlet hose.Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 7-14 Radiator Top Tank Leakage 3. Top Tank Imbalance Test Top tank flow imbalance can cause coolant to flow through the standpipe(s) or radiator to remote surge tank bleed line in either direction during closed thermostat operation causing overcooling. the standpipe(s) are too short or the radiator inlet ‘‘doghouse" is not sealed (or vent hole was added). 7. Leave radiator drain plug open. Page . it may indicate the baffle is not completely sealed. If the coolant drains from the top tank. Utilize clear tubing in these areas. Fill top tank to cold full level. The cooling system must be at the cold full level (no pressure cap).87 . and coolant flow from drain and/or radiator inlet opening. Visual observation of fill and bleed line flow direction is also useful in determining possible cause and solution for a top tank flow imbalance.

2. Main engine flow past fill line opening in top tank too restrictive Standpipe(s) not above coolant level Use of coolant recovery system Page .88 . Start the engine and observe the string for flow and direction. Check the coolant flow in the fill and bleed lines. Continue making observations as the engine speed is slowly raised to high idle. Top tank flow imbalance causes are: • • • • • • Bleed line size too large Fill line size too small and/or connecting fittings size too restrictive Fill line connected to a pressure area. b. etc. Visual observation of the fill line flow will show if the flow is incorrectly going to the surge tank. If flow is observed in the sight glass.Figure 7-15 Closed Thermostat Radiator Flow Check NOTICE: This test procedure cannot be used if the engine water bypass flow is directed to the radiator bottom tank for transmission coolers. a. an imbalance exists and corrective action should be taken.

The signal that the ECM sends to the unit pump determines the timing and amount of fuel delivered to the engine. The high pressure fuel pump (HP) supplies the fuel at high pressure to the common rail. Fuel that spills from the high pressure pump (HP) flows through a regulator valve to a junction block. The ECM receives data (such as temperature and speed). Fuel is returned from the fuel junction block to the fuel tank by a single return line. Page . and to deliver fuel to the engine at proper operating pressures. analyzes this data. The Series 1600 engines have different fuel systems and are described in the following sections. The fuel system schematics of all series 1600 engines are shown in the Business Portal (BP). Each injector also spills a small amount of fuel. This is also returned to the fuel junction block.Installation Manual Series 1600 8 Fuel System The purpose of the fuel system is to keep the fuel clean and free from air or water. 8. from where it gets to its respective high pressure fuel injector via a highpressure fuel line. The purpose of the regulator valve is to maintain a minimum pressure in the low-pressure side of the fuel system.2 Fuel System Description Refer to Figure 8-1 for a typical fuel system installation.1 Engine Fuel System Description A fuel system consists of: • • • • • • • • • A fuel tank Fuel pre-filter Main fuel filter High Pressure Pump (HP) Common rail High pressure fuel lines Fuel injector Electronic Control Unit (ECU) All necessary piping Fuel is drawn from the tank and through a fuel pre-filter (option) and the main fuel filter by the low pressure section of the High Pressure fuel Pump. 8.89 . and modulates the fuel system accordingly to ensure efficient engine operation.

Use routing that prevents kinks in hoses.1 Fuel Lines General design principals for fuel lines are listed below: • • • • • • • Do not use fuel lines made from galvanized steel.3. Page . between engine and skid and between skid and foundation).g. Do not install hoses such that the installation creates hose strain that may cause hoses to pull from fittings or otherwise rupture.90 . MTU/ does not approve the use of copper tubing because copper becomes brittle due to cold working when subjected to vibration.3 Design and Installation Guidelines 8.Figure 8-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Engine Fuel System Fuel inlet Fuel return Fuel pre–filter Fuel drain/ pump Fuel service/ day tank Fuel level monitoring Overflow line Filler line Venting line 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Three–way valve Fuel delivery pump Fuel hand pump Filler neck Storage/ main tank Return to the supply/ main tank or the service/ day tank (if service/ day tank is sufficiently sized) Fuel cooler (if required) Fuel level monitoring 8. The fuel will react chemically with the galvanized coating to form powdery flakes that will quickly clog fuel filters and cause damage to the fuel pump and injectors. Use flexible fuel line connections where necessary (e. Do not guide fuel lines (fuel return lines) along hot charge-air pipes (coming from the turbochargers) Optimize for the shortest and simplest routing without conflicting with other criteria.

sharp bends.3 Fuel restriction Care must be taken not to exceed the maximum fuel pump suction limit and the return line restriction limit. Such a cooler can be installed in the fuel return line between the engine and the fuel tank. Do not modify or tamper with any fuel lines supplied with the engine. Minimize the number of connections.91 . or waxing of fuel in cold conditions.3. It should be in a convenient position to permit regular service. Secure all hoses with clips to prevent chaffing from vibration. Flexible hosing must be resistant to coolants. If water is a problem with the available fuel supply. The lines must withstand a maximum suction of 508 mm Hg (20 in. These areas should be free from any possible damage. Flexible hosing must also be flame resistant and it must be reinforced. the installation of a water separator.4 Water Separation Water contamination of diesel fuel is the primary cause of damage to the fuel pump and fuel injectors. Page . to augment the engine’s fuel filtering system.5 Fuel Coolers Fuel cycling through an engine fuel system becomes heated after extended periods of engine operation. Line sizes should not be smaller than the fittings at the engine connection point. All lines should be in protected areas. MTU recommends the use of fuel pre-filters (primary filters) and water separators based on water content in the fuel. 8. MTU/ requires seamless steel tubes For minimum size of the fuel supply and fuel return lines. or if the fuel storage capacity is small.g. 8.3. please refer to the appropriate installation drawing available on the MTU Extranet.3. is required. lubricating oils. 8. excessive resistance to flow. When substituting engine mounted or remote mounted filters these limits must be observed. Take the necessary precautions to ensure that the inlet line connections are tight so air cannot enter the fuel system. The separator should be installed between the fuel tank and the fuel inlet to the engine. a pressure of 7. fan belts).) away from all exhaust components (e. or other features that could lead to air trapping. exhaust manifold. Excessive fuel temperature can adversely affect engine performance. mildew.2) without bursting.03 kg/cm2 (100 lb/in.g. Do not route hose against sharp edges or in an area where hose may rub or vibrate against parts.2 Fuel Filter Configuration All engines are equipped with engine mounted fuel filters (secondary filters). Fuel coolers are installed on engines to reduce the temperature of the fuel being returned from the engine to the tank. and turbochargers). Route hoses away from moving parts (e. and abrasion. fuel oil. exhaust piping.Installation Manual Series 1600 • • • • • • • • • • • Route hoses at least 300 mm (12 in. Hg) without collapsing. Restriction limits on both the supply and return fuel lines can be found on TVU. 8. When using steel tubing. and temperatures between –40°C (-40°F) and 149°C (300°F).3.

and fuel spill heat rejection can be found in TVU.1 Fuel tank material Fuel tanks must be made of a fuel and corrosion resistant material.7. 8. Fuel heaters must be equipped with shutoff valves or thermostatic controls to prevent overheating the fuel. The supply and return lines must be separated by at least 300 mm (12 in) inside the tank to prevent mixing of hot return fuel with cold in tank fuel. of adequate size and properly located. fuel heaters should be used.92 .3. Extending the return line to this level prevents siphoning of fuel on the supply side back to the tank.7. The sulphur in the fuel oil reacts with the zinc coating to form powdery flakes that clog the fuel filters and cause damage to the fuel transfer pump and injectors.3. 8.2 Fuel tank design The supply and return lines must extend to the low level of useful tank volume. Allow 5% clearance volume above the bottom of the tank. Page . fuel spill rates. The fuel tank may be made of: • • • • • Aluminium Monel stainless steel (Higher concentration of nickel for higher corrosion resistance than standard stainless steel) Black iron (painted inside and outside with fuel resistant paint) Welded sheet steel Reinforced plastic NOTICE: Never use a galvanized steel fuel tank. 8. The fuel supply line must be above the bottom of the tank to ensure that dirt and sediments are not drawn into the fuel system.3. Refer to TVU for the maximum allowable fuel temperature returning from the tank to the engine The supply line should be at the centre of the tank to compensate for angular operation (see Figure 710).6 Fuel Heater To avoid formation of paraffin in the fuel due to cold ambient temperatures. 8.3.7 Fuel tank The return line in the tank should be placed with the outlet opening a sufficient distance from the intake line opening. The supply and return lines must be well supported within the tank. Cracks on the supply side can cause the entrance of air and a subsequent loss of power.Maximum allowable fuel supply temperature.

58 mm (. Position Page . The tank(s) should have a readily accessible drain valve at the bottom for easy removal of contaminants. 8.3 Fuel tank sizing Capacity Carefully choose the capacity of the fuel tank(s) to suit the specific engine installation.g. The location of the fill neck(s) should be a clean.93 . These baffles should have passageways. accessible location with sufficient height and room for an average size fill can or tanker truck hose.Installation Manual Series 1600 Figure 8-2 Properly Designed Fuel Tank Baffles must be positioned to separate air from fuel and to prevent fuel from sloshing between the ends of the tank(s) for transportable generator sets (e. The baffles should extend from the top to the bottom of the tank(s). which allow the fuel to maintain an even level throughout the tank(s). The vent of the fuel tank needs to be equipped with a tank venting filter to avoid pollution of the fuel by air intake.062 in.) mesh in the fill neck(s) to prevent large particles of foreign material from entering the tank(s).3. The tank(s) must have a vent that meets applicable regulations. The tank(s) capacity must be at least 5% greater than the maximum fill level to allow for fuel expansion. NOTE: The tank must be in compliance with all local as well as national legal requirements. The design of tanks in mobile applications must include the supply pipe so that adequate fuel is available under all operational gradients. Portable Generator Sets).7. Position a removable wire screen of approximately 1. Fuel capacity of the tank(s) should be appropriate for the specific application involved. These baffles will minimize erosion and deformation of the fuel tank caused by sloshing fuel.

Refer to TVU for permissible fuel pump suction and pressure limits.The position of the fuel tank(s) is an important factor in any application. if this is not possible the addition of a check valve / non return valve may be used to prevent fuel drain back. This will prevent the tank(s) from draining. The required tank capacity depends on the engine power. Install a shutoff valve for use when changing the primary filter if the fuel tank(s) is above the primary filter.94 . Locate the fuel tank(s) away from any excessive heat source. and acceptable exhaust emissions levels. Fuel Tank capacity calculation (Engine Data Downloaded from TVU) The required tank capacity depends on the engine power. A rough estimation is possible with the following formula: V(L) = P x be x t ρ V(L) = Tank Volume (Litres) P = Engine Power (kW) t = Operating Time (Hours) be = Specific Fuel Consumption (g/kWh) ρ = Fuel Density (Average  830 g/L) and V(gal) = V(L) 3. The position of the fuel tank(s) should ensure the following whenever possible. • • • The difference in height between the fuel tank(s) and engine supply pump is kept to a minimum.785 = Conversion (Litres to Gallons) Fuel Tank Sizing Calculation (Engine Data from TVU) 8. When sizing the fuel tank ensure that the diesel engine fuel inlet temperature limits as given in TVU will not be exceeded during engine operation or at any fuel tank level. MTU recommends locating the fuel tank above the fuel pump. the fuel consumption and the required operating time.4 Fuel Specifications The quality of fuel used is a very important factor in obtaining satisfactory engine performance.785 Figure 8-3 V(gal) = Tank Volume (Gallons) V(L) Tank Volume (Litres) = 3. the fuel consumption and the required operating time. Series 1600 engines are designed to operate on Page . The filling point is easy to access and simple to use. Refer to Figure 8-3 for a formula to calculate the required fuel tank size. long engine life.

95 . and electrical resistance heating elements. fuel system. 8. Do not smoke when refueling. 8. Tests should be run on a production installation or an installation representative of the final installation. The EPQ form must be completed. FIRE To avoid injury from fire.5. 8. duty cycle. Thermocouples should be located at the point the fuel exits the engine and returns to the day tank. Shutters must be fully opened and fan drive mechanisms in the fully engaged position. Temperature Measurement Use a precision thermocouple and an appropriate read-out device to measure temperatures. Refer to the Fluids and Lubricants Specification (A001063/0xE) published by MTU for fuel specifications.2 Test Thorough preparations prior to testing will ensure accurate results. • • • • Confirm all instrumentation and equipment is in good working condition and calibrated. engine load. sparks. including open flames. keep all potential ignition sources away from diesel fuel. engine re-powering. Page . Refer to for the location of the fuel inlet restriction port. or environmental operating conditions. or whenever modifications have been made to the engine. Take the measurement where the fuel lines are connected to the engine. Engine should be at normal operation temperature and run at full load. Hg). Restriction Measurement Use a precision gauge capable of reading a minimum of 152 mm Hg (6 in.Installation Manual Series 1600 most diesel fuels marketed worldwide.5.1 Instrumentation This section describes the instruments and methods needed to measure the temperatures and restrictions of the fuel system.5 Testing requirements A thorough evaluation of the fuel system will include: • • • • • • • Complete descriptions and documentation of the system Questionnaire (EPQ) form Adequate instrumentation Proper test preparation Accurate tests Data analysis and documentation Diagnostics (troubleshooting) and corrective action (if necessary) These tests must be run on all new installations.

Figure 8-4 Fuel System Data Sheets Page .96 _______________ mbar (“H2O) .Refer to Figure 8-4 for a sample data sheet for the fuel system test. Fuel System data Sheet Description Additional Information Fuel Return Temperature _______________ Measurement °C (°F) Fuel Inlet Restriction: • Fuel Pump Inlet (Series 1600) Note: Refer to TVU for permissible fuel inlet restriction values.

4 Lube Oil Heating Aids There are several methods of preheating oil prior to a cold engine start. Oil flows from the distribution housing through the back of the oil cooler. 9. valve train. Only the connections for oil monitoring. Oil from the gear case is drained directly into the oil pan. MTU application engineering must be contacted. 9. and then back to the oil cooler.2 Description 9. Page . The overall view of the Series 1600 lubrication system is shown in the Business Portal (BP). drainage. Oil travels from the galleries directly to the turbochargers. The entire lubrication system is integral to the engine. and operating within the maximum engine inclinations is required. maintaining the correct oil level. 9. the main oil gallery and the oil pan.1 General Proper functioning of the lubrication system is essential for long and trouble free engine operation.Installation Manual Series 1600 9 Lubrication System 9. through the lube oil filters. use of approved oils.1 System Description Series 1600 engines are equipped with a pressure-regulated lubricating oil system consisting of full-flow filtration and cooling with a minimum of external piping. Series 1600 engines have pressure-regulated lubrication via gear-driven oil pumps. Oil drains from the turbocharger through lines that pass along the flywheel housing and then into the oil pan. The oil pan acts as the lube oil supply reservoir. All oil lines must be resiliently connected to the engine.2 Operational Description Oil is drawn from the oil pan through the strainer and suction tube to the inlet port of the oil pump. lube oil heating may be used to maintain oil temperature while the engine is running. The valve train is drained through holes that empty into the oil pan. 9. additional filtration and priming that are present on the engine may be used. Lubrication system requirements may be found on TVU. Adherence to MTU/ ’s instructions and specifications regarding oil change intervals. The front crank support bearing is lubricated directly from the oil transfer housing. The standard lubrication system of a Series 1600 engine consists of a gear-driven oil pump. In extreme cases. Oil is then returned to the distribution housing and into the oil gallery. If such action is unavoidable.3 Oil Lines To avoid contamination and leaks in the oil system all plumbing must be inspected prior to the initial fill. and gear. Resilient connections require oil–resistant and temperature–resistant hoses. Disturbing or modifying the engine’s internal lube oil system is not permissible. The block has two main oil galleries that feed the crankshaft journals. Oil is then pumped through a transfer tube to the distribution housing on the 12V and 16V engines.2. All components and lines that are connected on the pressure side of the oil circuit must be designed for the respective operating pressure that is stated in TVU. oil filters. a pressure regulator. which in turn direct oil up through the connecting rods to the piston pins. an oil heat exchanger.2. The oil galleries also feed nozzles that direct an oil jet to the underside of the pistons and to the camshaft.97 .

If additional pre-filters are required consult MTU application engineering. In cases of continuous operation.6.98 . Plugged filters will result in unfiltered oil being supplied to the engine. etc. keep the engine area well ventilated during operation. sparks. resulting in premature engine wear.5 Oil Filter Configuration The standard oil filter configuration includes four disposable spin-on filter elements and an optional centrifuge. NOTICE: Never under-fill or overfill the oil pan. or other potential ignition sources away when draining lubrication oil. 9. keep open flames. Lubricating oil is relatively harmless at ambient temperatures. electrical resistance heating elements. • Stop the engine immediately if an oil leak is detected. • To prevent a build-up of potentially volatile vapours.6. Do not smoke when draining lubricating oil.) to avoid burns. high utilization rate. Consult MTU application engineering department if oil heating solutions are required. 9.MTU does not recommend the use of oil heaters. The standard oil filter configuration is sufficient for a standby generator set. NOTICE: Change the oil filters regularly. or extended oil change intervals. rotating parts can contact the oil surface and turn the oil into foam. This prevents proper lubrication and cooling and can lead to severe engine damage FIRE To avoid injury from fire. When an oil pan is overfilled.2 Oil Level Dipstick A dipstick designed for measuring oil level on a non-running engine is standard on the Series 1600.6 Oil Level Measurement 9. insulated gloves. To avoid injury from fire caused by heated lubricating-oil vapours: • Keep those people who are not directly involved in servicing away from the engine. provision must be made for additional oil filtration. • Wear adequate protective clothing (face shield. Page . apron.1 General Possibilities The oil level may be measured using one of the following: • • • Oil level dipstick Electric oil level monitor (off-engine) Sight gauge (off-engine) 9. • Do not allow open flames or smoke when working on an operating engine. Additional pre-filters/primary filters and/or lube oil centrifuges may be used for this purpose.

min. 9. MTU recommends an oil level monitor with a remote tank (see Figure 9-1). monitoring of the oil level in the engine oil pan is required. The remote tank ensures that the oil level is stable even when the engine is running under normal operation. Markings NOTE: 4 4 5 Remote Tank Oil supply line When designing the oil level monitor. Contact MTU Application Engineering for the proper location of connecting points and the actual running oil level.7 Oil Replenishment Unit The oil capacity in the oil pan is normally sufficient to achieve acceptable oil replenishment intervals. However. However. 9. this valve controls the oil flow from an oil supply tank located above the oil pan./Max. To avoid oil overfill of the pan.6. If the oil level in the oil pan is too low. special operating conditions may require an automatic oil replenishment unit. 1 2 max.99 . NOTE: An automatic oil replenishment unit with a level–controlled pump assures that the engine is constantly ready for use. Special care is required for installations that are exposed to tilt operation. min.6. Simple and economical oil replenishment units utilizing a float valve are common. If so. Page . 3 5 Figure 9-1 1 2 3 Oil Level Monitor with Remote Tank Vent line to Crankcase Level Sensor Sight Glass with Min. max. an electric oil level monitor may be desired for certain applications. remember that the oil level drops when the engine is running (oil circulating in the engine).4 Oil Pan Sight Gage If a sight gauge is desired for a specific application it should be able to withstand operating temperatures up to 107°C [225°F] and operating pressures up to 2 bar [29psi].Installation Manual Series 1600 9.3 Electrical Level Monitor Checking the oil level on the dipstick is usually sufficient.

please consult MTU Application Engineering. Special engine configurations and special lube oil pans are required for steeper inclinations.NOTE: For information on this. Normally. This limit is without the use of a pre-lube system. no priming is necessary. 9.12 Testing Requirements The appropriate section of the EPQ form must be completed. The oil priming system should prime on an interval basis. Priming is only recommended in the following exceptional cases: • • • • • Un-interrupted Power Source (UPS) generator sets Generator sets requiring very frequent starts Generator sets requiring very short run–up times Generator sets in which the engine is subjected to vibrations when it is not running Generator sets requiring extreme operating angles In each case. please consult MTU Application Engineering 9. 9.8 Tilt Operation The standard MTU Series 1600 engines are approved for the operating angles stated in TVU. NOTE: For information on this.100 . Continual priming of the system may result in damage to the engine.11 Fluid Specifications and Recommendations The operation of Series 1600 engines is only permissible using the approved lube oils stated in the Fluids and Lubricants Specification (A001063/0xE) that can be found on the MTU Extranet. Rest of World (ROW): The Series 1600 engines are equipped with a closed crankcase venting system as standard equipment.10 Crankcase Venting North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): The Series 1600 engines are equipped with a closed crankcase venting system as standard equipment. Page . the type and duration of the priming must be agreed upon with MTU on a project–specific basis. Also see the information in the technical sales document. 9.9 Priming The need for priming depends on the application of the genset. 9. Refer to TVU for the maximum allowable vibration levels for the engine.

a drive pinion on the armature shaft engages with the teeth on the engine flywheel ring gear to crank the engine. When the engine starts. Page . The starter motor drive pinion and the engine flywheel ring gear must be matched to provide proper engagement. the starter motors are typically equipped with an overrunning clutch within the drive pinion.3. 10. This section describes the function. it is necessary to disengage the drive pinion to prevent the armature from over-speeding and damaging the starter motor.2 Cranking requirements The Series 1600 engine cranking requirements. To accomplish this. 10. Typically. For further information refer to the Business Portal (BP) with the ADEC Manual (E 532291/00E). 10. This can prevent possible damage that can occur if the starter is engaged while the engine is running. including minimum cranking speed and minimum cranking time can be found in TVU. When the starter circuit is closed. an electric starter motor used on the Series 1600 engine has a nose housing that can be rotated to obtain a number of different solenoid positions with respect to the mounting flange.Installation Manual Series 1600 10 Electrical and Starting Systems The purpose of the electrical system is to supply power to the MTU Diesel Engine Controls (ADEC) system and to provide the energy to start the engine if the engine is equipped with electric starters.101 .1. the commutator end cap can be removed to inspect the brushes without removing the starter motor from the engine.1 Electric Starting Motors The electric starting motor(s) is bolted to the flywheel housing. If the customer defines the starter sequence. In most cases.1 Electrical System Description The electrical system may consist of the following components: • • • • • • Starting Motor Battery Charging Alternator Storage Battery(s) Control Panel Starting Motor Relay Key Switch 10. it is their responsibility to ensure the starter will not engage once the engine is running. ADEC prohibits the starting motor from engaging when the ADEC starter sequence is used.1 Starter lockout There should be an interlock in the starter motor engagement circuit that prevents the starter pinion gear from being indexed and engaged while the engine is already running.3. design.3 Starting Motors 10. The starter mounting is shown in the installation drawings that can be found on the MTU extranet. and application for the electrical system of a Series 1600 engine.

10.3.1.2 Starter cables
Electrical starter cables must be installed such that they are protected against mechanical damage. Attention must be paid to permissible bending radii of electric starter cables.
NOTE:

To keep the diameter of the starter cable to a minimum, the battery should be installed as
close as possible to the starter.

NOTE:

Due to the possibility of greater voltage fluctuations during the starting process, it is recommended to use separate batteries for the starter and the ADEC control. Otherwise, control of
the engine may affected.

NOTE:

The requirements stated on the MTU ADEC Harness Diagrams must be followed when installing an ADEC engine.

