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I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks and deep sense of gratitude to all those who helped me to writing this Report. First, I would like to express my sincere thanks to my sir Mr. Sarvendra Singh (TCP) of B.I.T, Kanpur. I would also like to express my thanks to Er. Bupendra Singh Verma, NTPC Faridabad. This most sincere and important acknowledgement and gratitude is due to my parents, who have given their moral boosting support and encouragements at some stage of this endeavor. Yadbir Singh Students of Mechanical Engineering Bhabha Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.

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1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………...4 2. Description of visit………………………………………………………………………..56 3. Machine used

4. Bibliography.......................................................................................................................15

(Lohia Starlinger limited Kanpur, India)

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LOHIA GROUP, promoted by a well known business family of North India, diversified from traditional business and ventured into manufacture of high-tech machines way back in mid '70s. LOHIA GROUP, has a long tradition of excellence is currently active in machinery, mechanical sub-contracting, textiles and engineering plastics. Few of their mastered domains include Extrusion Plants for polypropylene filament yarns, Weaving, Winding and Slitting Machinery. The GROUP enjoys tremendous amount of goodwill and reputation on account of its quality standards. LOHIA ENGINEERING WORKS, a firm belonging to LOHIA GROUP, began with the manufacture of Schweiter type cone-winding machines, to handle a variety of yarns. Presently, the GROUP is primarily engaged in engineering sector with LOHIA STARLINGER LIMITED as its flagship Company, under the leadership of its Chairman Mr. Raj Kumar Lohia. LOHIA STARLINGER LIMITED incorporated in 1981, is engaged in manufacture of complete range of machines required by Plastic Woven Fabric Industry and is an undisputed leader amongst machine manufacturers of this industry. At present, it is not only enjoying over 60% of market share in India but has also earned a reputation of world's leading manufacturer of such equipments. Its projects are running successfully in over 60 countries around the world and this accomplishment has been possible due to the GROUP's continuous emphasis on quality and innovation. The Company has an outstanding track record to its credit as it enjoys the status of 'Trading House' and is accredited ISO:9001:2008 CERTIFICATE BY DNV NETHERLANDS. Along with LOHIA STARLINGER LIMITED, LOHIA GROUP also comprises of THREADS (INDIA) LIMITED incorporated in 1983 engaged in manufacture of industrial synthetic sewing thread and INJECTOPLAST PRIVATE LIMITED primarily engaged in manufacturing of high performance engineering plastic components for automobile sector. Besides these there are other companies promoted by the Group that are engaged in various business activities.

Chairman’s Message

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We at Lohia Group have been active for three decades in manufacturing industry producing high technology and cost competitive industrial products for domestic and export markets. We have continuously invested to create most up-to-date design & development, manufacturing and related capabilities including human resources to produce quality products and services for the world markets. LOHIA STARLINGER LIMITED has achieved status of a major global supplier of repute for machinery for producing flexible Mr. Raj Kumar woven sacks and fabric for a wide range of applications with references in almost 60 countries. We are committed to enhance our Lohia leadership position by leveraging our core strengths to continuously Chairman, Lohia Group innovate to create advantages for all our stakeholders.

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To follow the best practices as a responsible corporate and contribute in sustainable development of the society including employees. To preserve and enhance the integrity in all our business dealings by continuous monitoring, control and interventions without any compromises and concessions. To achieve leading position in each of our business sector by sustainable and profitable growth creating long term wealth for the shareholders To provide total customer satisfaction through quality products and services at competitive costs. To make continuous upgradation in our products through innovation anticipating the needs of our markets and customers. To maximize the exports of our all products by offering quality products and services at competitive costs combining with our intellectual and trade resources.


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To enlarge our product portfolio and production capacities in each of our businesses leveraging our domain knowledge, expertise and resources by fostering global partnerships and alliances to become leading global player with dominant market share. To be the partner of choice for our customers by providing technology based world class products and performance enhancing services tailored to meet their requirements. To develop bench mark innovations and technologies to suit the changing requirements of the customers & the industry by continuous investments in updating our manufacturing & human resources. To provide total customer satisfaction through quality products and services at competitive costs. To attain the leadership in technology, quality, services and costs with integrity and stability.


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On Tuesday 24 august 2009 we were going outside the institute Bhabha Institute of Technology, Kanpur (D) UP, India. This was a small journey to Kanpur city at industry Lohia Starlinger Limited Kanpur (D).we are 33 students and 2 more people with us. When we assemble at lohia company then we are going to lohia R&D section of that company. After that we meets to HR person of that company he give me a sweet speech for making future engineer. According to him an engineer is person who develops the nation by improving the technology as well as growing future demand of nation. After that we are joining with the company of two more section engineer of lohia groups with help of section engineer.

