INTRODUCTION

In this chapter we are going to discuss about power system in short and about A.P
TRANSCO and its role in maintaining power in state from buying and selling the power.
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEM
Electrical power is a little bit like the air one breathes. One doesn't really think
about it until it is missing. Power is just "there," meeting ones daily needs, constantly. It
is only during a power failure, when one walks into a dark room and instinctively hits the
useless light switch, that one realizes how important power is in our daily life. Without it,
life can get somewhat cumbersome.
Electric Energy is the most popular form of energy, because it can be transported
easily at high efficiency and reasonable cost. The power system of today is a complex
interconnected network as shown in fig. 1.
1
Figure 1 Power System interconnected
A Power System can be subdivided into four major parts:
i. Generation.
ii. Transmission and Sub transmission.
iii. Distribution.
iv. Loads.
Power is generated at generating stations, usually located away from the actual
users. The generated voltage is then stepped up to a higher voltage for transmission,
as transmission losses are lower at higher voltages. The transmitted electric power is then
stepped down at grid stations.
The modern distribution system begins as the primary circuit, leaves the sub-
station and ends as the secondary service enters the customer's meter socket. First, the
energy leaves the sub-station in a primary circuit, usually with all three phases.
The most common type of primary is known as a wye configuration.The wye
configuration includes 3 phases and a neutral (represented by the center of the "Y".) The
neutral is grounded both at the substation and at every power pole. The primary and
secondary (low voltage) neutrals are bonded (connected) together to provide a path to
blow the primary fuse if any fault occurs that allows primary voltage to enter the
secondary lines. An example of this type of fault would be a primary phase falling across
the secondary lines. Another example would be some type of fault in the transformer
itself.
The other type of primary configuration is known as delta. This method is older
and less common. In delta there is only a single voltage, between two phases (phase to
phase), while in wye there are two voltages, between two phases and between a phase
and neutral (phase to neutral). Wye primary is safer because if one phase becomes
2
grounded, that is, makes connection to the ground through a person, tree, or other object,
it should trip out the fused cutout similar to a household circuit breaker tripping. In delta,
if a phase makes connection to ground it will continue to function normally. It takes two
or three phases to make connection to ground before the fused cutouts will open the
circuit. The voltage for this configuration is usually 4800 volts.
Transformers are sometimes used to step down from 7200 or 7600 volts to 4800
volts or to step up from 4800 volts to 7200 or 7600 volts. When the voltage is stepped up,
a neutral is created by bonding one leg of the 7200/7600 side to ground. This is
commonly used to power single phase underground services or whole housing
developments that are built in 4800 volt delta distribution areas. Step downs are used in
areas that have been upgraded to a 7200/12500Y or 7600/13200Y and the power
company chooses to leave a section as a 4800 volt setup. Sometimes power companies
choose to leave sections of a distribution grid as 4800 volts because this setup is less
likely to trip fuses or reclosers in heavily wooded areas where trees come into contact
with lines.
For power to be useful in a home or business, it comes off the transmission grid
and is stepped-down to the distribution grid. This may happen in several phases. The
place where the conversion from "transmission" to "distribution" occurs is in a power
substation. A power substation typically does two or three things:
i. It has transformers that step transmission voltages down to distribution voltages
ii. It has a "bus" that can split the distribution power off in multiple directions.
3
iii. It often has circuit breakers and switches so that the substation can be
disconnected from the transmission grid or separate distribution lines can be
disconnected from the substation when necessary.
It often has circuit breakers and switches so that the substation can be
disconnected from the transmission grid or separate distribution lines can be disconnected
from the substation when necessary. The primary distribution lines are usually in the
range of 4 to 34.5 KV and supply load in well defined geographical area. Some small
industrial customers are served directly by the primary feeders.
1.3 APTRANSCO
Government of Andhra Pradesh enacted the AP Electricity REFORMS ACT in
1998.As a sequel the APSEB was unbundled into Andhra Pradesh Power Generation
Corporation Limited (APGENCO) & Transmission Corporation of Andhra Pradesh
Limited (APTRANSCO) on 01.02.99. APTRANSCO was further unbundled w.e.f.
01.04.2000 into "Transmission Corporation" and four "Distribution Companies"
(DISCOMS).
a.)CURRENT ROLE
From Feb 1999 to June 2005 APTRANSCO remained as Single buyer in the state
-purchasing power from various Generators and selling it to DISCOMs in accordance
with the terms and conditions of the individual PPAs at Bulk Supply Tariff (BST) rates.
Subsequently, in accordance with the Third Transfer Scheme notified by Go AP,
4
APTRANSCO has ceased to do power trading and has retained with powers of
controlling system operations of Power Transmission.
1.4 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we discussed about the power system and role of A.P TRANSCO
in the state of A.P.
In next chapter we are going to discuss about the salient features of
A.PTRANSCO.
5
INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, we are going to discuss about the salient feature of A.P
TRANSCO/A.PGENCO/DISCOMS.
The object of reform and restructure of power sector in the state is to create
conditions for sustainable development of the sector through promoting competition,
efficiency, transparency and attracting the much needed private finances into power
sector. The ultimate goal of the reform program is to ensure that power will be supplied
under the most efficient conditions in terms of cost and quantity to support the economic
development of the state and power sector ceases to be a burden on the States budget and
eventually becomes a net generator of resources.
A key element of the reform process is that the government will withdraw from
its earlier role as a regulator of the industry and will be limiting its role to one of policy
formulation and providing directions.
In accordance with Reform Policy, the Government of A.P entacted the A.P
Electricity Reforms Act 1998 and made effective from 1.2.1999. Transmission
Corporation of A.P Ltd (APTRANSCO and APGENCO) were incorporated under
Companies Act, 1956. The assets, liabilities and personnel were allocated to these
companies. Distribution companies have been incorporated under Companies Act as
subsidiaries to distribution to APTRANSCO and the assets, liabilities and personnel have
been allocated to distribution companies through notification of a second transfer scheme
by the Govt. on 31.3.2000.
The Government of A.P established the A.P Electricity Regulatory Commission
(APERC) as per the provision of the act and the Commission started functioning from
3.4.1999. Regular licenses have been issued to APTRANSCO by APERC for
Transmission and Bulk supply and Distribution and Retail supply from 31.1.2000. The
commission has been issuing yearly Tariff orders since then based on Annual Revenue
Requirement (ARR) and tariff proposals of these companies.
6
2.2 SALIENT FEATURES OF A.P TRANSCO/A.PGENCO/DISCOMS
Table 2.2 (a) features of A.P power system
PARAMETER UNITS 2008-09
(UPTO
MARCH
09)
31.03.09
(PROVL)
2009-10
(UPTO
MARCH
10)
31.03.10
(PROVL)
Energy generated (cumulative) MU - - -
1. Thermal MU - 23325.67 - 24180.38
2. Hydel MU - 7785 - 5510.46
3. Wind MU - - - -
Total MU - 31110.67 - 29690.84
Energy purchased and imported
(includingother’s energy handled)
MU - 36511.56 - 45075.68
Energy available for use (2+3) MU - 67622.23 - 74766.52
Maximum demand during the year
(at generation terminal) MW
ME - 9997
(27-03-
2009)
- 10880
(21-03-2010)
PercpaitaConsumption (includes
captive generation)
KWH - 746 - -
APTRANSCO LINE (EHT) - - - - -
400kv CKM 21.44 3008.20 24 3032.79
220kv CKM 265.88 1250.25 19068 12693.18
132kv CKM 233.02 14938.57 164.88 15103.45
DISCOM’S Lines # - - - - -
33kv Km 1421.78 38628 1230 39858
11kv Km 19521.82 248670 10596 259266
LT km 10166.53 527852 4212 532064
TOTAL - 26630.14 845599.15 6418.17 862017.32
Table 2.2 (b) load generation and sharing of A.P with other state
7
8
Parameter Units 2008-09
(upto march09)
31.03.09
(Provl)
2009-10
(upto march10)
31.03.10
(Provl)
Installed Capacity
a) A.P.GENCO
1. Thermal
2. Hydel
3. Wind
Total A.P.GENCO
MW
MW
MW
39.0
39.0
3382.50
3664.36
2.00
7048.86
1000.00
39.00
-
1039.00
4382.50
3703.56
2.00
8087.86
b) Joint Sector
Gas(A.P.G.P.C.L) MW - 272.00 - 272.00
c) Private Sector
Thermal
Gas
Mini Hydel
Wind
Co-generation & Bio mass
projects
Others(IsoGasWells+Wast
e heat +indl .Waste +
Muncipal waste )
TOTAL PRIVATE
SECTOR
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
d) Share from Central
Sector
Ramagundam STPS
M.A.P.P (madras atomic
power plant)
Neyveli Lignite
corporation
Kaiga nuclear power plant
I &II
Kaiga nuclear power plant
III
Simhadri TPS
Talcher (ph -II) units
-3,4,5,6
Unallocated power from
eastern region
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-5.65 913.46
-0.25 46.84
-1.94 344.10
-0.98 147.34
5.31 77.67
- 1000
3.77 437.07
85.06
-
-
85.06
-
-
TOTAL SHARE FROM
CENTRAL SECTOR
MW 0.00 2963.22 85.22 3048.54
TOTAL(A.P GENCO
+PRIVATE +CENTRAL )
MW 45.66 12427.25 2114.40 14541.65
2.3 CONCLUSION
In this chapter, we discussed about the salient features of
A.PTRANSCO / A.PGENCO / DISCOMS.
In next chapter we are going to discuss about the need for compensation and types
of compensations used.

