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analytic geometry

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Equation of a circle

In an x y coordinate system, the circle with center (a, b) and radius r is the set of all points (x, y) such

that:

(x a)2 + (y b)2 = r2

1.

Circle centered at the origin:

x2 + y 2 = r 2

2.

Parametric equations

x = a + r cos t

3.

y = b + r sin t

In polar coordinates the equation of a circle is:

4.

r2 2 r r0 cos( ) + r02 = a2

Area of a circle

5.

A = r2

Circumference of a circle

6.

C =d=2r

Theorems:

(Chord theorem) The chord theorem states that if two chords, CD and EF , intersect at G, then:

7.

CD DG = EG F G

(Tangent-secant theorem) If a tangent from an external point D meets the circle at C and a secant

from the external point D meets the circle at G and E respectively, then

8.

DC 2 = DG DE

(Secant - secant theorem) If two secants, DG and DE, also cut the circle at H and F respectively,

then:

9.

DH DG = DF DE

(Tangent chord property) The angle between a tangent and chord is equal to the subtended angle on

the opposite side of the chord.

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