WHAT IS THE SMARTEST WAY FROM A TO B?

Sustainable Tricycle Conversions
Presented by Scott Dickason

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Directors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the source, originality, accuracy, completeness or reliability of any statement, information, data, finding, interpretation, advice, opinion, or view presented, nor does it make any representation concerning the same.

1.5+ MILLION TRICYCLES

WHAT IS THE ISSUE?
Tricycles consume over 4.8 billion litres per year fuel consumer ( Mostly imported) Tricycles emit over around 5 tons per unit per year= 7.5 million tons of CO2 emissions Tricycles consume over $5 billion in fuel and oil per year to operate ironically an alternative exists and is available now!!

CURRENT ELECTRIC VEHICLE PENETRATION
Aeroplanes Electric Heavy vehicles Pure Electric cars Hybrid Cars LEV’s E-Bikes Current Volume In use today Cost

ELECTRIC VEHICLE RANGE PER CHARGE
Efective Range KM Electric only
300

225

150

75

0 ElectricBicycle

E-Bike

E-Tricycle

LEVGolfcart

HybridCar

Tesla

E-Bus

AIRPLANES
Mainly Hobby sized No commercial examples Many years from commercial reality Some new attempts by enthusiasts and billionaires

HEAVY VEHICLE
Buses are most common due to high public exposure and strong eco message Beijing olympics launch pad Still Hybrid is the most viable or tram style electric Very costly to produce

PURE ELECTRIC CARS
Many hobby examples Top end Telsa is outstanding EV example. 0-100km/h 3.9 seconds. Google E-Bay Investors 320 miles battery life and range per charge still an issue huge investment in R&D
"Because a car crash is fundamentally different than a software crash"Martin Eberhard founder of
Tesla Motors

HYBRID ELECTRIC CARS
Prius a global sales success Poor press unrelated to Hybrid function Safe option for makers Camry Hybrid now made in Australia Lexus, Honda are next largest producers
"Without plug-in capability, a hybrid is just a gasoline-powered car with some fancy hardware"Martin Eberhard founder of Tesla Motors

LEV’S (LIGHT ELECTRIC VEHICLES)
Existed for over 50 years Forklifts, goods equipment, cleaning, golf carts etc Now moving into motorcycles, small car applications, ATV’s, indoor transport The next significant trend in low cost transport.

E-BIKES AND HUMAN HYBRIDS
Fastest growing EV category Outsells cars in China Globally accepted Highly refined and low cost due to high volumes Major benefactor to new lithium batter technology

ELECTRIC BIKE GROWTH IN CHINA

PROVEN TECHNOLOGY EXIST’S TODAY
2003 China had 10,000,000 e-bikes it now has over 120,000,000 11+ Billion dollar industry Fastest growing electric transport category Netherlands 1/3 of all money spent on bikes is for electric. Germany, France and Italy closely follow India had almost NO e-bikes until 2 years ago but will eclipse all of Europe within one year! E-bikes cost about 50cents per day to travel up to 50km!!!!!! E-bikes are the fastest personal transport growth category worldwide Philippines has very few e-bikes

IS EXISTING TECHNOLOGY AVAILABLE TO CONVERT TRICYCLES TO ELECTRIC?
Yes and has been for at least 10 years!!!!!! Battery technology has driven exponential change in the Electric Vehicle Industry Personal Electric Transport is the current electric vehicle success story world wide. Far ahead of Car’s and Heavy vehicle applications Low weight human-hybrid and light electric vehicles (LEV’s) exist today and are an integral part of most developed nations From electric bicycles to golf carts, boats, fork lifts, motorcycles and more

EXAMPLES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES USING PRESCRIBED COMPONENTS

TRICYCLE CONVERSION COMPONENTS
Throttle Controller Motor

Cable

Battery Charger

TRICYCLE FUEL CONSUMPTION
Tricycle Daily Fuel Consumption: approx. 7 litres per day Fuel Cost @ USD$1 per litre = $7 per day 1.5 Million tricycles (Conservative estimate) x 7 Litres/day = 10.5million litres of fuel or $10.5 million dollars per day Annually a staggering: 3.8 Billion $’s/litres of fuel Add Oil replacements estimate: 12 million litres oil @ 4 changes per year per tricycle. (Conservative)

ELECTRIC TRICYCLE ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
Assume 1.5 million tricycles are fitted with 3kw electric motor and a 48v 100aH Lithium Phosphate Battery (5 kWh) Range Up to 80km per day Estimate a tricycle would use 5 kWh per day of electricity Electricity cost est @ 20c per kWh = $1 per day/tricycle v’s $7 in petrol 7.5 gWh of electricity = $1.5million per day Annually Tricycles may use 2.7 tWh = $547 Million that can be supplied via partially renewable sources that compliment other ADB and renewable energy projects. Energy cost: Saving of $3.3 Billion

ELECTRIFICATION COSTINGS
Estimates of costing based on bulk tricycle (motor bike component) would be $2.5-3500 USD per tricycle Annual Battery replacement cost in bulk format would be approximately $1500 - 2000 usd. Current gasoline fuel costs are $2500 per year per tricycle. Note: Gasoline will go up, Battery prices will reduce. Saving up to $1500 that could be allocated towards charging stations, training and infrastructure

MOTORCYCLE REPLACEMENT
Hi quality electric motor cycles exist today Search Zero Electric Motor Cycles for a demo Tricycle side car variations can still be added Refine the platform for a highly robust low cost functional version

Volume purchasing will achieve this outcome

OUR PROPOSAL
Conduct small scale a trial of e-tricycles (6) using best available components to validate technology Monitor in field performance Adjust components to suite data outcomes Develop and model mass roll out costings and implementation plan Large scale modelling and project plan Up to 100,000 units Model plan to other additional Asian country opportunities for Gasoline to LEV’s conversion or replacement

HOW DO WE DO IT?
Use the best available quality components Recruit quality local assembly resources and maintenance support Monitor in field data Adjust component specification to suite data results Recommend a bulk specification for Motorcycle drive unit Model charging station and logistics support

TRICYCLE CONVERSION COMPONENTS
Throttle Controller Motor

Cable

Battery Charger

PROCESS MAP - OVERVIEW
Phase Trikes 1 1 2
1 1 What When
April to May 2010 May to July 2010 July - September September - October 2010 September - Jan 2011 Feb-July 2011 3-5YEARS

Field evaluation
Component procurement 1st Trike preparation 5 additional trike preparation Evaluation of results Bulk tricycle Implementation MASS ROLE OUT

3

6 6

4 5

1000 100000 +

PROCESS MAP - PHASE 1-3
Phase 1
When
April 12-17 April 20-27 April 20-27 April/May

What
Tricycle in field visit Selection of components based on field visit Order Components for 1st trike Selection of engineering and service support people of organisations, Charging station/location and logistics Component Component Testing In Australian arrival, Note Some components such as batteries may have long lead time up to 60days First Tricycle deconstruction and Motor and controller installation Attend ADB Sustainable Transport Forum presentation Ship tested components to SMEC/ADB 1st in field test runs and usage procedures

How
Visit Manila and review tricycle function review size,use and weight, dimension, performance, running times etc Select from best available components to fulfil requirement Battery, Motor, Controller, Cables, Throttle, Qualify people and organisations that can provide engineering and electrical engineering support Bench Testing and labelling of components Remover all petrol motor related parts from the selected Tricycle Prepare tricycle and install motor Present our plan for tricycles at this forum SD to attend the first installation on tricycle Comprehensive feedback on component performance Critically analyse performance of Tricycle and make recommended component,process, or configuration recommendations Selection of components based on infield testing of Phase 1 Trike Deconstruction and installation of tricycles Comprehensive feedback on component performance

Who
SD and SMEC SD EVS and Supplier SD EVS and Supplier SMEC

May/June

SD EVS and Supplier

May/June May 21-23 June July July/August

SD and SMEC and local service support SD and SMEC SD EVS and Supplier SD and SMEC and local service support SD and SMEC and local service support

August/September

Adjustments to spec based on infield testing and trials if required

2 3

September October November to Jan

Order Components for 2nd Phase of 5 trikes Installation of 5 remaining tricycles Infield monitoring of 6 Trikes

SD EVS and Supplier SMEC SD and SMEC and local service support

KEY ISSUES
Initial Pilot Cost of components (Especially Battery Cost) and R&D Support - High EVS team and consultant (Scott Dickason) time and cost in Australia and travel on Project etc. Local engineering support to install components onto trikes-Need quality committed local partners Local Logistics for service and maintenance-Need local partners Communication of performance and data - Local Partners required Recording of data- Local Partners to collect data Training of users. Buy In of users.

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