3.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, reactive power compensation, mainly in transmission systems
installed at substations is discussed. Reactive power compensation in power systems can
be either shunt or series.
Except in a very few special situations, electrical energy is generated, transmitted,
distributed, and utilized as alternating current (AC). However, alternating current has
several distinct disadvantages. One of these is the necessity of reactive power that needs
to be supplied along with active power. Reactive power can be leading or lagging. While
it is the active power that contributes to the energy consumed, or transmitted, reactive
power does not contribute to the energy. Reactive power is an inherent part of the ‘‘total
9
power.’’ Reactive power is either generated or consumed in almost every component of
the system, generation, transmission, and distribution and eventually by the loads. The
impedance of a branch of a circuit in an AC system consists of two components,
resistance and reactance. Reactance can be either inductive or capacitive, which
contribute to reactive power in the circuit. Most of the loads are inductive, and must be
supplied with lagging reactive power. It is economical to supply this reactive power
closer to the load in the distribution system.
3.2 TYPES OF COMPENSATION
Shunt and series reactive compensation using capacitors has been 3 widely
recognized and powerful methods to combat the problems of voltage drops, power losses,
and voltage flicker in power distribution networks. The importance of compensation
schemes has gone up in recent years due to the increased awareness on energy
conservation and quality of supply on the part of the Power Utility as well as power
consumers. This amplifies on the advantages that accrue from using shunt and series
capacitor compensation. It also tries to answer the twin questions of how much to
compensate and where to locate the compensation capacitors.
i.) SHUNT CAPACITOR COMPENSATION
Since most loads are inductive and consume lagging reactive power, the
compensation required is usually supplied by leading reactive power. Shunt
compensation of reactive power can be employed either at load level, substation level, or
at transmission level. It can be capacitive (leading) or inductive (lagging) reactive power,
10
although in most cases as explained before, compensation is capacitive. The most
common form of leading reactive power compensation is by connecting shunt capacitors
to the line.
Fig. 3.2(i) represents an A.C generator supplying a load through a line of series
impedance (R+jX) ohms, fig.3.2(ii) shows the phasor diagram when the line is delivering
a complex power of (P+jQ) VA and Fig. 3.2(iii) shows the phasor diagram when the line
is delivering a complex power of (P+jO) VA i.e. with the load fully compensated. A
thorough examination of these phasor diagrams will reveal the following facts which are
higher by a factor of
2
Cos
1

,
`

.
|
φ
compared to the minimum power loss attainable in the
system.
11
Figure 3.2 (i) represents an A.C generator supplying a load through a line of
series.
Figure.3.2 (ii) shows the phasor diagram when the line is delivering a complex
power of (P+jQ)
Figure. 3.2 (iii) shows the phasor diagram when the line is delivering a complex
power of (P+jQ)
The loading on generator, transformers, line etc is decided by the current flow.
i. The higher current flow in the case of uncompensated load necessitated by the
reactive demand results in a tie up of capacity in this equipment by a factor of
12
φ Cos
1
i.e. compensating the load to UPF will release a capacity of (load VA
rating X Cosφ ) in all these equipment.
ii. The sending-end voltage to be maintained for a specified receiving-end voltage is
higher in the case of uncompensated load. The line has bad regulation with
uncompensated load.
iii. The sending-end power factor is less in the case of an uncompensated one. This is
due to the higher reactive absorption taking place in the line reactance.
iv. The excitation requirements on the generator are severe in the case of
uncompensated load. Under this condition, the generator is required to maintain a
higher terminal voltage with a greater current flowing in the armature at a lower
lagging power factor compared to the situation with the same load fully
compensated. It is entirely possible that the required excitation is much beyond
the maximum excitation current capacity of the machine and in that case further
voltage drop at receiving-end will take place due to the inability of the generator
to maintain the required sending-end voltage. It is also clear that the increased
excitation requirement results in considerable increase in losses in the excitation
system.
It is abundantly clear from the above that compensating a lagging load by using
shunt capacitors will result in
i. Lesser power loss everywhere upto the location of capacitor and hence a more
efficient system.
13
ii. Releasing of tied-up capacity in all the system equipments thereby enabling a
postponement of the capital intensive capacity enhancement programs to a later
date.
iii. Increased life of equipments due to optimum loading on them.
iv. Lesser voltage drops in the system and better regulation.
v. Less strain on the excitation system of generators and lesser excitation losses.
vi. Increase in the ability of the generators to meet the system peak demand thanks to
the released capacity and lesser power losses.
Shunt capacitive compensation delivers maximum benefit when employed right
across the load. And employing compensation in HT & LT distribution network is the
closest one can get to the load in a power network. However, various considerations like
ease of ope
r
ation end control, economy achievable by lumping shunt compensation at
EHV stations etc will tend to shift a portion of shunt compensation to EHV & HV
substations. Power utilities in most countries employ about 60% capacitors on feeders,
30% capacitors on the substation buses and the remaining 10% on the transmission
system. Application of capacitors on the LT side is not usually resorted to by the utilities.
Just as a lagging system power factor is detrimental to the system on various
counts, a leading system pf is also undesirable. It tends to result in over-voltages, higher
losses, lesser capacity utilization, and reduced stability margin in the generators. The
reduced stability margin makes a leading power factor operation of the system much
more undesirable than the lagging p.f operation. This fact has to be given due to
14
consideration in designing shunt compensation in view of changing reactive load levels in
a power network.
Shunt compensation is successful in reducing voltage drop and power loss
problems in the network under steady load conditions. But the voltage dips produced by
DOL starting of large motors, motors driving sharply fluctuating or periodically varying
loads, arc furnaces, welding units etc can not be improved by shunt capacitors since it
would require a rapidly varying compensation level. The voltage dips, especially in the
case of a low short circuit capacity system can result in annoying lamp-flicker, dropping
out of motor contactors due to U/V pick up, stalling of loaded motors etc. and fixed or
switched shunt capacitors are powerless against these voltage dips. But thyristor
controlled Static VAR compensators with a fast response will be able to alleviate the
voltage dip problem effectively.
a.) SHUNT CAPACITORS
Shunt capacitors are employed at substation level for the following reasons:
i. Voltage regulation: The main reason that shunt capacitors are installed at
substations is to control the voltage within required levels. Load varies over the
day, with very low load from midnight to early morning and peak values
occurring in the evening between 4 PM and 7 PM. Shape of the load curve also
varies from weekday to weekend, with weekend load typically low. As the load
varies, voltage at the substation bus and at the load bus varies. Since the load
power factor is always lagging, a shunt connected capacitor bank at the substation
15
can raise voltage when the load is high. The shunt capacitor banks can be
permanently connected to the bus (fixed capacitor bank) or can be switched as
needed. Switching can be based on time, if load variation is predictable, or can be
based on voltage, power factor, or line current.
ii. Reducing power losses: Compensating the load lagging power factor with the
bus connected shunt capacitor bank improves the power factor and reduces
current flow through the transmission lines, transformers, generators, etc. This
will reduce power losses (I2R losses) in this equipment.
iii. Increased utilization of equipment: Shunt compensation with capacitor banks
reduces KVA loading of lines, transformers, and generators, which means with
compensation they can be used for delivering more power without overloading
the equipment.
Reactive power compensation in a power system is of two types—shunt and series.
Shunt compensation can be installed near the load, in a distribution substation, along the
distribution feeder, or in a transmission substation. Each application has different
purposes. Shunt reactive compensation can be inductive or capacitive. At load level, at
the distribution substation, and along the distribution feeder, compensation is usually
capacitive. In a transmission substation, both inductive and capacitve reactive
compensation are installed.
b.) SHUNT CAPACITOR INSTALLATION TYPES:
16
The capacitor installation types and types of control for switched capacitor are
best understood by considering a long feeder supplying a concentrated load at feeder end.
This is usually a valid approximation for some of the city feeders, which emanate from
substations, located 4 to 8 Kms away from the heart of the city.
Absolute minimum power loss in this case will result when the concentrated load
is compensated to up by locating capacitors across the load or nearby on the feeder. But
the optimum value of compensation can be arrived at only by considering a cost benefit
analysis.
Figure 3.2 (iv) long distribution feeder supplying a concentrated load
It is evident from fig. 3.2 (v) that it will require a continuously variable capacitor
to keep the compensation at economically optimum level throughout the day. However,
17
this can only be approximated by switched capacitor banks. Usually one fixed capacitor
and two or three switched units will be employed to match the compensation to the
reactive demand of the load over a day. The value of fixed capacitor is decided by
minimum reactive demand as shown in Fig 3.2 (v)
Figure. 3.2 (v) reactive demand
Automatic control of switching is required for capacitors located at the load end
or on the feeder. Automatic switching is done usually by a time switch or voltage
controlled switch as shown in Fig 3.2(v). The time switch is used to switch on the
capacitor bank required to meet the day time reactive load and another capacitor bank
switched on by a low voltage signal during evening peak along with the other two banks
will maintain the required compensation during night peak hours.
ii) SERIES CAPACITOR COMPENSATION
18
Shunt compensation essentially reduces the current flow everywhere upto the
point where capacitors are located and all other advantages follow from this fact. But
series compensation acts directly on the series reactance of the line. It reduces the transfer
reactance between supply point and the load and thereby reduces the voltage drop. Series
capacitor can be thought of as a voltage regulator, which adds a voltage proportional to
the load current and there by improves the load voltage.
Figure 3.2 (vi) Aerial view of 500-kV series capacitor installation
Series compensation is employed in EHV lines to
i. Improve the power transfer capability
ii. Improve voltage regulation
iii. Improve the load sharing between parallel lines.
19
Economic factors along with the possible occurrence of sub-synchronous
resonance in the system will decide the extent of compensation employed.
Series capacitors, with their inherent ability to add a voltage proportional to load
current, will be the ideal solution for handling the voltage dip problem brought about by
motor starting, arc furnaces, welders etc. And, usually the application of series
compensation in distribution system is limited to this due to the complex protection
required for the capacitors and the consequent high cost. Also, some problems like self-
excitation of motors during starting, ferro resonance, steady hunting of synchronous
motors etc discourages wide spread use of series compensation in distribution systems.
3.3 ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION FOR USE OF CAPACITORS:
Increase in benefits for 1KVAR of additional compensation decrease rapidly as
the system power factor reaches close to unity. This fact prompts an economic analysis to
arrive at the optimum compensation level. Different economic criteria can be used for
this purpose. The annual financial benefit obtained by using capacitors can be compared
against the annual equivalent of the total cost involved in the capacitor installation. The
decision also can be based on the number of years it will take to recover the cost involved
in the Capacitor installation. A more sophisticated method would be able to calculate the
present value of future benefits and compare it against the present cost of capacitor
installation.
When reactive power is provided only by generators, each system component
(generators, transformers, transmission and distribution lines, switch gear and protective
equipment etc) has to be increased in size accordingly. Capacitors reduce losses and
loading in all these equipments, thereby effecting savings through powerless reduction
20
and increase in generator, line and substation capacity for additional load. Depending on
the initial power factor, capacitor installations can release at least 30% additional
capacity in generators, lines and transformers. Also they can increase the distribution
feeder load capability by about 30% in the case of feeders which were limited by voltage
drop considerations earlier. Improvement in system voltage profile will usually result in
increased power consumption thereby enhancing the revenue from energy sales.
Thus, the following benefits are to be considered in an economic analysis of
compensation requirements.
a) Benefits due to released generation capacity.
b) Benefits due to released transmission capacity.
c) Benefits due to released distribution substation capacity.
d) Benefits due to reduced energy loss.
e) Benefits due to reduced voltage drop.
f) Benefits due to released feeder capacity.
g) Financial Benefits due to voltage improvement.
Capacitors in distribution system will indeed release generation and transmission
capacities. But when individual distribution feeder compensation is in question, the value
of released capacities in generation and transmission system is likely to be too small to
warrant inclusion in economic analysis. Moreover, due to the tightly inter-connected
nature of the system, the exact benefit due to capacity release in these areas is quite
difficult to compute. Capacity release in generation and transmission system is probably
more relevant in compensation studies at transmission and sub-transmission levels and
21
hence are left out from the economic analysis of capacitor application in distribution
systems.
a.) BENEFITS DUE TO RELEASED DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION
CAPACITY:
The released distribution substation capacity due to installation of capacitors
which deliver Qc MVARs of compensation at peak load conditions may be shown to be
equal to
c
2
c
c
2 / 1
2
c
2 2
c
c
S 1
S
Sin Q
S
Cos Q
1 S
]
]
]
]
]


φ
+

,
`

.
|
φ
− · ∆
In general and
φ ≈ ∆ Sin Q S
c c
when
10
S
Q
C
C
<
∆ S
c
= Released station capacity beyond maximum station capacity at original
power factor
S
C
= Station Capacity
Cosφ = The P.F at the station before compensation:
The annual benefit due to the released station capacity =
i x C x S
c

where C= Cost of station & associated apparatus per MVA.
b.) BENEFITS DUE TO REDUCED ENERGY LOSSES:
22
Annual energy losses are reduced as a result of decreasing copper loss due to
installation of capacitors. Information on type of capacitor installation, location of
installation nature of feeder loading etc. are needed to calculate.. The calculation can
proceed as follows.
Let a current 2 1
jI I +
flow through a resistance R. The power loss is (Ij
2
+ I
2
2
)
R
-
The power loss due to reactive component is I
2
2
R. Compensating the feeder will result in
a change only in I
2
. Hence the new power loss will be (I
2
2
+(I
2
-I
C
)
2
) R where Ic is the
compensating current. Hence the decrease in power loss due to compensating part of
reactive current is (2 I
2
Ic-Ic
2
) R.
Now, if I
2
is varying (it will be varying according to reactive demand curve) the
average decrease in power loss over a period of T hours will be equal to (2 I
2
Ic F
R
-Ic
2
) R
where I
2
stands for peak reactive current during T hours through the feeder section of
resistance R, Ic is compensation current flowing through the same section for the same
period and F
R
is reactive load factor for T hours in the same section. Thus total energy
savings in this section of feeder for T hours will be 3(2I
2
IcF
R
-Ic
2
) RT.
One day can be divided in to many such periods depending on the number of
fixed and switched capacitors and the sequence of operation of switched capacitors. Also,
the feeder can be modeled by uniformly distributed load or discrete loading and total
energy savings can be found out for each period over the entire period by mathematical
integration or discrete summation. The daily and hence the annual energy savings for the
entire feeder can be worked by an aggregation over the time periods.
23
Let ∆ E this value if total energy savings per year. Annual benefits due to
conserved energy will be ∆ E cost of energy.
c.) BENEFITS DUE TO RELEASED FEEDER CAPACITY:
In general feeder capacity is restricted by voltage regulation considerations rather
than thermal limits. Shunt compensation improves voltage regulation and there by
enhances feeder capacity. This additional feeder capacity can be calculated as
θ + θ
· ∆
rCos XSin
x Q
S
C
F
where Qc is compensation (MVAR)employed, X and R are
feeder reactance & resistance respectively and Cos θ is the P.F before compensation.
The annual benefits due to this will be ∆ S
F
X C x i where C is the cost of the installed
feeder per MVA and / is the annual fixed charge rate applicable.
d.) FINANCIAL BENEFITS DUE TO VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT:
Energy consumption increases with improved voltage. Exact value of the
increased consumption can be worked out from a knowledge of elasticity of loads of the
concerned feeders with respect to voltage, Let it be ∆ E
C
. Annual revenue increase due to
this will be ∆ Ecx cost of energy.
e.) ANNUAL EQUIVALENT OF TOTAL COST OF THE
INSTALLED CAPACITORS:
24
This will be equal to Qc*C*i where Qc is total capacitive MVAR to be installed,
C is cost of capacitors per MVAR and i is the annual fixed charge applicable.
The total annual benefits should be compared against the annual equivalent of
total cost of capacitors to arrive at optimum compensation levels.
3.4 CONCULSION
In this chapter, we discussed about reactive power compensation, mainly in
transmission systems and the types of compensations of which shunt and series are the
main compensation techniques.
In next chapter we are going to discuss about the different types of capacitor
banks and their ratings.
4.1 INTRODUCTION:
25
In this chapter we are going to discus about the different types of capacitor banks
and their ratings.
A capacitor consists of two electrodes or plates, each of which stores an opposite
charge. These two plates are conductive and are separated by an insulator or dielectric.
The charge is stored at the surface of the plates, at the boundary with the dielectric.
Because each plate stores an equal but opposite charge, the total charge in the capacitor is
always zero.
Figure. 4.1 (a) showing plate separation
When electric charge accumulates on the plates, an electric field is created in the
region between the plates that is proportional to the amount of accumulated charge. This
electric field creates a potential difference V = E·d between the plates of this simple
parallel-plate capacitor.
26
Figure.4.1 (b) showing polarized molecules
The electrons in the molecules move or rotate the molecule toward the positively
charged left plate. This process creates an opposing electric field that partially annuls the
field created by the plates. (The air gap is shown for clarity; in a real capacitor, the
dielectric is in direct contact with the plates.)
a.) CAPACITANCE:
The capacitor's capacitance (C) is a measure of the amount of charge (Q) stored
on each plate for a given potential difference or voltage (V) which appears between the
plates:
In SI units, a capacitor has a capacitance of one farad when one coulomb of charge
causes a potential difference of one volt across the plates. Since the farad is a very large
27
unit, values of capacitors are usually expressed in microfarads (µF), nano farads (n F) or
pico farads (p F).
The capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the conducting plate and
inversely proportional to the distance between the plates. It is also proportional to the
permittivity of the dielectric (that is, non-conducting) substance that separates the plates.
b.) STORED ENERGY:
As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor due to the separation
of charge, a voltage develops across the capacitor owing to the electric field of these
charges. Ever increasing work must be done against this ever increasing electric field as
more charge is separated. The energy (measured in joules, in SI) stored in a capacitor is
equal to the amount of work required to establish the voltage across the capacitor, and
therefore the electric field. The energy stored is given by:
where V is the voltage across the capacitor.
4.2 RATINGS OF CAPACITORS:
The three-phase capacitors are characterized by negligible losses and high
reliability. The capacitor consists of thin dielectric polypropylene film wound together
with electrodes of aluminum foil. Discharge resistors are built-in.
28
A bio-degradable hydrocarbon compound with excellent electrical properties is
used as the impregnation fluid. The container is of surface-treated high-quality steel and
the bushings and terminals are of the highest quality and reliability.
a.) RATINGS:
The ratings of the capacitor depends upon the power to be delivered, voltage
regulation, frequency and also the internal connections as tabulated below.
Table 4.1 ratings of capacitor
2GUW
Standard
2GUW
Non-standard
CHD
Max. Power 300 kvar 500 kvar 500 kvar
Voltage 2.4, 4.16, 4.8 kV 4.8 - 13.8 kV up to 20 kV
Frequency 50, 60 Hz 50, 60 Hz 50, 60 Hz
Max. current 75A 75A 180 A
Internal connection Delta, but limited star
available
Application Power factor
correction for motors
and load centers.
Power factor
correction for motors
and load centers.
Power factor
correction for motors
and load centers.
b.) BANK ASSEMBLY:
Depending on the total output requirement more then 1 capacitor might be
needed.2GUE bank assembly are available.
All 2GUE assemblies include:
i. 1 to 4 Three-Phase Capacitor Units type 2GUW
29
ii. Direct stud-mounted current limiting fuses (1⁄2" UNC); 1 per phase
iii. Bushing enclosure and cover
iv. Dust-proof and weatherproof.
Three Phase High voltage; Capacitors 50 Hz / 60 Hz; From 2.4 kV To 20.70 kV
i. Maximum voltage 20.70 kV
ii. Maximum output 750 KVAR
iii. All Polypropylene (APP) film dielectric
iv. Ultra Low Losses
v. Indoor or Outdoor
vi. application up to 96 kV BIL
vii. Superior electrical performance
viii. Improved tank rupture characteristics
Calculation for Capacitor Bank requirement for a power distribution system
calculation and selection of required capacitor rating
Qc = P * {tan [acos (pf1)] - tan [ acos (pf2)]}
Qc = required capacitor output (kVAr)
pf1 = actual power factor
pf2 = target power factor
P = real power (kW)
The table below shows the values for typical power factors in accordance with the above
formula
Actual Power Factor
30
0.7;0.75;0.8;0.85;0.9;0.92;0.94;0.96;0.98;1
--------------------------------------------------------
0.40--- 1.27; 1.41;1.54;1.67;1.81;1.87; 1.93;2; 2.09;2.29
0.45--- 0.96;1.1;1.23;1.36;1.5;1.56;1.62;1.69;1.78;1.98
0.5---- 0.71;0.85;0.98; 1.11;1.25;1.31; 1.37; 1.44; 1.53; 1.73
0.55--- 0.5; 0.64; 0.77; 0.9; 1.03; 1.09; 1.16; 1.23; 1.32; 1.52
0.60--- 0.31; 0.45; 0.58; 0.71; 0.85; 0.91; 0.97; 1.04; 1.13; 1.33
0.65--- 0.15; 0.29; 0.42; 0.55; 0.68; 0.74; 0.81; 0.88; 0.97; 1.17
0.70--- 0; 0.14; 0.27; 0.4; 0.54; 0.59; 0.66; 0.73; 0.82; 1.02
0.75--- 0; 0.13; 0.26; 0.4; 0.46; 0.52; 0.59; 0.68; 0.88
The required capacitor output may be calculated as follows:
select the factor (matching point of actual and target power factor) k
calculate the required capacitor rating with the formula:
Qc = k * P
Example:
actual power factor = 0.70, target power factor = 0.96, real power = P = 500kW,
Qc = k * P = 0.73 * 500kW = 365 KVAR
4.3 INSTALLATION OF CAPACITORS:
In the case of induction motors, power factor is low and it is the responsibility of
industrial and agricultural consumers to improve the power factor to the prescribed limit.
for this consumers have to use capacitors.
The table below shows the capacity of capacitors required for various loads.
31
Table 4.3(a) shows the capacity of capacitors required for various loads
Power factors of some of the common types of loads are given below.
The table 4.3(b) shows the Power factors of some of the common types of loads.
Incandescent lamps 1
Arc lamps used in cinemas 0.3to0.7
Neon lamps used for advertisements 0.4 to 0.5
Fluorescent lamps 0.6 to0.8
Fans 0.9
Electrical drills 1
Resistance heaters 0.85
32
SLNO Rating of
motor(HP)
KVAR rating of LT capacitors for various RPM
750RPM 1000RPM 15000RPM 3000RPM
1 3 1 1 1 1
2 5 2 2 2 2
3 7.5 3 3 3 3
4 10 4 4 4 3
5 15 6 5 5 4
6 20 8 7 6 5
7 25 9 8 7 6
8 30 10 9 8 7
9 40 13 11 9 9
10 50 15 15 10 10
11 60 20 20 12 14
12 75 24 23 16 16
13 100 30 30 19 20
14 125 39 38 24 26
15 150 45 45 31 30
16 200 60 60 48 40
Arc furnaces 0.85
Induction furnaces 0.6
Arc welders 0.3to0.4
Resistance welders 0.65
Induction motors 0.4 to 0.8
Capacity of Capacitors required for welding transformers
The table 4.3(c) shows Capacity of Capacitors required for welding transformers.
SLNO Name of the rating in KVA of individual welding
transformer
Capacity of the capacitor in
KVAR
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 3 3
4 4 3
5 5 4
6 6 5
7 7 6
8 8 6
9 9 7
10 10 8
11 11 9
12 12 9
13 13 10
14 14 11
15 15 12
16 16 12
17 17 13
18 18 14
19 19 15
20 20 15
21 21 16
22 22 17
23 23 18
24 24 19
25 25 19
26 26 20
27 27 21
28 28 22
29 29 22
30 30 23
31 31 24
33
32 32 25
33 33 25
34 34 26
35 35 27
4.4 LOCATION OF CAPACITOR BANKS:
Depending upon specific factors such as cost, requirement of area for
installation and load, the location of capacitor banks is divided into three types. They are,
a. Central compensation
b. Group compensation
c. Individual compensation

a) CENTRAL COMPENSATION:
When the main purpose is to reduce reactive power purchase due to power
supplier’s tariffs, central compensation is preferable. Reactive loading conditions within a
plant are not affected if compensation is made on the high voltage side. When made on
the low voltage side, the transformer is relieved. Cost of installation on the high voltage
and low voltage sides respectively determine where to install the capacitor.
b) GROUP COMPENSATION:
Group compensation is preferable to central compensation if sufficiently large
capacitors can be utilized. In addition to what is obtained at central compensation, load
on cables is reduced and losses decrease. Reduced losses often make group compensation
more profitable than central compensation. Because of large available group
compensation is suitable for harmonic filters.
34
c) INDIVIDUAL COMPENSATION:
The advantage with individual compensation is that existing switching and
protective devices for the machine to be compensated can also be utilized for switching
and protection of capacitors. The costs are there by limited solely to purchasing the
capacitors. Another advantage is gained by the capacitor being automatically switched in
and out with the load. However this signifies that individual compensation is solely
motivated for apparatus and machines which have a very good load factor.
Usually, in a long feeder, receiving end voltage bucks considerably due to drop
and consumers at this is affected. Therefore, it is essential to install the switched
capacitor nearer to the receiving end of the feeder where the load concentration is more.
Subsequently, the improvement in power factor and voltage will be experienced by
consumers who are connected after the tapping point of switched capacitor in the system.
However prior to the installation of the switched capacitor at set location, the power
factor, the peak demand and off peak demand load current should be noted carefully.
4.5 CONCLUSION
In this chapter we discussed about the different types of capacitor banks and their
ratings.
In next chapter we are going to discuss about latest technology involved in
reactive power compensation.
35
.
5.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapter we are going study about latest technology involved in reactive
power compensation.
5.2 STATIC VAR CONTROL (SVC):

Static VAR compensators, commonly known as SVCs, are shunt connected
devices; vary the reactive power output by controlling or switching the reactive
impedance components by means of power electronics. This category includes the
following equipment:
36
i. Thyristor controlled reactors (TCR) with fixed capacitors (FC)
ii. Thyristor switched capacitors (TSC)
iii. Thyristor controlled reactors in combination with mechanically or Thyristor
switched capacitors
SVCs are installed to solve a variety of power system problems:
i. Voltage regulation
ii. Reduce voltage flicker caused by varying loads like arc furnace, etc.
iii. Increase power transfer capacity of transmission systems
iv. Increase transient stability limits of a power system
v. Increase damping of power oscillations
vi. Reduce temporary over voltages
vii. Damp sub-synchronous oscillations
A view of an SVC installation is shown in Fig.5.1.
37
Figure 5.1 View of static VAR compensator (SVC) installation.
5.3 DESCRIPTION OF SVC:
Figure5.2 shows three basic versions of SVC. Figure 5.2a shows configuration of
TCR with fixed capacitor banks. The main components of a SVC are thyristor valves,
reactors, the control system, and the step-down transformer.
5.4 WORKING OF AN SVC:
38
As the load varies in a distribution system, a variable voltage drop will occur in
the system impedance, which is mainly reactive. Assuming the generator voltage remains
constant, the voltage at the load bus will vary. The voltage drop is a function of the
reactive component of the load current, and system and transformer reactance. When the
loads change very rapidly, or fluctuate frequently, it may cause ‘‘voltage flicker’’ at the
customers’ loads. Voltage flicker can be annoying and irritating to customers because of
the ‘‘lamp flicker’’ it causes. Some loads can also be sensitive to these rapid voltage
fluctuations.
An SVC can compensate voltage drop for load variations and maintain constant
voltage by controlling the duration of current flow in each cycle through the reactor.
Current flow in the reactor can be controlled by controlling the gating of thyristors that
control the conduction period of the thyristor in each cycle, from zero conduction (gate
signal off) to full-cycle conduction. In Fig. 2a, for example, assume the MVA of the fixed
capacitor bank is equal to the MVA of the reactor when the reactor branch is conducting
for full cycle. Hence, when the reactor branch is conducting full cycle, the net reactive
power drawn by the SVC (combination of capacitor bank and thyristor controlled reactor)
will be zero. When the load reactive power (which is usually inductive) varies, the SVC
reactive power will be varied to match the load reactive power by controlling the duration
of the conduction of current in the thyristor controlled reactive power branch. Figure.3
shows current waveforms for three conduction levels, 60, 120 and 1808. It is possible to
vary the net reactive power of the SVC from 0 to the full capacitive VAR only. This is
sufficient for most applications of voltage regulation, as in most cases only capacitive
39
VARs are required to compensate the inductive VARs of the load. If the capacitor can be
switched on and off, the MVAR can be varied from full inductive to full capacitive,up to
the rating of the inductive and capacitive branches.
40
Figure 5.2 Three versions of SVC.
(a) TCR with fixed capacitor bank;
(b) TCR with switched capacitor banks; and
(c) Thyristor switched capacitor compensator breakers.
5.5 CONCLUSION:
In this chapter we studied about latest technology involved in reactive power
compensation.
41
In next chapter we are going to study about the technical specifications of
associated equipment of capacitor bank units and different types of manufacturing
designs.
6.1 INTRODUCTION:

In this chapter we are going to study about the various types of capacitor and
their technical specification and different types of .
42
6.2 TECHNICAL PARTICULARS FOR CAPACITOR BANK UNIT:
The technical information or the technical particulars for the associated
equipment of the capacitor bank unit is tabulated as shown below.
a.) Guaranteed technical particulars for spare capacitor units
TABLE NO 6.1(a) Guaranteed technical particulars for spare capacitor units
43
b) 36KV SERIES REACTORS FOR CAPACITORS
44
Item .
NO
Description
1 Make and Type SHREEM CAPACITOR PVT.LTD.
OUTDOOR OIL COOLED,STATIC TYPE
2 Reference standards IS :13925/1988(PART-I)
3 Rated voltage for each capacitor units KV 21.9 11.24 7.32 7.3 7.32 193.5 6.93 11 10.4
10.44
4 Rated frequency 50hz
5 KVAR(at rated voltage and frequency of each
unit)
400 400 26606 200 200 200.5 166 150 125 11
6 No. of bushing Two
7 Type of bushing terminals BRASS
8 Maximum permissible over voltage and duration 110%brass rated voltage for 12 hrs in a day
9 Maximum permissible current ---
a) Continuous 130% rated current
b) Short term-duration in secs 130% rated current
10 Maximum permissible operating over voltage ---
11 Residual voltage 100% of rated voltage
12 Discharge time 50volts
13 Minimum time interval required between
denergisation and re-energisation of the bank
10 min or 5 min
14 Temperature rise under 10 min or 5 min
15 Limiting ambient temperature 50deg c
16 Capacitance variation due to 50 deg c
17 Loss per KVAR(maximum) Negliglible
18 Voltage withstand tests (capacitor units) 0.13 watts/Kvar (max)
a) Terminal to terminal 50c/s 1min.dry KV
(RMS)
---
b)terminal to case 50c/s1min.dry KV(RMS) 4.3 times (dc)voltage for 1min
19 impulse withstand voltage KV 70 38 28 28 28 50 28 38 38 38
20 Individual fuse rating 170 95 75 75 75 125 75 95 95 95
21 Physical and electrical properties of capacitors ---
a) Nominal thickness of polypronviene ---
b) Tensile strength 27 to 36 micron
i) length wise (mPa) ---
ii) cross wise (mPa) 190
C)percentage elongation 200
TABLE NO 6.1(b) Guaranteed technical particulars for 36 kv series reactors
45
46
ITEM
NO
DESCRIPTION 14.4 KVAR
1 Make and type Shrihans /Quality power
2 Reference standard IS: 5553-Part –III-1990
3 a)Insulation level with post insulators
b)Insulation level of winding
70 KV (rms)/170 KV (peak)
4 Rated KVAR 2.4
5 Rated current and voltage 54.69 A,33KV
6 Rated Reactance/Phase (ohms) 0.802
7 Rated frequency 50 HZ
8 Over current factor 130 of rated current
9 Compensation percent of series reactors 0.20%
10 Maximum temperatures rise of coil over ambient specified for
which reactor is designed
105 Deg C
11 Number of phases Single
12 Dimensions (overall)approx 600 * 430 * 900
13 Total weight/weight of coil and assembly unit(approx) 32 kg
14 Rated short time circuit 0.911
15 Duration of short circuit 2
16 Type of cooling Air cooled
17 Losses at rated current and frequency at 75 Deg.C(Watts) 325
18 Winding resistance (Cold/Hot) 0.098
19 Voltage and Rating of reactor bushing/support insulator ---
20 Terminal arrangement ---
i) Incoming 2 * 24 KV
ii) Outgoing Suitable for bus bar connection
21 Maximum system voltage for which reactor is designed. 36
22 Choke voltage per phase at rated current 44
23 Whether reactor designed for
a)Harmonics
b)Inrush current
Yes
24 Material of winding Aluminium
25 Maximum current density 1.10
c) 36 KV NEUTRAL CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR
CAPACITORS
TABLE NO 6.1(c) Guaranteed technical particulars for 36 kv neutral current transformer
ITEM
NO
DESCRIPTION
1 Make and type Gyro/Instrument /SVEI
2 Reference IS:2705/1992
3 Rated terminal Voltage/Highest voltage (kv) 33 KV/36 KV
4 Rated primary current (Amps) 10-5 A
5 Secondary core details ----
6 a)No. of secondary cores Two
b)Rated secondary current (A) 1 AMP
c) Rated burden(VA) Core -1:-15VA
Core- 2:-15VA
d) Accuracy class 5P 5P
e) Accuracy limit factor 10 10
f)Knee point voltage (Volts) ----
g) Excitation current (mA) ----
h) Secondary resistance at 75 deg.C (ohms) ----
7 Instrument security factor ----
8 Short time thermal current and its duration kA.Secs OCF 100 for 3 secs
9 Rate dynamic current (peak) kA ----
10 a)Rate continuous thermal current (A) 120% of rated current
b) Temperature rise over ambient deg.C 30 Deg.C, above ambient
temperature of 40Deg.C
11 Creepage distance
a)Total 900 mm (approx)
b)Protected 450 mm (approx)
47
12 Insulation level
a)Impulse with stand test voltage (kV peak )
170 KV (Peak)
b)One minute power frequency withstand test voltage of
primary (kV rms )
70 KV rms
c)One minute power frequency withstand test voltage of
secondary (kV rms)
3 KV rms
13 Quantity of insulating oil (litres) 25 Ltrs
14 Total weight including oil (kg) 76 kg.(approx)
15 Magnetization curve of CT cores NA
16 Mounting details 340 mm * 250mm
17 Live part to ground clearance (mm) 530 mm (approx)
18 Material of primary winding Copper
19 Current transformer design (live tank or dead tank) Live tank
20 Whether all ferrous parts are hot dip galvanized No, not hot dip galvanized. All
ferrous parts exposed to
atmosphere are duly painted.
21 Details of terminal connectors ---
d) GUARANTEED TECHNICAL PARTICULARS FOR 36 KV
RESIDUAL VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
TABLE NO 6.1(d) Guaranteed technical particulars for 36 kv residual voltage
transformers
ITEM
NO
DESCRIPTION
1 Make and type Gyro/Instrument/SVEI
2 Reference STANDARD IS:3156
3 Rated terminal voltage /Highest voltage (KV)
a)Primary
b)Secondary
33 KV
110 V-570 V
48
4 Rated current (Amps)
a)Primary
b)Secondary
---
---
5 Connection Star/Star –Open Delta
6 Secondary core details ---
a) No. of secondary cores ---
b)Rated secondary burden (VA) ---
c) Accuracy class ---
d) Accuracy limit factor ---
e) Knee point voltage ---
f) Secondary resistance at 75 deg.C (ohms) ---
7 Instrument security factor ---
8 Voltage factor 1.2 Cont & 1.9 for 30
secs
9 Accuracy class
a)Protection winding
b)Metering winding
3P
1
10 Burden
a) Protection winding
b) Metering winding
100 VA
100 VA
11 Frequency 50 HZ
12 Insulation level
a) Impulse with stand voltage (kV peak)
b) Power frequency with stand voltage (kV rms)
170
70
49
13 Creepage distance
a)Total
b)Protected
900 mm
450 mm
14 Fuses
a)Secondary side or not
b)Rating
Yes
2 Amps
15 Quantity of insulating oil (litres) 80 Ltrs (approx)
16 Total weight including oil (kg) 275 kgs (approx)
17 Magnetization curve of RVT cores ---
18 Mounting details 500 mm * 300 mm
19 Live part to ground clearance (mm) 475 mm(approx)
20 Material of primary winding Copper
21 Whether all ferrous parts are hot dip galvanized No, not hot dip
galvanized. All ferrous
parts exposed to
atmosphere are duly
painted
22 Details of terminal connectors ---
6.3 DESIGN OF DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS OF THE
CAPACITOR:
There are several manufacturing companies that designed the capacitors with
specific dimensions which are approximate. These dimensions indicated are designed in
such a way that due to design improvements they do not effect the functional parameters.
The designs of different manufacturing companies are shown below and the different
companies are,
50
i. Asia Type vi. CGL Type
ii. Shreem Manufacturer vii. COOPER Type
iii. CPS Type viii. MEHER Type
iv. SHAKTI Type ix. ABB Type
v. NGF Type x. BHEL Type
51
Figure 6.1(a) showing external fuse capacitor of Asia type .
52
Figure 6.1( b) showing internal fuse capacitor of Shreem manufacturer .
53
Figure 6.1( c) showing external fuse capacitor of CPS type .
54
Figure 6.1( d) showing external fuse capacitor of CGL type .
55
Figure 6.1(e) showing external fuse capacitor of COOPER type .
56
Figure 6.1(f) showing external fuse capacitor of MEHAR type .
57
Figure 6.1(g) showing external fuse capacitor of SHAKTI type .
58
Figure 6.1(h) showing external fuse capacitor of NGF type .
59
Figure 6.1(i) showing external fuse capacitor of ABB type .
60

Figure 6.1(j) showing internal fuse capacitor of BHEL type .
61
6.2 CONCLUSION:
In this chapter we have studied about technical particulars of associated equipment
of capacitor bank units and design of capacitors of different manufacturers and capacitors
installed in APTRANSCO.
In the next chapter we are going to discuss about the various case studies at different
substations.
62
7.1 CASE STUDY - 1
a.) INTRODUCTION:
Most of the electrical equipments connected to a power supply not only require
active power but also certain amount of reactive power. Magnetic fields in Motors and
Transformers are maintained by reactive current. Also series inductance in transmission
lines implies consumption of reactive power. Hence it is imperative that in an electrical
system, the feeder lines cater considerable amount of reactive power in addition to the
active power carried by them. Shunt capacitors are employed to compensate the reactive
power generated in the system to alleviate the ill effects of reactive components and will
benefit the system in:-
i. Improving the voltage profile
ii. Reduction of line current resulting in reduction of system losses.
iii. Increased line efficiency resulting in optimum utilization of designed capacity.
b.) IMPLEMENTATION:
Out of the existing 56 feeders 32 feeders were selected for installation of
capacitors, 19 of which are rural feeders, one industrial feeder and one feeder catering to
combined urban as well as rural loads. Work was carried out through turnkey contract at
a total cost of 146.16 lakhs which is 6.32% below the DPR cost. The work was
completed in 3 months time Single pole mounted Capacitor Bank at project site Close up
view of Capacitor Bank at project site 5
63
Three feeders were selected for conducting the sample study. The feeders are DF 2
and DF 6 of D Cross sub-station and KF 8 of KIADB sub-station. The data of the feeders
for nine months was obtained. The period covers three months prior to the installation of
capacitors and six month after commissioning of capacitors.
Location: DODDABALLAPUR SUB-STATION
The study of installation of switched capacitors on 11 KV feeders
Site address: DODDABALLAPUR subdivision,
BANGALORE Electricity Supply Company Limited.
Period of study: January 2009 to April 2009.
The three feeders DF2, DF6 and KF8 at Doddaballapur of different lengths with
different usage of conductors are mentioned below and the current and power (MW) are
noted down in the morning peak and in the evening peak.The corresponding power
factors that is average power factor for the taken readings is calculated and tabulated as
shown below. From these readings, we calculate the average peak load for certain
durations and further we calculate the reduction in peak current which can be used for
improving the power factor towards unity.
64
Feeder: DF 2
Feeder Length: 21.46 Kms
Distance of Location from SS: 6 Km
Conductor: Rabbit
Table no.7.1(a) results of DF2 feeder
Feeder: DF 6
65
Feeder Length: 6.48 Kms
Distance of Location from “D”Cross SS: 1.5 Km
Conductor: Rabbit
Table no.7.1 (b) results of DF6 feeder
Feeder: KF 8
Feeder Length 8.28Kms
66
Distance Conductor: Rabbit
Location from KIADB SS 2.5&3.8 Km
Table no.7.1 (c) results of KF8 feeder
A sample study was also conducted on the above three feeders by taking the
instantaneous readings. The individual readings were taken with the capacitors ON &
OFF the circuit. These instantaneous readings are considered for calculation of cost
benefits as they reflect the correct savings of energy, whereas average values provided
67
above will have many other factors viz., seasonal fluctuations, temporary change over of
loads etc, influencing the results.
Table no.7.1 (d) calculation of cost benefits
Sl.no Particulars feeder feeder feeder
1 Line current(in amps) with
capacitor
129 135 176
2 Line current(in amps) with
capacitor
114 118 154
3 Difference in current(in amps) 15 17 22
4 Percentages savings 12% 13% 13%
Reduction in line current is of order of 12-13 percent and so is the reduction in
demand. This has also resulted in improvement of tail end voltages by 2 to 3%.
c.) COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS:
The benefit from installation of capacitors will be in the form of reduction in loading
of transmission and distribution network. This in turn results in reduction in energy
losses. The pay back period has been worked out by considering the savings in terms
power purchase cost to Bescom, which works out to 8.5 months. The benefits available
from the transmission system are not considered as the same are in the KPTCL preview.
Detailed calculations are furnished below:-
Table no.7.1 (e) cost benefit analysis
Sl.no Particulars Feeder 1 Feeder2 Feeder3
1 Line current without
capacitor
129 136 176
68
2 Line current with capacitor 114 118 154
3 Difference in current 15 17 22
4 Power factor with out
capacitor
0.65 0.73 0.84
5 Power factor with out
capacitor
0.87 0.96 0.90
6 Demand(in KVA)with out
capacitor bank
2458 2572 3353
7 Demand(in KVA)with
capacitor bank
2171 2248 2934
8 Reduction in demand in
KVA
287 324 419
9 % Reduction in demand 11.7% 12.6% 12.5%
10 Feeder loss reduction on
11KV side keh per day
133.59 290.32 490.02
11 Savings per day taking
purchase rate of RS.2.75
367 798 1348
12 Total saving /months from
all the three feeder
75,390 ----- -----
13 Total cost of capacitors
banks
5x2,12,998=10,64,990 ----- -----
14 Pay back period 14 months ----- -----
Installation of Capacitor Bank to 11KV Feeders at D.B PUR.
For the calculation of feeders losses
a) resistance of rabbit conductor is considered.
b) line length of 4.5 KMs is considered.
69
c) Capacitor bank is assumed to work our 5 hours in a day.
d.) GUIDELINES FOR REPEATABILITY IN OTHER
DISTRIBUTED AREAS:
Since this is a simple devise and does not require any special skill or effort for
execution and requires only a minimum shutdown of lines, the APTRANSCO can reap
considerable benefit by executing such projects. By installing 63 capacitors banks on 31
feeders, the subdivision is benefited in terms of reduction losses and improved quality of
power supply.
7.2 CASE STUDY – 2:
The case studies regarding Shahpurnagar and Kalyan nagar substations are
discussed below. The corresponding results and conclusions before and after the
compensation are tabulated below.
a.) RESULTS OF CASE STUDY –KALYAN NAGAR:
BEFORE COMPENSATION
Table no.7.2 (a) readings before compensation at Kalyan nagar
B
.
N
o
.
S
e
n
d
i
n
g

