10/2/2009

Definition of Zero Energy Buildings

Net Zero Energy Home Workshop
22-23 September 2009 Washington

International Energy Agency IEA  Jens Laustsen Policy Analyst for Efficiency in Buildings
© OECD/IEA, 2009

Messages
        Some basic questions on ZEB’s. Net Zero Energy Buildings – definitions. Different options. What is included in the zero ? Something about costs. Some examples for inspiration. Zero Energy Building Codes ? ld d ? Some recommendations

© OECD/IEA, 2009

1

10/2/2009

Vision on zero energy
Our Vision is: Our Vision is:  A world where buildings use no energy. 

© OECD/IEA, 2009

We need to start with some basic questions

2

10/2/2009

Understanding ZEB’s
What is a zero energy building ?  It is a building that uses no energy.  But buildings do not use energy it is the people, who live  or work in these buildings, which need energy !  It is the expectation of these people that makes zero  energy building a challenge.  To understand zero energy there is a need for some To understand zero energy there is a need for some   assumptions.

© OECD/IEA, 2009

ZEB is not
It is easy to make buildings that use no energy:  You just install no heating, cooling and ventilation and  you drop the connection to electricity !  But this is not a zero energy building.  The indoor climate in such a building would follow the  outdoor temperature: 
• when it freeze outside it gets very cold inside,  g y , • when it is hot outside it also gets hot inside,  • when it is dark outside it is even darker inside.

 This is not what we want !
© OECD/IEA, 2009

3

10/2/2009

Basic Assumptions
 It is the request to have stable indoor conditions the  drives energy use for heating and cooling.  All definitions of zero energy buildings therefore include  assumptions on indoor climate. For instance that indoor  climate is kept above 20 °C at wintertime and below 25 °C  at summertime.  If we require stricter climate conditions between 22 and  23 °C all year around the energy needed goes up   If we can cope with more instable indoor conditions  between 17 and 28 °C the needed energy goes down.

© OECD/IEA, 2009

Basic Assumptions
 All definitions on zero energy buildings therefore include  a definition of indoor climate and other demands for well  being.  b i  That I can keep designated temperature.  That I can take a hot shower.  That I can take the elevator instead of the stairs.  Or that I can read my newspaper 10 o’clock in the  evening. g

© OECD/IEA, 2009

4

10/2/2009

Basic Assumptions
In the coming slides:   We assume that a zero energy building would provide the  same indoor climate as a traditional building and that the  level of water use, ventilation, light and other elements  are similar to normal use of buildings in this area. p gy g  People in zero energy buildings should have the same  comfort as in normal buildings.

© OECD/IEA, 2009

New Definition ZEB

A zero energy building is a building  that can provide a normal indoor  comfort and still use no energy.

© OECD/IEA, 2009

5

10/2/2009

Zero Energy Buildings

A perfect zero energy building would always be in balance with nature

Classic Definitions
There have been many attempts to define ZEB   A basic question is if you can balance over the grid or do  you stand alone ?  In a Net Zero Energy Building you can balance over the  year meaning that you export as much as you import:      in ‐ out = zero  In a Zero Energy off grid Building you don’t have a  connection to grid and you have to store energy yourself.

© OECD/IEA, 2009

6

10/2/2009

Net Zero Energy Buildings
In order to make zero energy buildings operational we  define Net Zero Energy Buildings: 

A Net Zero Energy Building is a building  that produce as much energy as it use.
Usually this is understood as:

A Net Zero Energy Building is a building  that over the year produces as much  energy from renewable energy as it uses.
© OECD/IEA, 2009

Different Options
Even if we can agree on these basic definitions ‐ there are different options depending on how we define  the criteria's.     How do we define the energy balance over time ? What do we mean with energy use in buildings ?  What do we mean with energy use in buildings ? How much is included ? What do we accept as production of energy in buildings ?

© OECD/IEA, 2009

7

10/2/2009

Energy Production

How do we define our energy balance ?

Net Zero Site Energy
Net Zero Site Energy:  NZEB that produces as much energy as it uses annually  when accounted for at the site. The net zero can be:  Energy – balance in Btu or kWh   Costs – balance in USD balance in USD  Emissions – balance in CO2 and other green house gases The choice is yours !
© OECD/IEA, 2009

8

10/2/2009

Zero Energy or Plus
Solar Siedlung Vauban Freiburg, Germany

Low energy buildings – 15 kWh = 4.75 kBtu per ft² per year. Large solar photo voltage systems. Feed in tariffs guaranteed by German government. These building produce much more than they use !
© OECD/IEA, 2009

Net Zero Carbon
Net Zero Carbon:  NZCB focus on the neutral CO2 balance. This can include  CO2 neutral energy that comes from outside the site. How do you ensure the CO2 neutral energy ?  Use f separate grid – energy that comes in specific grids  CO2 offsets bought CO2 certificates CO2 offsets – bought CO2 certificates  Combustion of biomass – use of energy from  combustion of biomass on the site or in close  connection to site
© OECD/IEA, 2009

9

10/2/2009

Zero Carbon Example UK
BedZet, London, UK Zero Carbon Buildings have been on agenda in i UK since 2005 i 2005. How to ensure CO2 neutral in future ?

4 Purchase carbon offsets 3. Incorporate renewable energy and green power

2 Improve energy efficiency

1. Avoid need for energy use passive heating, cooling and ventilation

© OECD/IEA, 2009

Zero Energy

How much do you want to include ?

10

10/2/2009

A simple question of what to include
 Heating only: • NZEH di NZEH dimensioned to be self‐sufficient in space  i dt b lf ffi i t i heating and hot‐water supply.   Heating Cooling and Ventilation:  • NEZH dimensioned to be self‐sufficient in space  heating and hot‐water supply. Thermal comfort.  Electricity for pumps, fans and other fixed installations.  Lighting (mainly a question for the commercial building)  All electric appliances.  Total energy balance.

© OECD/IEA, 2009

What to include ?
 When more is included initial costs goes up When more is included initial costs goes up  If all appliances included a NZEH could become not zero  energy if more appliances or products are installed – laptops or a large TV • Is this rational ?  What do we usual understand by energy use in a  building or a house ? b ildi h ? • Cooling, heating, ventilation, hot water and light ? • What about appliances ?  Is it just a question about metering ?
© OECD/IEA, 2009

11

10/2/2009

Types of ZEB
Grid exclusive /  more independen nt
ZEB off grid / all incl.

Zero Carbon Buildings NZEB all energy NZEB incl. all major NZEB comfort + appliances light

Reduced  Costs
NZCB with offsets

NZEB heating + DHW

NZEB comfort energy

Larger part of  consumption included
© OECD/IEA, 2009

Zero Energy Ready
 While energy efficiency is often feasible or at low costs.  Costs for renewable energy is still relative high Costs for renewable energy is still relative high.
Renewable Energy

Buildings Buildings

IEA: Energy technology perspective 2008

McKenzie institute: Climate reports 2007

 Many recent studies shows exactly the same trends !
© OECD/IEA, 2009

12

10/2/2009

Zero Energy Ready Homes
 Net Zero Energy Ready Buildings can be made in any of Net Zero Energy Ready Buildings can be made in any of  the shown definitions on NZEB. Net Zero Energy Ready:  A Net Zero Energy Ready House is a house where energy  consumption is ultra low and where the future self  supply of renewable energy is already prepared. l f bl i l d d

© OECD/IEA, 2009

Types of ZEB
Grid exclusive /  more independen nt
ZEB off grid / all incl.

Zero Carbon Buildings

Reduced  Costs
NZEB heating + DHW NZEB comfort energy

NZEB all energy NZEB incl. all major NZEB comfort + appliances light

NZE Ready

NZCB with offsets

Larger part of  consumption included
© OECD/IEA, 2009

13

10/2/2009

Secondary demands

DOE has made this great illustration of the road to ZEB

Can raise further questions:  Is it enough to set a total zero demand or do we want  secondary requests ?
• Such as a maximal heat loss, gains.  • Total demands for energy use. • Or quality of installations.
© OECD/IEA, 2009

Frankfurt/M Germany Sophienhof FAAG/ABG Frankfurt Architect Fuessler

Blocks of Flats
160 dwellings 14 767 m² m Passive House Technology 15 kwh / m² per year = 4.75 kBtu

Extra costs = 3-5% of the total costs Payback = 9 – 10 years
© OECD/IEA, 2009

14

10/2/2009

Demands for other elements 
• Mandatory solar systems ?  • Minimum efficiency for  products ?

Florida Solar initiative

© OECD/IEA, 2009

Operation phase only ?
 In normal building most of energy use 80 – 85 % of In normal building most of energy use 80  85 % of  energy is used in operation phase and less than 20 % by  construction and demolition.  For zero energy buildings 100 % of energy will be used  for construction and demolition.

 Just an example to illustrate this and some other issues ! 

© OECD/IEA, 2009

15

10/2/2009

Active Buildings
 Low energy  • < 50 kWh / m² year   Zero Net Energy Zero Net Energy • Renewable energy  Recover  • Embedded energy • Over 30 years But also:   Cooling • Avoid overheating • Shading  Lighting • Daylight • Efficiency Health, Wellbeing, Natural materials Life quality 

Architecture
One example !

 Natural ventilation • Fresh air  • Ground cooling  Internal head loads • Double losses or  double gains ? 
© OECD/IEA, 2009

Active Buildings
 Family moved in  summer 2009.  House will be  monitored closely  for 1 year to see if  conditions are  actually met.

 House seated in  Denmark .  Part of process is  to built 8 houses in  different European  climate zones.
© OECD/IEA, 2009

16

10/2/2009

Going new ways
 N tZ Net Zero Energy Buildings / Houses E B ildi /H  There is a large potential 
• But we have to go new ways

 Training of architects, engineers, installers,  constructors is essential
• Energy efficiency needs to be at the front page !

© OECD/IEA, 2009

Integrated / Intelligent Design
The basic steps of Integrated Design Process (IDP): • consider right building size and use;  • consider building orientation form consider building orientation, form,                         thermal mass;  • specify a high‐performance building                 envelope;  • maximize passive heating, cooling,                                       ventilation and use of day‐light;  • use renewable energy sources as                               much as possible; much as possible; • install efficient systems to meet                          remaining loads;  • ensure that individual energy‐using devices are as  efficient as possible, and properly sized; and  • ensure proper commission of systems & devices  
© OECD/IEA, 2009

17

10/2/2009

Generic Architecture
Windows Misr University for Science and Technology, Cairo No windows !

No windows ! Windows
Source Proffessor Ahmed Abdin, Cairo Technical University

Old solutions – generic architecture used in new ways

© OECD/IEA, 2009

Generic Architecture
Misr University for Science and Technology, Cairo

Source Proffessor Ahmed Abdin, Cairo Technical University

Old solutions – generic architecture used in new ways

© OECD/IEA, 2009

18

10/2/2009

Generic Architecture
Protected against the sun ! Misr University for Science and Technology, Cairo

Source Proffessor Ahmed Abdin, Cairo Technical University

Old solutions – generic architecture used in new ways But using sunlight !
© OECD/IEA, 2009

Examples on Zero Energy Building Regulation
 Zero Energy option is the alternative on longer terms  Some countries already taken the approach to reach a  zero.  Zero Carbon Building Codes in UK  Reducing stepwise in Denmark  European Paliament

© OECD/IEA, 2009

19

10/2/2009

Building Codes Towards Zero
How does this become mainstream ?

kWh per m² per year

© OECD/IEA, 2009

Zero Carbon Building Codes

Development of UK Buildings Codes

2019

© OECD/IEA, 2009

20

10/2/2009

European Parliament on Zero Energy Building Regulation
 In connection to revision of EPBD directive the Parliament stated:  By 31 December 2018 at the latest EU Member States must By 31 December 2018 at the latest EU Member States must  ensure that all newly‐constructed buildings produce as much  energy as they consume on‐site ‐ e.g. via solar panels or heat  pumps.  Parliament also wants Member States to set intermediate national  targets for existing buildings, i.e. to fix minimum percentages of  buildings that should be zero energy by 2015 and by 2020  respectively.  respectively.  MEPs define zero‐energy buildings as buildings "where, as a result  of the very high level of energy efficiency of the building, the  overall annual primary energy consumption is equal to or less  than the energy production from renewable energy sources on  site". 
© OECD/IEA, 2009

Conclusion
 Zero Energy Buildings is the future and what we built today could  still stand at 2050. still stand at 2050  There are many choices in the definition of Net Zero Energy House  These choices have major impact on costs 0  Stand alone or use grid to balance over year RE /   Energy, costs or CO2 Solar All electric  What is includes in NZEH balance Large Appliances  This will impact costs p  Maybe there is a need for                                                                     Lighting more than one definition ! Hot Water / RE  You Crawl, you walk, you run 
Efficient HVAC / RE Efficient Building 

© OECD/IEA, 2009

21

10/2/2009

Recommendations
 A Net Zero Energy House should for sure include comfort =  heating, cooling, ventilation and hot sanitary water. heating cooling ventilation and hot sanitary water  A step 2 is to include major appliances.  A step 3 could be to include all energy use.  Net Zero should be balanced energy over the year:                   Export – Import = Zero in kWh or Btu If you can’t reach zero now built zero energy ready. This should at least include:  Very low / ultra low energy consumption.  Preparation for full supply by renewable energy in the future.  Thanks !
© OECD/IEA, 2009

22

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful