Saarc Country Members : Political & Geographical History | Bharatiya Janata Party | Pakistan Peoples Party

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Assignment given by:
Swati Ma’m

Prepared by:
Irfan Pathan

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What is SAARC?
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and political organization of eight countries in Southern Asia. In terms of population is the largest of any regional organization: almost 1.5 billion people, which combines the combined population of its member states. It was established on December 8, 1985 by India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives and Bhutan. In April 2007, at the Association's 14th summit, Afghanistan became its eighth member.


Sri Lanka Leftist movement was started. They fought for gaining full freedom. They organized strikes to fight the British imperialists. Their members were mainly from Plantation Tamil Community. Lanka Samamaja party was established with 3 principles, which were focused on winning freedom from British. First Rajaya Mantharan Sabha was desolved and an election was held. W Doresami became the President of Rajaya Mantharan Sabha, leader of the house and Minister of local affairs was Sir D B Jayatilaka.

British said that they will give consider to give a parliamentary system after the Second World War.

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Solbary Commission sent from England for hearing for Freedom. The system proposed contained Governor, Cabinet and manthrees (members of parliament). Parliament select 15 members for senate and governor appoint 15 for the senate making a senate of 30 members. This was made active in first parliament election in 1947.

UNP was formed by Lanka jathika Sanagamya, Sinhala maha Sabhawa, All Ceylon Muslim Congress, Lanka Yonaka Sangamaya, A Mahadeva Jaffna, S Nadesan Kankasanturai Together. Party proposal was proposed by S nadeshan MP Kankasanture TB Jaya Seconded it. D S Senanayaka became the Leader of the Party.

Sr. No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Name of Members
S W R D Bandaranayake Lalithabhaya Rajapaksha John Kotalawala J R Jayawardena T B Jayah Dudley Senanayake E A Nugawela G Sithtampalam A Ratnayaka E A P Wijeyratna H W Amarasooriya E A Gunasingha

Health & Local Administration Justice Roads & Industry Finance Labour Agriculture & Lands Education Industry Research & Fisheries Food and Cooperative Local Affairs Trade Karya Niyamayak Nomathi Amathi

Other Detail :A.F.Molamure became Speaker D.J.Wijeykoon was The Leader Dr. N M Perera was the Leader of the Opposition. Dr. N M Perera was the Leader of the Opposition. Prince of Gloster opened the parliament. of of the the parliament Senate

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Solbary Sami was made the Governor. A meeting of foreign ministers and prime ministers of common wealth was held in Sri Lanka. Indias Javahallar Neru came to Sri Lanka. Foreign Ministers from England, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Minister of Common Wealth participated.

A 1968 referendum approved a constitution making Maldives a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. The constitution was amended in 1970, 1972, 1975, and 1997 and is again under revision. There were fresh protests on August 13, 2004, (Black Friday), which appear to have begun as a demand for the release of four political activists from detention. Up to 5,000 demonstrators were involved. After two police officers were reportedly stabbed, allegedly by government agents provocateur, President Gayoom declared a State of Emergency and suppressed the demonstration, suspending all human rights guaranteed under the Constitution, banning demonstrations and the expression of views critical of the government. At least 250 pro-reform protestors were arrested. As part of the state of emergency, and to prevent independent reporting of events, the government shut off Internet access and some mobile telephony services to Maldives on August 13 and 14, 2004. The Assembly (Majlis) has 50 members, 42 members elected for a term of five years in two-seat constituencies and 8 members appointed by the President. On a national level, Maldives elects a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a five year term by parliament and confirmed in a referendum by the people. In this referendum on 17 October 2003, 90.3 % voted in favour of present-day president Maumoon Abdul Gayoom (turnout 77 %). At the last parliamentary elections, 22 January 2005, only non-partisans have been elected. Until 2005 (after the election), no legal parties existed. The Maldivian parliament voted unanimously for the creation of a multiparty system on June 2, 2005. Prior to June 2005, the Maldivian political system was based around the election of individuals, rather than the more common system of election according to party platform. In June 2005, as part of an ongoing programme of democratic reform, new regulations were promulgated to formally recognised political parties within the framework of the electoral system. The Maldivian Democratic Party was already active. New parties include the Maldivian Peoples Party, the Islamic Democratic Party and the Adhaalath Party.

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On October 8, 2008, the country held its first ever multi-party presidential election.

Present Indian Union, Pakistan and Bangladesh were one under British India prior to August 14-15, 1947. The disastrous effect of the Second World War on British economy and politics was enormous, and the government in London under the people’s pressure had to leave the subcontinent. But while leaving, the British colonialists divided Indian subcontinent into two separate countries, namely India and Pakistan, on communal line. Later on the former East Pakistan also broke away in 1971 from Pakistan for economic and political deprivation. Now, the subcontinent is divided into three parts namely India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Which are still under the grip of neo-colonialism, dominated by the United States of America because of its economic and military power.

Before the partition of the Indian subcontinent, the Communist Party of India (CPI) was the main political vanguard of the working class of this undivided country. After the creation of the Pakistan, some old stalwarts of the Communist Party of India formed the Communist Party of Pakistan in 1948, and started its political activities under the very hostile political environment, caused by McCarthyism, which let loose reign of terror in this newly born country, with the active collaboration of pro-imperialist ruling cliques of Pakistan. Frightened of utter failure of the ruling oligarchy and the scope of Spread of anti-imperialist democratic struggle in which Communist Party of Pakistan played a key role, the Party was banned in 1954 under American instructions to the Pakistani rulers and its several top leadership including Sajjad Zaheer, Secretary General of CPP and the world fame poet and Lenin Award winner, Faiz Ahmad Faiz were arrested and imprisoned in the so-called Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case.

Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP), the parliamentary wing of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) was founded in 1967, on November 30 by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto who became its first chairman and later Prime Minister of Pakistan. Pakistan Peoples Party is the largest political party of Pakistan. This party has been active in Pakistani Politics after the separation of East Wing from the rest of Pakistan. The party gained much popularity and support from masses in era of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The party

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won the 1971 elections on socialist mandate of "Roti, Kapra, Makan" (bread, clothes, shelter). PPP took control of the country after the Indian supported Civil War of 1971. After the first parliamentary term, PPP secured a landslide victory in 1977 elections to rule for further five years. Opposition parties claimed that the election was heavily rigged by PPP. Tensions mounted and despite the agreement was reached between opposition and PPP, martial law was imposed in the country by Gen. Zia ul Haq. Bhutto was hanged in 1977 after a very controversial trial in which he was found guilty of murder of a political opponent. His daughter Benazir Bhutto was elected twice as the prime minister but her government was dismissed both times on corruption charges, none of them proven in the court despite many years of proceedings.

Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML "Nawaz group") is a centrist conservative party that has been led from Saudi Arabia by Nawaz Sharif. It currently holds 19 seats in the national assembly and 4 seats in the senate. Although twice elected as Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif was criticized for wide-spread corruption and extra-judicial killings. In the Angus-Reid pre-election polls of 22-December, the PML/N was in second place, with about 25% of the vote. It is strong in Punjab province.

(PML "Quaid-i-Azam group"), the party supporting past president, Pervez Musharraf), and officially called Pakistan Muslim League. PML/Q is a centrist conservative party that forms the current national government. It currently holds 142 seats in the national assembly and 43 seats in the senate. The PML/Q formed from the split of the PML following the arrest and exile of PML leader and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. The PML/Q absorbed some minor parties through power-sharing agreements. Although initially popular, Musharraf has been criticized for supporting the US invasion of Afghanistan and suspension of legal rights. In the Angus-Reid pre-election polls of 22-December-2007, the PML/Q was in third place, with about 23% of the vote. It is strong in urban areas of the two large provinces (Punjab and Sindh). It forms the provincial government in Punjab.

It is previously known as Mohajir Qaumi Movement. The party was formed firstly as student's organization in University of Karachi as the All Pakistan Muhajir Student

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Organization (APMSO) in 11 June 1978. This student organization was founded when the thousands of Mohajir students (Urdu-speaking immigrants from India after partition) were deprived of their rights and jobs in both private & government organizations. The students were faced with harsh quotas introduced by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto which deprived Mohajir students of their seats in Universities and higher educational institutions. That led to the formation of the Mohajir Qaumi Movement in 1984. The name was changed to Muttahida Qaumi Movement in 1997 in order to fight for the rights of 98% oppressed people in Pakistan. Altar Hussain is the head of this political organization. MQM currently holds 25 seats in the national assembly and 7 seats in the senate. It is the official opposition in Sindh province.

It is a coalition of six religious parties consisting of the Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F) (Assembly of Islamic Clergy, Fazl-ur-Rahman Group), Jamiat Ulemae-Islam (S) (Assembly of Islamic Clergy, Sami-ul-Haq Group) Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan (Assembly of Pakistani Clergy), Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan, Jamiat Ahle Hadith and a few more. The religious alliance forms the government in Northwest Frontier Province. It currently holds 6 seats in the national assembly and 21 seats in the senate.

Afghanistan is a culturally mixed nation, a crossroads between the East and the West, and has been ancient focal point of trade and migration. It has an important geostrategical location, connecting South Asia, Central Asia and Middle East together. During its long history, the land has seen various invaders and conquerors, while on the other hand, local entities invaded the surrounding vast regions to form empires to themselves Since the late 1970s, Afghanistan has suffered continuous and brutal civil war, which included foreign interventions in the form of the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In recent years the politics of Afghanistan have been dominated by the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, by the NATO forces and the subsequent efforts to stabilise and democratise the country. The nation's new constitution has been adopted and an executive president democratically elected in 2004. The parliamentary elections took place the following year, in September 2005. The current president Hamid Karzai became the first ever democratically elected head of state in Afghanistan on December 7, 2004. He has begun the process of rebuilding his nation. The National Assembly is Afghanistan's national legislature. It is a bicameral body, composed of the House of the People and the House of the Elders. The current

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legislature was elected on September 18, 2005. The members of the Supreme Court were appointed by the president to form the judiciary. Together, this new system is to provide a new set of checks and balances that was unheard of in the country. Also, the system is quite new, implementation of which began only 2004, just after decades of war between different factions and warlords. The remnants of the warlords are almost non-existent. The United Nations and other governments and organizations play a vital role in rebuilding this new democracy's political.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF NEPAL Important years in Nepal’s Life: Age/Year Monarcy/Democratic Political Issue
18th Century 1847 1951 The warrior king Prithvi Narayan Shah unified many princely states, bringing the country to its present shape and size. Ranas

After 18th Century, the country has been ruled by 13 kings.





The king ruled for 104 years He gave freedom to people ad make Ranas freedom country democracy First time in Nepal history elected Government came to rule. Election B. P. Koilara became the first Prime Minister Because of him democracy came to an end and introduced part-less panchayat rule King Tribhuvan In this Panchayat Law, Political Governments are banned. It continued to 30 years. Students launched a political movement King Birendra against King Birendra Panchayat System was thrown out and new multi political party democracy was welcomed. King Birendra Within a year democratic constitution was introduced and people became sovereign. In this decade, many movement and regime came in power but lost their

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Age/Year Monarcy/Democratic Political Issue
identity. 1st February 2005

He took over absolute state powers and assumed the role of the Chairman of the cabinet, a cabinet that he had himself nominated. This led the political parties to form an alliance with the Maoist rebels. In, a 12-point agreement was signed by the seven political parties and the Maoists. This agreement provided the Maoists an opportunity to suspend the armed movement and participate in a peaceful democratic movement. Later on movement turned into people’s movement. The people finally forced the king to relinquish state control on. The success of the People's Movement II left king Gyanendra powerless. The Maoists have become a part of the Parliament. Pushpa Kamal Dahal-Prachanda, chief of Maosits was declared Prime Minister on. He defeated his opponent, Nepali Congress leader Sher Bahadur Deuba by 465 votes, against 113. He was sworn .


November 2005

Agreement of Democracy

April 24, 2006


August 15, 2008 August 18, 2008.

Election and Result


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POLITICAL HISTORY OF BHUTAN Introduction:Bhutan's political history is intertwined with its religious history. A dual theocratic system evolved in which religious institutions were administered by the je khempo, or Head Abbot, while civil power was retained by a high officer known as the tiruk desi.

Important years in Nepal’s Life: Age/Year Monarcy/Democratic Political Issue
18th-19th Century Rigional Governors

During the centuries the country encountered constant political strife that undermined the authority of the high officer and increased the power of regional governors.

In 1885

Ugyen Wangchuuk and his British Support

By 1907

Ugen wangchuk, first hereditary king

In 1910,

Treaty with United kingdom

in 1949

Treaty with India

The high officer sought aid from China to crush the power of the governors, but one of the regional governors, Ugyen Wangchuk, turned to the British for support. Ugyen Wangchuk had consolidated his power enough to be named Bhutan's first hereditary king. Bhutan and the United Kingdom signed a treaty allowing the United Kingdom to "guide" Bhutan's foreign affairs, providing British India would not interfere in the internal affairs of Bhutan. Bhutan made the same arrangement with independent India in a treaty signed.

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POLITICAL HISTORY OF INDIA Introduction:15th August 1947, India got independence with grief of partition of Pakistan. Many people migrated from Pakistan to India and India to Pakistan. Near 3.5 million Sikh, Muslim and Hindus, migrated fearing from the Muslim-Pakistan. In 1949, India recorded close to 1 million Hindu refugees flooded into West Bengal and other states from East Pakistan, owing to communal violence, intimidation and repression from Muslim authorities. The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, who were unable to absorb them.

1950s and 1960s
India held its first national elections under the Constitution in 1952, where a turnout of over 60% was recorded. The Congress Party won an overwhelming majority, and Jawaharlal Nehru began a second term as Prime Minister. President Prasad was also elected to a second term by the electoral college of the first Parliament of India.

State’s dilemma And The Formation of States reorganization Act
Potti Sreeramulu's fast-unto-death, and consequent death for the demand of an Andhra State in 1953 sparked a major re-shaping of the Indian Union. Nehru appointed the States Reorganization Commission, recommendations, the States Reorganization Act was passed in 1956. upon whose

On May 1, 1960, the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat were created out of the Bombay state. The creation of Punjabi Suba on November 1, 1966, an exclusively Punjabi speaking state of Punjab (India), occurred after a long struggle. India has fought a total of four wars/military conflicts with its rival nation Pakistan, two in this period. In the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 fought over Kashmir, Pakistan occupied one third of Kashmir (which India claims as its territory), and India occupied three fifths (which Pakistan claims as its territory).

In the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 India attacked Pakistan on all fronts after attempts by Pakistani troops to infiltrate into Indian controlled Kashmir.

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In 1960, after continual petitions for a peaceful handover, India invaded and annexed the Portuguese colony of Goa on the west coast of India. In 1962 China and India engaged in the brief Sino-Indian War over the border in the Himalayas. The war was a complete rout for the Indians and led to a refocusing on arms build-up and an improvement in relations with the United States. While China withdrew from occupied lands in the northeast, it continues to occupy Aksai Chin in Kashmir.

INDIAN EMMERGENCY:Economic and social problems, as well as allegations of corruption caused increasing political unrest across India, culminating in the Bihar Movement. In 1974, the Allahabad High Court found Indira Gandhi guilty of misusing government machinery for election purposes. Opposition parties conducted nationwide strikes and protests demanding her immediate resignation. Various political parties united under Jaya Prakash Narayan to resist what he termed Mrs. Gandhi's dictatorship. Leading strikes across India that paralyzed its economy and administration, Narayan even called for the Army to oust Mrs. Gandhi. In 1975, Mrs. Gandhi advised President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed to declare a state of emergency under the Constitution, which allowed the Central government to assume sweeping powers to defend law and order in the nation. Explaining the breakdown of law and order and threat to national security as her primary reasons, Mrs. Gandhi suspended many civil liberties and postponed elections at national and state levels. Non-Congress governments in Indian states were dismissed, and opposition political leaders and activists imprisoned. Strikes and public protests were outlawed in all forms.

JANTA DAL:V. P. Singh led the Janata Dal coalition to a majority. He was supported by BJP and the leftist parties from outside. Becoming Prime Minister, Singh made an important visit to the Golden Temple shrine, to heal the wounds of the past. He started to implement the controversial Mandal commission report, to increase the quota in reservation for low caste Hindus. The BJP protested these implementations, and took its support back, following which he resigned.

1990s AND RAJIV GANDHI ASSISINATION:On May 21, 1991, while Rajiv Gandhi campaigned in Tamil Nadu on behalf of Congress (I), a Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) female suicide bomber killed him and many others, setting off the bomb in her belt by leaning forward while garlanding him. In the elections, Congress (I) won 244 parliamentary seats and put together a coalition, returning to power under the leadership of P.V. Narasimha Rao. This Congress-led government, which served a full 5-year term, initiated a gradual process of economic liberalisation and reform, which has opened the Indian economy to global trade and investment.

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ERA OF COILATION :The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) emerged from the May 1996 national elections. Under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the BJP coalition lasted in power 13 days. A 14-party coalition led by the Janata Dal emerged to form a government known as the United Front. A United Front government under former Chief Minister of Karnataka H.D. Deve Gowda lasted less than a year. The leader of the Congress Party withdrew his support in March 1997. Inder Kumar Gujral replaced Deve Gowda for Prime Minister of a 16-party United Front coalition. In November 1997, the Congress Party again withdrew support for the United Front. New elections in February 1998 brought the BJP the largest number of seats in Parliament (182), but this fell far short of a majority. On March 20, 1998, the President inaugurated a BJP-led coalition government with Vajpayee again serving as Prime Minister.
Entry in the 21 Century

Soaring on popularity earned following the successful conclusion of the Kargil conflict, the National Democratic Alliance - a new coalition led by the BJP - gained a majority andVajpayee came as Prime Minister in October 1999. The NDA government's credibility was adversely affected by allegations that the Defence Minister George Fernandes took bribes over the purchase of coffins for soldiers who died in the battle. The Tehelka scandal exposed the BJP party chief taking unaccounted contributions in return for promised favours, and the CBI chargesheeted senior BJP leaders for inciting the demolition of the Babri mosque. In 2002, 59 Hindu activists died returning from the site when a train carriage took fire a month later, in Godhra, Gujarat. This sparked off the 2002 Gujarat violence, leading to the deaths of thousands of Hindus and Muslims. The BJP-led state government, and its chief minister Narendra Modi were accused of not doing enough to stop Hindu mobs in attacking Muslims. The Congress Party-led alliance won an upset victory in elections held in May 2004. Manmohan Singh became the Prime Minister, after the Congress President Sonia Gandhi, the widow of Rajiv Gandhi declined to take the office, in order to defuse the controversy about whether her Italian birth should be considered a disqualification for the Prime Minister's post. The Congress formed a coalition with socialist and regional parties, and enjoys the outside support of India's Communist parties. Manmohan Singh is the first Sikh to date to hold India's most powerful office.

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