N
o
d
e
R
e
c
e
i
v
i
n
g

N
o
d
e
SENDING
Receivin
g end
Voltage
Real
Power
Losses
(Kw)
Reactiv
e
Losses
(KVAR)
Power
Factor
Injecting
Real Power
P (Pu)
Injecting
Reactive
Power Q
(Pu)
1 1 2 P[1]=0.45458 Q[1]=0.43743 1.00000 2.9958 1.5271 0.7206
2 2 3 P[2]=0.45400 Q[2]=0.43713 0.99484 12.4262 6.3290 0.7204
3 3 4 P[3]=0.40479 Q[3]=0.39496 0.97006 19.2551 2.5611 0.7157
4 4 5 P[4]=0.30956 Q[4]=0.31159 0.95547 40.4721 9.1239 0.7048
70
5 5 6 P[5]=0.27830 Q[5]=0.30746 0.94115 9.0420 7.8055 0.6711
6 6 7 P[6]=0.23183 Q[6]=0.29755 0.90603 0.8717 2.8815 0.6146
7 7 8 P[7]=0.12894 Q[7]=0.19929 0.89259 7.2121 5.2049 0.5432
8 8 9 P[8]=0.10807 Q[8]=0.19514 0.85335 3.9541 2.8408 0.4845
9 9 10 P[9]=0.08086 Q[9]=0.18865 0.83187 3.6644 2.5974 0.3939
10 10 11 P[10]=0.06090 Q[10]=0.18239 0.81227 0.6720 0.2222 0.3167
11 11 12 P[11]=0.05124 Q[11]=0.17901 0.81007 1.2558 0.4153 0.2752
12 12 13 P[12]=0.04607 Q[12]=0.17820 0.80608 4.8358 3.8047 0.2503
13 13 14 P[13]=0.03881 Q[13]=0.17750 0.77953 1.7573 2.3132 0.2136
14 14 15 P[14]=0.02798 Q[14]=0.17341 0.76486 1.8524 1.6487 0.1593
15 15 16 P[15]=0.01422 Q[15]=0.16953 0.75438 2.3082 1.6856 0.0836
16 16 17 P[16]=0.00637 Q[16]=0.16710 0.74400 3.9737 5.3055 0.0381
17 17 18 P[17]=0.00294 Q[17]=0.16517 0.71326 0.0358 0.0342 0.0178
18 2 19 P[2]=0.01292 Q[2]=0.15908 0.70392 0.0363 0.0347 0.0809
19 19 20 P[19]=0.03621 Q[19]=0.03701 0.99387 0.2607 0.2349 0.6993
20 20 21 P[20]=0.02717 Q[20]=0.03680 0.98632 0.0542 0.0633 0.5940
21 21 22 P[21]=0.01791 Q[21]=0.03539 0.98429 0.0786 0.1040 0.4516
22 3 23 P[3]=0.00886 Q[3]=0.03515 0.98100 0.4235 0.2893 0.2444
23 23 24 P[23]=0.07381 Q[23]=0.07687 0.96520 0.7479 0.5906 0.6926
24 24 25 P[24]=0.06438 Q[24]=0.07640 0.95561 0.5043 0.3946 0.6444
25 6 26 P[6]=0.03164 Q[6]=0.07497 0.94863 0.2644 0.1347 0.3888
26 26 27 P[26]=0.08785 Q[26]=0.08967 0.90356 0.2653 0.1351 0.6998
27 27 28 P[27]=0.08158 Q[27]=0.06775 0.90054 0.8286 0.7305 0.7693
28 28 29 P[28]=0.07532 Q[28]=0.06083 0.88801 0.5558 0.4842 0.7780
29 29 30 P[29]=0.06849 Q[29]=0.05832 0.87908 0.2824 0.1438 0.7614
30 30 31 P[30]=0.05593 Q[30]=0.05727 0.87502 0.4496 0.4443 0.6987
31 31 32 P[31]=0.04565 Q[31]=0.05648 0.86568 0.0789 0.0920 0.6286
32 32 33 P[32]=0.03020 Q[32]=0.04408 0.86326 0.0460 0.0715 0.5652
AFTER COMPENSATION
Table no.7.2 (b) readings after compensation at Kalyan nagar
SENDING
71
B
.
N
o
.
S
e
n
d
i
n
g

N
o
d
e
R
e
c
e
i
v
i
n
g

N
o
d
e
Receivin
g end
Voltage
Real
Power
Losses
(Kw)
Reactiv
e
Losses
(KVAR)
Power
Factor
Injecting
Real Power
P (Pu)
Injecting
Reactive
Power Q
(Pu)
1 1 2 P[1]=0.43214 Q[1]=0.38253 1.00000 2.5093 1.2792 0.7488
2 2 3 P[2]=0.43164 Q[2]=0.38228 0.99523 10.1106 5.1496 0.7486
3 3 4 P[3]=0.38292 Q[3]=0.33555 0.97257 14.7593 1.9631 0.7521
4 4 5 P[4]=0.28990 Q[4]=0.25065 0.95959 30.4874 6.8730 0.7565
5 5 6 P[5]=0.26314 Q[5]=0.24068 0.94694 6.6732 5.7607 0.7379
6 6 7 P[6]=0.22666 Q[6]=0.22981 0.91656 0.5151 1.7028 0.7022
7 7 8 P[7]=0.12539 Q[7]=0.13257 0.90706 3.6168 2.6102 0.6872
8 8 9 P[8]=0.10487 Q[8]=0.11887 0.87735 1.6001 1.1496 0.6616
9 9 10 P[9]=0.08126 Q[9]=0.10426 0.86221 1.1801 0.8365 0.6147
10 10 11 P[10]=0.0636
6
Q[10]=0.0911
1
0.84939 0.1961 0.0648 0.5728
11 11 12 P[11]=0.0564
8
Q[11]=0.0862
7
0.84777 0.3383 0.1119 0.5477
12 12 13 P[12]=0.0517
8
Q[12]=0.0832
1
0.84488 1.1667 0.9180 0.5284
13 13 14 P[13]=0.0454
4
Q[13]=0.0795
9
0.82938 0.3759 0.4947 0.4958
14 14 15 P[14]=0.0382
8
Q[14]=0.0751
8
0.82198 0.2992 0.2663 0.4537
15 15 16 P[15]=0.0259
0
Q[15]=0.0666
8
0.81692 0.3192 0.2331 0.3621
16 16 17 P[16]=0.0196
0
Q[16]=0.0624
1
0.81200 0.4600 0.6141 0.2996
17 17 18 P[17]=0.0122
8
Q[17]=0.0581
8
0.80022 0.0357 0.0340 0.2065
18 2 19 P[2]=0.00582 Q[2]=0.05357 0.79661 0.0358 0.0341 0.1080
19 19 20 P[19]=0.0362
1
Q[19]=0.0364
5
0.99426 0.2149 0.1937 0.7048
20 20 21 P[20]=0.0271
8
Q[20]=0.0314
2
0.98732 0.0330 0.0385 0.6542
21 21 22 P[21]=0.0179
6
Q[21]=0.0252
2
0.98570 0.0291 0.0385 0.5801
22 3 23 P[3]=0.00893 Q[3]=0.02018 0.98358 0.4120 0.2815 0.4046
23 23 24 P[23]=0.0739
1
Q[23]=0.0747
5
0.96778 0.6731 0.5315 0.7031
24 24 25 P[24]=0.0644 Q[24]=0.0694 0.95863 0.2745 0.2148 0.6804
72
9 7
25 6 26 P[6]=0.03182 Q[6]=0.05094 0.95309 0.2601 0.1325 0.5298
26 26 27 P[26]=0.0885
9
Q[26]=0.0874
8
0.91412 0.2516 0.1281 0.7116
27 27 28 P[27]=0.0823
3
Q[27]=0.0623
5
0.91119 0.7527 0.6636 0.7972
28 28 29 P[28]=0.0760
8
Q[28]=0.0522
2
0.89946 0.4784 0.4168 0.8245
29 29 30 P[29]=0.0693
3
Q[29]=0.0465
6
0.89134 0.2094 0.1066 0.8302
30 30 31 P[30]=0.0568
5
Q[30]=0.0391
4
0.88773 0.2775 0.2743 0.8237
31 31 32 P[31]=0.0466
4
Q[31]=0.0330
3
0.88054 0.0315 0.0367 0.8161
32 32 33 P[32]=0.0313
7
Q[32]=0.0127
6
0.87919 0.0039 0.0061 0.9263
req=0.11229p.u xeq=0.14530p.u
b.)RESULTS OF CASE STUDY – SHAHPURNAGAR:
BEFORE COMPENSATION
Table no.7.2(c) readings before compensation at Shahpur nagar
B
.
N
o
.
S
e
n
d
i
n
g

N
o
d
e
R
e
c
e
i
v
i
n
g

N
o
d
e
SENDING
Receivin
g end
Voltage
Real
Power
Losses
(Kw)
Reactiv
e
Losses
(KVAR)
Power
Factor
Injecting Real
Power P (Pu)
Injecting
Reactive
Power Q (Pu)
1 1 2 P[1]=0.12752 Q[1]=0.12979 1.00000 0.3602 1.1926 0.7288
2 2 3 P[2]=0.12728 Q[2]=0.12953 0.99584 0.7441 1.1570 0.7289
3 3 4 P[3]=0.11492 Q[3]=0.11677 0.98846 0.6723 0.4909 0.7014
4 4 5 P[4]=0.07059 Q[4]=0.07692 0.98055 0.7965 0.7022 0.6761
73
5 5 6 P[5]=0.05792 Q[5]=0.07486 0.96950 0.8258 1.1289 0.6119
6 6 7 P[6]=0.04812 Q[6]=0.07298 0.95363 0.3460 0.3080 0.5504
7 7 8 P[7]=0.03929 Q[7]=0.07114 0.94837 0.0591 0.0301 0.4835
8 3 9 P[3]=0.01895 Q[3]=0.06956 0.93810 0.1195 0.0609 0.2628
9 9 10 P[9]=0.03759 Q[9]=0.03791 0.98605 0.0729 0.0373 0.7041
10 10 11 P[10]=0.01947 Q[10]=0.03750 0.98446 0.0977 0.0739 0.4608
11 11 12 P[11]=0.01340 Q[11]=0.03668 0.98180 0.0234 0.0119 0.3431
AFTER COMPENSATION
Table no.7.2(d) readings after compensation at Shahpur nagar
B
.
N
o
.
S
e
n
d
i
n
g

N
o
d
e
R
e
c
e
i
v
i
n
g

N
o
d
e
SENDING
Receivi
ng end
Voltage
Real
Power
Losses
(Kw)
Reacti
ve
Losses
(KVAR)
Power
Facto
r
Injecting
Real Power
P (Pu)
Injecting
Reactive
Power Q
(Pu)
1 1 2 P[1]=0.12765 Q[1]=0.12478 1.00000 0.3658 1.2111 0.7351
2 2 3 P[2]=0.12740 Q[2]=0.12451 0.99680 0.7354 1.1434 0.7352
3 3 4 P[3]=0.11503 Q[3]=0.11530 0.98848 0.6312 0.4609 0.7063
4 4 5 P[4]=0.07065 Q[4]=0.07240 0.98077 0.6625 0.5841 0.6984
5 5 6 P[5]=0.05801 Q[5]=0.06394 0.97057 0.6069 0.8296 0.6719
6 6 7 P[6]=0.04835 Q[6]=0.05736 0.95698 0.2204 0.1961 0.6445
7 7 8 P[7]=0.03974 Q[7]=0.05153 0.95261 0.1190 0.0606 0.6107
8 3 9 P[3]=0.01952 Q[3]=0.03933 0.94550 0.1192 0.0607 0.4446
9 9 10 P[9]=0.03765 Q[9]=0.03775 0.98607 0.0469 0.0240 0.7061
10 10 11 P[10]=0.01953 Q[10]=0.02769 0.98468 0.0475 0.0360 0.5764
11 11 12 P[11]=0.01348 Q[11]=0.02367 0.98265 0.0086 0.0044 0.4950
req=0.11229p.u xeq=0.14530p.u
c.)COMPARISION OF TEST SYSTEMS:
Voltage comparison of a 12 Bus system
74
Table no.7.2 (e) Readings of Voltage comparison
Voltage
before compensation
Voltage
after compensation
1 1
0.99584 0.9968
0.98846 0.98848
0.98055 0.98077
0.9695 0.97057
0.95363 0.95698
0.94837 0.95261
0.9381 0.9455
0.98605 0.98607
0.98446 0.98468
0.9818 0.98625
Power factor comparison of a 12 Bus system
Table no.7.2 (d) Readings Power factor comparison
Power factor
before compensation
Power factor
after compensation
0.7288 0.7351
0.7289 0.7352
0.7014 0.7063
0.6761 0.6984
0.6119 0.6719
0.5504 0.6445
0.4835 0.6107
0.2628 0.4446
0.7041 0.7061
0.4608 0.5764
0.3431 0.495
75

Voltage comparison of a 33 Bus system
Table no.7.2 (e) Voltage comparison of a 33 Bus system
Voltage
before compensation
Voltage
after compensation
1 1
0.99484 0.99523
0.97006 0.97257
0.95547 0.95959
0.94115 0.94694
0.90603 0.91656
0.89259 0.90706
0.85335 0.87735
0.83187 0.86221
0.81227 0.84939
0.81007 0.84777
0.80608 0.84488
0.77953 0.82938
0.76486 0.82198
0.75438 0.81692
0.744 0.812
0.71326 0.80022
0.70392 0.79661
0.99387 0.99426
0.98632 0.98732
0.98429 0.9857
0.981 0.98358
76
0.9652 0.96778
0.95561 0.95863
0.94863 0.95309
0.90356 0.91412
0.90054 0.91119
0.88801 0.89946
0.87908 0.89134
0.87502 0.88773
0.86568 0.88054
0.86326 0.87919
Power factor compensation of a 33 Bus system
Table no.7.2 (f) Power factor compensation of a 33 Bus system
Power factor
before compensation
Power factor
after compensation
0.7206 0.7488
0.7204 0.7486
0.6711 0.7379
0.6146 0.7022
0.5432 0.6872
0.4845 0.6616
0.3939 0.6147
0.3167 0.5728
0.2136 0.4958
0.0381 0.2996
0.0178 0.2065
0.0809 0.108
0.6993 0.7048
77
0.594 0.6542
0.4516 0.5801
0.2444 0.4046
0.6926 0.7031
0.6444 0.6804
0.7614 0.8302
0.6987 0.8237
0.6286 0.8161
0.5652 0.9263
8.1 CONCLUSION
The power factor of a power system is the major of its economy. So, the design
Engineers always attempts to make this power factor as close as to unity. Power factor
decreases due to the increased usage of inductive loads .Therefore the power distribution
companies always sets up a mandatory minimum power factor at the premises of
consumers. In our state the mandatory power factor is 0.9 described by the Andhra
Pradesh Transmission Corporation. The decrease in power factor below this reference
is compensated by the consumer based on their maximum demand and the no. of units
consumed.
Hence, to compensate for this decrease in power factor shunt capacitor method
can be used as its advantages are already described in Chapter 3. Proper analysis design
and implementation of this capacitor banks with appropriate mounting and protecting
devices will not only reduce the bill charges but also make the profit on long term.
8.2 Future trends of the project:
78
The electricity consumption depends upon the infrastructure, instruments and
different loads. Hyderabad area is going to consume more loads in future with increase in
population. Practical implementation of the capacitor placement technique requires
further cost-benefit analysis which in turns depends on the costs of capacitor bank and
energy saving.

1. Technical Reference Book - A.P.TRANSCO.
2. A.S. PABLA, “Electrical Power Distribution” fifth edition TATA Mc.
Graw-Hill Publication Company Limited, New Delhi – 20
3. TURAN GONEN, “Electrical Power Distribution System
Engineering”, TATA Mc GRAW-HILL, book Company, New York.
4. Suresh Kumar “Application of Capacitors”.
5. B.R. GUPTA “Power System Analysis & Design” 3
rd
Edition, wheeler
Publishers.
6. C.L.Wadhwa, Power Systems,4
th
Edition, New Age International (P)
Limited,Publishers-1998
7. L.Elgerd Olle, An Introduction To Energy Systems, 2
nd
edition, Tata Mac
Graw Hill, Inc Edition.
79
APPENDIX-I
The Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Limited, also known as KPTCL
is the sole electricity transmission and distribution company in state of Karnataka of India
(Bharath ). Its origin was in Karnataka Electricity Board ( K.E.B ) which was earlier sole
distributor of grid electricity in state of Karnataka. This electricity transmission and
distribution entity was corporatised to provide efficient and reliable electric power supply
to the people of Karnatak state.The KPTCL has transmission lines along with Substation to
transfer electricity from one place to another in the state.
KPTCL buys power from power generating companies like Karnataka Power
Corporation Limited (KPCL) and other IPPs (Independent Power Producers) like GMR,
Jindal, etc., and sell them to their respective ESCOMS.The electric generating power
stations previously under the control of K.E.B has now transferred to a separate company
called Visweshraiah Vidyut Nigama Limited or VVNL.
Zones and Circles
The KPTCL is further divided into Zones and Circles are also known as Electric
Supply Companies popularly known as ESCOM's. Each of these zones look after
distribution of electricity in a particular region of Karnataka consisting of few districts of
80
the state. Whereas KPTCL looks after transmission. The KPTCL has five zones at
present, names of which is as below.
i. Bangalore Electricity Supply Company.
ii. Mangalore Electricity Supply Company ( Mescom ).
iii. Hubli Electricity Supply Company
iv. Gulbarga Electricity Supply Company
v. Chamundeshwari Electricity Supply Company
APPENDIX - II
• Average load: Average of the load occurring on the power station in a given
period is known as average load.
• Capacity factor: It is the ratio of actual energy produced to maximum possible
energy that could have been produced during a given period.
• Connected load: It is the sum of continuous rating of all the equipment connected
to supply system.
• Demand factor: It is the ratio of maximum demand on power station to its
connected load.
• Depreciation: The decrease in the value of the power plant equipment and
building due to constant use is known as depreciation.
• Diversity factor: The ratio of sum of individual maximum demands to the
maximum demand on power station.
• Fixed cost: It is the cost which is independent of maximum demand and unit
generated.
• Interest: The cost of use of money is known as interest.
• Load curve: The curve showing the variation of the load on the power station
with reference to time is known as load curve.
81
• Load factor: The ratio of average load to maximum demand during a given
period.
• Maximum demand: It is the greatest demand of load on power station during a
given period.
• Payback period: The time between which capital cost is compensated from the
day of installation is known as payback period.
• Running cost: It is the cost which depends only upon the number of unit
generated.
82

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