NUMERICAL METHODS Introduction Numerical methods are techniques by which mathematical problems are formulated so that they can
be solved with arithmetic operations.Although there are many kinds of numerical methods , they have one common characterisstic: they invariably involve large numbers of tedious arithmetic calculations. It is little wonder that with the development of fast , efficient digital computers, the role of numerical methods in ingineering problem solving has increased dramatically dramatically in recent years. Mathematical model A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed mathematical modelling (also modeling). Mathematical models are used not only in the natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science, meteorology) and engineeringdisciplines, but also in the social sciences (such as economics, psychology,sociology and political science); physicists, engineers, computer scientists, andeconomists use mathematical models most extensively. Is very important to know that the Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models. These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. Examples of mathematical models Population Growth. A simple (though approximate) model of population growth is the Malthusian growth model. A slightly more realistic and largely used population growth model is thelogistic function, and its extensions. Model of a particle in a potentialfield. In this model we consider a particle as being a point of mass m which describes a trajectory in space which is modeled by a function x : R → R3 giving its coordinates in space as a function of time. The potential field is given by a function V : R3 → R and the trajectory is a solution of the
differential equation
NUMERICAL APPROACH Many of the methods in this book are straightforwar in description and application , it would be very tempting at this point for us to proceed directly to the main body of the text and teach you how to use these techniques.However, understanding the concept of error is so important to the effective use of numerical methods. is important to note that such errors are characteristic of most of the techniques described in many biographies. Truncation error is the discrepancy introduced by the fact that numerical methods may employ approximations to represent exact mathematical operations and quantities.
Examples of numerical approximations of π The earliest evidenced conscious use of an accurate approximation for the length of a circumference with respect to its radius is of 3+1/7th in the designs of the Old Kingdom pyramids in Egypt. The Great Pyramid at Giza, built c.25502500 B.C, was precisely 1760 cubits around with a height of 280 cubits (1760/280=2xPi). Egyptologists such as Professors Flinders Petrie [1] and I.E.S Edwards[2] have shown that these circular proportions were deliberately chosen for symbolic reasons by the Old Kingdom scribes and architects[3][4]. The same apotropaic proportions were used earlier at the Pyramid of Meidumc.2600 B.C. This application is archaeologically evidenced, whereas textual evidence does not survive from this early period. This puts the value at approximately 3.142, or 0.04% above the exact value. An Egyptian scribe named Ahmes wrote the oldest known text to give an approximate value for π. TheRhind Mathematical Papyrus dates from the Egyptian Second Intermediate Period— though Ahmes stated that he copied a Middle Kingdom papyrus (i.e.
from before 1650 BC)—and describes the value in such a way that the result obtained comes out to 256⁄81, which is approximately 3.16, or 0.6% above the exact value. As early as the 19th century BC, Babylonian mathematicians were using π ≈ 25⁄8, which is about 0.5% below the exact value. The Indian astronomer Yajnavalkya gave astronomical calculations in the Shatapatha Brahmana (c. 9th century BC) that led to a fractional approximation of π ≈ 339⁄108 (which equals 3.13888..., which is correct to two decimal places when rounded, or 0.09% below the exact value). In the third century BC, Archimedes proved the sharp inequalities 223⁄71 < π < 22⁄7, by means of regular 96gons; these values are 0.02% and 0.04% off, respectively. (Differentiating the arctangent function leads to a simple modern proof that indeed 31⁄7 exceeds π.) Later, in the second century AD, Ptolemy, using a regular 360gon, obtained a value of 3.141666...., which is correct to three decimal places.[5] The Chinese mathematician Liu Hui in 263 AD computed π with to between 3.141024 and 3.142708 with inscribe 96gon and 192gon; the average of these two values is 3.141864, an error of less than 0.01%. However, he suggested that 3.14 was a good enough approximation for practical purposes. Later he obtained a more accurate result π ≈ 3927⁄1250 = 3.1416. ROOTS OF EQUATIONS Years ago , you learned to use the quadratic formula (PT2.1) To solve (PT2.2)
The values calculed with Ep(PT2.1) are called the ‘roots’ of eq(PT2.2), they represent the values of x that make Eq (PT2.2) equal to zero. Thus, we can define the root of an equation as the
value of x that makes f(x)=0. For this reason , roots are sometimes called the zeros of the equations. Although the quadratic formula is handy for solving Eq (pT2.2) there are many other functions for which the root cannot be determined so easily. For these cases are: Graphical methods The bisection methods The false position method Incremental searches and determining initial guesses
Graphical Methods A simple method for obtaining an estimate of the root of the equation is to make a plot of the function and observe where it crosses the x axis. Example: The graphical approach Problem statement. Use the graphical approach to determine the drag coefficient c needed for a parachutist of mass m=68.1 kg to have a velocity of 40 m/s afterfalling for time t= 10 s Note: the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/ Solution :this problem can be solved by determining the root of Eq (PT2.4) using the parameters t=10, g=9.8 v=40 and m= 68.1 ) Various values of c can be substituted into the right –hand side of this equation to compute.
c 4 8 12 16 20
F(x) 34.115 17.653 6.053 2.269 8.401
40.000 35.000 30.000 25.000 20.000
15.000
10.000 5.000 0 5.000 0 10.000 15.000 5 10 15 20 25
Series1
root
Graphical techniques are of limited practical value because they are not precise . Howevwe , graphical methods can be utilized to obtain rough estimates of roots. These estimates can be employed as starting guesses for numerical methods discussed below.
The Bisection Method
Incremental search methods capitalize on this observation by locating an interval where the function changes sign. Then the location of the sing change (and consequently, the root) is indentified more precisely by dividing the interval into a number of subintervals . Each of these subintervals is searched to locate the sing change.
In general, if is real and continuous in the interval from have opposite signs, that is and
then there is at least one real root between The FalsePosition Method
A shortcoming of the bisection method
equally dividing the interval no account for for the magnitudes of An alternative method is to join by a straight line and the intersection of this line with the x axis represents an improved estimate of the root. This mothod is called as method of false position, regula falsi, or linear interpolation method. The falseposition formula is
Problem statement. Use the falseposition method to determine the root of the same equation investigated
Solution: As in example 5.3, initiate the computation with guesses of First interation:
— Which has a true relative error of 0.89 percent Second iteration: F(
=14.9113
Therefore, the root lies in the first subinterval , and upper limit for the next iteration ,
becomes the

=14.7942
Which has true and approximate relative errors of 0.09 and 0.79 percent. Additional iterations can be performed to refine the estimate of the roots.
DOCUMENTS TAKEN FROM *Numerical methods for engineers fifth edition steven c. chapra Chapter 1,2,3,4,5. http://www.cheric.org/ippage/e/ipdata/2001/13/node3.html C:\Documents and Settings\oscar\Mis documentos\metodos numericos\Mathematical model  Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm