You are on page 1of 20

DEPARTMENTOFTHEARMY

uxtllD tlAltS Affy ttDof foircloic!

laTttucl|lct

Af,offqjtny

coina

ot trFoRxrlox/Fiw

G.Maao€,[aivtaxo

CaofftcE

ao75t5t95

Freedomof Infomation/ PrivacyOffice

DE818 2000

Nft,DonaldFriedman ConfidentialLegalCorrespondence ll25 Thid Steet

Napa,Califomia94559-3015

DearMr. Friedman:

References:

o

a. YourFreedomof InformationAct (FOIA)requestdatedMay25,2006,totheDepartment

oftheAfmy,Freedomof Information/PrivacyAct Division(DA FOIA/PADIV), for all documentspertainingtothemicrowaveauditoryeffect,microwavehearingeffecr,Freyeffect, artificialtelepathy,and/oranydevice/weaponwhichusesand./orcausessucheffect;andany covertor undiscloseduseof hlpnosis.OnSeptember5,2006,theDA FOIA/PADIV refeneda copyof yourrcquestto thisoffica. Yow requestwasreceivedonSeptember11,2006.

b. Ourletterof September13,2006,infoming youof thesearchfor recordsatanotherelement

ofour commandandwereunabletocomplywiththe20-daystatutorytimelimit in processrng yourrequest.

As notedin ourletter,thesearchhasbeencompletedwith anotherelementof thiscommand andtherecordhasbe€nretumedtothisofficefor ourreviewanddirectresponseto you.

We havecompleteda mandatorydeclassificationreviewin accordancewithExecutiveOrder (EO)12958,asamended.As aresultofthis review,ithasbeendeterminedthattheArmy informationnolongerwarrantssecurityclassificationprotectionandis releasableto you. A copy oftherecordis enclosedfor youruse.

Feesfor processingyourrcquestarewaived.

If youhaveanyquestionsconcemingthisaction,pleasefeelfreeto contactthisofficeat(301) 677-2308.Referto case#614F-06.

Enclosure

Sincercly,

*-a,JL"J

tterfreld

Freedomof Information/PrivacyOffice InvestigativeRecordsRepository

SEEffif

iieFenAr

Bioeffectsof SelectedNonlethal

Weapons(fn1)

Thisaddendumto theNonlethalTechnologies*Worldwide(NGIC-I147-101-98)study addressesin summary,someofthemostoftenaskedquestionsofnonlethalweapons technology,theph)siologicalresponsesobservedin clinicalsettingsofthe biophysical couplingandsusceptibilityofpersonneltononlethaleffectsweapons.Theseresults identifyandvalidatesomeaspectsof maturingnonlethaltechnologiesthatmaylikelybe encounteredor usedasnonlethaleffectorsin thefutureincludins:

.

Laserandotherlight phenomena.

.

Radioftequencydirectedenergy.

.

Awal bioeffects.

Thestudyofelectromagneticfieldsandtheirinfluenceonbiologicalsystemsis incraaiingrapidly.Muchofthis wo* is takingplacebecauseofhealthconcems.For example,increasedconcemhasarisenregardingtheeffectsofoperatorexposureto the electromagneticfieldsassociatedwith short-wavediathermydevices,highpower microwaveovens,rada!systems,magneticresonanceimagingunits,etc.In addition, muchconcemhasarisenaboutextremelylow frequency(60Hz powerfrequency) eleakicandmagneticfieldsthatoriginatefiom high-voltagekansmissionlines,indust[ial equipment,andresidentialappliances.Bothoccupationalandresidentiallo[g-term exposurehavebeenthefocusofepidemiologicalstudies.Thestudieshavesuggested

possibleadverseeffectsonhumanhealth(e.9.,cancer,rcproduction,etc.).Laboratory

researchis stillbeingpursuedto identifypossiblemechanismsofinteraction.However, otherthanthermalheatingfor microwavefrequencies,thereis no yet agreed-upon mechanismofaction.As aco[sequence,ourknowledgebaseis developedentirelywith phenomenologicalobservations.Becauseofthis fact,it is notpossibletopredicthow norithermalbiological effectsmay diflbr llom oneexposuremodalityto another.It is especiallydifficult,becauseofthe smalldatabaseforfastpulses,to predictbiological effectsthatmight be associatedwith high-powerpulsesofextremely shortduration.

Thereis,however,a growingperceptionthatmicrowaveirradiationandexposureto low frequencyfieldscanbeinvolvedin awiderangeofbiologicalinteractions.Some investigatorsareevenbeginningto describesimilaritiesbetweenmicrowaveirradiation anddrugsregardingtheir effectson biological systems.For exarnple,somesuggestthat powerdensityandspecificabsorptionrateof microwaveirradiationmaybethoughtofas analogousto theconcentrationofthe injection solutionandthedosageofdrug

EEGRADBbUNCjAssT$EDP,.ff c.

BY US.AINSCOMFOIAA

AUh Psra .'. t02 DOD

52eii.tR

t

admin;stration,respectively.Clearly,theeffectsofmicrcwavesonbraintissue, chemistry,andfunctionsarccomplexandselective.Observationsofbody weight and behaviorrevealedthatruts,exposedrmdercertainconditionsto microwaves,eatand drinkless,havesmallerbodyweightasaresultofnonspecificstressmediatedtbrough thecentralnenous systemandhavedecreasedmotor activity. It hasbeerlfoundthat exposureof theanimalsto onemodality of radiofiequencyelectromagneticenergy substantiallydecreasesaggtessivebehaviorduring exposure.However,the opposite effectsofmicrowaves,in increasingthemobilityandaggressionofanimals,hasalso beenshownfor adifferentexposuremodality.Recentpublisheddataimplicates microwavesasa factorrelatedto adeficitin spatialmemoryfunction.A similartlpe of effectwasobservedwith exposureto a "resonancetuned"extremelylow frequency magneticfield.Thus,thedatabaseis repletewith phenomenologicalobservationsof biologicalsystems"affected"by exposureto electromagneticenergy.(Thefactthata biologicalsystemrespondsto anextemalinfluencedoesnotautomaticallynoreasily truslateto thesuggestionofadverseinfluenceonhealth.)Theobjectiveofthe present studywasto identifyinformationftomthisdevelopingunderstandingofelectomagnetic effectsonanimalsystemsthatcouldbecoupledwith humanbiologicalsusceptibilities. SituationswhcrcthcintersectionofthesetwodomainscoexistDrovideoossibilitiesfor usein nonlethalapplications.

