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CELLPHONEOPERATED LANDROVER

CELLPHONEOPERATED LANDROVER

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Published by Anil kumar gaur
CELLPHONEOPERATED LANDROVER BY ANILKUMAR U.C.E.R. NAINI ALLAHABAD
CELLPHONEOPERATED LANDROVER BY ANILKUMAR U.C.E.R. NAINI ALLAHABAD

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2009-2010

CELLPHONE OPERATED LAND ROVER

ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010

PROJECT REPORT ON
CELLPHONE OPERATED LANDROVER
SUBMITTED BY:
NAME ANIL KUMAR GAUR VED PRAKASH PANDEY AJAY SINGH BRIJESH KUSHWAHA ROLL NO. 0601031018 0601031116 0601031006 0601031035

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF:-

MR. VIVEK GUPTA
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONIC AND COMMUNICATION UCER NAINI ALLAHABAD

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that ANIL KUMAR GAUR, student of UNITED COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH NAINI ALLAHABAD has undergone Final year project in CELLPHONE OPERTED LANDROVER under my guidance and supervision. During the Project period in ACADEMIC YEAR 2009-2010 his performance and behavior was found EXCELLENT.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to express our heartiest gratitude to Mr. VIVEK GUPTA for providing us with their proper guideline and supervision to perform our final year project. And for assisting us during the whole project. We would like to thank the whole ECE Department of U..C.E.R. for their continuous cooperation and clarification of doubts while carrying out project work. Our special thanks goes to all the faculty members and college administration of U.C.E.R. for their assistance and encouragement. Last but not the least we express our sincere thanks to the institute UNITED COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND RESEARCH NAINI ALLAHABAD for providing such a platform for implementing the ideas in our mind. .

ANIL KUMAR GAUR AJAY SINGH BRIJESH KUSHWAHA VED PRAKASH PANDEY B. TECH (4th Yr) (VIII Sem.) Electronic & communication Engg. United college of engineering & Research Naini ALLAHABAD

DECLARATION
We do hereby declare that this project is prepared on the basis of study related to the Project “CELLPHONE OPERATED LANDROVER”. It is my own work and no part of it has been submitted to any other Institution.

ANIL KUMAR GAUR AJAY SINGH BRIJESH KUSHWAHA VED PRAKASH PANDEY ELECTRONICS & COMM. U.C.E.R. NAINI ALLAHABAD

INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION 2. ABOUT THE POROJECT 3. SIGNIFICATION OF THE PROJECT 5. TECHNOLOGY USED (DTMF SIGNALLING) 6. PCB CONSTRUCTION 7. OPERATION OF THE PROJECT

HARDWARE PART :
OVERVIEW OF THE CIRCUIT COMPONENT 2. FLOW DIAGRAM FOR THE PROPER OPERATIO OF HARDWARE 3. LIST OF EACH COMPONENT USED WITH SPECIFICATION 4. EXPLANATOIN OF USED IC’S • MANUFACTURE NAME, SPECIFICATION, OPERATING VOL. AND OTHER CONDITION • APPICATION OF IC’S • PIN DIAGRAM AND FUNCTION DIGARAM • INTERNAL SCHEMAYIC AND INTERNALWORKING OF IC’S
1.

SOFTWARE PART :
1. ROLE OF THE SOFTWARE 2. WHICH LANGUAGE USED 3. REQUIREMENT OF RUN SOFTWARE 4. ALGORITHM WITH DAATA FLOW DIGRAM 5. SOURCE CODE 6. FLOWCHART

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT :
1. APPLICATIONS 2. ADVANTAGES 3. DISADVANTAGES 4. FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS & FUTURE SCOPE 5. DATASHEETS 6. CONCLUISION 7. REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION :
Conventionally, wireless –controlled robot use RF circuits, which have the drawbacks of limited working range, limited frequency range and limited control, can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantage of robust control, working range as large as the coverage area of the service provider, no interference with other controllers and up to twelve controls. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical movable structure under some form of control. The control of robot involves three distinct phases:-

1.) Perception, 2.) Processing, 3.) Action.
Generally, the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot, processing is done by on-board micro controller or processor, and the task (action) is performed using motors or with some other actuators.

PROJECT OVERVIEW :

In this project, the robot is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the robot. In the coarse of a call, if any button is pressed, a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is called ‘dual-tone multiplefrequency’ (DTMF) tone. The robot perceives this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the robot. The received tone is processed by the ATmega16 microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoder MT8870. The decoder decodes the DTMF tone into its equivalent binary digit and this binary number is sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller is pre programmed to take a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors for forward or backward motion or a turn. The mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the robot acts as a remote. So this simple robotic project does not require the construction of receiver and transmitter units. DTMF signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice-frequency band to the call switching centre. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known as ‘Touch-Tone’. DTMF assigns a specific frequency (consisting of two separate tones) to each key so that it can easily be identified by the electronic circuit. The signal generated by the DTMF encoder is a direct algebraic summation, in real time, of the amplitudes of two sine (cosine) waves of different frequencies, i.e., pressing ‘5’ will send a tone made by adding 1336 Hz and 770 Hz to the other end of the mobile phone.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT :

Robotics is an interesting field where every engineer can showcase his creative and technical skills. Radio control (often abbreviated to R/C or simply RC) is the use of radio signals to remotely control a device. The term is used frequently to refer to the control of model vehicles from a hand-held radio transmitter. Industrial, military, and scientific research organizations make [traffic] use of radio-controlled vehicles as well. A remote control vehicle is defined as any mobile device that is controlled by a means that does not restrict its motion with an origin external to the device. This is often a radio control device, cable between control and vehicle, or an infrared controller. A remote control vehicle (Also called as RCV) differs from a robot in that the RCV is always controlled by a human and takes no positive action autonomously. One of the key technologies which underpin this field is that of remote vehicle control. It is vital that a vehicle should be capable of proce eding accurately to a target area; maneuvering within that area to fulfill its mission and retur ning equally accurately and safely to base.

Recently, Sony Ericsson released a remote control car that could be controlled by any Bluetooth cell phone. Radio is the most popular because it does not require the vehicle to be limited by the length of the cable or in a direct line of sight with the controller (as with the infrared set-up). Bluetooth is still too expensive and short range to be commercially viable. We contol robot any where of world where mobile network is possible. And watch our robot through use 3g technology vedio conferencing.

HISTORY OF REMOTE CONTROLLED VEHICLES : The First Remote Control Vehicle :
Precision Guided Weapon : This propeller-driven radio controlled boat, built by Nikola Tesla in 1898 , is the original prototype of all modern-day uninhabited aerial vehicles and precision guided weapons. In fact , all remotely operated vehicles in air, land or sea. Powered by lead-acid batteries and an electric drive motor, the vessel was designed to be maneuvered alongside a target using instructions received from a wireless remote control transmitter. Once in position, a command would be sent to detonate an explosive charge contained within the boat!s forward compartment. The weapon!s guidance system incorporated a secure communications link between the pilot!s controller and the surfacerunning torpedo in an effort to assure that control could be maintained even in the presence of electronic countermeasures. To learn more about Tesla!s system for secure wireless communications and his pioneering imp lementation of the electronic logic-gate circuit read ‘Nikola Tesla — Guided Weapons & Computer Technology’, Tesla Presents Series Part 3, with commentary by Leland Anderson.

Use of Remote Controlled Vehicles During World War II :
During World War II in the Europe an Theater the U.S. Air Force experimented with three basic forms radio control guided weapons. In each case, the weapon would be directed to its target by a crew member on a control plane. The first weapon was essentially a standard bomb fitted with steering controls. The next evolution involved the fitting of a bomb to a glider airframe, one version, the GB-4 having a TV camera to assist the controller with targeting. The third class of guided weapon was the remote controlled B-17. It!s known that Germany deployed a number of more advanced guided strike weapons that saw combat before either the V-1 or V-2. They were the radio-controlled Henschel!s Hs 293A and Ruhrstahl!s SD1400X, known as ’Fritz X,’ both air-launched, primarily against ships at sea.

TECHNOLOGY USED (DTMF SIGNALLING) :
Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF)
Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signaling is used for telecommunication signaling over analog telephone lines in the voicefrequency band between telephone handsets and other communications devices and the switching center. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known by the trademarked term Touch-Tone (canceled March 13, 1984 ), and is standardized by ITU-T Recomme ndation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4. Other multi-frequency systems are used for signaling internal to the telephone network. As a method of in-band signaling, DTMF tones were also used by cable television broadcasters to indicate the start and stop times of local commercial insertion points during station breaks for the benefit of cable companies. Until better out-of -band signaling equipment was developed in the 1990s , fast, unacknowledged, and loud DTMF tone sequences could be heard during the commercial breaks of cable channels in the United States and elsewhere.

Telephon e Keypad
The contempor ary keypad is laid out in a 3x4 grid, although the original DTMF keypad had an additional column for four nowdefunct menu selector keys. When used to dial a telephone number, pressi ng a single key will produce a pitch consisting of two simultaneous pure tone sinusoidal frequencies. The row in which the key appears dete rmines the low frequency, and the column dete rmines the high frequency. For example, pressi ng the !1! key will result in a sound composed of both a 697 and a 1209 hertz (Hz) tone. The original keypads had levers inside, so each button activated two contacts. The multiple tones are the reason for calling the system multifrequency. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determi ne which key was pressed.

A DTMF Telephon e Keypad

OVERVIEW OF CIRCUIT COMPONENT :

PARTS LIST:Semiconductors: IC1 - MT8870 DTMF Decoder IC2 - ATmega16 AVR microcontroller IC3 - L293D motor driver IC4 - 74LS04 NOT gate D1 - 1N4007 rectifier diode

Resistors (all ¼-watt, ±5% carbon): R1, R2 - 100-kilo-ohm R3 - 330-kilo-ohm R4-R8 - 10-kilo-ohm

Capacitors: C1 - 0.47µF ceramic disk C2, C3, C5, C6 - 22 pF ceramic disk C4 - 0.1µF ceramic disk

Miscellaneous: XTAL1 -3.57MHz crystal XTAL2 - 12MHz crystal S1 - Push-to-on switch M1, M2 - 6V, 50-rpm geared DC motor Batt. - 6V, 4.5Ah battery

FLOW DIAGRAM OF OPERATION :

DESCRIPTION:

As shown in the above block diagram, first block is the cell phone .so, it acts as a DTMF generator with tone depending upon key pressed. DTMF Decoder ,i.e.,IC CM8870 decodes the received tone & gives binary equivalent of it to the microcontroller. The controller is programmed such that appropriate output is given to Motor Driver IC L293D which will drive the two DC Motors connected to it. The concept used for driving is ‘Differential Drive’. So, ultimately the two motors rotate according to the key pressed on the keypad of the cell phone.

PCB CONSTRUCTION :
Step 1:
Generated from your design files, we create an exact film representation of your design. We will create one film per layer.

Step 2 : Shear Raw Material
Industry standard 0.059" thick, copper clad, two sides. Panels will be sheared to accommodate many boards.

Step 3

Apply Image: Apply photosensitive dryfilm (plate resist) to panel. Use light source and film to expose panel. Develop selected areas from panel.

Step 4 :

Pattern Plate:
Electrochemical process to build copper in the holes and on the trace area. Apply tin to surface.

note: All PCBexpress boards are plated through holes.

Step 5 :

Strip & Etch:
Remove dryfilm, then etch exposed copper. The tin protects the copper circuitry from being etched.

Step 6 :

Solder mask:
Apply solder mask area to entire board with the exception of solder pads

Step 7 : Solder coat:
Apply solder to pads by immersing into tank of solder. Hot air knives level the solder when removed from the tank

Step 8 : Nomenclature & Fabrication
Apply white letter marking using screen printing process. Route the perimeter of the board using NC equipment.

WORKING :

In order to control the robot, you have to make a call to the cellphone attached to the robot from any phone. now the phone is picked by the phone on the robot through autoanswer mode(which is in the phn, just enable it). now when you press 2 the robot will move forward when you press 4 the robot will move left when you press 8 the robot will move backwards when you press 6 the robot will move right when you press 5 the robot will stop.

