DEPARTMENT OFTHE ARMY

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DE8 2000 18
Freedom Infomation/ of Privacy Office

Nft,DonaldFriedman ConfidentialLegal Correspondence ll25 Thid Steet Napa, Califomia 94559-3015 DearMr. Friedman: References: a. Your Freedom Information (FOIA)request of Act dated May 25,2006,to theDepartment (DA FOIA/PADIV), for all ofthe Afmy, Freedom Information/Privacy Division of Act pertaining themicrowave documents to auditory effect,microwave hearing effecr, Freyeffect, artificialtelepathy, and/or device/weapon any whichuses and./or causes sucheffect;andany covertor undisclosed of hlpnosis. On September 2006,theDA FOIA/PADIV refened use 5, a yourrcquest thisoffica. Yow request received September copyof to was on 11,2006. b. Our letterof September 2006,infoming youof thesearch records another 13, for at element ofour command wereunable complywith the20-day and to statutory time limit in processrng yourrequest. As noted our letter, search been in the has completed with another element thiscommand of andtherecord be€n has retumed this officefor our reviewanddirectresponse you. to to We havecompleted mandatory a declassification reviewin accordance Executive with Order (EO) 12958, amended. a resultofthis review,ithas been as As determined theArmy that warrants security protection is releasable you. A copy information longer no classification and to is for ofthe record enclosed youruse. your Fees processing rcquest waived. for are

please freeto contact officeat (301) conceming action, this feel this If youhaveanyquestions Referto case #614F-06. 677-2308. Sincercly,

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Freedom Information/Privacy of Office InvestigativeRecords Repository Enclosure

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Bioeffects Selected of Nonlethal 1) Weapons(fn
(NGIC-I 147-101-98) This addendum theNonlethal to Technologies*Worldwide study some ofthe mostoftenasked questions addresses summary, in ofnonlethal weapons the responses observed clinicalsettings in technology, ph)siological ofthe biophysical coupling susceptibility and ofpersonnel nonlethal to effects weapons. These results aspects maturing of identifyandvalidate some nonlethal technologies maylikely be that or encountered usedasnonlethaleffectorsin the future includins: . . . Laserandother light phenomena. energy. Radioftequency directed Awal bioeffects.

fieldsandtheirinfluence biological Thestudyofelectromagnetic on systems is placebecause rapidly.Much ofthis wo* is taking incraaiing ofhealthconcems. For increased concem arisen has regarding effects the example, ofoperator exposure the to with electromagnetic associated short-wave fields diathermy high power devices, magnetic microwave ovens, rada!systems, resonance imaging units,etc.In addition, has aboutextremely frequency Hz powerfrequency) low (60 muchconcem arisen fieldsthatoriginate fiom high-voltage eleakicandmagnetic kansmission lines,indust[ial equipment, residential and appliances. Both occupational residential and lo[g-term exposure havebeenthe focusofepidemiological studies. studies The havesuggested (e.9.,cancer, possible on health adverse effects human rcproduction, etc.).Laboratory is to research still beingpursued identifypossible mechanisms ofinteraction. However, otherthanthermalheatingfor microwavefrequencies, thereis no yet agreed-upon mechanism ofaction.As a co[sequence, knowledge our base developed is entirely with phenomenological Because observations. ofthis fact,it is not possible predict to how norithermal biological effectsmay diflbr llom one exposure modality to another.It is ofthe smalldatabasefor fastpulses, predict especially difficult,because to biological might be associated with high-powerpulsesofextremely shortduration. effectsthat perception microwave There however, growing is, a that irradiation exposure low and to frequency fieldscanbe involvedin a widerangeofbiologicalinteractions. Some investigators evenbeginningto describesimilaritiesbetween are microwaveirradiation anddrugsregardingtheir effectson biological systems. exarnple, For somesuggest that powerdensityand specificabsorption rate of microwaveirradiationmay be thoughtofas analogous the concentration to ofthe injection solutionandthe dosage ofdrug EEGRADBbUNCj AssT$EDP,.ff c.
BY US.AINSCOM FOIAA AUh Psra.'. t02 DOD 52eii.tR

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respectively. admin;stration, Clearly, effects the ofmicrcwaves braintissue, on chemistry,and functionsarc complexandselective.Observations ofbody weight and behaviorrevealedthat ruts, exposed rmdercertainconditionsto microwaves,eatand drink less, havesmaller bodyweightasa resultofnonspecific stress mediated tbrough the centralnenous systemandhavedecreased motor activity. It hasbeerlfoundthat exposure the animalsto onemodality of radiofiequencyelectromagnetic of energy substantially decreases aggtessive behaviorduring exposure. However,the opposite effects ofmicrowaves, increasing mobilityandaggression in the ofanimals, also has for published implicates beenshown a differentexposure modality. Recent data microwaves a factorrelated a deficitin spatial as to memory function. similartlpe of A effectwasobserved with exposure a "resonance to tuned"extremely frequency low magnetic field.Thus,the database replete is with phenomenological observations of systems biological by to (Thefactthata "affected" exposure electromagnetic energy. biological system responds anextemal to influence does automatically easily not nor truslate to thesuggestion ofadverse influence health.) objective on The ofthe present studywasto identifyinformation ftom this developing understanding ofelectomagnetic effects animalsystems couldbe coupled on that with human biological susceptibilities. Situations whcrcthc intersection ofthesetwo domains coexist Drovide oossibilities for applications. usein nonlethal I[capacitatingEffect: MicrowaveHeatitrg Bodyheating mimic a feveris thenatuleofthe R.F to incapacitation. objective to The is provideheating a very controlled in way so thatthebodyreceives nearlyuniformheating andno organs damaged. are Coretemperatwes approximately C areconsidered be 41o to adequate. suchtemperatureconsiderably At a changed demeanor takeplacewith the will individual. Most p€ople, underfeve!conditions, become muchlessaggrcssive; some people maybecome moreinitable.Thesubjective produced thisbuildupof sensations by heatare far more unpleasant thanthoseaccompanying fever.In hlperthermia all the effectorprocesses stminedto the utrnost,whereas feverthey axenot. It is also are in possible microwave (even that h,?erthermia with only a 1' C increase brain in may disrupt working memory,thusresultingin disorientation. temperature) BiologicalTsrgeUNormalFunctious,/Disease State (homeothermic) The temperature warm-blooded of animalslike the humanrcmans pnctically unchanged althoughthe surrounding temperature may vary considerably. The nomal humanbody tempentue recordedftom the mouthis usuallygiven as37' C, with the iectal tempemtue one degree higher.Variation betweenindividualsis tlpically between 35.8' C and37.8' C orally.Variatiorcalsooccurin anyoneindividuai throughoutthe day-a differenceof l 0' C or even2.0oC occurringbetweenthe maximumin the late allemoonor early evedng, andthe minimum between3 and5 o'clockin themoming.Strenuous muscular ex€rcise causes temporary in body a rise proportionalto the severityofthe exercise; level may go ashigh as temperatuethat is the 40.0.c.

Extremeheatstress, suchthat the bodys capacityfor heatlossis exceeded, causes a pathologicalincrease the temperature in ofthe body. The subjectivesensations prcduced by this buildup ofheat are far moreunpleasant than thoseaccompanying fever.In processes stained to the utmost,whereas feversthey hyperthermiaall the effector are in arenot. The limiting temperature survival,however,is the samein both cases--a for body temperature of42o C. For briefperiods, peoplehavebeenknown to survivetemperatures ashigh as43 ' C. In prolonged h)?erthermia, temperatures 40' C to 41. C, thebminsuffers with over severe damage that usuallyleadsto death.PeriodsofhlTrerthermiaare accompanied by cerebraledemathat damage newons,andthe victim exhibitsdisorientation, delirium, and convulsions. sFdromeis popularly This referred assunstroke, heatstroke, to or depending the circumstances. on Whenthe hyperthermia prolonged,brain damage is interfereswith the centralthermoregulatory mechanisms. particular,sweatsecretion In ceases, that the condition is furtherexacerbated. so Mechanism Produce DesiredEffects to the This concept buildson about40 years ofexperience with theheating effects of microwaves. perfomedon animals identify Numerous studies havebeen to characteristics ofimportance theunderstanding to ofenergydeposition animals. a in As resultof thephysics, relationship the between sizeofthe animalandthewavelength the ofthe radiofrequency energy mostimportant. fact,thehuman is In guidelines exposure to radioftequency radiationare designed aroundknowledgeofthe differential absorption as a functiorof fiequency bodysize.Thechallenge to minimizethetime to effect and is permanent while causingno injury to any organor the total body andto optimize the equipment function. The orientation ofthe incident energy with respect theorientation to ofthe animal is alsoimportant. In a studyofthe effect ofRF radiationon body tempelature the Rhesus in monkey,a freqtency (225 MHz) is purposelychos€nthat depositsenergydeepwithin the body o f the animal.A dos€rate of 10 W,&gcaused body temperature increase 42oC in a th€ to to shorttime (10-15 min),To avoidineversible adverse effects, exposurc th€ was terminated when a temperature 42oC wasreached. lower doserate of 5 W,&g of A caused temperature increase 41.5o in lessthan2 hours. the to to C Thereversible narure ofthis response demonstrated the rapid drcp in body temperature was by when RF exposure was teminated beforea critical temperature of42o C wasreached. is It estimated rats that the abso6edthresholdconrulsive doselies between22 a!|td !/g for 35 for exposure dwationsftom lessthar a second l5 minutes.For 30-pinute exposurc, to the absorbed thresholddosefor decrease endurance near20 J/g, the thresholdfor in is work stoppage approximately J/g, andthe thresholdfor work pertubation rangesliom 9 5 to 7 yg. All ofthe above measures, except convulsions, t)?esofnonlethal arc incapacition. A rough estimate the power requiredto heata humanfor this technologyis on the of orderof l0 Wkg givenabout15to 30 minutes oftargetactivation. Actualpowerlevels

depend climatic factors,clothing, andother considerations affect the heatloss on that Aom the individual concemed. methodfor expressing A doserate in termsofbody surfacearea(i.e., wattsper square meter)ratherthanbody mass(i.e., wattsper kilogam) wouldpemit a morereliable prediction ofthermaleffects acrcss species. However, there axelargeuncertainties the ability to extrapolate in thermorcgulatory effectsin laboratory animalsto thosein humanbeings. This technologyis an adaptation oftechnology which hasbeenaroundfor many years.lt is well known that microwavescanbe usedto heatobjects.Not only is microwave technology used cookfoods, it is alsoused a directed to but as source ofheatingin many industrial applications. waseventhesubject It ofthe "Pound Proposal', few years in a ago whichtheideawasto provideresidential heating people, living space. to not Because of the apparently safenatureofbody heatingusingmicrowavetechniques, variety of a innovativeusesofEM energyfor humanapplications being explored.The nonlethal are application wouldembody highlysophisticated a microwave assembly canbe uscdto that prcjectmicrowaves orderto providea conholled in heating ofpersons. This controlled heating raise coretemperature will the ofthe individuals a predetermined to to level mimic a highfeverwith the int€ntofgaininga psychological/capability on the edge enemy, while not inflictingdeadlyforce,Theconcept ofheatingis straightforward; the challenge to idgntifyandproduce correct is the mix ofliequencies powerlevels and needed do the remoteheatingwhile not injuring specificorgansin the individuals to illuminatedby the beam. A varietyoffactorscontribute the attractiveness to ofthis nonlethal techrology. First,it is based a well-known on effect, heating. Everyhuman subject theeffects is to ofheating; therefore, wouldhavea predictability it ratingof 100%. The timeto onset probably can be engine€red betweel15and30 minutes; to however, timing is thesubject ofaddilional research maximize to heating while minimizingadverse effeats localized of heating. the onset be slowenough can and,/or ofsuch frequency be unrecogniz€d theperson(s) to by beinginadiated. Safety innocents to couldbe enhanced theapplication additional by and developme[tof advanced sensor technologies. locapacitation time could be extended to almostany desiredperiod consistent with safety.(Given suitableR&D, temperature or othervital signscould b€ monitorcdremotely,andtemperature could be maintained a at minimum effectivepoint). Tim€ to Onset Thetime to onset a fulction ofthe powerlevelbeingused. is Carefully monitored uniformheating couldprobably takeplacein between and30 minutes. l5 Timero orcet could be reduced with increased of adverse but risk effects.Minimum time is deDendent on the power level ofthe equipmentandthe efficiency ofthe aiming device. Duration of Effect Assumingthat the heatingis donecarefully, reversalof elevated body temperature would begin as soonasthe source ofheat is removed.

Tunability This conceptis tunablein that anyrute ofheating, up to the maximumcapacityof the souce, may be obtained.Thus it is suitablefor usein a gradualforce or ',rheostatic', approach. Ifthe situationallows, andthe sourceis sufficiently powerful, thereis the possibility usethistechnology a lethalmodeaswell. Prolonged to in bodytemperature above43' C is almostcertainto result in permanent darnage the brain anddeath. to Distribution ofHuman Sensitivities DesiredEffects to has No reason beenidentified to suggest anyone that would be immuneto this technology.Individualswith compromised thermoregulatory mechanisms would be susceptible with a lower incident energydensity.This would includepeoplewith orgalnc damage the h,?othalamus,the part ofthe brain that integatesthe autonomic to mechanisms whichcontrolheatlossaswell aspeople with compromised somatic features ofheatloss(e.g., respiration, waterbalance, etc.). Thetechnologies needed thethermal for technology concept relatively are well d€veloped because ofthe knownbiophysical mechanism, universal the susceptibility of humans themechanism to ofheating, because well developed and ofa t€chnology base for the productionofradiofrequencyladiation. Because huma.n the body is inhomogeleous, ceftain organs by virtueoftheir sizeandgeometry, are, moreeasily coupled with oneradiofrequency wavelength another. than Therefore, avoidpermanent to damage thesusp€ct to innocent to or bystarders, maybenecessary vary the it to frequency avoidlocalized to heating consequent and damage anyorgan, to Additionally, it will be necessary avoid the conditionsthoughtto be associated to with the induction of cataracts. Thus,while thetechnology ofmicrowave heating general matule, in is adaptation a nonlethal as technology rcquire will sophisticated biophysical calculations k) proper identifythe regimen ofmicrowave llequencies intensities; will alsobc and it necessary optimize existinghardwareto meetthe bioph,sical requirements. to Possible Itrflu€oc€or Subject(s) Ifthe technologyfunctionsapproximatelyasenvisioned, targeted the individual could be ircapacitated within l5 to 30 minutes. Because technology focused a relatively this is on slow onset,it shouldonly be usedin situationswherespeed not important.The very is uncomfortable nature highbodytemperature be usefulin negotiations ofa may or possibly controlling for crowds. wouldbe equally It usefulon single persons crowds. ot Evidencealsoindicatesa disruptionofworking memory thusdisorientation may occur because ofall inabilityto consolidate memory (minutes) ofthe recent past. Technological Statusof Generator/Aiming Device Equipmentneeded explorethis conceptin the laboratoryis availabletoday.Designand to construction ofthe RF/microwavegenemtor will depend the constraints posedby the on potentialgeneration calculations, devices,alld energy-directing structures. variety of A

optlons existfor bothoftheseequipment needs. useof advanced The frequency and modulation-agile generation amplification RF and circuitrywill be required o"scss to fully the frequency/power/time envelope ofRF heatingprofiles requir;d. Although much equipment cornmerciallyavailable,it is likely that customhadware andsoftwarewill is be necessary because availableequipment not beendesigned has with the needfor frequ€ncy/intensily variability, which w.ill probablybe needed safetypurposes. for In addition,the designof antennas other energy-directing and structues wili almost certainly involveunique configurations. Since technology this utilizesradiofiequency energy, canbe defeated theuseof shielding it by provided conductive by bariers like metal or metal screen. IrcapacitatingEffect: MicrowaveHearirg Microwave hearing a phenomenon, is descdbed human by observem. thesensations as. of buzzing,ticking, hissing,or knockingsounds that originatewithin or imrnediatelybehind the head.Thereis no soundpropagatilg throughthe air like nomal sound.This technology its crudes! in form couldbe used distract to ildividuals:ifrefined. it could alsobe used communicate hostages hostage to with or takeNdirectlyby Morsecodeor othermessage possibly systems, €venby voiaecommudcation. BiologicalTarget/NormslFunctiotrs/Disease State This technology makes ofa phenomenon described the literature use first in over30 vears ago.Differentt)?esofsounds wereheard depending theparticulars on ofthe pulse characteristics. Vaf,ious experiments wer€performedon humansand laboratorvanimals exploring originofthis phenomenon. thistime,virtuallyall investigators hrve the At who studied_the phelomenon now accept thermoelastic expansion ofthe brain,-the pressurc waveofwhich is rcceived processed thecochlear and by microphonic system,iohc tlrc mechanism ofacoustic perception ofshortpulses ofRF energy. Onestudy(in 1975) usilg human volunteers, identilied threshold the energy ofmicrowave-auditory rcsponscs in humans a function as ofpulsewidth for 2450MHz radioftequency energy. is also it foundthat about40 J/cmzincident energydensityper pulsewai required.-' Mechanism Producethe Desired to Effects After the phenomenon discovercd, was severalmechanisms were suggested explain the to hearing ofpulsedRF fields.Thermoelastic expansion within thebrainin rcsponse RF to pulseswas flrst studiedanddemonstntedin inert matedalsfid was Droposed the as rnechanism ofhearingofpulsedRF fields.A presstlre waveis generited mostsolid in andliquidmaterials a pulseofRI energy--a by pressurc wavethatis seveml orders of magnitudelarger in amplitudethanthat resultilg from radiationpressure from or elecnoslrictive lorces. characteristics The ofthe field-induced coihlearmicroohoruc rn guinea andcats. relationship pigs the ofpulse duralion ltu-eshold. phvsicri and measurementswaterandin tissue-simulating in materials, well asnumerous as theoretical calculations-all point to thermoelastic expansion the mechanism as ofthe hearins Dhenomenon.

Scientists havedetermined thresholdenergylevel for humanobservers the exposed to pulsed 2450-MHz fields(0.5-to32 micrcnpulsewidths). Theyfoundthat,regardless of the peakofthe power densityandthe pulsewidth, the per-pulsethresholdfoia normal subject neax mJ/kg.The avemge is 20 elevation ofbrain temperature associated a with just-perceptible wasestimated be about5xl0 6. C. pulse to Time to Onset The physicalnatureofthis themoelasticexpansion dictatesthat the sounds heardas are theindividual pulses absorbed. are Thus,the effectis immediate (withinmilliseconds). Humanshavebeenexposed R.Fenergythat resultedin the Droduction sounds. to of Duration of Effect Microwavehearinglastsonly aslong asthe exposure. Thereis no residualeffect afier cessation ofRF energy. Turability Th€ phenomenon tunablein that the characteristic is soundsandintansitiesofthose sounds depend thecharacteristics on ofthe RF energy delivered. as Because the ftequency ofthe sound heard dep€ndent thepulsechamcteristics is on ofthe RF energy, it seems possible this technology that couldbe developed thepointwhere to wordscould be hansmitted beheardlike the spoken to wod, except it couldonly bo heard that within a person's head. oneexperiment, In communication ofthe wordsfrom oneto ten using modulated" microwave "speech energy wassuccessfully demonstrated. Microphones next to thep€rson experiencing voicecouldnot pick up thesound. the Additional develonncnt ofthis wouldopenup a widerange ofpossibilities. DistributiotrofHuman SeDsitlvities Desir€dEffects to Because phenomenon directly on cochlearprccesses, thermoelastic the acts the pressure wavesploducesounds ofvarying Aequency. Many ofthe testsrun to evaluatgthe phenomenon producedsoundsin the 5 kHz rangeandhigher.Because humansarekno.wn to experiencewiderange a ofhearinglossdueto cochlear darnage, is possible it that somepeoplecanhearRF inducedsounds that otherswith high &equency hearingloss cannot. Thus,thereis a likely range ofsensitivity, primarilybased thet)?e ofpulse on andthecondition ofthe cochlea. Bilateral destruction ofthe cochlea been has demonstxated abolishall RF-inducedauditorystimuli. to RecoYery/Safety Humanshavebeensubjected this phenomenon many years.The energydeposrnon to for requiredto producethis effect is so smallthat it is not considered hazardous expenmentation wheninvestigatingresponses thejust-perceptiblelevels. at

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Possible Influenceon Subject(s) Application ofthe microwavehearingtechnologycould facilitate a pdvate message transmission. may be usefulto provide a disruptiv€conditionto a personnot awaxe It of the technology.Not only might it be disruptiveto the sense ofhearing, it could be psychologicallydevastating onesuddenlyheard"voiceswithin one'shead. if " Technological Statusof Getrerator/Aiming Device This technologyrequiresno extrapolation estimate usefulness. to its Microwave energy appliedat a distance, the appropriate and canbe technologycanbe adapted ftom existing radarunits.Aiming deviceslikewise are availablebut for specialcircumstances which requireextremespecificity, theremay be a needfor additionaldevelopment. Exteme wouldbe requircd hansmita message a singlehostage directional specificity to to by Signals be transmitted distances can (huDdreds sunounded his captors. long ofmeters) Innger distances moresophisticated usingcurrent techrology. and signaltlpes will morebulky equipment, it seems but possible transmit require to some t,?e ofsignalsat closer ranges usingman-potable equipment. Range Theeffective range couldbe hundreds ofmeters. Effect: Disruptionof Neural Coutrol Incapacitating The natureof the incapacitation a rhythmic-activity sFchronization of brain neurons is thatdisrupts normalcodicalconkolofthe corticospinal corticobulbar pathwaysthrs and disrupts normalfunctioning ofthe spinalmotorneurons whichcontrolmuscle conltlclron andbodymovements. Persons suffering from thiscondition losevoluntary controlof theirbody.This s),nchrcnization be accompanied a sudden ofconsciousness may by loss andintense muscle spasms. BiologicalTargeUNormal Functions/Disease Strte The normal function ofthe brain is to control all forms ofbehavior, voluntary control of pararnete$ofthe organism.In normalconditions,all the brain body, and the homeostatic neuro[ populations,networks,and singleunits functionwith specificrhyhnic structur€s, activity depending the incoming sensoryinformatioq infomation fiom mnemonic on andsignalsf:romvisceralorgans.Eachsingleneuronprovidesspecific skuctwes, processing ofinformation it receives and forms a specificpatternofimpulse firing as outgoinginformation.Synchronization ofn€won activity is a natual mechanism ofthe brain function that usessuchcontrolling processes motivation,attentionandmemory as (experience) orderto organizebehavior.For example, in motivationalprccesses are considered activatingascending as signalsthat slarchronize neuronactivity ofspecific the brain structures neuronnetworks;this activation/slnchronization hrm activates and in formsofbehaviorsuchassexual, specific aggressive, ingestive activities.