I[capacitatingEffect:MicrowaveHeatitrg

Bodyheatingto mimica feveris thenatuleofthe R.Fincapacitation.Theobjectiveis to provideheatingin a verycontrolledwaysothatthebodyreceivesnearlyuniformheating andnoorgansaredamaged.Coretemperatwesapproximately41oC areconsideredtobe adequate.At suchtemperatureaconsiderablychangeddemeanorwill takeplacewith the individual.Mostp€ople,underfeve!conditions,becomemuchlessaggrcssive;some peoplemaybecomemoreinitable.Thesubjectivesensationsproducedby thisbuildupof heatarefar moreunpleasantthanthoseaccompanyingfever.In hlperthermiaall the effectorprocessesarestminedto theutrnost,whereasin feverthey axenot. It is also possiblethatmicrowaveh,?erthermia(evenwith onlya 1' C increasein brain temperature)maydisruptworking memory,thusresultingin disorientation.

BiologicalTsrgeUNormalFunctious,/DiseaseState

Thetemperatureof warm-blooded(homeothermic)animalslike thehumanrcmans pnctically unchangedalthoughthesurroundingtemperaturemayvary considerably.The nomal humanbody tempentue recordedftom themouthis usuallygiven as37' C, with theiectal tempemtueonedegreehigher.Variationbetweenindividualsis tlpically between35.8'C and37.8' C orally.Variatiorcalsooccurin anyoneindividuai throughouttheday-a differenceof l 0' C or even2.0oC occurringbetweenthe maximumin the lateallemoonor earlyevedng,andtheminimumbetween3 and5 o'clockin themoming.Strenuousmuscularex€rcisecausesatemporaryrisein body temperatuethatis proportionalto theseverityofthe exercise;thelevel may go ashigh as

40.0.c.

Extremeheatstress,suchthatthebodys capacityfor heatlossis exceeded,causesa pathologicalincreasein thetemperatureofthe body.The subjectivesensationsprcduced by this buildupofheat arefar moreunpleasantthanthoseaccompanyingfever.In hyperthermiaall theeffectorprocessesarestained to theutmost,whereasin feversthey arenot.The limiting temperaturefor survival,however,is thesamein both cases--abody temperatureof42o C. For briefperiods,peoplehavebeenknownto survivetemperatures ashigh as43 ' C.

In prolongedh)?erthermia,with temperaturesover40' C to41. C,thebminsuffers severedamagethatusuallyleadsto death.PeriodsofhlTrerthermiaareaccompaniedby cerebraledemathatdamagenewons,andthevictim exhibitsdisorientation,delirium, and convulsions.ThissFdromeis popularlyreferredto assunstroke,orheatstroke, dependingon thecircumstances.Whenthehyperthermiais prolonged,braindamage interfereswith thecentralthermoregulatorymechanisms.In particular,sweatsecretion ceases,sothattheconditionis furtherexacerbated.

Mechanismto ProducetheDesiredEffects

Thisconceptbuildsonabout40yearsofexperiencewith theheatingeffectsof microwaves.Numerousstudieshavebeenperfomedonanimalsto identify characteristicsofimportanceto theunderstandingofenergydepositionin animals.As a resultof thephysics,therelationshipbetweenthesizeofthe animalandthewavelength ofthe radiofrequencyenergyismostimportant.In fact,thehumanexposureguidelines to radioftequencyradiationaredesignedaroundknowledgeofthe differential absorptionas a functiorof fiequencyandbodysize.Thechallengeisto minimizethetimetoeffect while causingno permanentinjury to anyorganor thetotal body andto optimizethe equipmentfunction.Theorientationofthe incidentenergywith respectto theorientation ofthe animalis alsoimportant.

In a studyofthe effectofRF radiationon bodytempelaturein theRhesusmonkey,a

freqtency(225MHz) is purposelychos€nthatdepositsenergydeepwithin thebodyof the animal.A dos€rateof 10W,&gcausedthbody temperatureto increaseto 42oC in a shorttime(10-15min),To avoidineversibleadverseeffects,th€exposurcwas terminatedwhena temperatureof 42oC wasreached.A lower doserateof 5 W,&g causedthetemperatureto increaseto 41.5oC in lessthan2 hours.Thereversiblenarure ofthis responsewasdemonstratedby therapiddrcp in bodytemperaturewhenRF exposurewasteminatedbeforeacritical temperatureof42o C wasreached.It is estimatedfor ratsthattheabso6edthresholdconrulsivedoseliesbetween22 a!|td35 !/g for exposuredwationsftom lessthar a secondto l5 minutes.For 30-pinute exposurc, the absorbedthresholddosefor decreasein enduranceis near20 J/g,thethresholdfor work stoppageapproximately9 J/g, andthethresholdfor work pertubation rangesliom 5 to 7 yg. All oftheabovemeasures,exceptconvulsions,arct)?esofnonlethal incapacition.

A roughestimateof thepowerrequiredto heata humanfor this technologyis on the

orderof l0 Wkg givenabout15to 30minutesoftargetactivation.Actualpowerlevels

dependon climatic factors,clothing,andotherconsiderationsthataffecttheheatloss Aom theindividual concemed.A methodfor expressingdoseratein termsofbody surfacearea(i.e.,wattsper squaremeter)ratherthanbody mass(i.e.,wattsperkilogam) wouldpemit amorereliablepredictionofthermaleffectsacrcssspecies.However,there axelargeuncertaintiesin theability to extrapolatethermorcgulatoryeffectsin laboratory animalsto thosein humanbeings.

This technologyis anadaptationoftechnologywhich hasbeenaroundfor manyyears.lt

is well knownthatmicrowavescanbeusedto heatobjects.Not only is microwave

technologyusedtocookfoods,butit isalsousedasadirectedsourceofheatingin many industrialapplications.It waseventhesubjectofthe "PoundProposal',a fewyearsagoin whichtheideawastoprovideresidentialheatingtopeople,notlivingspace.Becauseof

theapparentlysafenatureofbody heatingusingmicrowavetechniques,a varietyof innovativeusesofEM energyfor humanapplicationsarebeingexplored.Thenonlethal applicationwouldembodyahighlysophisticatedmicrowaveassemblythatcanbeuscdto prcjectmicrowavesin orderto provideaconholledheatingofpersons.Thiscontrolled heatingwill raisethecoretemperatureofthe individualsto apredeterminedlevelto mimicahighfeverwith theint€ntofgainingapsychological/capability edgeonthe enemy,whilenotinflictingdeadlyforce,Theconceptofheatingis straightforward;the challengeisto idgntifyandproducethecorrectmix ofliequenciesandpowerlevels neededto do theremoteheatingwhile not injuring specificorgansin theindividuals illuminatedby thebeam.