INTERNAL SCHEMATIC AND INTERNAL WORKING OF IC’S :

DMFT DATA OUTPUT TABLE :

ACTUAL PCB PHOTOGRAPH :

SIDE VIEW:

Fig.1

TOP VIEW:

Fig.2

VIEW OF USED IC’S :

Fig.3

To connect the hands free with the circuit

there are always two connections which come out of the phone, these connections are 1. Tip 2. Ring i'll prefer to use handsfree which have a straight jack (similar to the ones which we use in our ipods, but a thinner one) the tip of that jack is called the "tip" and the rest part behind the tip after a black strip is the ring So connect these two connections with the circuit and you will be done.

EXPLANATION OF USED IC’S :
1. IC 1 MT8870 DTMF DECODER 2. IC 2 L293D MOTOR DRIVER

3. IC 3 74LS04 NOT GATE 4. IC 4 ATMEGA 16 AVR MICROCONTROLLER

IC 2 L293D
PUSH-PULL FOUR CHANNEL DRIVER WITH DIODES

CHARACTERISTIC:600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY PER CHANNEL 1.2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive) PER CHANNEL ENABLE FACILITY OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION LOGICAL "0" INPUT VOLTAGE UP TO 1.5 V (HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY) INTERNAL CLAMP DIODES

BLOCK DIAGRAM :

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Symbol Parameter Value Unit
VS Supply Voltage 36 V VSS Logic Supply Voltage 36 V Vi Input Voltage 7 V Ven Enable Voltage 7 V Io Peak Output Current (100  non repetitive) 1.2 A s Ptot Total Power Dissipation at Tpins = 90  4 W C Tstg, Tj Storage and Junction Temperature – 40 to 150 C

PIN DIAGRAM :

DESCRIPTION :

The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage, high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoides, DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors. To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels is equipped with an enable input. A separate supply input is provided for the logic, allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are included. This device is suitable for use in switching application at frequencies upto 5 khz The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic packaage which has 4 center pins connected together and used for heatsinking The L293DD is assembled in a 20 lead surface mount which has 8 center pins connected together and used for heatsinking

IC 1 MT8870

DESCRIPTION :

The MT8870D/MT8870D-1 is a complete DTMF
receiver integrating both the band split filter and digital decoder functions. The filter section uses switched capacitor techniques for high and low group filters; the decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code. External component count is minimized by on chip provision of a differential input amplifier, clock oscillator and latched three-state bus interface.

FUNCTION BLOCK DIAGRAM :

IC 3 74LSO4
Hex Inverting Gates

Software description (the hex code)
The software is written in ‘C’ language and compiled using Code Vision AVR ‘C’ compiler. The source program is converted into hex code by the compiler. Burn this hex code into ATmega16 AVR microcontroller. The source program is well commented and easy to understand. First include the register name defined specifically for ATmega16 and also declare the variable. Set port A as the input and port D as the output. The program will run forever by using ‘while’ loop. Under ‘while’ loop, read port A and test the received input using ‘switch’ statement. The corresponding data will output at port D after testing of the received data.

LANGUAGE USED
“C” LANGUAGE

REQUIREMENT FOR THE RUN SOFTWARE
1. 256 MB RAM 2. 10 GB HARDDISK 3. WIN 2000 OR XP

SOURCE CODE (C PRORAGRAM CODE)

Source program: Robit.c #include <mega16.h> void main(void) {

unsigned int k, h; DDRA=0x00; DDRD=0XFF; while (1) { k =~PINA; h=k & 0x0F; switch (h) { case 0x02: //if I/P is 0x02 { PORTD=0x89;//O/P 0x89 ie Forward break; } case 0x08: //if I/P is 0x08 { PORTD=0x86; //O/P 0x86 ie Backward break; } case 0x04: { PORTD=0x85; // Left turn break; } case 0x06: { PORTD=0x8A; // Right turn break; } case 0x05: { PORTD=0x00; // Stop break; } } } }

FLOWCHART :

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT : APPLICATIONS : Scientific :
Remote control vehicles have various Scientific uses including hazardous environments, working in the deep ocean , and space exploration. The majority of the probes to the other planets in our solar system have been remote control vehicles, although some of the more recent ones were partially autonomous. The sophistication of these devices has fueled greater debate on the need for manned spaceflight and exploration. The Voyager I spacecraft is the first craft of any kind to leave the solar system. The martian explorers Spirit and Opportunity have provided continuous data about the surface of Mars since January 3, 2004 .

