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Running head: WATER CHALLENGE

PPE 310: Health Literacy for Schools


Water Challenge
Signature Assignment
Emily Russell and Kaelyn Buffard
Course #22400 Gilbert
Mary Dean

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Introduction

Dehydration affects students in their academic performance (Streitburger, 2012).


Arizona teachers need to be wary of this due to the high temperatures and risks for
dehydration. On average, students spend 40 hours a week in the classroom. It is the
teachers job to monitor the health of the students, including the consumption of water
throughout their time in school. The proposed Water Challenge will encourage students to
consume an appropriate amount of water to maintain hydration during the school day.
Within the Water Challenge, students will be exposed to education regarding the effects
of dehydration, and ways to prevent it. The goal of the Water Challenge is to foster lifelong healthy habits that improve the overall health of the student. Through research based
programing the Water Challenge will encourage students at Augusta Ranch Elementary to
become health conscious individuals.
Literature Review
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends oral rehydration therapy
(ORT) as the preferred treatment of fluid and electrolyte losses caused by diarrhea in
children with mild to moderate dehydration (Canavan & Arant, 2009). This article goes
into the details of diagnosis and treatment of dehydration in children. There are many
different symptoms that allow doctors to see if a child is dehydrated. Some of these
symptoms include capillary refill time of more than two seconds, absence of tears, dry
mucous membranes, and ill general appearance (Canavan & Arant, 2009). This journal
speaks on behalf of oral rehydration therapy, which can be administered at home. This
treats dehydrations from gastroenteritis, as well as many other causes. This is done
through giving children small doses of treatment until stabilized. With more severe

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dehydration comes intravenous fluids until the patient is stabilized (Canavan & Arant,
2009). Oral Rehydration Therapy is a more preferred way to treat dehydration and loss of
electrolytes in children who suffer from dehydration.
Voluntary dehydration is an epidemic that can deeply affect students. Voluntary
dehydration is a condition where humans do not drink appropriately in the presence of an
adequate fluid supply (Bar-David, Urkin, Landau, Bar-David & Pilpal 2009). In this
study researchers looked to describe the prevalence of voluntary dehydration among
elementary school children of different ethnicities and countries of birth (Bar-David,
Urkin, Landau, Bar-David, & Pilpal 2009). This study took a deep look into
approximately 430 students from the ages of eight to ten. The data in this study was
collected through urine samples and compared to that of which was considered a healthy
hydration level. Sixty-seven percent of the urine samples detected dehydration in
children. The results of this study showed that children who lived in a hot and arid
environment were often in the moderate to severe range of dehydration.
Dehydration affects the body in various ways including brain function and
structure (Stereitburger, Moller, Tittgemeyer, Hund-Georgiadis, Schroeter, & Mueller
2012). A study to investigate these effects was conducted in 2012 which aimed to monitor
the effects of various hydration states (hydration, hyperhydration, and dehydration) on six
individuals. The individuals used in the experiment were defined as young and healthy
(Stereitburger, Moller, Tittgemeyer, Hund-Georgiadis, Schroeter & Mueller, 2012). The
results of the study indicated that when individuals were dehydrated, increased amounts
of both gray and white matter were present on the brain (Stereitburger, Moller,
Tittgemeyer, Hund-Georgiadis, Schroeter & Mueller, 2012). This suggests that

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dehydration affects the brain structurally in all compartments of the brain. Through this
research, it is evident that the brain is affected by dehydration and that it is important for
schools and teachers to be aware of such affects and be cautious of them for students.
In 2011, a study was done to understand the effects of dehydration on young
women regarding cognitive function (Armstrong, Casa, Lee, McDermott, Klau, Jimenez,
Bellego, Chivollette & Lieberman, 2011). The study participants were 25 young females
at the age of 23 that had a healthy body mass index. These participants engaged in this
experiment by undertaking various, controlled, hydration states. The hydration states that
the women were under for each day included: exercise induced dehydration with no
diuretic, exercise induced dehydration with diuretic, and eudydration (Armstrong, Casa,
Lee, McDermott, Klau, Jimenez, Bellego, Chivollette & Lieberman, 2011). The results of
this study showed that there was little to no change in the women in regard to their
cognitive function (Armstrong, Casa, Lee, McDermott, Klau, Jimenez, Bellego,
Chivollette & Lieberman, 2011). Being that this experiment only tested 25 women,
limitations on the experimental sample are present which suggests that the lack of
numerous data could indicate inaccurate results. Additional research is necessary to
determine the effects of dehydration on cognitive functioning.
A study was conducted regarding the response of pediatric and non-pediatric
physicians to the dehydration in children. To collect responses, a seventeen question,
anonymous survey was sent out to members of the American College of Emergency
Physicians as well as electronically to the members of Brown University pediatric
emergency medicine listserv (Nunez, Liu & Nager, 2012). These questions were based on
a made-up scenario involving a two-year-old patient. This patient was diagnosed with