A

varietyoffactorscontributeto theattractivenessofthis nonlethaltechrology.First,it

is

basedonawell-knowneffect,heating.Everyhumanis subjectto theeffectsofheating;

therefore,it wouldhaveapredictabilityratingof 100%.Thetimeto onsetcanprobably

beengine€redtobetweel15and30minutes;however,timingisthesubjectofaddilional

researchto maximizeheatingwhileminimizingadverseeffeatsof localizedheating.the onsetcanbeslowenoughand,/orofsuchfrequencyto beunrecognizdby theperson(s) beinginadiated.Safetyto innocentscouldbeenhancedby theapplicationandadditional

developme[tof advancedsensortechnologies.locapacitationtime couldbeextendedto almostanydesiredperiodconsistentwith safety.(GivensuitableR&D, temperatureor othervital signscouldb€monitorcdremotely,andtemperaturecouldbemaintainedat a minimum effectivepoint).

Tim€to Onset

Thetimeto onsetis a fulctionofthepowerlevelbeingused.Carefullymonitored uniformheatingcouldprobablytakeplacein betweenl5 and30minutes.Timeroorcet couldbereducedbutwith increasedrisk of adverseeffects.Minimum time is deDendent on thepowerlevel ofthe equipmentandtheefficiencyofthe aimingdevice.

Durationof Effect

Assumingthattheheatingis donecarefully,reversalof elevatedbody temperaturewould beginassoonasthesourceofheat is removed.

Tunability

This conceptis tunablein thatanyruteofheating, up to themaximumcapacityof the souce,maybe obtained.Thusit is suitablefor usein a gradualforceor ',rheostatic', approach.Ifthe situationallows,andthesourceis sufficientlypowerful, thereis the possibilitytousethistechnologyin alethalmodeaswell.Prolongedbodytemperature above43' C is almostcertainto resultin permanentdarnageto thebrain anddeath.

DistributionofHuman Sensitivitiesto DesiredEffects

No reasonhasbeenidentifiedto suggestthatanyonewould beimmuneto this technology.Individualswith compromisedthermoregulatorymechanismswould be susceptiblewith a lower incidentenergydensity.This would includepeoplewith orgalnc damageto theh,?othalamus,thepartofthe brainthatintegatestheautonomic mechanismswhichcontrolheatlossaswellaspeoplewithcompromisedsomaticfeatures ofheatloss(e.g.,respiration,waterbalance,etc.).

Thetechnologiesneededfor thethermaltechnologyconceptarerelativelywell d€velopedbecauseofthe knownbiophysicalmechanism,theuniversalsusceptibilityof humansto themechanismofheating,andbecauseofa well developedtchnologybase for theproductionofradiofrequencyladiation.Becausethehuma.nbody is inhomogeleous,ceftainorgansare,by virtueoftheir sizeandgeometry,moreeasily coupledwith oneradiofrequencywavelengththananother.Therefore,to avoidpermanent damageto thesusp€ctor to innocentbystarders,it maybenecessarytovarythe frequencyto avoidlocalizedheatingandconsequentdamageto anyorgan,Additionally, it will benecessaryto avoidtheconditionsthoughtto beassociatedwith theinductionof cataracts.Thus,whilethetechnologyofmicrowaveheatingin generalismatule, adaptationasanonlethaltechnologywill rcquiresophisticatedbiophysicalcalculationsk) identifytheproperregimenofmicrowavellequenciesandintensities;it will alsobc necessaryto optimizeexistinghardwareto meetthebioph,sicalrequirements.

PossibleItrflu€oc€or Subject(s)

Ifthe technologyfunctionsapproximatelyasenvisioned,thetargetedindividual couldbe ircapacitatedwithin l5 to 30minutes.Becausethistechnologyisfocusedonarelatively slow onset,it shouldonly beusedin situationswherespeedis not important.Thevery uncomfortablenatureofa highbodytemperaturemaybeusefulin negotiationsor possiblyfor controllingcrowds.It wouldbeequallyusefulonsinglepersonsot crowds. Evidencealsoindicatesa disruptionofworking memory thusdisorientationmay occur becauseofall inabilityto consolidatememoryofthe recent(minutes)past.

TechnologicalStatusof Generator/AimingDevice

Equipmentneededto explorethis conceptin thelaboratoryis availabletoday.Designand constructionofthe RF/microwavegenemtorwill dependon theconstraintsposedby the calculations,potentialgenerationdevices,alld energy-directingstructures.A varietyof

optlonsexistforbothoftheseequipmentneeds.Theuseof

modulation-agileRFgenerationandamplificationcircuitrywill

advancedfrequencyand

berequiredto o"scss

fully thefrequency/power/timeenvelopeofRF

equipmentis cornmerciallyavailable,it is likely thatcustomhadware andsoftwarewill

benecessarybecauseavailableequipmenthasnot

frequ€ncy/intensilyvariability, which w.ill probablybeneededfor

addition,thedesignof antennasandotherenergy-directingstructues wili almost certainlyinvolveuniqueconfigurations.Sincethistechnologyutilizesradiofiequency

energy,it canbedefeatedby metalor metalscreen.

heatingprofiles requir;d.

Althoughmuch

beendesignedwith theneedfor

safetypurposes.In

theuseof shieldingprovided by conductivebarierslike

IrcapacitatingEffect:MicrowaveHearirg

Microwavehearingis aphenomenon, descdbedby humanobservem.as.thesensationsof

buzzing,ticking, hissing,or knockingsoundsthatoriginatewithin

thehead.Thereis no soundpropagatilgthroughtheair like nomal sound.This technologyin itscrudes!formcouldbeusedtodistractildividuals:ifrefined.it could

alsobeusedto communicatewithhostagesor

othermessagesystems,possibly€venby voiaecommudcation.

or imrnediatelybehind

hostagetakeNdirectlyby Morsecodeor

BiologicalTarget/NormslFunctiotrs/DiseaseState

Thistechnologymakesuseofa phenomenonfirstdescribedin theliteratureover30vears

ago.Differentt)?esofsoundswerehearddependingontheparticularsofthe

pulse

characteristics.Vaf,iousexperimentswer€performed on humansandlaboratorvanimals

exploringtheoriginofthis phenomenon.At

studied_thephelomenon nowacceptthermoelasticexpansionofthe

waveofwhich

mechanismofacousticperceptionofshortpulses ofRF

usilg humanvolunteers,identiliedthethresholdenergyofmicrowave-auditoryrcsponscs

in humansasa functionofpulsewidthfor 2450MHz

foundthatabout40 J/cmzincidentenergydensityperpulsewai

thistime,virtuallyall

investigatorswhohrve

brain,-thepressurc

isrcceivedandprocessed by thecochlearmicrophonicsystem,iohctlrc

energy.Onestudy(in 1975)

radioftequencyenergy.it -' is also

required.

Mechanismto ProducetheDesiredEffects

After thephenomenonwasdiscovercd,severalmechanismsweresuggestedto

hearingofpulsedRF fields.Thermoelasticexpansionwithinthebrainin rcsponseto RF

pulseswasflrst studiedanddemonstntedin inert matedalsfid rnechanismofhearingofpulsedRFfields.A presstlrewaveis

explainthe

wasDroposedasthe generitedin mostsolid

andliquidmaterialsby apulseofRI energy--apressurcwavethatis sevemlordersof magnitudelargerin amplitudethanthatresultilg from radiationpressure or from elecnoslrictivelorces.Thecharacteristicsofthe field-inducedcoihlearmicroohorucrn guineapigsandcats.therelationshipofpulseduralionandltu-eshold.phvsicri measurementsin waterandin tissue-simulatingmaterials,aswell asnumeroustheoretical calculations-all point to thermoelasticexpansionasthemechanismofthe hearins Dhenomenon.

Scientistshavedeterminedthethresholdenergylevel for

pulsed2450-MHzfields(0.5-to32micrcnpulsewidths).Theyfoundthat,regardlessof

thepeakofthe powerdensityandthepulsewidth, theper-pulse thresholdfoia normal subjectisneax20mJ/kg.Theavemgeelevationofbraintemperatureassociatedwith a

humanobserversexposedto

just-perceptible pulsewasestimatedtobeabout5xl0

6.

C.

Timeto Onset

Thephysicalnatureofthis themoelasticexpansiondictatesthatthe soundsareheardas

theindividualpulsesareabsorbed.Thus,theeffectis

Humanshavebeenexposedto R.Fenergythatresultedin theDroductionof sounds.

immediate(withinmilliseconds).

Durationof Effect

Microwavehearinglastsonly aslong astheexposure.Thereis no residualeffectafier cessationofRF energy.

Turability

Th€phenomenon is tunablein thatthecharacteristicsoundsandintansitiesofthose soundsdependonthecharacteristicsofthe RFenergyasdelivered.Becausethe ftequencyofthe soundheardis dep€ndentonthepulse chamcteristicsofthe RFenergy, it seemspossiblethatthistechnologycouldbedevelopedto thepointwherewordscould behansmittedtobeheardlikethespokenwod, exceptthatit couldonlyboheardwithin aperson'shead.In oneexperiment,communicationofthewordsfromonetotenusing "speechmodulated"microwaveenergywassuccessfullydemonstrated.Microphonesnext to thep€rsonexperiencingthevoicecouldnotpickupthesound.Additionaldevelonncnt ofthis wouldopenupawiderangeofpossibilities.

DistributiotrofHuman SeDsitlvitiesto DesirdEffects

Becausethephenomenonactsdirectly on

cochlearprccesses, thethermoelasticpressure

evaluatgthe

cochleardarnage,it is possiblethat

&equencyhearingloss

cochleahasbeen

wavesploducesoundsofvarying Aequency.Many ofthe testsrun to

phenomenonproducedsoundsin the 5 kHz rangeandhigher.Becausehumansarekno.wn

to experienceawiderangeofhearinglossdueto

somepeoplecanhearRF inducedsoundsthat otherswith high

cannot.Thus,thereis a likelyrangeofsensitivity,primarily basedonthet)?e ofpulse

andtheconditionofthecochlea.Bilateraldestructionofthe demonstxatedto abolishall RF-inducedauditorystimuli.

RecoYery/Safety

Humanshavebeensubjectedto this phenomenonfor manyyears.The

requiredto producethis effectis so smallthat it is not consideredhazardous expenmentationwheninvestigatingresponsesatthejust-perceptible levels.

energydeposrnon

PossibleInfluenceon Subject(s)

Applicationofthe microwavehearingtechnologycouldfacilitateapdvatemessage transmission.It maybeusefulto providea disruptiv€conditionto apersonnot awaxeof thetechnology.Not only might it bedisruptiveto thesenseofhearing, it couldbe psychologicallydevastatingif onesuddenlyheard"voiceswithin one'shead."

TechnologicalStatusof Getrerator/AimingDevice

This technologyrequiresno extrapolationto estimateits usefulness.Microwaveenergy canbe appliedat a distance,andthe appropriatetechnologycanbe adaptedftom existing radarunits.Aiming deviceslikewiseareavailablebut for specialcircumstanceswhich requireextremespecificity,theremaybe a needfor additionaldevelopment.Exteme directionalspecificitywouldberequircdto hansmitamessageto asinglehostage sunoundedby hiscaptors.Signalscanbetransmittedlongdistances(huDdredsofmeters) usingcurrenttechrology.Inngerdistancesandmoresophisticatedsignaltlpeswill requiremorebulkyequipment,butit seemspossibletotransmitsomet,?e ofsignalsat closerrangesusingman-potableequipment.

Range

Theeffectiverangecouldbehundredsofmeters.

IncapacitatingEffect:Disruptionof NeuralCoutrol

Thenatureof theincapacitationis a rhythmic-activitysFchronization of brainneurons thatdisruptsnormalcodicalconkolofthe corticospinalandcorticobulbarpathwaysthrs disruptsnormalfunctioningofthe spinalmotorneuronswhichcontrolmuscleconltlclron andbodymovements.Personssufferingfromthisconditionlosevoluntarycontrolof theirbody.Thiss),nchrcnizationmaybeaccompaniedby asuddenlossofconsciousness andintensemusclespasms.

BiologicalTargeUNormalFunctions/DiseaseStrte

Thenormalfunctionofthe brainis to controlall formsofbehavior,voluntarycontrolof body,andthehomeostaticpararnete$ofthe organism.In normalconditions,all thebrain structurs,neuro[ populations,networks,andsingleunits functionwith specificrhyhnic activity dependingon theincomingsensoryinformatioq infomation fiom mnemonic skuctwes,andsignalsf:romvisceralorgans.Eachsingleneuronprovidesspecific processingofinformation it receivesandforms a specificpatternofimpulse firing as outgoinginformation.Synchronizationofn€won activity is a natual mechanismofthe brain functionthatusessuchcontrollingprocessesasmotivation,attentionandmemory (experience)in orderto organizebehavior.For example,motivationalprccessesare consideredasactivatingascendingsignalsthat slarchronizetheneuronactivity ofspecific brain structuresandneuronnetworks;this activation/slnchronizationin hrm activates specificformsofbehaviorsuchassexual,aggressive,ingestiveactivities.

In normalfunctioningthedegreeofneuronal synchronizationis

expedmentsthatrccordtheneuronalactivity iI1differentbmin axeassimultaneouslvin

animals,it is knownthatcorelationofspikeactivitybetweenneurons(measured bl the

highly controlled.From

correlationlevel of synchronization)changesdependingon

motivation,attention,or activationofthememoryprocesses. HowJver,undersome

conditions,suchasph)rsicalstress,heatshock,or shongemotionalstress,the lvelof

s),ncbronizationmaybecomehigher,involving

neuronsandtle s)mclronizationmaybecomeuncontrollable.

nonspecificlargepopulations ofbrain

theslageof behavior,

Dependingon atwhich frequencytheslmchronizationrh),thmoccursandhow

neuonsareinvolved,it mayproducedifferentphysicaleffects;muscleweakness,

involuntarymusclecontractiols,lossofconsciousness,or

many

intense(tonic)musclespasms.

epilepsywhen

Thehigherlevel of sl,nchronizationtakesplacein personsaffectedwith

theyexpedenceperiodicseizuressincetheyhaveapathologic source(e.g.,frorninjuryto thebrain)of rh',thmic s)'nchronization.Becausetheneurophysiologicalrnechanismsof epileptiformsyrchronizationarebetterdocumented,thisincapacititingtechnologyrs describedin termsof €pileptogenesis.

Theneurophysiologicalmechanismsactivein

membrareconductancesandneuotransmitteralteEtionsastheyaffectneuional

epileptogenesisinvolvechangesin

interaction.In theprocessofepileptogenesis,eithersomeneuronsarcdischargingtoo

easilyb€causeofalterationsin

neurotransmission.Theactualdischargeshavebeenrecognizedtoresultfromaneuronal depolarizationshiftwith electricalsyrchronyin cellpopulations relatedin pa ro

changesin membraneconductances.Theionicbasisandbiochemicalsubstiateofthis

activationhavebeena.reasofconsiderablestudybutstill

unanswered.Whatarcthebasiccellularproperties,presentin

couldcontributeto

low thresholdandfunctionastriggerel€ments?

membmneconductances or thereis

afailureoiinhibitory

leavemanyquestions

nomal cellsandtissuc.rhli

thegeneration ofabnormalactivity?Whatpartsofthe systemsare

'

OneofthecurrenthlTrothesesis involvedwith

interactionsin neocorticalandlimbicsystemstructures.In

thetriggerelementhasbeenlong attributedto theCA3 pyramidaliells_a

basedon thc fact thatspontaneouss)mchto[ousburstdischaxgecanbe establishedin

microcircuitry,particularlylocalslmapnc

thehippocampus,theroleof

hypothesis

type in the neocoftex

thehippocampusandthatofdeepcellsin

interaction

neighbors.

CA3 neuons Somestudiesdescribeanintrinsicallybursting

thatplaysarolesimilarto theplriform cortex.The

contnbutorto the establishmentof slnchronizedburstingin theseregions.Another

apparentrequirementin suchapopulation is for

anongneurons,suchthatdischargeof evenonecellenliststheactivityofits

Giventhepresenceofthese burstingcellsandtheoccurrenceofexcitatory interactions

arnongthemin normaltissue,it mayactuallybethemoryhologicsubstratefor epileptiformdischarges.

thatofCA3 cellsin

intrinsicnatue ofthese cellsappearsto -e[ beall important

a certaindegreeofsynaptic

Anotherh,?tothesishasfocusedpaiicularly on therole

(NMDA) receptors.Variousfactorsregulatethe effcacy ofNMDA receptors:therr

ofN-methyl_D-aspartate

q

voltage-dependentblockadeby magnesiumandmodulationby glycineandpolyamrnes. For exarnple,in thelow magnesiummodel,spontaneousslncluonousburstdischargein hippocampalplramidal cell populationsis sensitiveto NMDA antagonists.That finding suggeststhatit istheopeningofNMDA channels,by relievingthemagnesiumblockade, that facilitatesepileptiformactivity.

Significantattentionin the literatureis alsobeinggivento gamma-aminobutFic acid (GABA) receptorsfor thepotentialrole in controlofexcitability. Changesin GABA inhibitoryefficacycarrleadto importanteffectsontheexcitabilityofthe system. GABAergicinhibitoryposFsynapticpotentials(lPSPs)havebeenshownto bequite labi1ein responseto repetitiveactivationofcorticalcellpopulations,asmayoccurduring epileptiformdischarge.Scientistshaveshownthatevena smallpercentagechangein GABA inhibitioncanhaveprofoundeffectsonneocodicalepilsptogenesis.These changesin CABAergic inhibition maybethekey to aoexplanationofhow repetitive dischargepattemsgivedseto ictaldischarge.Further,thereappearsto beasignificant increasein excitatoryposts)'napticpotential(EPSP)frequencypriorto seizueinitiation anobservationthatis consistentwith lossoflPSPefficacypriorto ictalonset-

Theaboveh)?othesesdescribedifferentmechanismsofepileptogenesis,butit isquite possiblethatall ofthesemechanismstakeplace,andtheyreflectlargevarietyoft)?cs of epilepticseizures.Thecommonprincipleofthe mechanismsproposedis thechangeof membranepropeties(i.e.,conductance,permeabilityetc.)ofcertainneuronswhich rcsultsin d€polarizationandburstdischarging.Somefactors(e,g.,tauma) canaffect th€sespecificneuronsandinitiate synchrcnyfor neuronsthatconrol intemal communicationandcommunicationwithvariousmuscles)rstemsnotassociatedwlth vital functions(i.e.,headbeating,breathing).Highstrengthpulsedcl€ctricfieldscould alsobe sucha factor.

Mechanismto ReproducetheDesiredEffects

Applicationofelectromagneticpulsesisalsoaconceptualnonlethaltechnologythatuses electromagn€ticenergyto irduce neurals)'nchronyanddisruptionof voluntarymuscle control.Theeffectivenessofthis concepthasnotbeendemonstrated.However,frompast work in evaluatingthepotentialfor electromagneticpulsegenerato$to aflect humans,it is estimatedthat sufficientlyshongintemalfields canbe generatedwithin thebrainto triggerneurons.Estimatesarethat50 to 100kv/m free field ofvery sharppulses(- I nS) arerequiredto producea cell membranicpotentialof approximately2 V; this would probablyb€suflicient to triggerneuons or makethemmoresusceptibleto firing.

The elecfomagneticpulseconceptis onein which a very fast(nanosecondtimeframe) high voltage(approximately100kv/m or greater)electomagneticpulseis repeatedat thealphabrainwavefrequency(aboutl5 Hz). It is known thata similar frequencyof pulsinglightcantriggersensitiveindividuals(thosewith somedegreeof light-sensitivity epilepsy)into a seizureandit is thoughtthatby usinga methodthatcouldactuallytrigger nerves)'napsesdirectlywith anelectricalfiel4 essentially100%ofindividualswouldbe susceptibleto seizureinduction.Thephotic-inducedseizurephenomenonwasbomeout

lo

demonstrablyonDecember16,1997onJapanesetelevisionrvhenhundredsofviewersof

apopularcartoonshowweretreated,inadvertently,to photic seizureinduction(fi eure lU. Thephotic-inducedseizurcis indirectiDthattheeyemustrcceiveandtransmitthe impulseswhich initially activateaportion ofthe blain associatedwith theoptic nerve. Fromlhatpointtheexcitabjlityspreadstootherporlions of thebrain.Wirhthe electromagneticconcept,excitationis directly onthe brain,andall regionsareexcited concurently.TheonsetofsFchony anddisruptionofmuscularconk;l is anticiDatedto benearlyinstantaneous.Recoverytimesareexpectedto beconsistentwith, or morerapid than.thatwhichisobservedin epilepticseizures.

Timeto Onset

No experimentalevidenceis availableforthiscortcept.However,light-inducedseizures

latencyonsetin photosensitive epilepticsvariesfrom0.1to aboutl0 seconds.Becauseof

the factthattheelectdcalimpuls€striggeredby light

brain,photic-induc€dseizuesareexpectedto havea genemlly sloweronsetthanneunl

sFchrcny inducedby high-stength pulsedelectricfields.

mustspreadto otherpartsoftho

Durationof Effect

Forepilepticindividuals,thet]?ical durationofa petitmaleventor apsychomororevenr is I minuteor 2,possiblylonger,whilethedurationof agrand malseizureis I to 5 minutes.In anon-epilepticindividualwhois inducedby elchomagneticmeans,the

durationsofthedifferenteventsareexpectedto

i[dividual'seventsaftertheextemalexcitationisremoved.

beroughlythesameastheepileptic

Tunability

Therearemanydegreesofepilepticseizuein diseasedpenons,andit seemsreasonable

thatelectromagneticstimulationofneuralsyrchronymightbetunablewith anddegeeofbodily influence,depe[dingontheparametersassociatedwith

stimulus.Becausethereareno actualdatato build on, thesestatementsmustbe

consideredtentative.It is knownthat in thestudyofphotic-inducedseizues,panmeters

canbevariedsothattheindividualunderstudydoesnotactuallyundergoa

seizure.This knowledgegiv€sco[fidencethattheproposedtechnologywouid

regardto tnc

thechosen

grandmal

betunable.

DistributionofHumatrSensitivitiesto DesiredEffects

It is anticipatedthat100%ofthepopulationwouldbesusceptible.Themechanismisone thatcouldactorl manyindividual neuronalcellsconcurrentlyandhencedoesnot depend on spreadingregionsofelectrical activity asin thediseasestate.

PossibleInlluenceotrSubjects(s)

If thetechnologyfunctionsapproximatelyasenvisioned,thetargetedindividual couldbe rncapacitatedvery quickly. Becausetherehavebeenno reportedstudiesusingthe

I\

conditionsspecified,experimentalwork is requiredto chaxacterizeonsettime. Different tlpes of technologiescouldbeemployedto influencewide areasor singleindividuals. Becausethis technologyis consideredto betunable,theinfluenceon subjectscouldvary ftommild disruptionofconcentmtiontomusclespasmsandlossofconsciousness.The subject(s)would havevaryingdegreesof voluntarycontroldependingon thechosen degreeof incapacitation.

TechnologicalStatusof Generator/AimingDevice

An electricfieldskengthofroughly100Kv/moveratimeperiodof 1nanosecondis approximatelytheconditionthoughtto benecessaryto producethedesiredeffectwhen providedtoanoverallrepetitionrateof 15Hz.Suchafieldmaybedevelopedusinga radarlike,high-peak-power,pulsedsouceor anelectromagneticpulsegenerator operatedat 15Hz.Thesetechnologiesexisttodaysufficientto evaluatethedisabling concept.Powerrequirementsarenothighbecausethedutyfactoris solow.Aimrng devicesarecurentlyavailable,butahighdegreeofdirectionalityatlorg distanceswill requiredevelopment,It maybenecessaryto provideburstsofthesenanosecondpulscsin orderto stimulatethedesiredeffect.As theduty time increasessodoestheaveragc powerrequirementfor powersource,Becausetherewereno openliteraturereportsfrom whichtomakeinferences,thereis someuncertaintyaboutthepowerlevelsrequired.

Ratrge

Theeffectiverangecouldbehundredsof mete$.

DefeatCapabilities/Limitatiors

Shieldingcanbeprovidedby conductivebarrierslikemetalor metalscreen.Therearca numberofdrugsthatarecapableofinducingconvulsiveseizuresandothers,like

phenoba6ital,diphenyllhydantoin,trimethadione,2-4dinitrophenol,andacetazohunide,

which areaoticonlulsive.Anticonvulsivedrugsareknownto behelpful in reducingthe effectofseizuresin epil€pticpatients,buttheirabilityto reducetheeffectoftheproposed technologyis unlinown(possiblyno effect)but expectedto be lessthanfor photic- inducedseizures.

IncapacitatingEffect;AcousticEnergy

Thenatureofthe incapacitationcoNists of severcprcssuresensations,nystagnus(a spasmodic,involuntarymotion ofthe eyes),andnauseacausedby high intensitiesof

9140-155dB).Nlstagmusoccruswhenconvectioncurlentsaxeproduced(cupula

movement)in thelateralearcanal.This cupulamovementcausesthe eyesto move involuntarily;hence,theextemalworldisinterpretedasmoving.Thesubject',sees',his surroundingstuming rcundhim andat thesainetime experiencesa sensationof tuming. Personsexposedto theselevelsof soundexperiencenausea.

BiologicalTargevNormalFunctiols/DiseaseState

The two lateml semicircularcanals,onelocatedin eachinnerear.alerta peNon to the

factthathisupight headis experiencingangularacceleration.Withinth;

ampullaofthe

canalareseveralsocalledhaircells.Theciliaof thesecellsprolrudeintothelumenof the ampullawherethey{rreencasedin a massofjelly-like material(thecupula)which is attachedto the oppositewall ofthe canal.As theheadaccelerates,the cilia arcbentby an inertialforceofthe cupulaandtheviscousliquidin thecanallumen.Thebendingofihe cilia exciteshair cellswhich in tum exciteafferentneurons;tlese thenalertthebrainthat achangeofpositionofthe headhasoccurred.Similareventsoccurwhentheheadstops moving.Theresultofa stronghaircellstimulusto thebminis arapideyemovement, callnystagmus,afeelingofdizzinessanddisorientation,andaDossibilitvofnauseaand vomltmg.

Normalhearingis in therangebetweenthefrequenciesof20,000to 16,000Hz with the optimalsensitivityfor mostpeoplebetweentheftequenciesof500 to 6000Hz.