Military and Law Enforcement :
Military usage of remotely controlled military vehicles dates back to the first half of 20th century. Soviet Red Army used remotely controlled Teletanks during 1930s in the Winter War and early stage of World War II. There were also remotely controlled cutters and experimental remotely controlled planes in the Red Army

Search and Rescue :
UAVs will likely play an increased role in search and rescue in the United States. This was demonstrated by the successful use of UAVs during the 2008 hurricanes that struck Louisiana and Texas.

Recreation and Hobby :
See Radio-controlled model. Small scale remote control vehicles have long been popular among hobbyists. These remote controlled vehicles span a wide range in terms of price and sophistication. There are many types of radio controlled vehicles. These include on-road cars, off-road trucks, boats, airplanes, and even helicopters. The ’robots’ now popular in television shows such as Robot Wars, are a recent extension of this hobby (these vehicles do not meet the classical definition of a robot; they are remote ly controlled by a human). Radio-controlled submarine also exist.

ADVANTAGES :
1.Wireless control 2. Surveillance System. 3. Vehicle Navigation with use of 3G technology. 3. Takes in use of the mobile technology which is almost available everywhere. 4. This wireless device has no boundation of range and can be controlled as far as network of cell phone

DISADVANTAGES :
1. Cell phone bill. 2. Mobile batteries drain out early so charging problem. 3. Cost of project if Cell phone cost included. 4. Not flexible with all cell phones as only a particular ,cell phone whose earpiece is attached can only be used.

FURTHER SCOPE : 1. IR Sensors:

IMPROVEMENTS

&

FUTURE

IR sensors can be used to automatically detect & avoid obstacles if the robot goes beyond line of sight. This avoids damage to the vehicle if we are maneuvering it from a dist ant place.
2.

Password Protection:

Project can be modified in order to password protect the robot so that it can be operated only if correct password is entered. Either cell phone should be password protected or necessary modification should be made in the assembly language code. This introduces conditioned access & increases security to a great extent.

3. Alarm Phone Dialer:
By replacing DTMF Decoder IC CM8870 by a !DTMF Transceiver IC’ CM8880 , DTMF tones can be generated from the robot. So, a project called !Alarm Phone Dialer! can be built which will generate necessary alarms for something that is desired to be monitored (usually by triggering a relay). For example, a high water alarm, low temper ature alarm, opening of back window, garage door, etc. When the system is activated it will call a number of programmed numbers to let the user know the alarm has been activated. This would be great to get alerts of alarm conditions from home when user is at work.

4. Adding a Camera:
If the current project is interfaced with a camera(e.g. a Webcam) robot can be driven beyond line-of-sight & range becomes practically unlimited as GSM networks have a very large range.

DATASHEETS PINNACLE ENVIROMENT:

AVR SPI PROGMMER:

CONCLUSION :
In the designing of Project has been an exhilarating and enriching experience. Here during the designing of Project I came to know about all the processes of designing of Pcb related to Project .the up various machines, maintaining and designing of projects tempo to achieve best knowledge and keeping high knowledge of the project designing I also tried to study about various projects prepared to achieve best experience about projects . To have knowledge of project designing and maintenance of the same in such a big quantum has been highly enriching to me. To sum up, in these 06 weeks I had come across all the processes Related to the electronics Project designing.

REFERENCES
1. Wikipedia - The free encyclopedia 2. h t t p : // ww w . 8051 p r o j e c t s . i n f o / 3. h t t p : // ww w . i n s t r u c t a b l es . c o m /

4. c e ll p h o n e o p e ra te d la n d roEvleecrt r onics For You’ Magazine , Edition (july 2008) 5. “DTMF Tester” , ‘Electronics For You’ Magazine , Edition (June 2003 ) 6. h t t p : // ww w . a l l d a t a s h ee t . c o m / 7. h t t p : // ww w . d a t a s h ee t 4u . c o m / 8. h ttp:// www . datash eetcatalog. com/

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