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. During two and three hours visit we good knowledge about machine such as lathe machine staper machine and many more machine. These machine are total as well as CNC machine these machine are fully programming based machine. This is short visit but give much knowledge about a company as well as company term work. Customer's satisfaction by delivering quality products has been the corner stone of Lohia Group. The group, therefore, believes in manufacturing of all critical and precision components in-house. The production facilities of the group companies are equipped with high precision machine tools and managed by a team of well qualified and experienced engineers and technicians.

After that we are going to in Kanpur city. Where are celebrate the birthday party of our friends. This is second’s visit of me in a big company for getting known about company.

This picture of Lohia groups company.

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A lathe (pronounced /ˈleɪð/) is a machine tool which spins a block of material to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glassworking. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potter's wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The material is held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths.

The purpose of a lathe is to rotate a part against a tool whose position it controls. It is useful for fabricating parts and/or features that have a circular cross section.

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The spindle is the part of the lathe that rotates. Various work holding attachments such as three jaw chucks, collets, and centers can be held in the spindle. The spindle is driven by an electric motor through a system of belt drives and/or gear trains. Spindle speed is controlled by varying the geometry of the drive train. The tailstock can be used to support the end of the work piece with a center, or to hold tools for drilling, reaming, threading, or cutting tapers. It can be adjusted in position along the ways to accommodate different length work pieces. The ram can be fed along the axis of rotation with the tailstock hand wheel. The carriage controls and supports the cutting tool. It consists of: • • • •

A saddle that mates with and slides along the ways. An apron that controls the feed mechanisms. A cross slide that controls transverse motion of the tool (toward or away from the operator). A tool compound that adjusts to permit angular tool movement. A tool post T-slot that holds the tool post.

Choosing a Cutting Tool

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Cutting tool geometry varies with the type of work to be done. Facing tools are ground to provide clearance with a center. Roughing tools have a small side relief angle to leave more material to support the cutting edge during deep cuts. Finishing tools have a more rounded nose to provide a finer finish. Round nose tools are for lighter turning. They have no back or side rake to permit cutting in either direction. Left hand cutting tools are designed to cut best when traveling from left to right. Aluminum is cut best by specially shaped cutting tools (not shown) that are used with the cutting edge slightly above center to reduce chatter. Installing a Cutting Tool Lathe cutting tools are held by tool holders. To install a tool, first clean the holder, then tighten the bolts. The tool post is secured to the compound with a T-bolt. The tool holder is secured to the tool post using a quick release lever.

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Positioning the Tool
In order to move the cutting tool, the lathe saddle and cross slide can be moved by hand. There are also power feeds for these axes. Procedures vary from machine to machine. A third axis of motion is provided by the compound. The angle of the compound can be adjusted to allow tapers to be cut at any desired angle. First, loosen the bolts securing the compound to the saddle. Then rotate the compound to the desired angle referencing the dial indicator at the base of the compound. Retighten the bolts. Now the tool can be hand fed along the desired angle. No power feed is available for the compound. If a fine finish is required, use both hands to achieve a smoother feed rate. The cross slide and compound have a micrometer dial to allow accurate positioning, but the saddle doesn't. To position the saddle accurately, you may use a dial indicator mounted to the saddle. The dial indicator presses against a stop (often a micrometer as shown in the clip below).

Feed, Speed, and Depth of Cut
Cutting speed is defined as the speed at which the work moves with respect to the tool (usually measured in feet per minute). Feed rate is defined as the distance the tool travels during one revolution of the part. Cutting speed and feed determines the surface finish, power requirements, and material removal rate. The primary factor in choosing feed and speed is the material to be cut. However, one should also consider material of the tool, rigidity of the workpiece, size and condition of the lathe, and depth of cut. For most Aluminum alloys, on a roughing cut (.010 to .020 inches depth of cut) run at 600 fpm. On a finishing cut (.002 to .010 depth of cut) run at 1000 fpm. To calculate the proper spindle speed, divide the desired cutting speed by the circumference of the work. Experiment with feed rates to achieve the desired finish. In considering depth of cut, it's important to remember that for each thousandth depth of cut, the work diameter is reduced by two thousandths.

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The lathe can be used to reduce the diameter of a part to a desired dimension. First, clamp the part securely in a lathe chuck. The part should not extend more that three times its diameter. Then install a roughing or finishing tool (whichever is appropriate). If you're feeding the saddle toward the headstock (as in the clip below) use a right-hand turning tool. Move the tool off the part by backing the carriage up with the carriage hand wheel, then use the cross feed to set the desired depth of cut. In the clip below, a finish cut is made using the power feed for a smoother finish. Remember that for each thousandth depth of cut, the work diameter is reduced by two thousandths.