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acute gastroenteritis and moderate dehydration. The questions on the survey asked the
participants about treatment preferences, practice setting, and training information
(Nunez, Liu & Nager, 2012). As a result, 79% of the pediatric trained physicians
correctly identified the patient as being dehydrated compared to the seventy-one percent
of non-pediatric trained physicians. This study shows the importance of taking children to
facilities with pediatric trained physicians when faced with the symptoms of dehydration
and acute gastroenteritis.
The school that was analyzed in the health assessment discussed is Augusta Ranch
Elementary School located in the Gilbert Public School District. Augusta Ranch serves to
educate 1113 students in grades preschool through sixth grade. Augusta Ranch is not
considered a title 1 school and only provides free or reduced lunch to 16.8% of the school
population, as of 2012. The ratio of teachers to students in the general education
classroom is 1 teacher to 19.1 students. The school, according to AZ Report Cards, has
received a school grading of an A. Students at Augusta Ranch live in suburban
neighborhoods. The proportion of English Language Learning students at Augusta Ranch
was not reported or unable to be identified. Demographically the ethnic make-up of the
school population, as of 2014, is as follows: White- 738, African American- 31, Asian28, Hispanic- 198, American Indian- 12, Pacific Islander- 4, Two or More Races- 2, Not
Specified- 0.
Synthesis of Information
Within all articles that were reviewed, dehydration was identified to be a problem
for proper health to those that experience it. In response to the problem of dehydration,
the articles provided various treatments for dehydration or the effects that dehydration

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has on the body. Canavan and Arant, (2009) described Oral Rehydration Therapy as a
strategy for treatment of dehydration. Oral Rehydration Therapy is the process of
consuming hydration fluids in small doses until hydration is restored. This treatment for
dehydration has shown to be effective in treating dehydration.
Voluntary dehydration is a problem that students are often affected by. Bar-David,
Urkin, Landau, Bar-David, and Pilpal have described this condition as dehydration that
occurs when an individual has a sufficient water supply but makes the voluntary choice to
not properly hydrate oneself. This article is consistent with other literature in determining
that dehydration negatively affects the body.
While all articles did determine that dehydration has negative effects on proper
health of the body, many articles also described the effects of dehydration on the brain
and cognitive functioning. The study done in 2011 by Armstrong, Casa, Lee, McDermott,
Klau, Jimenez, Bellego, Chivollette, and Lieberman, provided insight into the effects of
dehydration on the brain. This study found that there were not significant effects of
dehydration on cognitive functioning, while the study done by Stereitburger, Moller,
Tittgemeyer, Hund-Georgiadis, Schroeter, and Mueller in 2012 expressed otherwise. This
difference needs additional research to clarify the effects of dehydration on the brain and
cognitive functioning.
Practical Implications
In consideration of the research, a water challenge is being proposed to engage
students in proper hydration and learning about the effects of dehydration on the body.
Administration Proposal

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The Water Challenge will be presented to administration, teachers, and PTSO at


an all school meeting that will occur on April 6, 2016. The presentation will begin with
one committee member introducing the topic of dehydration and its effects on students
bodies and brains. The committee for the Water Challenge will then present the proposal
using a PowerPoint presentation that identifies the details of the event including a
schedule and timeline of the Water Challenge, how funding will be provided, marketing
to be included, involvement of parents and the community, and ideas for curriculum
enhancers teachers will use throughout the Water Challenge week. The committee will
end the presentation with hosting a question and answer session where teachers, parents,
and administrators can express their ideas, concerns, and questions regarding the event.
The committee will then have a meeting with only the administration to solidify all
details and finalize the calendar of events.
Funding
Funding for the water challenge will come from donations and sales. The
committee will reach out to local businesses to obtain sponsors for the Water Challenge.
A sponsorship letter will also be sent to businesses within the state of Arizona to gather
donations for purchasing water bottles to be sold to students during the weeks leading up
to the Water Challenge. The water bottles that will be sold are displayed in appendix A.
The committee will use the funds from water bottle sales to provide curriculum enhancers
and materials for the water day activities. Printing of promotional flyers and newsletters
will be printed at the school so no funding is needed for these items.
Marketing

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The Water Challenge will be promoted to students one week prior to the start of
the water challenge. The event will be promoted using flyers, water bottle sales,
reminders on the announcements and outdoor marquee, and posters put up around the
school. The flyer that will be sent home with students will include details of the Water
Challenge and the water day (See Appendix B).
Schedule for Implementation
A schedule of promotion, water bottles sales, and events has been included in
appendix D. The last week of April, the committee for the Water Challenge will begin
promoting the Water Challenge week and the water day. Sales of the water bottles will
also occur during the last week of April. Students from student council will work with the
committee to sell the water bottles. The week of May 2- May 6, 2016 will be the Water
Challenge week. Monday will be focused on learning about the proper amount of water
for each person, based on age and size, which should be consumed daily. Classes will
also begin tracking their water consumption and documenting it for the water day.
Tuesday, students will learn about the effects of dehydration on the body and will
continue to track and document their water consumption. Wednesday, students will learn
about the effects of dehydration on the brain and how it effects their learning and
continue to track and document water consumption. Thursday, students will learn about
the effects of hyper-hydration and will engage in a discussion in their classes to talk about
what they learned about dehydration and the importance of drinking water and will finish
tracking and documenting water consumption. Grade levels will need to submit their
documentation to the Water Challenge committee by Friday morning at 8:15 am to be

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entered to win the challenge. Friday, students will have a water day where they will be
able to spend time outside, play water games, and dunk a teacher in a dunk tank.
Curriculum Enhancers
Monday through Thursday of the Water Challenge week will include a 10 to 15
minute mini lesson on the announcements that will be played for students each morning.
Monday students will be taught about the Water Challenge, appropriate water
consumption, and how to document their water consumption with their class. Tuesday
students will be taught about the effects of dehydration on the body using research and
data found in current literature. Wednesday students will be taught about the effects of
dehydration on the brain and how it effects their learning using research and data found in
current literature. Thursday, teachers will host a discussion with their students in the
classroom about what they have learned regarding the research and data that was
presented to them.
Family and Community Involvement
The surrounding community and students families will be involved in The Water
Challenge through the distribution of a newsletter (See Appendix C) that includes tips
and tricks to stay hydrated. This newsletter will allow the parents and community to fully
understand the importance of maintaining a healthy hydration level in Arizona, and
encourage them to create healthy habits in their homes and neighborhoods. The
informational videos that the students watched on the announcements will be recorded
and placed on the Augusta Ranch Elementary School website. This will be available for
everyone to see, and will highly benefit any students who may have been absent.

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By using these practical implications, a water challenge will successfully be


implemented at Augusta Ranch Elementary School.
Conclusion
The Water Challenge addresses the dangerous issue of dehydration that plagues
many students in the Arizona school system. With students spending many hours a week
in the school setting, it is the responsibility of the administration and teachers to be
conscious of the health of their students. A challenge implemented school-wide will
allow the teachers time to spread the knowledge and encourage students to meet their
needs of proper hydration. Students will have the opportunity to learn skills in the
classroom, share these with their parents and the community, and be involved in the
implementation of the challenge through the sale of water bottles. The incentive of a
water day will increase student involvement in the challenge and benefit their health by
creating habits to use throughout their lives.

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Appendix A

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Appendix B

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Appendix C

Water Challenge
Keeping Our Kids Hydrated

It is imperative that we make sure that all


students are drinking the proper amount of water
each day. Below you will find tips that will help
you to make sure your child is drinking water
regularly!

Offer children healthy beverages with every meal


to accustom them to drinking liquids regularly.

Make sure your child has water access at all


times.

Excite your child about drinking water, by


making drinking water a part of celebrations
after completing a physical activity.

Monitor your childs water consumption: Children


should be drinking at least 6 cups of water
daily. This amount should be increased based
on physical activity and heat exposure which
can dehydrate children quicker.

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Appendix D

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Appendix D Continued

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References

Academic Indicators: Augusta Ranch Elementary School. (n.d.). Retrieved February 7,


2016, from https://azreportcards.com/AcademicIndicators/Indicators
Armstrong, L. E., Ganio, M. S., Casa, D. J., Lee, E. C., McDermott, B. P., Klau, J. F.,
Jimenez, J., Bellego, L.L., Chevillotte, E., & Lieberman, H. R. (2011). Mild
dehydration affects mood in healthy young women. Journal of Nutrition. 142(2).
Augusta Ranch Info / Our Administration. (n.d.). Retrieved February 07, 2016, from
http://www.gilbertschools.net/Domain/331
Augusta Ranch Elementary. (n.d.). Retrieved February 07, 2016, from
http://www.schooldigger.com/go/AZ/schools/0340002114/school.aspx
Bar-David, Y., Urkin, J., Landau, D., Bar-David, Z., & Pilpel, D. (2009). Voluntary
dehydration among elementary school children residing in hot arid
environment. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 22(5), 455-460.
Canavan, A., & Arant, B. (2009). Diagnosis and management of dehydration in
children. American Family Physician..
Gopher. (n.d.). Retrieved February 07, 2016, from
http://www.gophersport.com/resources/active-healthy-schools/
Nunez, J., Liu, D., & Nager, A. (2012). Dehydration treatment practices among
pediatrics - trained and non-pediatrics trained emergency physicians. Pediatric
Emergency Care, 28, 322-328.
Streitburger, D., Moller, H. E., Tittgemeyer, M., Hund-Georgiadis, M., Schroeter, M. L.,
& Mueller, K. (2012). Investigating structural brain changes of dehydration
using voxel-based morphometry. Public Library Of Science ONE, 7(8), e44195.

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Wittrup, D. (2009). Keeping Kids Hydrated. Parents.

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Rubric for Signature Assignment


It is necessary to pass the Signature Assignment to pass this course.
A passing grade is a total score of 72.5 points or higher.
See Appendix B for description of Signature Assignment
Criteria with
Professional Standards
Referenced

5
Exemplary
(97 100%)

4
Highly
Proficient
(93 96%)

3
Proficient
(83 92%)

2
Approaching
Proficient
(73 82%)

Introduction is
fully
developed,
introduces all
topics, and
invites the
reader to read
further.

1
Unsatisfactory
(72%
and below)

Introduction
is fully
developed
with all
topics
introduced.

Introduction
is addressed
well.

Introduction
is addressed
adequately.

Introduction
is omitted.

Literature
review
highlights
major issues in
the area.

Literature
review
addresses
major issues
in the area.

Thorough use
of a range of
references to
support key
issues.
Description of
important
studies
establishes
context for the
reader.
Includes more
than 5
informative
references.

Thorough
use of a
range of
references
to support
key issues.
Includes
descriptions
of important
studies to
provide
context for
the reader.
Includes 5

Literature
review may
address major
issues, but
issues may
not be
supported
with expert
knowledge.

Literature
review does
not address
the major
issues in the
area; the level
of support for
the issues is
not adequate.
Includes 3
references.

Literature
review does
not have the
depth of
knowledge
appropriate to
the upper
elementary
level course.
Includes less
than 2
references.

Introduction
Introduction to the
topic and overview
(In your purpose
statement also
introduce all
subtopics)
InTASC 1c,k; 5k; 9f;
10h
NAEYC 6b
NETS-T 3a,d; 4a,c
CEC EC2S1;
CC7K1;
EC7K1;CC9K4;CC9
S8
Literature Review
Adequacy of
Knowledge
(includes 5 peer
reviewed original
research articles
references)
InTASC 1c,k; 5k; 9f;
10h
NAEYC 6b
NETS-T 3a,d; 4a,c
CEC EC2S1;
CC7K1;
EC7K1;CC9K4;CC9
S8

5 x 2=10
points

Good use of
references,
but additional
references
may have
strengthened
the paper.
Includes4
references.

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Synthesis of
Information (what
did the articles
collectively say about
the topic? Which
authors had similar
and different
findings?)
InTASC 1c,k; 5k; 9f;
10h
NAEYC 6b
NETS-T 3a,d; 4a,c
CEC EC2S1;
CC7K1;
EC7K1;CC9K4;CC9
S8
Practical Implications
(Discuss how the
findings can or will
later be applied to
your teaching setting)
InTASC 1c,k; 5k; 9f;
10h
NAEYC 6b
NETS-T 3a,d; 4a,c
CEC EC2S1;
CC7K1;
EC7K1;CC9K4;CC9
S8

Conclusions
ITASC 1c,k; 5k; 9f;
10h
NAEYC 6b
NETS-T 3a,d; 4a,c
CEC EC2S1;
CC7K1;
EC7K1;CC9K4;CC9
S8
Outline Turned In

5 x 3=15
points
Studies
covering the
same topic
synthesize
related
research.
5 x 3=15
points

Practical
implications of
your event
details
including your
teaching level
and in a
particular
setting are
discussed
thoroughly.
Must have at
least 6 topics
embedded.
5 x 6=30
points
Major issues
support and
establish
conclusions.

19
or more
references.
Studies
covering the
same topic
are
summarized
and
integrated
level work.

Information is
presented
study-bystudy rather
than
summarized
by topic.

The literature
review is a
mixed set of
ideas without
a particular
focus.

The literature
review does
not
demonstrate
upper UG

Pratical
implications
are
discussed
but not
related to a
particular
teaching
setting or
topic or
certain
details are
missing.

Pratical
implications
are discussed
but not at a
particularly
level or in a
particular
setting and
many details
of your event
are missing.

Practical
implications
are not
thoroughly
discussed and
only a few
details of the
event are
present

Practical
implications
are not
discussed and
no details of
the event are
present.

The major
issues are
summarized
under
conclusions.

The
conclusions
are not
complete.

Provides
opinions, but
not a
summary of
findings.

No
conclusions
are included.

Brief outline
with some
references but

Brief outline
No outline
with one or no was
references
submitted.

5 x 2=10
points
Logical,
Brief
detailed outline outline with
with at least 5
at least 5

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original peer
reviewed
references
written in APA
format is
submitted.

First Draft of all


sections submitted
with changes made
integrating instructor
comments from the
outline

5 x 2=10
points
Detailed draft
of all sections
of the paper
with
appropriate
content,
headers,
writing style,
and references
in APA 6.0
style.

Integration of
instructor comments
from first draft

All comments
from instructor
integrated into
final version.
All were
highlighted in
yellow

Writing and
referencing style
Cover Page = 5
Points
Reference Page = 5
Points
10 Points Total

Cover page
included,
proper spelling
and grammar,
all references
in APA 6.0
style. Paper
was
appropriate
length (at least
5 pages)
5 X 2 = 10
points

20
original
peer
reviewed
references
written in
APA format
is
submitted.

not 5 original
peer reviewed
references
written in
APA format
are submitted.

submitted.

Detailed
draft of
ALL
sections
with some
errors in
content
covered,
headings,
writing style
and/or
refernces in
APA 6.0
style.
Most
comments
from
instructor
integrated
into final
version. All
were
highlighted
in yellow
Cover page
included,
few
grammatical
errors and
misspellings
, all
references
in APA 6.0
style. Paper
was
appropriate
length (at

Detailed draft
of MOST
sections with
some errors in
content
covered,
headings,
writing style
and/or
refernces in
APA 6.0 style.

Missing
sections or
paper has
regular errors
across content
covered,
headings,
writing style
and/or
refernces in
APA 6.0 style.

Incomplete
(missing half
of the
requirements)
or completely
missing paper.

Some
comments
from
instructor
integrated into
final version.
Most were
highlighted in
yellow

Very few
comments
from
instructor
integrated into
final version.
Most were
highlighted in
yellow

No comments
from
instructor
integrated into
final version.
The changes
were not
highlighted

Cover page
included,
some
grammatical
errors and
misspellings,
some errors in
referencing
style APA 6.0.
Paper was too
short for the
topic (3-4
pages)

Cover page
not included,
many
grammatical
errors and
misspellings,
some errors in
referencing
style APA 6.0.
Paper was too
short for the
topic (1-2
pages)

Cover page
not included,
major
grammatical
errors and
misspellings,
many errors in
referencing
style APA 6.0.
Paper was too
short for the
topic (1-2
pages)

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21
least 5
pages)