Mechanismto ProducetheDesiredEffects

Becausetheendorgansfor acousticandvestibularperception aresocloselyrelated, intenseacousticstimulationcanresultin vestibulareffects.Theh]?othesisisthatthe soundofnormalintensityproducesoscillationsofthe endolymphandperilynpn, compensatedfor by oscillationsofthe roundwindow.Highintensitysoundproduces eddycunents,whicharelocalizedrotationalfluiddisplacements.Highintensitysound

canalsoproducenonlineardisplacementofthe

theresultofwhichcanbea fluidvoidin thclaby.inth.To

displacedalongtheendollmphaticductand,/orblockcapiltarypathways,which,in

couldstimulatevestibularreceptors.Stimulationofthe

nauseaandvomitingif thesoundpressurelevelis highenough.Concludethatbothtj(l(ly currentsandvolumedisplacementserveto stimulatevestibularreceptorsin humans,

whenexposedto highlev€lsofnoise.

stapes,causinga volumedisplacement,

fill thevoid,fluidmaybe

tum,

vestibularreceptorsmayleadto

Onestudyfoundnystagmumin guineapigs€xposedtohighlevelsofinfrasoundvia stimulationofthe vestibularrecepto$.Howev€r,thesamelabwasunableto produce nystagmusin humansubjectsat5- and10-secondexposuresto apuretoneat 135dB,

broadbandenginenoise,or a I00Hz toneat I20dB,pulsedthreetimes/sor 2 minutes.

Thesarneresearchwasunableto elicitnystagmusatlevelsupto

unableto producenystagmususinginfrasoundlevelsof I l2-150dB in guineaprgs, monkeys,andhumars.However,researchwith audiblecomponentsin the sound spectrumwith guineapigs andmonkeysproducednystagmus.Otherresearchersreport othervestibulareffectsin additionto nystagmusat thefollowing thresholds:125dB fiom

200-500Hz,l40 dB at 1000Hz, and155dB at200Hz.Decremertsin vestibula.r tunctionoccurconsistentlyfor broadbandnoiselevelsof 140dB (with hearins prolectlon).

155dB,andalsoequally

Humansubjectslistenedto very high levelsof low-frequencynoiseandinfrasoundin the protectedor unprctectedmodes.Two-minutedurationashigh as 140to 155dB produced a mngeof effectsfrom mild discomfortto severepressure sensations,nausea,gaggrng,

l3

andgiddiness.Effectsalsoincludedbluned vision andvisualfield distoiions in some exposureconditions.Thenatweanddegreeofall effectswasdependentonboth sound level andliequencywith themostsevereeffectsoccurringin theaudiblefiequencyrange (asopposedto infrasound),at levelsaboveabout145dB. Theinvestigatorsfoundno temporarythresholdshift (TTS) amongtheir subjects,andtheuseof hearingprctecton greatlyalleviatedtheadverseeffects.

Sincethe earlydaysofjet-enginetestingandmaintenance,a[ecdotalevidencehas appearedlinking exposueto intensenoise,with suchcomplaintsasdizziness,vertigo,

nausea,andvomiting.As aresultofsirennoiseat 140dB,subjectsconsistentlyreported

a feelingofbeingpushedsideways,usuallyawayftomtheexposedear,andonesubject reporteddifflculty standingon onefoot.

Theseeffectswerenot asdramaticasfrom th jeFengine

Thisresearchconcludesthatthethresholdof labyrinthinedysfunctionis about135to 140

dB andthattheseeffectsoccurduring,but not after,exposurc.

Oroadband) noiseat 140dB.

Timeto Otrset

No timesto onsetofnauseaor n)stagmuswercidentifiedin theliteraturebut is presumcd toberelativelyimmediatebasedoneffectsto thelabyrinthsystemoccwringduring,but notafter,exposureto soundpressurelevelsof 135to 140dB.

Durationof Effect

Theincapacitationla6tsonlyaslotlgastheincapacitatingsoundispresent.

Tunability

Basedonthedatapresentedabove,it is unclearwhetherthedegreeofnauseaor nystagmusis tunable,but similar symptomscausedby otherstimuli a.revariablein

degre9.

DistributionofHuman Sensitivitlesto Desir€dEffects

It is mostprobablethatall individualswill be susceptibleto this stimuluswith the

exceptionofthosewith adiseaseor defect(i.e.,deafmutes)ofsomepartor partsof the vestibularsystem.Datashowedno consistentdecreasein vestibulo-ocularreflectswith inoeasedage.

Recovery/Safety

Normal subjectsarelikely to recoverimmediatelyandexperienceno or unmeasurable changesin hearingunlesswell known liequency-intensity-time factorsareexceeded. This is basedon studieswhich foundno temporarythresholdshift in hearingof subjects testedat low frequency.Occupationalsafetypersonnelgenerallyrecognizethat 1I 5

r+

dB(A) is to be avoidedandthat70 dB(A) is assumedsafe.Is believedthatthenoise energywith predominatingfrequenciesabove500Hz havea greaterpotentialfor hearing lossthannoiseenergyat lower frequencies.Occupationalstandardsfor noisestatethat a personmaybe exposedcontinuouslyfor 8 hoursto 90 dB(A) or 15 minutesto I 15 dB(A).

PossibleInfluenceon Subject(s)

Inductionofnystagmusandnauseawill havevariableeffectson individuals.Effectsmay besufficiently incapacitationto allow offensiveadvantage;theperceptionof sickness maymakea subjectsusceptibleto peFuasion.It would bedilncult to targetsingle individualsat thepresentlevel of sounddirectingtechnology.This technologymaybe bettersuit€dfor goupsofpeople.

TechtrologicalStatusof Generator/AimltrgDevice

Soundgeneratingtechnologyiswell developedbutnothighlyportable.Aimingdcvices arepoorly developed.

Rrnge

Undernormalcircumstanc€sthesoundpressulelevel decreases6 dB(A) whenthe distancefromthesourceis doubled.Forexampleifthe sormdis 100dB(A)at 100It, at 200ft thesoundwouldbe94dB(A).At veryhighsoundlevels,certainconditionsmay leadto nonlineareffectsin propagationandgreatlyincreaserangeaccuracy.

DefeatCapabiliti€s/Limitrtions

Negativeeffectsofaudiblesoundaregreatly decreasedifhearingprctectioniswom. High frequencysoundis moreeasilyblockedthanlow frequencysou[d dueto wav€lengtheff€cts.

Lrser-hduced BiologicalEffects

Their arethreebasicdamagemechanismsassociatedwith exposureto laserradiation:

chemical,thermal,ard mechanicalor acoustic-mechanical.

The laser-induced,chemicalalteratio$ in irradiatedtissuearereferredto as photochemicaldamage.Thelikelihood of laserradiationin theblue-lightportion of the electromagngticspectrum(.380to .550microns)inducingphotochemicalreactions progressiv€lyd€creaseswith increasingwavelength.Photochemicaleffectsarenot observeduponexposureto ndiationwith wavelengthsexceeding.550to .650micfons becausethekinetic energyassociatedwith thesephotonsis insufficientto initiate a photochemicalchange.

l5

On theotherhand,thethermaleffectis aprimaxymechanismfor

Theextentof theinjuriesinduceddependsuponthewavelengthandenergyofthe incidentmdiation,durationof exposure,andthenatuleofthe exposedtissueandits absorptioncharacteristics.Generally,thismechanismpredominitesin thevisibleandthe

near-infrared(.760to 1.4microns)portionsofthe electromagneticspectrumandfor almostall CW andpulsedexposuresbetween0.1millisecondsandI to 5 seconds.

laser-inducedmJury.

Thethird injury mechanismassociatedwith exposureto laserradiationis themechanical or acoustical-mechanicaleffect.Theradiantenergyis absorbedinto thetissueand,asa

resultofrapidthermalexpansionfollowingashort(l nanosecondto

laserradiationpulse,apressurewaveis generatedthatmayresultin explosivetissue

injury.

0.1millisecond)

Generally,all threemechanismsoperateconcunentlyin aniradiatedanimal.Thermar effectscurrentlypredominatefor continuouswave(CW) lasers,while mechanicaleffects

areofincreasedsigrificanceforpulsed-mode lasers.Withevenhigherpower,onemust

alsoconsidernonlinearphenomena suchasmultiphotonabsorptionandelectromagnetic fieldeffects.

Theorgansmostsusceptibleto extemallaserradiationaretheskinandeyes.Theseverity ofinjury is affectedby thenatureof thetarget,theenergydensitydeliveredtothemrger, thefiequencyandpowerofthe laser,atmosphericattenuationofthe beam,andtheuseof filteringor ampliflng opticsby thetarget,etc.

Theprimaryeffect on theskin is thermaldarnage(bums). Theseverityvariesftom

er],'themaor reddeningto severeblisteringor charring,dependingonsuchfactorsastotal

energydeposition,skinpigmentation,andthetissue,sabilityto dissipateheat.

slight

Theeyeisparticularlysusceptibleto intensepulseoflaserradiationbecauseofits

sensitivityto light.Thefocusingeffectissimilarto thatofa magnifyinglens,which

focusestbeenergyon aparticular spot.Sincethecomeaandlensofthe

intensityofthe lightincidentupontheretina,theretinais extremelysensitiveto visible

andnear-inftaredlight, anddamageto theretinamayresultin temporaryor permanent lossofvisualacuity.Lasereyeinjuriesvaryaccordingtoincidentpower,spotsize,beam angle,temporalmode(CW or pulsed),andpulserepetitionfrequency.Reportedeffects

includecomeallesions,bums,cataracts,andretinal

unique

eyeamplify the

lesions.

Somehigh-powerlaserscancauseantipersonneleffectsby thedepositionof themal

energy.Theselasersmustoperateat awavelengththatis

thecomea.Thesegenerallyincludethe far- andmid-IR regioru(10 to 12micronsand3

to 5 microns)aswell astheultravioletregion(<0.4microns).However.ultraviolet wavelengthsgenerallydo not propagatewell in theatmosphere,sotheprimary threat

wavelengthsto be consideredarebetween3 and l2

amountsof far-IR laserpowerarerequiredto producesuperficialbumson the skin at

shortranges,andeffortsto designrheostaticallylethallaserweaponsareon going.

readilyabsorbedby theskin or

microns.Althoughrelativelymodest

lb

Nonlethalblinding laserweaponsgenerallyusecollimatedbeamswith very low beam divergence,andtheenergycontainedin thebeamdiminishesrelativelyslowly overgreat distances.knagilg systemssuchaseyesandEO vision systemshavefocusingopticsthat

bringtheincidentplanewaveof light to focusat the sensorplane.This

opticalgain(geater than 100,000for eyes),which makestheassociatedsensor

luLoerableto relativelylow fluencesoflaser energy.

resultsin a high

Theeffectsof laselson eyesarethreefold:

.

Dazzlingor inducedg1are.

.

Flashblindingor lossofnight adaptation.

.

Pemanentor semipermanentblinding.

Theseverityoflaser eyeinjuriesvariesaccordingto theincidentpower,spotsize,beam

angle,pupildiameter(ambientlightconditions),temporalmode(CWor

PRFofthe laser.Reportedeffectsincludecomealbums,catamcts(a pemanent cloudinessofthe lens),andretinalbumsandperfoEtions. fow-energylaserweaponsarc capableofcausingthelatter.

pulsed),an<r

Exposuetorelativelylow laserenergiescanproducetemporarychangesin

seewithout producingpermanentinjury. Exposue to laserlight canproduceaneffect call€dglareordazzle,whichissimilarto thetemporarylossofvisionexperiencewhco

viewingtheheadlightsofan oncomingcar.Thevisualeffectslastonlyaslongasthe

lightispresentin thelield ofview (FOV).At slightlyhigherenergyexposures,thesam€

laserradiationcansaturateor flashblindthephotoreceptor cells,resultingin afterrmages

theabilityto

thatfadewiti timeafterexposue.Onlyvisibleradiationwill induceveilingglareor aftcr

images;near-IRradiationwill notproducetheseeffectseventhoughtheradiantencrgy reachesthephotor€ceptorcells.Flashblindnessanddazzle,whilenotpermanentin,urrus, cancausediscomfortandtemporarylossofvision.Somestudieshaveshowntharuazzle andflashblindnesscanseriouslyimpactmissionperformance,especiallyin highlyvisual taskssuchaspilotinganaircraftor aiming.

Blinding is thepermanentor semipermarentlossofvisual acuity.Theeffect canlasr fiom severalhou's onwardandgenerallyis evidencedby a da* spotin thefield of vision.Thisspotiscalledascotoma.Theimpactofthe scotomaonvisualacuitywill vary with thesizeandpositionofthe injury. Humanvision is greatlyaffectedwhenthe laserdamageis tothecentralvisionareaofthe retinacalledthefovea.Nonfoveallaser damagemaybe lesssevereor evengounnoticedbecauseit affectsonly the peripheral vision. Themostseriousretinalinjuriesoccurwhentheincidentlight is so intensethata perforationin theretinais formed,resultingin ahemonhageinto eitherthe subretinal layeror,in themostseverecases,thevitreoushumorofthe eve.LesssevereexDusurcs resultin lesionson theretila.

Foot ote:

1-(U) This appendixis classifiedFOROFFICIAL USE ONLY in its entirery.

t.1

It

Idormrtion

Cutoff Drtc: 17Februrry 1998

.Ecrivcd.fr.i*MCti?l€{sm.6

HrttitF6nFso|ir.+;rd

*!ef

O{tii

D.a€-e$e*4.+{++€

s#Ef

,rfr9Fe*Ar

hECaADEDUNAjSSFED Fr3

ON L Ojaob

DYT.]s.AINSC$M FOVPA

A!.a fjf8 4.102DOD52fl).lR

rc_

\B