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A lathe can be used to create a smooth, flat, face very accurately perpendicular to the axis of a cylindrical part. First, clamp the part securely in a lathe chuck. Then, install a facing tool. Bring the tool approximately into position, but slightly off of the part. Always turn the spindle by hand before turning it on. This ensures that no parts interfere with the rotation of the spindle. Move the tool outside the part and adjust the saddle to take the desired depth of cut. Then, feed the tool across the face with the cross slide. The following clip shows a roughing cut being made; about 50 thousandths are being removed in one pass. If a finer finish is required, take just a few thousandths on the final cut and use the power feed. Be careful clearing the ribbon-like chips; They are very sharp. Do not clear the chips while the spindle is turning. After facing, there is a very sharp edge on the part. Break the edge with a file.

A parting tool is deeper and narrower than a turning tool. It is designed for making narrow grooves and for cutting off parts. When a parting tool is installed, ensure that it hangs over the tool holder enough that the holder will clear the work piece (but no more than that). Ensure that the parting tool is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and that the tip is the same height as the center of the part. A good way to do this is to hold the tool against the face of the part. Set the height of the tool, lay it flat against the face of the part, then lock the tool in place. When the cut is deep, the side of the part can rub against sides of the groove, so it's especially important to apply cutting fluid. In this clip, a part is cut off from a piece of stock.

A lathe can also be used to drill holes accurately concentric with the centerline of a cylindrical part. First, install a drill chuck into the tailstock. Make certain that the tang on the back of the drill chuck seats properly in the tailstock. Withdraw the jaws of the chuck and tap the chuck in place with a soft hammer. Move the saddle forward to make room for the tailstock. Move the tailstock into position, and lock the it in place (otherwise, it will slide backward as you try to drill). Before starting the machine, turn the spindle by hand. You've just moved the saddle forward, so it could interfere with the rotation of the lathe chuck. Always use a center drill to start the hole.. You should use cutting fluid with the center drill. It has shallow flutes (for added stiffness) and doesn't cut as easily as a drill bit. Always drill past the beginning of the taper to create a funnel to guide the bit in. In this clip, a hole is drilled with a drill bit. Take at most one or two drill diameters of material before backing off, clearing the chips, and applying cutting fluid. If the drill bit squeaks, apply solvent more often. The drill chuck can be removed from the tail stock by drawing back the drill chuck as far as it will easily go, then about a quarter turn more. A pin will press the chuck out of the collets.

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Boring is an operation in which a hole is enlarged with a single point cutting tool. A boring bar is used to support the cutting tool as it extends into the hole. Because of the extension of the boring bar, the tool is supported less rigidly and is more likely to chatter. This can be corrected by using slower spindle speeds or by grinding a smaller radius on the nose of the tool.

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2. Single Point Thread Turning

External threads can be cut with a die and internal threads can be cut with a tap. But for some diameters, no die or tap is available. In these cases, threads can be cut on a lathe. A special cutting tool should be used, typically with a 60 degree nose angle. To form threads with a specified number of threads per inch, the spindle is mechanically coupled to the carriage lead screw. Procedures vary for different machines.

Advanced Work Holding
Some parts require special techniques to hold them properly for lathe work. For instance, if you wish to cut on the entire outside diameter of a part, then the part cannot be held in a chuck or collet. If the part has a hole through it, you can press it on to a lathe arbor (a slightly tapered shaft), and clamp onto the arbor rather than the part itself. The hole must have an adequate aspect ratio or the part will not be firmly supported. If the part has a very large hole through it, a lathe arbor may not be a practicable solution. You may instead use the outside of the jaws to hold the inside diameter of the part. If the part has a very complex geometry, it may be necessary to install the part onto a face plate. The face plate is then attached to the spindle An angle plate is a work holding device used as a fixture in metalworking. The angle plate is made from high quality material (generally spheroidal cast iron) that has been stabilized to prevent further movement or distortion. Slotted holes or T bolt slots are machined into the surfaces to enable the secure attachment or clamping of workpieces to the plate, and also of the plate to the worktable. Angle plates also may be used to hold the workpiece square to the table during marking out operations. Adjustable angle plates are also available for workpieces that need to be inclined, usually towards a milling cutter. A jig grinder is a machine tool used for grinding complex shapes and holes where the highest degrees of accuracy and finish are required. The jig grinder is very similar to a jig borer, in that the table positioning and spindles are very accurate (far more so than a manual milling machine or lathe). It is almost exclusively used by tool and die makers in the creation of jigs or mating holes and pegs on dies. There are usually many peripheral elements to a large jig grinder, including separate hydraulic motors, air compressors, and various cooling systems for both the hydraulic circuit and supplying coolant to the work and machine itself. The machine operates by a high speed air spindle rotating a grinding bit. The air spindles are removable and interchangeable to achieve varying surface speeds. Some spindles are fixed speed (60000 rpm), others are adjustable (30000-50000 rpm), and still others are very high speed (175000 rpm). The machines have a standard X-Y table with the notable exception of knee travel. All axes are indexed to .0001" via a vernier scale on the handwheels, with higher accuracy available with the use of measuring bars. The machine head has two vertical travels, one rough head adjustment and the other a precise spindle adjustment. The spindle to which the detachable air spindle mounts also rotates at a variable speed and can typically outfeed .

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100" while running, again with an accuracy of .0001" on the handwheel or greater, for very precise hole, peg and surface grinding. A well-kept jig grinder will reliably position work to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with handwheels alone. These features are all critical in positioning a hole and peg system a precise distance from a reference surface or edge. The most important factor on a jig grinder is the dual-spindle configuration. The main spindle is roughly positioned with between 1" or 2" of travel for setup, and then the .100" of outfeed is used during machine operation to outfeed into the work. A spacer bar may be used between the grinder and main spindle, allowing large (9" radius or larger) work to be completed. The main spindle has a wide range of speeds to ensure proper grinder feed rates are maintained. Tony Spada is a progressive rock guitarist best known for his work with Holding Pattern. He is also one of the founders of Holding Pattern. Tony Spada is a Progressive Rock Hall of Fame inductee. Tony Spada has performed solo shows with Steve Morse, Rick Wakeman, Steve Howe and has toured with Kansas. Tony recently recorded as guest guitarist on the "Waterline" album by Italy's keyboardist Alex Carpani. He also performed with the Alex Carpani Band on the west coast portion of the tour ending at the BajaProg Festival 2008 in Mexico.

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3.Planing and shaping
This section covers several machining operations that are used to machine straight and open external or internal surfaces:

Planing and shaping:
These operations are used to machine straight open mainly external surfaces with a singlepoint cutting tool.

Broaching is used to machine straight and open basically internal surface of complex crosssection shapes by means of a special tool called a broach

Planing and shaping are similar operations, which differ in the kinematics of the process. Planing is a machining operation in which the primary cutting motion is performed by the workpiece and feed motion is imparted to the cutting tool. In shaping, the primary motion is performed by the tool, and feed by the work piece

Broaching is a machining operation which uses a toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material. The broach is used in a broaching machine, which is also sometimes shortened to broach. It is used when precision machining is required, especially for odd shapes. Broaching finishes a surface in a single pass, which makes it very efficient. Commonly machined surfaces include circular and non-circular holes, splines, and flat surfaces. Typical workpieces include small to medium sized castings, forgings, screw machine parts, and stampings. Even though broaches can be expensive, broaching is usually favorable to other processes when used for high-quantity production runs.[1] Broaches are shaped similar to a saw, except the teeth height increases over the length of the tool. Moreover, the broach contains three distinct sections: one for roughing, another for semi-finishing, and the final one for finishing. Broaching is a unique machining process because it is the only one to have the feed built into the tool. The profile of the machined surface is always the inverse of the profile of the broach. The rise per tooth (RPT), also known as the step or feed per tooth, determines the amount of material removed and the size of the chip. The broach can be moved relative to the workpiece or vice-versa. Because all of the features are built into the broach no complex motion or skilled labor is required to use it

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4.Cutting tools
Technically, grinding wheels are a subset of cutting tools, as grinding is a true metalcutting process. Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge (although of high negative rake angle), and shears a tiny chip that is analogous to what would conventionally be called a "cut" chip (turning, milling, drilling, tapping, etc.). However, among people who work in the machining fields, the term "cutting" is most often understood to refer to the macroscopic cutting operations, and grinding is mentally categorized as a "separate" process. This is why the terms "cutting" and "grinding", or "machining" and "grinding", are often used in contradistinction in shop-floor practice, even though technically grinding is a subset of cutting. Consequently, the term "cutting tool" is often used to refer to all cutters used in "regular" (non-grinding) machining, and thus to exclude grinding wheels. Cutting tools must be made of a material harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface. The angle of the cutting face is also important, as is the flute width, number of flutes or teeth, and margin size. In order to have a long working life, all of the above must be optimized, plus the speeds and feeds at which the tool is run.

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All the material (lohiya groups) has been copied from the website. A picture of whole report has collection of my friends as well as sir Sarvendra singh. Machine parts are collects from the text books. K.M. MODI.

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