In normalfunctioningthe degree ofneuronal synchronization highly controlled.From is expedments rccordthe neuronalactivity iI1different bmin axeas that simultaneouslv in animals, is knownthatcorelationofspike activitybetween it (measured the neurons bl correlationlevel of synchronization) changes depending the slageof behavior, on motivation, attention, activation or ofthe memory processes. HowJver, undersome conditions,suchasph)rsicalstress, heatshock,or shong emotionalstress, l€vel of the s),ncbronization may becomehigher,involving nonspecificlargepopulationsofbrain neuronsandtle s)mclronizationmay becomeuncontrollable. Dependingon at which frequencythe slmchronization rh),thmoccursand how many neuonsareinvolved, mayproduce it different physical effects; muscle weakness, involuntary muscle contractiols, ofconsciousness, intense loss or (tonic)muscle spasms. The higherlevel of sl,nchronization takesplacein persons affectedwith epilepsywhen theyexpedence periodic seizures since theyhavea pathologic (e.g.,frorninjury to source the brain) of rh',thmic s)'nchronization. Because neurophysiological the rnechanisms of epileptiform syrchronization better are documented, incapacititing this technology rs described termsof €pileptogenesis. in Theneurophysiological mechanisms active epileptogenesis in involvechanges in membrare conductances neuotransmitter and alteEtions theyaffectneuional as interaction. theprocess In ofepileptogenesis, eithersome neurons discharging arc too easilyb€cause ofalterations membmne in conductances thereis a failureoiinhibitory or neurotransmission. actual The discharges been have recognized resultfrom a neuronal to depolarization with electrical shift syrchrony cell populations in related pa ro in changes membrane in conductances. ionicbasis biochemical The and substiate ofthis activation havebeena.reas ofconsiderable studybut still leave manyquestions unanswered. Whatarcthebasiccellular properties, present nomal cellsandtissuc. in rhli couldcontribute thegeneration to ofabnormal activity? Whatparts ofthe systems are ' low thresholdand function astrigger el€ments? Oneofthe current hlTrothesesinvolved is with microcircuitry, particularly localslmapnc interactions neocortical limbic system in and structures. thehippocampus, roleof In the the trigger elementhasbeenlong attributedto the CA3 pyramidaliells_a hypothesis basedon thc fact that spontaneous s)mchto[ous burst dischaxge be established can in CA3 neuons Somestudiesdescribe intrinsically bursting an type in the neocoftex thatplaysa role similarto thatofCA3 cellsin thehippocampus thatofdeepcellsin and the plriform cortex. The intrinsic natue ofthese cells appears be all important -e[ to contnbutorto the establishment slnchronizedburstingin theseregions.Another of apparent requirement sucha populationis for a certaindegree in ofsynaptic interaction anongneurons, suchthatdischarge even of onecell enlists activityofits neighbors. the Given the presence ofthese burstingcells andthe occurrence ofexcitatory interactions arnong themin normaltissue, mayactually themoryhologic it be substrate for epileptiform discharges. Another h,?tothesishasfocusedpaiicularly on the role ofN-methyl_D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Various factorsregulatethe effcacy ofNMDA receptors: therr

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voltage-dependent blockadeby magnesium modulationby glycine andpolyamrnes. and in model,spontaneous For exarnple, the low magnesium slncluonousburst discharge in plramidal cell populationsis sensitiveto NMDA antagonists. hippocampal That finding suggests it is theopening that ofNMDA channels, relieving magnesium by the blockade, that facilitatesepileptiform activity. Significantattentionin the literatureis alsobeing given to gamma-amino butFic acid (GABA) receptors the potentialrole in control ofexcitability. Changes GABA for in inhibitory efficacy leadto important carr effects the excitability on ofthe system. posFsynaptic potentials inhibitory (lPSPs) GABAergic havebeen shown be quite to labi1e response repetitive in to activation ofcorticalcellpopulations, mayoccurduring as epileptiformdischarge. Scientists haveshownthat evena smallpercentage changein effects neocodical GABA inhibitioncanhaveprofound on epilsptogenesis. These changes CABAergic inhibition may be the key to ao explanation in ofhow repetitive pattems givedseto ictaldischarge. discharge Further, thereappears be a significant to posts)'naptic potential increase excitatory in (EPSP) prior to seizueinitiation frequency an observation is consistent lossoflPSP efficacy that with priorto ictalonsetTheabove h)?otheses describe different mechanisms ofepileptogenesis, it is quite but possible all ofthesemechanisms place, theyreflectlargevarietyoft)?cs of that take and principle epileptic seizures. common The ofthe mechanisms proposed thechange is of propeties(i.e.,conductance, permeability membrane etc.)ofcertainneurons which rcsultsin d€polarization burstdischarging.Somefactors(e,g.,tauma) canaffect and th€sespecificneuronsandinitiate synchrcnyfor neuronsthat conrol intemal and with communication communication various muscle s)rstems associated not wlth (i.e.,headbeating, vital functions breathing). pulsed High strength cl€ctricfieldscould alsobe sucha factor. the Mechanism Reproduce DesiredEffects to pulses alsoa conceptual Application ofelectromagnetic is nonlethal technology uses that electromagn€tic energyto irduce neurals)'nchronyanddisruptionof voluntarymuscle ofthis concept not beendemonstrated. control. Theeffectiveness has However, from past work in evaluatingthe potentialfor electromagnetic pulsegenerato$to aflect humans,it is estimated that sufficiently shongintemal fields canbe generated within the brain to trigger neurons. Estimates that 50 to 100kv/m free field ofvery sharppulses(- I nS) are potentialof approximately V; this would arerequiredto producea cell membranic 2 probablyb€ suflicient to trigger neuons or makethemmore susceptible firing. to The elecfomagneticpulseconceptis onein which a very fast (nanosecond timeframe) high voltage(approximately100kv/m or greater)electomagneticpulseis repeated at the alphabrain wave frequency(about l5 Hz). It is known that a similar frequencyof pulsing light cantriggersensitive individuals (those with some degree light-sensitivity of epilepsy)into a seizureandit is thoughtthat by using a methodthat could actuallytrigger directlywith anelectrical nerves)'napses fiel4 essentially 100%ofindividualswouldbe to susceptible seizureinduction.The photic-induced seizurephenomenon bome out was

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demonstrably December 1997on Japanese on 16, television rvhen hundreds ofviewersof a popularcartoonshowweretreated,inadvertently,to photic seizureinduction (fi eure seizurcis indirect iD that the eyemustrcceiveandtransmitthe lU. The photic-induced impulseswhich initially activatea portion ofthe blain associated with the optic nerve. Fromlhatpointtheexcitabjlity spreads otherporlions thebrain.Wirhthe to of electromagnetic concept,excitationis directly on the brain, andall regionsare excited concurently. onset The ofsFchony anddisruption ofmuscular conk;l is anticiDated to be nearly instantaneous. Recoverytimes areexpected be consistent to with, or more rapid than.thatwhichis observed epileptic in seizures. Time to Onset No experimental evidence available this cortcept. is for However, light-induced seizures latency onset photosensitive in epileptics varies from 0.1to aboutl0 seconds. Because of the fact that the electdcalimpuls€striggeredby light must spread otherpartsoftho to brain,photic-induc€d seizues are expected havea genemllysloweronsetthanneunl to sFchrcny inducedby high-stength pulsedelectric fields. Duration of Effect For epileptic individuals, t]?ical duration petitmal event a psychomoror the ofa or evenr is I minute 2, possibly or longer, while theduration a grand of mal seizure I to 5 is minutes. a non-epileptic In individual who is induced el€chomagnetic by means, the durations ofthe different events expected be roughlythesame theepileptic are to as i[dividual'sevents aftertheextemal excitation removed. is Tunability There manydegrees are ofepilepticseizuein diseased penons,andit seems reasonable thatelectromagnetic stimulation ofneuralsyrchrony mightbe tunable with regard tnc to anddegeeofbodily influence, depe[ding theparameters on associated thechosen with stimulus.Because thereareno actualdatato build on, thesestatements must be considered tentative.It is known that in the studyofphotic-inducedseizues,panmeters canbevariedsothattheindividual understudydoes actually not undergo grand a mal seizure. This knowledgegiv€sco[fidence that the proposed technologywouid be tunable. DistributionofHumatr Sensitivities DesiredEffects to It is anticipated 100%ofthe population that wouldbe susceptible. mechanism one The is that could actorl manyindividual neuronalcells concurrentlyandhencedoesnot depend on spreading regionsofelectrical activity asin the disease state. Possible Inlluenceotr Subjects(s) If the technologyfunctionsapproximatelyasenvisioned, targetedindividual could be the rncapacitated quickly. Because very therehavebeenno reportedstudies usingthe

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conditionsspecified,experimental work is requiredto chaxacterize onsettime. Different tlpes of technologies could be employedto influencewide areas singleindividuals. or Because technologyis considered be tunable,the influenceon subjectscould vary this to ftom mild disruption ofconcentmtion muscle to spasms lossofconsciousness. and The subject(s) would havevarying degrees voluntarycontrol depending the chosen of on degree incapacitation. of Technological Statusof Generator/Aiming Device An electric field skength ofroughly 100Kv/m overa time periodof 1 nanosecond is approximately conditionthoughtto be necessary producethe desiredeffect when the to provided an overallrepetition of 15Hz. Sucha field maybe developed to rate usinga radarlike,high-peak-power, pulsed souceor an electromagnetic generator pulse operated 15Hz. These at technologies todaysufficient evaluate disabling exist to the concept. Powerrequirements not high because duty factoris so low. Aimrng are the devices curently available, a highdegree are but ofdirectionality lorg distances at will require development, may be necessary provide It to bursts ofthesenanosecond pulscsin orderto stimulatethe desiredeffect.As the duty time increases doesthe averagc so power requirement power source,Because for therewere no openliteraturereportsfrom whichto makeinferences, thereis some uncertainty about powerlevelsrequired. the Ratrge Theeffective range couldbe hundreds mete$. of DefeatCapabilities/Limitatiors Shielding beprovided conductive can by barriers metalor metalscreen. like Therearca number ofdrugsthatarecapable ofinducingconvulsive seizures others, and like phenoba6ital, diphenyllhydantoin, trimethadione, dinitrophenol, acetazohunide, 2-4 and which are aoticonlulsive. Anticonvulsivedrugsareknown to be helpful in reducingthe effectofseizures epil€ptic patients, theirabilityto reduce effectofthe proposed in but the technologyis unlinown (possiblyno effect) but expected be lessthan for photicto induced seizures. Incapacitating Effect; AcousticEnergy The natureofthe incapacitation coNists of severcprcssure sensations, nystagnus(a spasmodic, involuntarymotion ofthe eyes),andnausea caused high intensitiesof by 9140-155 Nlstagmus dB). occrus whenconvection curlents produced axe (cupula movement) the lateralear canal.This cupulamovementcauses eyesto move in the involuntarily; hence, extemal the world is interpreted moving. as Thesubject',sees', his surroundings tuming rcund him andat the sainetime experiences sensation tuming. a of Persons exposed theselevelsof soundexperience to nausea. BiologicalTargevNormalFunctiols/Disease State

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The two lateml semicircularcanals,one locatedin eachinner ear. alert a peNonto the factthathis upight head experiencing is angular acceleration. Within th; ampulla ofthe canalareseveral called so haircells.Thecilia of these cellsprolrude into thelumen of the ampullawherethey {rreencased a massofjelly-like material(the cupula)which is in attached the oppositewall ofthe canal.As the headaccelerates, cilia arcbent by an to the inertialforceofthe cupula theviscous and liquidin thecanallumen. Thebending ofihe cilia exciteshair cells which in tum excite afferentneurons; tlese then alert the brain that a change ofpositionofthe head occurred. has Similarevents occurwhentheheadstops moving.Theresultofa strong hair cell stimulus thebmin is a rapideyemovement, to call nystagmus, feelingofdizziness disorientation, a Dossibilitv a and and ofnausea and vomltmg. Normalhearing in therange is between frequencies the of20,000to 16,000 with the Hz optimalsensitivity mostpeople for between ftequencies the of500 to 6000Hz. Mechanism Producethe DesiredEffects to Because endorgans acoustic vestibular the for and perception so closely are related, intense acoustic stimulation resultin vestibular can effects. h]?othesis thatthe The is sound ofnormal intensity produces oscillations ofthe endolymph perilynpn, and compensated by oscillations for ofthe roundwindow.Highintensity produces sound eddycunents, whicharelocalized rotational fluid displacements. intensity High sound canalsoproduce nonlinear displacement ofthe stapes, causing volumedisplacement, a theresultofwhich canbe a fluid void in thc laby.inth. fill thevoid, fluid maybe To displaced alongtheendollmphatic ductand,/or blockcapiltary pathways, which,in tum, couldstimulate vestibular receptors. Stimulation ofthe vestibular receptors leadto may nausea vomitingif thesound and pressure levelis highenough. Conclude bothtj(l(ly that currents volumedisplacement and serve stimulate to vestibular receptors humans, in whenexposed high lev€lsofnoise. to Onestudyfoundnystagmum guinea pigs€xposed highlevelsofinfrasound in to via stimulation ofthe vestibular recepto$. Howev€r, same wasunable produce the lab to nystagmus human in subjects 5- and 10-second at exposures a puretoneat 135dB, to broadband engine noise, a I 00 Hz toneat I 20 dB, pulsed or threetimes/s 2 minutes. or The sarne research unable elicit nystagmus levels to 155dB, andalsoequally was to at up unable produce to nystagmus usinginfrasound levelsof I l2-150dB in guinea prgs, monkeys,andhumars.However,research with audiblecomponents the sound in spectrumwith guineapigs andmonkeysproducednystagmus. Otherresearchers report other vestibulareffectsin additionto nystagmus the following thresholds:125dB fiom at 200-500 Hz,l40 dB at 1000 and155dB at 200Hz. Decremerts vestibula.r Hz, in tunction occur consistentlyfor broadband noise levelsof 140dB (with hearins prolectlon). Humansubjectslistenedto very high levels of low-frequencynoiseandinfrasoundin the protectedor unprctected modes.Two-minutedurationashigh as 140to 155dB produced a mngeof effectsfrom mild discomfortto severe pressure sensations, gaggrng, nausea,

l3

andgiddiness. Effectsalso includedbluned vision andvisual field distoiions in some exposure conditions.The natwe and degreeofall effectswas dependent both sound on level and liequencywith the most severe effectsoccurringin the audiblefiequencyrange (asopposed infrasound), levels aboveabout 145dB. The investigators to at foundno temporarythresholdshift (TTS) amongtheir subjects, the useof hearingprctecton and greatlyalleviatedthe adverse effects. Sincethe early daysofjet-engine testingandmaintenance, a[ecdotalevidence has appeared linking exposueto intensenoise,with suchcomplaintsasdizziness, vertigo, nausea, vomiting. a resultofsiren noiseat 140dB, subjects and As consistently reported a feeling ofbeing pushed sideways, usuallyawayftom the exposed andonesubject ear, reporteddifflculty standingon one foot. Theseeffectswerenot asdramaticas from th€jeFengineOroadband) noiseat 140dB. This research concludes thethreshold labyrinthine that of dysfunction about135to 140 is dB andthat theseeffectsoccur during,but not after, exposurc. Time to Otrset No timesto onsetofnauseaor n)stagmuswerc identified in the literaturebut is presumcd to be relatively immediate based effects thelabyrinth on to system occwringduring, but pressure not after,exposure sound to levelsof 135to 140dB. Duration of Effect Theincapacitation only aslotlg asthe incapacitating la6ts sound present. is Tunability Based the datapresented on above, is unclear it whether degree the ofnausea or nystagmus tunable,but similar symptomscaused other stimuli a.re is by variablein degre9. Distribution ofHuman Sensitivitles Desir€dEffects to It is most probablethat all individualswill be susceptible this stimuluswith the to exception (i.e.,deafmutes) ofthosewith a disease defect or ofsomepartor partsof the vestibularsystem. Data showedno consistent decrease vestibulo-ocular in reflectswith inoeasedage. Recovery/S afety Normal subjectsarelikely to recoverimmediatelyandexperience or unmeasurable no changes hearingunlesswell known liequency-intensity-time in factorsare exceeded. This is basedon studieswhich found no temporarythresholdshift in hearingof subjects testedat low frequency.Occupational safetypersonnel generallyrecognizethat 1I 5

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dB(A) is to be avoidedandthat 70 dB(A) is assumed safe.Is believedthat the noise energywith predominating frequencies above500 Hz havea greater potentialfor hearing lossthannoiseenergyat lower frequencies. Occupational standards noisestatethat a for personmay be exposed continuouslyfor 8 hoursto 90 dB(A) or 15 minutesto I 15 dB(A). Possible Influenceon Subject(s) Inductionofnystagmusandnausea will havevariableeffectson individuals.Effectsmay be sufficiently incapacitation allow offensiveadvantage; perceptionof sickness to the may makea subjectsusceptible peFuasion.It would be dilncult to targetsingle to individualsat the presentlevel of sounddirectingtechnology.This technologymay be bettersuit€d goups ofpeople. for Techtrological Statusof Generator/Aimltrg Device generating Sound technology well developed not highlyportable. is but Aiming dcvices arepoorly developed. Rrnge Undernormal circumstanc€s soundpressulelevel decreases dB(A) when the the 6 distance fromthe source doubled. example is For ifthe sormd 100dB(A) at 100It, at is 200 ft thesound wouldbe 94 dB(A).At very high sound levels, certain conditions may leadto nonlineareffectsin propagation greatlyincrease and rangeaccuracy. DefeatCapabiliti€s/Limitrtions Negative effects ofaudiblesound greatly are decreased ifhearingprctection wom. is High frequencysoundis more easilyblockedthan low frequencysou[d dueto wav€lengtheff€cts. Lrser-hduced BiologicalEffects Their arethreebasicdamage mechanisms associated with exposure laserradiation: to chemical,thermal,ard mechanical acoustic-mechanical. or The laser-induced, chemicalalteratio$ in irradiatedtissuearereferredto as photochemical damage. The likelihood of laserradiationin the blue-light portion of the electromagngtic (.380to .550microns) spectrum inducing photochemical reactions progressiv€ly d€creases with increasing wavelength. Photochemical effectsarenot observed uponexposure ndiationwith wavelengths to exceeding to .650micfons .550 because kinetic energyassociated the with thesephotonsis insufficient to initiate a photochemical change.