10.3.2 Redundant Starting
Redundant starting systems increase the reliability of starting the engine. Typically, they consist of two
independent starters. If one starter fails, the second starter becomes active. In a truly redundant starting
system, each starter should have its own energy supply.
Redundant starting is an option on Series 1600 engines.

10.4 Battery Charging Alternator
The battery-charging alternator provides a source of electrical current for maintaining the storage battery
in a charged condition and supplies sufficient current to carry any other electrical load requirements up to
the rated capacity of the alternator.
The battery-charging circuit consists of an alternator, a voltage regulator, a battery(s) and the connecting
wiring. The alternator must have an isolated ground. The alternators typically used on the Series 1600
engine are belt driven, alternating current (AC), self-rectifying units.
For further information refer to the Business Portal (BP) with the ADEC Manual (E 532291/00E).

10.5 Installation Guidelines
10.5.1 Battery

To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid, work in a wellventilated area, wear protective clothing, and avoid sparks or flames near the battery. Always establish correct polarity before connecting cables to the battery or
battery circuit. If you come in contact with battery acid:

Flush your skin with water.

Apply baking soda or lime to help neutralize the acid.

Flush your eyes with water.

Get medical attention immediately.

Page - 102

Installation Manual Series 1600

NOTE:
You must not connect battery ground to the genset base frame.

The battery is a device for storing electrical energy and converting chemical energy into Electrical energy. Nickel Cadmium and lead acid batteries may be used. If a nickel Cadmium battery is used the battery manufacturer’s guidelines should be used.
Four basic types of lead acid batteries are currently available:



Filler cap batteries
Semi-maintenance free batteries
Maintenance-free batteries
Deep cycle batteries

Filler Cap Batteries
Filler cap batteries are lead-acid with a high degree of antimony in the grid alloy. These batteries require
frequent servicing especially adding water, and cleaning salts and corrosive deposits from the terminal
posts.
Semi-maintenance-free Batteries
Servicing is reduced in the semi-maintenance free batteries due to reduced amount of antimony in the
grid alloy. Water must still be added periodically. Salt and corrosive deposits must be cleaned from the
terminal posts.
Maintenance-free Batteries
Maintenance-free batteries use lead-calcium grid construction without antimony. These batteries never
need water. Terminal posts do not tend to accumulate salt and corrosive deposits since there are no filler
caps to leak acid fumes, so cable inspection and cleaning are infrequent.
Deep Cycle Batteries
Deep cycle batteries are not recommended for engine starting.
Battery Capacity
The minimum battery capacity recommended for acceptable engine cranking is listed here:
Engine
Model

System Voltage

Series 1600

24V

Minimum Battery Ratings
SAE Cold Cranking AMPS (CCA) @ 0 F (-17.8 C)
Above 32 F (0 C)
Below 32 F (0 C)
950

1250

* If two cranking motors are used, battery recommendation is for each motor.
Table 10-1

Minimum Battery Capacity for Acceptable Engine Cranking

Battery Mounting and Location
Battery mounting boxes or carriers support the batteries and protect them from excess vibration, road
splash and other environmental conditions. The battery carrier may be heated or cooled to keep the battery at optimum operating temperature, 27°C (80°F).
The recommended battery carrier designs are:

Top picture frame
Page - 103



Top crossbar
Top mid-frame
Angled J-bolt

Figure 10-2 illustrates these designs.

Figure 10-2

Battery Retainers

To avoid injury from battery explosion or contact with battery acid, do not place a
charging battery near arcs, sparks, or open flame. Batteries give off gasses that can
be ignited by a spark or flame, and the resulting explosion can cause the battery
case to rupture.

The battery should be located away from flame or spark source, road splash, and dirt but as close as
possible to the starting motor. The battery should be located in a place with minimum vibration and easy
access for visual inspection and maintenance.
Batteries mounted between frame rails, either inside or above the rails, experience minimum vibration.
Batteries mounted outside, but close and parallel to frame rails, experience greater vibration. Both of
these locations are recommended for all applications. Cantilever battery mountings are not recommended.

Page - 104

Page .Installation Manual Series 1600 10. The magnetic switch is used to isolate the starter switch contacts from this heavy current draw. Factors to consider when selecting an appropriate cranking motor include: • • • • • Ambient temperature Oil viscosity Parasitic loads Cranking circuit resistance Starting aids The Cranking Circuit The typical cranking circuit will include an auxiliary solenoid switch between the cranking switch and the starter solenoid terminals. Mounting the cranking motor with the solenoid above horizontal allows any accumulated moisture to drain out of the shift housing through the open nose housing.5. Starting time should not exceed 30 seconds. Please refer to Business Portal (BP) for all available starter options.105 .2 Cranking Motor The cranking motor should be installed so that the solenoid is above horizontal. This switch is sometimes referred to as the "magnetic switch". with a two-minute cool down interval between starting periods. Moisture and condensation may remain trapped and accumulate in the area of the solenoid and shift linkage and damage the solenoid if the solenoid is below horizontal (see Figure 10-3). Starter solenoid current draw can exceed 60 Amps in 24 V systems. Figure 10-3 Starter Indexing Excessive engine starting (multiple successive starts or excessive crank time) may cause the starter to overheat and may reduce its life.

self-contained rectifiers and regulators.3 Alternator The battery-charging alternator provides a source of electrical current for maintaining the storage battery in a charged condition. the alternator mounting lugs. the adjusting strap. An effective bracket must stay firmly attached to the engine. The following guidelines are provided for correct alternator mounting: NOTICE: Do not mount the alternator near the exhaust manifold. Provision must be made for belt tension adjustment. relying on the frame for ground return can result in incorrect voltage sensing by the regulator and. Even though these alternators are referred to as ‘‘one wire systems". Anchor the adjusting strap and mounting brackets to a rigidly fixed heavy section. Page . or other alternator components. A mounting location not subject to resonant vibration is best. 10. Drive and driven pulleys must be in parallel and in angular alignment to prevent short belt life or loss of belt. Additional information about the alternator can be found in the Business Portal (BP). as a result. Belt resonance will result in short belt life. Mounting near the exhaust manifold could overheat the alternator and the regulator. The alternator mounting assembly should support the alternator rigidly so that the alternator pulley grooves are in the same plane as the driving pulley grooves on the engine. an adjusting strap and the associated hardware.4 Alternator Mounting The typical mounting assembly includes a mounting bracket that matches the alternator mounting lugs. Motion between the mounting bracket and adjusting strap can create an unacceptable vibration. Excessive vibration of mounting assembly components can cause failure of the mounting bracket. The pulley groove must be concentric with the bore and the pulley should be adequately balanced. Because the regulator is contained within the alternator.106 .5. incorrect alternator output. a separate ground return line should be used from the alternator to the battery. Modern battery charging alternators are three phase AC machines with solid state. The alternator also supplies sufficient current to carry any other electrical load requirements up to the rated capacity of the alternator.10. Contact the belt manufacturer if belt resonance is a problem. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) recommended practice should be followed with respect to pulley alignment and tolerances. Follow alternator supplier mounting guidelines for minimum mounting requirements. Incorrect mounting can result in: • • Improper alignment of pulleys Excessive vibration of mounting assembly components Improper alignment of pulleys causes excessive belt or pulley wear. • • • • • • • A mounting location close to the engine block minimizes mounting bracket overhang.5. Fabricated sheet metal pulleys are not recommended for applications with heavy belt loads.

A full copper circuit is recommended for all installations because it maintains the lowest resistance and is the most trouble-free. system voltage. Use clamps to support the battery cable every 24 inches. Coat connections with a corrosion inhibitor. Starter circuit resistance should not exceed 0. abrasion. 10. starting motor type.002Ω in a 24-volt circuit.5. The grounding points have to have maximum distance to each other. The cable size should be the same as the supply cable coming from the battery. generator and engine have to be grounded to the base frame. Use die-cast lead alloy terminals for post-type batteries. and at other stress points. and location. and avoids excessive heat. terminals.5.the vehicle or chassis. One faulty or dirty connection may reduce electrical energy transfer throughout the entire electrical system. Thus they should be diagonally arranged. routing clamps. is properly supported. When calculating the correct cable size. Use ring terminals for connections other than to the battery. the distance from the battery to the starter or alternator as well as the ground return distance must be used to determine the total cable resistance or system voltage drop. Page . NOTE: MTU does not approve the use of external or internal tooth lock washers for battery cable electrical connections. cable length and size. The following guidelines are provided for new installations: • • • • • • • • • • • • Rope stranded copper cable is recommended for #0 or larger cable sizes because of its added flexibility. loom or conduit requirements. to assure proper connections. around corners.1 General Care must be taken to ensure that all cables and connections are clean and in good operating condition.see business portal. Both. and vibration. Strip frame area of paint.107 . and to relieve strain at battery and motor terminals. and connections. Battery cable connections to the frame should have hardened steel flat washers with a locking nut. The engine controller is grounded to the engine .5.5. batteries used. Use sealed terminals when sealed terminal batteries are available. where ground connection is made. The wiring system is governed by certain characteristics . insulation.5.Installation Manual Series 1600 10.2 Grounding Requirements The preferred method of ground return is to use a copper cable from the groundside of the starter or alternator back to the battery.5 Wiring of MTU Gensets 10. These characteristics establish proper routing. Good cable routing is not too tight or loose. Conduit or loom should be considered to protect the wiring when extreme heat or abrasion cannot be avoided.

explosions and earthquakes) Compensation for engine thermal expansion Compensation for production and installation tolerances 11. both vibratory and translational To control external shock or transient forces to prevent physical contact between the engine and the application To limit the bending moments at the cylinder block-to-flywheel housing joint (rear face of block or RFOB) below the maximum values stated in TVU To prevent twisting loads on the cylinder block and the entire packaged assembly As standard MTU Series 1600 engines require resilient mounting.e.2 Natural Frequency The mounting system’s natural frequency depends on the static deflection of the resilient mounting system and is calculated as follows with a linear characteristic of the mounting elements: Steel spring mounts Rubber mounts fe= 300 fe= 300 fe = Natural frequency of the resilient mounted Generator Set in rpm Conversion in Hz: = Natural frequency rpm 60 S Static = Static deflection of the resilient mount in cm V = Stiffness factor (only applicable for rubber mounts).11 Engine Mounts 11.108 .1 General The major functional requirements of the engine mounting system are: • • • • • To adequately support the engine and driven components To control and reduce the engine motion. A resilient mounting system must provide the following features: • • • • Isolation of the mechanical vibrations and solid–borne sound Isolation of sudden and transient excitation (i. dimension–free Page . In special cases rigid mounting may be acceptable.

109 .26 55 1. The isolation effect is expressed as:  η= Forcing frequency (engine speed) Natural frequency fe If the calculated isolation efficiency (i) is equal to 85 %.23 50 1.3 60 1.Installation Manual Series 1600 The stiffness factor corresponding to the shore hardness and can be found in the table below: Shore hardness V (stiffness factor) 45 1.38 70 1. this means that 85 % of the excitation is dampened by the resilient mounts and 15% of the excitation is causing vibration in the foundation.34 65 1.425 NOTE: A good isolation effect is achieved if the natural frequency of the system is significantly below the excitation (engine speed). 11.3 Isolation Efficiency The isolation efficiency is the ratio of the excitation (engine speed) to the natural frequency of the system. The isolation effect is better if the system’s natural frequency is i = η2-2 x 100 [%] η2-1 Where: i = Isolation efficiency in % η = Frequency ratio (dimension–free) and η is calculated as follows: far away from the natural frequency of the engine. Page .

resilient mounts must be installed between the engine/generator and the base. In case of special vibration requirements.11. a decision must be made between rubber and spring isolating elements.4 Diesel Powered Generator Set . • Rubber elements Characteristics: – High flexibility High damping characteristics Available in various shore hardness Economical Low fuel/oil resistance Limited temperature capability (-20°C to +70°C) • Steel spring elements – – – – – Characteristics: – – – – – – Wear-free Capable of achieving very low natural frequencies Long service life Resistant to oil.110 . it may be necessary to install the base skid resiliently to the foundation.5 Engine / Generator Resilient Mount Selection As a first step. The choice of suitable mounting systems between the engine/alternator and the base is largely dependent on the alternator design and the vibration–related requirements. greases Large operating temperature range Lower damping characteristic Page . ozone. fuel. 11. In the case of an engine with a flange mounted generator. it is sufficient to rigidly mount the base to the foundation. 3 Engine Alternator 1 2 1 2 Engine Figure 11-1 Base 3 Alternator Resiliently Mounted Diesel Engine and Flanged Mounted Generator on a Common Usually.Flanged / Mounted Generator The engine and alternator are usually mounted on a common base. See Figure 10-4.

111 . the isolating element type is selected.2 10.2 Isolation efficiency [%] 79 78 85 84 86 85 90 89 Table 11-2 4 mm 4 mm Guideline Values for Natural Frequencies and Isolation Efficiencies for the MTU Rubber Elements 11.0 9. the number of elements. 11. Excitation 1500/min ¢ 25 Hz 1800/min ¢ 30 Hz Static deflection 3 mm 3 mm Shore hardness 55 60 55 60 55 60 55 60 Natural System frequency [Hz] 10.0 9. Based on the load (deflection) and required dampening characteristic. The number and position of the elements have to be determined to have a constant deflection across all elements. The identical design and hardness must be selected for the engine and alternator mounts. NOTE: Optimum range for the MTU mounts: Static deflection: 4 to 6 mm The natural frequencies and isolation efficiencies for the MTU rubber elements are stated in Table 10-1.6 Resilient Mounting Elements Configuration In the first step.6 9. their hardness. and location must be defined.7 Resilient Mount Installation The following must be observed: • • • Deflection of individual elements should not differ by more than 2 mm (operational generating set) The deflection range of the mounts must not be hindered by any other components Permissible deflection of resilient elements must be examined prior to operation.6 9. Page .4 10. Proper attention should be given to the following: • • • The total weight and centre of gravity of the entire generating set must be calculated (wet engine + coupling + alternator + mounted accessories).4 10..Installation Manual Series 1600 – Improved damping characteristic with screw–type disk springs (MTU design) Note: Obtaining the mounting elements from MTU is highly recommended.

.12 Torsional and Bending Vibration Analysis 12. power vs. speed). coupling manufacturers and consultants. system natural frequencies. It is mandatory that your authorized MTU or representative be consulted for assistance in the preparation and submission of a torsional analysis request. For these drive trains a bending vibration analysis is to be performed.112 . However. The two page form may be found at the end of this chapter. crankshaft pulley. the analysis completed by the other organizations will sufficiently define mode shapes. Page . also perform TVA’s. may generate unacceptable bending stresses in the crankshaft and/or the shaft line. If an installation is identical (same engine power and torque. and amplitudes or velocities. such as. Other organizations.e. and transmission) coupled by elements that act as springs (shafts. Therefore. such as a single bearing alternator. rubber elements in a coupling). It is mandatory that your authorized MTU or representative be consulted for assistance in the preparation and submission of a bending vibration analysis request. only fully completed forms should be submitted. MTU will not accept these analyses as approval for the engine in any particular application. gear input shaft and stiffness of the foundation. Typically. bearings. MTU will perform a TVA for specific applications. The only acceptable evaluation of the stresses occurring in the crankshaft is the analysis completed by or MTU.3 Bending Vibration Analysis Drive trains equipped with cardan/drive shafts with high bending angle or deflection angle or components with great masses.1 General A torsional and bending vibration analysis (TVA) is required for all applications. rotational devices connected to the engine and same types of connection hardware to drive the rotational devices) to an application that was previously analyzed. 12. The mass elastic system for a bending vibration analysis comprises the crankshaft and the parts of the drive train together with their environment such as couplings. This equivalent mass-elastic system model provides the necessary input data for the computerized torsional analysis. In order to minimize the turn around time of the analysis. damper. then the previously approved TVA can be applied. gears. A torsional analysis request form is included in this section of the manual for use in submitting requests to MTU. which the engine manufacturer utilizes.2 Torsional Vibration Analysis Basically. Information about all possible operating conditions of the application is also necessary (i. an engine and its drive system can be represented as a series of masses (flywheel. flywheel. 12. it is important that complete and concise drive line data accompany every torsional analysis request. the results from other organizations will not be acceptable for evaluation of stresses occurring in the crankshaft. An approved torsional analysis is vital to the life. dependability and success of any power train system.

113 .Installation Manual Series 1600 Page .

4 Harness ADEC requires the following harnesses: • • Sensor Harness Injector Harness Page . fuel temperature.1 Components The ADEC system is an advanced technological electronic control system. and other vital engine parameters. A simple installation may require a basic understanding of electrical circuits while a more comprehensive electrical or electronics background is required to access all of ADEC’s capabilities.1. 13. coolant level. coolant temperature. 13.1. ADEC offers significant operating advantages over traditional mechanically governed engines. The system optimizes control of critical engine functions that affect fuel economy.2 Location of Sensors Refer to Business Portal (BP) Installation drawings where the sensors are shown which are integrated into the factory-installed Engine Sensor Harness for the Series 1600. turbo boost pressure. etc. and emissions. The ADEC system has the capability to protect the engine from serious damage resulting from conditions such as high engine temperatures. low oil pressure. 13.1. This information is available via CAN Bus or can be shown on the SAM that is available as an option. It controls fuel injection quantity and timing. For additional information refer to the ADEC Engine Control System manual (E 532291/00E). oil pressure.13 Electronic Controls The Advanced Diesel Engine Control (ADEC®) system section is intended for personnel with an electrical background.1. 13. power.3 SAM for Genset Application SAM documentation is shown in the Business Portal (BP).114 . This section describes the function and installation requirements for the electronic system of an ADEC controlled Series 1600 engine.1 ADEC System Description 13. The ECU receives electronic inputs from sensors on the engine and uses the information to control engine operation. The ADEC system consists of: • • • • • Engine Control Unit (ECU) Engine Sensors Engine Actuators Engine Injectors Engine Cable Harness The ECU monitors oil temperature. NOTE: This section pertains only to the Series 1600 electronic controls and is intended to be used as a supplement to the ADEC Engine Control System manual. coolant pressure.

13.115 . a battery is required to operate the ECU.Shutdown) Voltage High/Low (Shutdown) Coolant Level (Shutdown) Sensor Defect (Shutdown) Pre-heat Temperature low (Engine Start Blocked) Page . the system will continue to operate at reduced voltage.5 Welding Precautions On the ADEC electronics.Shutdown) T-Charged Air (Coolant Temperature High . 13. Engine should perform correctly until the engine shuts down for over or under voltage. 13. For more information please consult the information provided through the Business Portal (BP).3 Message Format ADEC transmits parametric data on the MCS5 CAN Bus. When this occurs the Combined Alarm Yellow will be activate.2 Installation Requirements The ADEC installation requirements are the same as those published in the Implementation of ADEC into Customer Control System manual.4 ADEC Power Requirements Since the ADEC system is electronic.6 Engine Protection ADEC engine protection provides the capability to warn and protect the engine from serious damage resulting from: • • • • • • • • • • • Over speed Alarm (Shutdown) Combined Alarm Red (Engine Shutdown) T-Coolant (Coolant Temperature High .Shutdown) P-Lube Oil (Lube Oil Pressure Low . Digital output circuits are designed to sink no more than 300 mA (DC) current 13.Shutdown) T-Lube Oil (Lube Oil Temperature High . ADEC will detect a malfunction at reduced voltage.Shutdown) P-Fuel (Fuel Pressure Low . 13. it is not necessary to remove the plugs and connectors for carrying out welding work if the main power supply switch is set from “On” to “Off” and the cable is disconnected at the negative pole and at the positive pole of the battery. however in the event of a power supply malfunction.Installation Manual Series 1600 • • Power Supply Harness Interface Harness Descriptions including wire diagrams can be found on Business Portal (BP). ADEC operates on 24 volts.

to verify its functions and to evaluate the parameters measured. 13. In addition. even with the engine in operation. service units are also included in our scope of supply.7 Normal Engine Start Reference ADEC Engine Control System provided through the Business Portal (BP).116 . the dialogue unit offers the possibility of acquisition and immediate evaluation of extensive measured data. Refer to Figure 12-3 for a picture of the dialogue unit.13. Figure 13-1 Dialogue Unit 14 Flywheel Housing and Generator Page . These software modifications are realized with the electronic engine control unit via an associated interface. The following diagnostic tools are available: • Dialogue Unit Dialogue unit A large number of individual functions are integrated into our ADEC engine management system. To facilitate optimized matching of the system to the individual generator set operating conditions it is possible to modify certain control parameters. This allows the customer to match the electronic ADEC engine management system quickly and independently to their specific requirements. Whenever required.8 Diagnostics and Service The range of MTU products available for Generator Set packages does not end with the engine and the ADEC system components which are integrated directly into the plant.

If stray current from the generator cannot be excluded.005 in.1 Flywheel Housing and Flywheel The flywheel is attached to the rear end of the crankshaft.13 mm (0.117 . engine. generator frames. grounding device (generator). system provider! 14. insulated generator shaft. fibre carbon couplings).1 General Before installation. and alternator to ensure proper mating of all components.Installation Manual Series 1600 The flywheel housing is a one-piece casting mounted against the rear of the cylinder block. must be avoided. Proper alignment of the engine and generator is necessary for smooth operation.1.e. non-conductive generator coupling (i.1 Generator Alignment 14.1.1. design measures have to be taken in order to securely avoid any damages to the engine and generator bearings.) peak to peak. Linear vibration of the main structural elements (engine blocks.) should not exceed 0. It provides a cover for the flywheel and serves as a mount for the starter and in some applications a mount for the transmission or generator. it is necessary to check the installation dimensions of the coupling. etc. Page . Proper alignment minimizes bending stress in the relatively flexible flywheel housing. but are not limited to: Insulated generator bearings. Such measures can be. Stray current flow from the generator into the engine crankshaft and through the crankshaft bearings back into the generator. It should be noted that the system qualification and the technical suitability is within the responsibility of the OEM resp. See Figure 14-1 for a diagram of a typical engine flywheel housing and flywheel mount to a generator. Figure 14-1 1 2 3 4 Typical Engine/Single Bearing Generator Mounting Flexplate Flywheel Crankshaft Flywheel Housing Stator Adaptor 5 6 7 8 Stator Rotor Rotor Adaptor Alternator Windings 14.

2.2 Angular Alignment Excessive angular misalignment will cause the drive disc to flex once each revolution. Page . Measure and repeat steps 1-3 as necessary. Loosen the bolts retaining the disc to the flywheel. Rotate the generator drive disc 90° on the flywheel. 14. coupling. 14. 4. Loosen all of the bolts. If further information is required. The following procedure can be used to offset the effect of any imbalance. This causes linear vibration. The recommended method to assure proper seating of the drive disc on the flywheel is the following procedure: 1. Retighten bolts enough to partially compress the lock washers. 14.1. This can result in excessive linear vibration of the generator set. Re-torque the bolts to the recommended values. 5. and generator rotor imbalance can occur in phase with each other. Improper seating of the drive disc is virtually impossible to observe. generator rotors. 4.720 kg mm).118 . use the following five-step procedure for flanged generators: 1. Disconnect the generator drive disc. Crank the engine with Engine Stop Button (BE1) not active to prevent the engine from starting. Improper seating of the drive disc may result in one end of the rotor shifting from the crankshaft centreline by the amount of clearance between retention bolts and the drive disc holes. use the following three-step procedure: 1. Check to see if the vibration is eliminated. 3. 3. A gap indicates misalignment. Tighten all bolts to required torque values.4 Proper seating of the Drive disc Excessive vibration may occur because the drive disc is not fully seated within its pilot in the flywheel.1.Instruments to measure linear vibration are available on the market at various prices. Stop the engine and retighten the bolts to the specified torque. 2. and couplings should balance within 1 in•lb mass (0. Continue cranking until the drive disc seats. please contact MTU Application Engineering.1. To check the alignment after assembly of the generator set onto its base. Place shims between the generator mounting feet and the base if a gap appears.3 Unbalanced mass Residual flywheel.1. that secure the generator frame to the flywheel housing. Some generator rotors may not be balanced with the fan drive disc attached. Repeat the process with the bolts below the centre axis if the vibration still exists. Check to see if a gap appears between the generator frame and flywheel housing. 2. This will change the residual imbalance. located above the generator centre axis. Flywheels (with ring gear). 4. To reduce linear vibration. 3.1.1.

IMPORTANT: The ventilation openings on the alternator must not be obstructed.2.1.6 Drive disc concentricity Follow the generator manufacturer’s procedure to assure drive disc concentricity. The indicator stylus must maintain contact with the drive disc pilot diameter in the flywheel.2 Flywheel Housing Venting Typically generator packages require a forced airflow through the generator for cooling purposes. Securely mount a precision dial indicator on the flywheel housing. The standard Series 1600 flywheel housing does not provide vents to dissipate heat from the alternator/coupling.13 mm).Installation Manual Series 1600 14.5 Flywheel radial run out Check flywheel radial run out as follows: 1. The connection dimensions of the engine correspond to the SAE standard. Page . 14.1. The crankshaft will support some of the weight of what is attached to the flywheel.1. (0. Contact MTU Application Engineering to determine what size vents will be required to properly dissipate the heat of both the alternator and coupling.3 Forces on Crankshaft Forces are placed on the crankshaft when a generator or other PTO device is attached to the engine. can be found on TVU. The maximum thrust load. 2. 14. This vertical load on the rear of the crankshaft must not exceed the limits stated in TVU.1.2 Alternators and Couplings 14.1. Observe the total indicator travel while the engine is barred over. therefore provision for sufficient vents in the alternator flange are required. Remove the generator (if already installed).1. continuous and intermittent. Thrust loads may also be applied to the crankshaft. 14.005 in. NOTE: Flywheel concentricity should be within 0. 14.119 . 3.1 Alternator Configurations / Designs The following alternator configurations are used for Generator Sets: • • • Closed-coupled single bearing alternators Close-coupled dual bearing alternators Remote mounted dual bearing alternators The standard MTU Series 1600 engines are suitable for these alternator configurations.

2 Installation requirements The permissible limit values for the engine gear train and alternator stresses must not be exceeded. Sufficiently dimensioned installation openings for connecting and servicing the coupling must be provided.1 Description Dual bearing alternators support the alternator’s rotor weight with support bearings at each end of the rotor. Single bearing alternator rotors are supported by a single bearing at the non-driven end of the alternator.2. radial and angular offsets between the alternator shaft and the crankshaft.2 Single Bearing Alternator 14.4.2 Installation requirements The alternator bell housing (engine/alternator connection) must be of a sufficiently rigid design.2. Upon request. MTU Application Engineering can provide permissible limit values.2.2. 14.2. The other half of the rotor shaft weight is supported by the engine flywheel/crankshaft.3 Dual Bearing Alternator (Close-Coupled) 14. as well as the torsionally resilient damping.3.2. Sufficiently dimensioned installation openings for connecting and servicing the coupling must be provided. axial. A resilient coupling (torsionally. axial.120 . laterally and axially resilient) is required in order to balance out the torsional.2.3. including both the weight of the flywheel and alternator To avoid the introduction of axial forces caused by thermal expansion. 14.2 Installation requirements A resilient coupling (torsionally.14. 14.2. Page .1 Description Single bearing alternators are flanged directly to the diesel engine. laterally and axially resilient) is required in order to balance out the torsional.4.2.4 Dual Bearing Alternator (Remote) 14. radial and angular offsets between the alternator shaft and the crankshaft.1 Description Dual bearing alternators support the alternator’s rotor weight with support bearings at each end of the rotor.2. the alternator bearing should allow axial movement. 14. A torsionally stiff but axially resilient diaphragm coupling connects the engine flywheel to the alternator shaft. as well as the torsionally resilient damping. 14.2. Particular attention must be paid to the following requirements: • • Maximum permissible mass moment of inertia of the rotor assembly Maximum permissible vertical load on rear of crankshaft.

Coupling should be able to withstand a single cylinder misfiring When installing and removing the coupling. Protect couplings and rotating parts against personal contact. laterally.5.1 Torsional and bending vibration analysis Torsional and Bending Vibration analysis are effective methods for preventing or isolating potential damaging vibratory stresses before equipment is purchased and installed.2. Before installing the coupling. For aluminium parts. engine.2. single bearing alternators are used with a diaphragm coupling (consisting of steel disks). The diaphragm coupling must meet the MTU coupling specifications. follow the procedures defined by MTU the alternator manufacturer. The connecting bolts must be tightened to the stipulated torque using a torque wrench. torsionally rigid and laterally and axially resilient Dual bearing alternator. ensure sufficient ventilation to dissipate the emitted heat. Page .Installation Manual Series 1600 14.2.1. close coupled Torsionally. laterally. Refer to Section 11.2.3 Single bearing alternator couplings Usually.1. close coupled Diaphragm coupling.121 . it is necessary to check the installation dimensions of the coupling. larger washers should be used. nuts.5 Couplings 14. Spring washers are not suitable for these bolt connections. 14. and axially resilient coupling Dual bearing alternator.5. and axially resilient coupling suitable for larger radial offsets between the engine and alternator The following points must be observed: MTU recommends using elastomeric couplings with linear characteristics. ensure the clamping surface is clean from residue and not damaged. The MTU specifications must be observed when selecting the coupling.5. 14. Bolts.2. and alternator to ensure proper mating of all components. Balance coupling in accordance to procedure stated in section 14. remote mounted Torsionally. and the coupling manufacturer.2 Coupling (between engine and rotor) General The coupling type depends on the respective alternator type used: Alternator type Coupling type Single bearing alternator. Before installation. For elastomeric couplings. materials and contact surfaces should be selected to ensure required clamping force is maintained under all operating conditions.

provide an installation/inspection opening in a suitable place for installing/removing the coupling. Prior to coupling the engine and alternator.4 Close-coupled dual-bearing alternator couplings Elastomeric couplings are usually used as the connection between dual–bearing alternators and diesel engine.6 Requirements for the axial endplay of the crankshaft and the alternator shaft IMPORTANT: The required axial movement of the crankshaft must not be hindered by the coupling/alternator. IMPORTANT: Install the coupling after the diesel engine and alternator have been properly aligned. suitable for larger radial offsets between the engine and the alternator should be used. 14. Use couplings that allow problem–free replacement of the elements without moving the alternator or driven machine. Page . To keep stresses low the engine and alternator must be aligned as accurate as possible. the following must be observed: • • Check the axial movement of the crankshaft that is outlined on the engine installation drawing available on MTU Extranet. The elastomeric parts of the coupling must be designed to withstand the operating temperatures in the alternator bell housing. For further information contact MTU Application Engineering.5 Remote mounted dual bearing alternator couplings In this case.2. Depending on the requirements.2.122 . This could increase the axial forces on the crankshaft and may cause severe engine damage. MTU recommendation: For further information contact MTU Application Engineering. laterally and axially resilient. Check the axial movement of the alternator shaft.5.For further information contact MTU/ Application Engineering 14. To prevent heat rise in the coupling chamber. resilient couplings which are torsionally. 14.5.5. Refer to Figure 14-2 for the axial movement requirements of both the engine and alternator.2. ventilation openings of a sufficient size must be provided in the alternator bell housing.

through an elastic coupling plus override transmission or electromagnetic clutch. 14.5 Measurement of crankshaft axial movement with flanged alternator can result in incorrect values. i.123 .6 Standby Gensets with Permanent Inducing of Vibration and Forces (No Break Gensets) There are special requirements for applications with a stopped engine. b) The interface crankshaft . endurance tests etc.7 Dimension b [mm] minimum axial movement of alternator shaft ≥ 1. but with a rotating generator drive chain (i.generator drive chain.Installation Manual Series 1600 b b a Coupling flange surface Centre loose mount Alternator flange surface b b 4 3 1 2 Figure 14-2 1 2 Axial movement requirements of both the engine and alternator Loose Rotor Bearing Alternator shaft 3 4 Diaphragm coupling Alternator Fan Series 1600 Dimension a [mm] related to loose crankshaft bearing (SAE Standard) 15.e. has to be designed in way so that no impermissible movements and forces are introduced through the flywheel into the crankshaft. no break gensets) and the consequential introduction of vibrations and/ or forces into the engine: a) It is mandatory to implement the MTU approved and released interval pre-lubrication system. It should be noted that the system qualification and the technical suitability is within the responsibility of the OEM resp.2. Documents and certificates can be. but are not limited to: Movement and force/ vibration measurements at the interface generator .engine. system provider! Page .e. This has to be proven and documented to MTU on prototype installations.

Air Bind A condition where a pocket of air has been trapped in the water pump causing it to lose its prim and ability to pump coolant. Air Re-circulation A condition either occurring around the tips of the fan blades or where discharged air from a radiator core is returned to the front of the core. After boil Volume gine shutdown. Quantity of coolant discharged from the pressure relief overflow tube following en- Air Cleaner A device that prevents airborne particles from entering air-breathing machinery. Used for cooling A fan that pushes the air through the radiator core.Glossary Aeration Entrainment (progressive or otherwise) of air or combustion gases in the engine coolant. Air Handling The cooling system’s ability to purge air when injected at a given rate determined by the engine manufacturer and meeting specified criteria. They are also known as de-aeration or vent lines. Page . Air to Boil Temperature (ATB) reached 212°F. Either condition hinders cooling capability.124 . After boil Boiling of the coolant after engine shutdown due to residual heat in the engine. The ambient temperature at which engine coolant out temperature Air to Water Temperature (ATW) The differential between engine coolant out and ambient temperatures. Blocked Open Thermostats tests only. Blower Fan Mechanically blocked open to required position. Ambient Temperature The environment air temperature in which the unit operates. Bottom Tank Temperature Refer to the down stream radiator tank temperature that is usually the lowest temperature. wire mesh filter or oil-bath cleaner. The device can be porous paper. Bleed Line (s) Line (s) strategically placed on the cooling system to vent air/gases from the system both during fill and engine running mode.

causing them to collapse. Cooling Index See Air to Water (ATW) or Air to Boil (ATB) definition. De-aeration Volume The volume of space designed into the de-aeration tank and located above the expansion volume for collecting the entrained gases as it is expelled into the tank. Coolant Flow Rate The rate of coolant flow through the cooling system and/or radiator. Cetane Number A relative measure of the time delay between the beginning of fuel injection and the start of combustion. Cooling Capability The ambient in which a cooling system can perform without exceeding maximum engine coolant out temperature approved by the engine manufacturer. Cavitation reduces coolant flow and increase pump wear. The running time required to expel all the entrained gases from the cooling De-aeration Tank A tank used to separate air/gases from the circulating coolant and return coolant to the system. Also used for filling. Cooling System Air Restriction The pressure drop across the radiator core and other up and down stream components that offer resistance to the airflow. Page .Installation Manual Series 1600 Cavitations A localized event where a vapour pressure/temperature phenomenon of the cooling liquid allows partial vaporization of the coolant. Cooling System Capacity (Volume) its designed cold full level. De-aeration Capability system after an initial fill.125 . Coolant Recovery Bottle An add on coolant reserve tank that is used when radiator top tank and/or remote de-aeration tank cannot be sized large enough to meet cooling system drawdown requirements. etc. Also known as an overflow bottle. Sometimes called a surge tank or top tank. Cooling Potential The temperature different between air entering the radiator core and the average temperature of the coolant in the radiator core. These cavities of vapour are carried downstream to a region of higher pressure. Coolant A liquid medium used to transport heat from one area to another. Cooling System A group of inter-related components used in the transfer of heat. The amount of coolant to completely fill the cooling system to De-aeration The cooling systems ability to purge entrained gases from the cooling system after an initial fill. expansion of the coolant. reserve capacity.

Fill Rate overflowing. ADEC Advanced Diesel Electronic Controls. Heat Dissipation The amount of heat engine (Btu) that a heat transfer component can dissipate to the environment at specified conditions. Fan Air Flow The rate of airflow a fan can deliver at a given speed and static pressure. A device placed either in front of or behind the radiator to block air flow when not Page .126 . software CD. The quantity of coolant that can be removed from a full cooling system before aeration Driving End Driving end of the engine is the end that has the flywheel installed.DiaSys DiaSys (Diagnostic System) is a diagnostic tool that consists of the following. Electronic Control Unit (ECU) The most important component of ADEC. if a cooling system fan drive is required for an application it would be mounted on the crankshaft on this end of the engine. Engine Coolant Out Temperature Usually the hottest coolant and measured at the thermostat housing. as it controls the engine operation and acts as an interface with the other subsystems and devices. transfer data to and from the engine controller. For example. It is also called a shunt or make up line. Overcooling A condition where the coolant temperature will not approach the start to open temperature value of the thermostat under normal engine operation. Also called radiator inlet or top tank temperature. Expansion Volume The volume of space designed into the de-aeration tank to permit the coolant to expand as it is heated without being lost to the environment. This tool is used for the following. Dongle Drawdown occurs. Radiator Shutters required. dongle and RS232 cable. monitor all sensors installed on the engine and record snapshots of engine operation. The coolant flow rate at which an empty cooling system can be completely filled without Free end Free end is the non-drive end of the engine. an advanced technology electronic fuel injection and engine operation controls system. Hardware Key required to communicate with ADEC via DiaSys. Overheating A condition where the coolant temperature exceeds allowable limits. Fill Line Used to route coolant from the de-aeration tank to the inlet of the water pump.

Reserve Volume A volume designed into the de-aeration tank to provide a surplus of coolant to offset losses that might occur. Page .Installation Manual Series 1600 Ram Air Flow Airflow through a radiator core due to the motion of the vehicle or window. An important system characteristic for good heater operation during cold ambient conditions. X1 Simulator A simulator that is connected between ADEC and the customer’s controller for the purpose of troubleshooting communication between ADEC and the customer’s controller. SAM Service Application Module Stabilization A condition where under a controlled operating environment the coolant. air and exhaust temperatures will not change regardless of the length of time the unit is run. Standpipe (s) De-aeration tube (s) located in the integral radiator de-aeration tank to vent the radiator core of gases. Temperature Stability or Drift The ability of the cooling system to maintain coolant temperature at light loads and/or engine speed or long vehicle drift (coasting). oil. Also been called “J” tubes. Top Tank See “De-aeration Tank”. Top Tank Temperature See “Engine Coolant Out Temperature”. Water Pump Inlet Restriction The pressure (suction) at the inlet to the water pump (pressure cap removed) that represents up-stream restriction. X2 Simulator A simulator that is connected between ADEC and the sensor harnesses for the purpose of troubleshooting sensor defects and testing engine protection warnings and shutdowns. Suction Fan A fan that pulls air through the core. Surge Tank See “De-aeration Tank”.127 .