l5

On the otherhand,the thermaleffect is a primaxymechanism laser-induced ury. for mJ The extentof the injuries induceddepends upon the wavelength energyofthe and incidentmdiation,durationof exposure, the natule ofthe exposed and tissueandits absorption characteristics. Generally, mechanism this predominites thevisibleandthe in (.760 to 1.4microns)portionsofthe electromagnetic near-infrared spectrumandfor almost CW andpulsed all exposures between milliseconds I to 5 seconds. 0.1 and The third injury mechanism associated with exposure laserradiationis the mechanical to or acoustical-mechanical effect. The radiantenergyis absorbed the tissueand,asa into result ofrapid thermal expansion followinga short(l nanosecond 0.1millisecond) to laser radiation pulse, pressure a waveis generated mayresult explosive that in tissue injury. Generally, three all mechanisms operate concunently aniradiatedanimal. in Thermar effectscurrentlypredominate continuous for wave(CW) lasers, while mechanical effects areofincreased sigrificance pulsed-mode for lasers. With evenhigher power,onemust alsoconsider phenomena asmultiphoton nonlinear such absorption electromagnetic and field effects. Theorgans mostsusceptible extemal to laser radiation theskinandeyes. are Theseverity ofinjury is affected thenature thetarget, energy by of the density delivered themrger, to the fiequencyandpower ofthe laser,atmospheric attenuation ofthe beam,andthe useof filteringor ampliflng opticsby thetarget, etc. The primary effect on the skin is thermaldarnage (bums).The severityvariesftom slight er],'thema reddening severe or to blistering charring, or depending suchfactors total on as energy deposition, pigmentation, thetissue,s skin and abilityto dissipate heat. The eyeis particularly susceptible intense to pulseoflaserradiation because ofits unique sensitivity light.Thefocusing to effectis similarto thatofa magnifying lens,which focuses energyon a particularspot.Sincethe comeaandlensofthe eyeamplify the tbe intensity ofthe light incident upontheretina, retinais extremely the sensitive visible to andnear-inftaredlight, anddamage the retinamay result in temporaryor permanent to lossofvisualacuity.Lasereyeinjuries vary according incident to power,spotsize,beam angle,temporalmode(CW or pulsed),andpulserepetitionfrequency. Reportedeffects includecomeallesions,bums, cataracts, retinal lesions. and Somehigh-powerlaserscancause antipersonnel effectsby the depositionof themal energy.Theselasersmust operateat a wavelengththat is readily absorbed the skin or by the comea.Thesegenerallyincludethe far- andmid-IR regioru (10 to 12 micronsand3 to 5 microns)aswell asthe ultraviolet region(<0.4 microns).However.ultraviolet generallydo not propagate wavelengths well in the atmosphere, the primary threat so wavelengths be considered between and l2 microns.Although relatively modest to are 3 amountsof far-IR laserpower arerequiredto producesuperficialbums on the skin at shortranges, and efforts to designrheostaticallylethal laserweapons on going. are

lb

Nonlethalblinding laserweapons generallyusecollimatedbeams with very low beam divergence, the energycontainedin the beamdiminishesrelatively slowly over great and distances. knagilg systems suchaseyesandEO vision systems havefocusingopticsthat planewaveof light to focusat the sensor bring the incident plane.This resultsin a high optical gain (geater than 100,000 eyes),which makesthe associated for sensor luLoerable relatively low fluences to oflaser energy. The effectsof laselson eyesarethreefold: . . . Dazzlingor inducedg1are. Flashblinding lossofnight adaptation. or Pemanent semipermanent or blinding.

The severityoflaser eyeinjuries variesaccordingto the incidentpower, spotsize,beam pupil diameter angle, (ambient light conditions), temporal mode(CW or pulsed), an<r PRF ofthe laser.Reportedeffectsincludecomealbums, catamcts pemanent (a cloudiness ofthe lens), retinal and bumsandperfoEtions. fow-energylaser weapons arc capable ofcausing latter. the Exposueto relatively laser low energies produce can temporary changes theabilityto in seewithout producingpermanent injury. Exposue to laserlight canproducean effect call€dglareor dazzle, whichis similarto thetemporary ofvision experience loss whco viewingtheheadlights ofan oncoming Thevisualeffects only aslong asthe car. last light is present thelield ofview (FOV).At slightlyhigherenergy in exposures, sam€ the laser radiation saturate flashblind photoreceptor resulting afterrmages can or the cells, in thatfadewiti time afterexposue. Onlyvisibleradiation induce will veilingglareor aftcr images; near-IR radiation not produce will these effects eventhough radiant the encrgy reaches photor€ceptor Flashblindness dazzle, the cells. and whilenot permanent in,urrus, cancause discomfort temporary ofvision. Some and loss studies haveshown tharuazzle andflashblindness seriously can impact mission performance, especially highlyvisual in tasks suchaspilotingan aircraft aiming. or Blinding is the permanent semipermarent ofvisual acuity.The effect canlasr or loss fiom severalhou's onwardandgenerallyis evidenced a da* spotin the field of by vision.This spotis calleda scotoma. impactofthe scotoma visualacuitywill The on vary with the sizeandposition ofthe injury. Humanvision is greatlyaffectedwhenthe laser damage to thecentral is visionarea ofthe retinacalledthefovea. Nonfoveal laser damage may be lesssevere evengo unnoticedbecause affectsonly the peripheral or it vision. The most seriousretinal injuries occur when the incident light is so intensethat a perforationin the retina is formed,resultingin a hemonhage into eitherthe subretinal layeror, in themostsevere cases, vitreous the humorofthe eve.Lesssevere exDusurcs result in lesionson the retila. Foot ote: 1-(U) This appendixis classifiedFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY in its entirery.

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