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CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION
Multi-operation machine as a research area is motivated by questions that arise in
industrial manufacturing, production planning, and computer control. Consider a large
automotive garage with specialized shops. A car may require the following work, replace
exhaust system, align wheels, and tune up. These three tasks may be carried out in any order.
However, since the exhaust system, alignment, and tune-up shops are in different buildings, it
is impossible to perform two tasks for a car simultaneously. When there are many cars
requiring services at the three shops, it is desirable to construct a service schedule that takes
the least amount of total time.

1.1 Scotch Yoke Mechanism
The Scotch yoke is a mechanism for converting the linear motion of a slider into
rotational motion or vice-versa. The piston or other reciprocating part is directly coupled to a
sliding yoke with a slot that engages a pin on the rotating part. The shape of the motion of the
piston is a pure sine wave over time given a constant rotational speed.

Figure 1.1 Sectional view of Scotch yoke mechanism

Figure 1.2 Front view of Scotch Yoke Mechanism

1.2 Construction
The scotch yoke mechanism is constructed with iron bars. Here the crank is made
in some length and the yoke is also made using the same material. It is noted that the
minimum length of the yoke should be double the length of the crank. The crank and yoke is
connected with a pin. Iron bars are welded to both sides of the yoke to get the reciprocating
motion. The yoke with the iron bars is fixed on the display board with the help of c clamp.
Now the crank is welded to the end of the shaft of the motor. Now the pin on the crank is
connected to the yoke. The pin used to connect yoke and crank is a bolt.

1.3 Working principle
When the power is supplied to the 12v Dc motor, shaft and crank attached to the shaft start
rotating. As the crank rotates the pin slides inside the yoke and also moves the yoke forward. When
the crank rotates through in clockwise direction the yoke will get a displacement in the forward
direction. The maximum displacement will be equal to the length of the crank. When the crank
completes the next of rotation the yoke comes back to its initial position. For the next of rotation,
yoke moves in the backward direction. When the crank completes a full rotation the yoke moves back

to the initial position. For a complete rotation of crank the yoke moves through a length equal
to double the length of the crank. The displacement of the yoke can be controlled by varying
the length of the crank.

CHAPTER-2
APPARATUS
2.1 Dc motors
At the most basic level, electric motors exist to convert electrical energy into
mechanical energy. This is done by way of two interacting magnetic fields - one stationary,
and another attached to a part that can move. A number of types of electric motors exist, but
most BEAM bots use DC motors 1 in some form or another. DC motors have the potential for
very high torque capabilities (although this is generally a function of the physical size of the
motor), are easy to miniaturize, and can be "throttled" via adjusting their supply voltage. DC
motors are also not only the simplest, but the oldest electric motors.
The basic principles of electromagnetic induction were discovered in the early 1800's
by Oersted, Gauss, and Faraday. By 1820, Hans Christian Oersted and Andre Marie Ampere
had discovered that an electric current produces a magnetic field. The next 15 years saw a
flurry of cross-Atlantic experimentation and innovation, leading finally to a simple DC rotary
motor. A number of men were involved in the work, so proper credit for the first DC motor is
really a function of just how broadly you choose to define the word "motor."
A DC motor is a mechanically commutated electric motor powered from direct
current (DC). The stator is stationary in space by definition and therefore so is its current. The
current in the rotor is switched by the commutator to also be stationary in space. This is how
the relative angle between the stator and rotor magnetic flux is maintained near 90 degrees,
which generates the maximum torque.
DC motors have a rotating armature winding but non-rotating armature magnetic field
and a static field winding or permanent magnet. Different connections of the field and
armature winding provide different inherent speed/torque regulation characteristics. The
speed of a DC motor can be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the armature or by
changing the field current. The introduction of variable resistance in the armature circuit or
field circuit allowed speed control. Modern DC motors are often controlled by power
electronics systems called DC drives.
The introduction of DC motors to run machinery eliminated the need for local steam
or internal combustion engines, and line shaft drive systems. DC motors can operate directly

and to the strength of the external magnetic field. rotor (a. South and South) repel. providing the motive power for the first electric vehicles. Today DC motors are still found in applications as small as toys and disk drives. 2. while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South" polarization). armature). and brushes. the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets. it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor.2 Principles of Operation of DC Motor In any electric motor. A currentcarrying conductor generates a magnetic field. field magnet(s). stator. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid. The stator is the stationary part of the motor. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. In most common DC motors (and all that Beamers will see).1 Sectional view of DC Motor Every DC motor has six basic parts: axle.a.. opposite (North and South) polarities attract. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core).k.from rechargeable batteries. or in large sizes to operate steel rolling mills and paper machines. Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization. when this is then placed in an external magnetic field. commutator. while like polarities (North and North. the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets. this includes the motor casing. The rotors (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotate with respect to the stator. Figure 2. operation is based on simple electromagnetism. . as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces.

Generally brushed DC motors are cheap.The geometry of the brushes. A DC motor consists of two parts. driving it to continue rotating. the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding. As the rotor reaches alignment. The result is that there are basically three types of DC Motor available. Normal DC motors have almost linear characteristics with their speed of rotation being determined by the applied DC voltage and their output torque being determined by the current flowing through the motor windings. They are generally smaller but more expensive than conventional brushed type DC motors because they use "Hall effect" switches in the stator to produce the required stator field rotational sequence but they have better torque/speed characteristics. Given our example two-pole motor.This type of motor produces a magnetic field in a wound rotor (the part that rotates) by passing an electrical current through a commutator and carbon brush assembly. Brushed Motor . The DC Motor or Direct Current Motor to give it its full title. making them ideal for use in applications were speed control. small and easily controlled . the brushes move to the next commutator contacts. the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned. and/or positioning is required. Brushless Motor . They are connected to and controlled by a PWM type controller and are mainly used in positional control systems and radio controlled models. hence the term "Brushed". The stators (the stationary part) magnetic field is produced by using either a wound stator field winding or by permanent ii. magnets. are more efficient and have a longer operating life than equivalent brushed types. The speed of rotation of any DC motor can be . and rotor windings are such that when power is applied. and energize the next winding. Servo Motor . iii. i. leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field. and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. commutator contacts. servo type control.This type of motor produce a magnetic field in the rotor by using permanent magnets attached to it and commutation is achieved electronically. a "Stator" which is the stationary part and a "Rotor" which is the rotating part. is the most commonly used actuator for producing continuous movement and whose speed of rotation can easily be controlled.This type of motor is basically a brushed DC motor with some form of positional feedback control connected to the rotor shaft.

the stationary body of the motor called the Stator and the inner part which rotates producing the movement called the Rotor or "Armature" for DC machines. parallel or both together (compound) with the motors armature. By connecting them to gearboxes or gear-trains their output speed can be decreased while at the same time increasing the torque output of the motor at a high speed. The motors wound stator is an electromagnet circuit which consists of electrical coils connected together in a circular configuration to produce the required North-pole then a South-pole then a North-pole etc. 2. a shunt wound DC motor has its stator field windings connected in parallel with the armature as shown.3 Brushed DC Motor A conventional brushed DC Motor consist basically of two parts. 2. The commutator allows an electrical connection to be made via carbon brushes (hence the name "Brushed" motor) to an external power supply as the armature rotates. These electromagnetic coils which form the stator field can be electrically connected in series.varied from a few revolutions per minute (rpm) to many thousands of revolutions per minute making them suitable for electronic. .1 Series and Shunt Connected DC Motor Figure 2. Likewise. unlike AC machines whose stator field continually rotates with the applied frequency.2 Series and Shunt DC Motor The rotor or armature of a DC machine consists of current carrying conductors connected together at one end to electrically isolated copper segments called the commutator. A series wound DC motor has its stator field windings connected in series with the armature. automotive or robotic applications. type stationary magnetic field system for rotation.3. The current which flows within these field coils is known as the motor field current.

3 Conventional (Brushed) DC Motor Permanent magnet (PMDC) brushed motors are generally much smaller and cheaper than their equivalent wound stator type DC motor cousins as they have no field winding. .The magnetic field setup by the rotor tries to align itself with the stationary stator field causing the rotor to rotate on its axis. In permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motors these field coils are replaced with strong rare earth (i. Samarium Cobalt. short life span and electrical noise due to sparking. This gives them a much better linear speed/torque characteristic than the equivalent wound motors because of the permanent and sometimes very strong magnetic field. To overcome these disadvantages. Although DC brushed motors are very efficient and cheap. robotics and servos.e.3. 2. By varying this applied DC voltage the rotational speed of the motor can also be varied. The rotational speed of the motor is dependent on the strength of the rotors magnetic field and the more voltage that is applied to the motor the faster the rotor will rotate. but cannot align itself due to commutation delays. Brushless DC Motors were developed.2 Conventional (Brushed) DC Motor Figure 2. which can damage any semiconductor switching device such as a MOSFET or transistor. making them more suitable for use in models. problems associated with the brushed DC motor is that sparking occurs under heavy load conditions between the two surfaces of the commutator and carbon brushes resulting in self generating heat. or Neodymium Iron Boron) type magnets which have very high magnetic energy fields.

A servo motor generally includes a built-in gearbox for speed reduction and is capable of delivering high torques directly. but some motors also use optical sensors. little heat is generated in the rotor increasing the motors life. Therefore.5 DC Servo Motor DC Servo motors are used in closed loop type applications were the position of the output motor shaft is fed back to the motor control circuit. The control of the brushless DC motors is very different from the normal brushed DC motor. no brushes or commutator to wear out producing a much higher speed. Typical positional "Feedback" devices include Resolvers. The design of the brushless motor eliminates the need for brushes by using more complex drive circuits were the rotor magnetic field is a permanent magnet which is always in synchronization with the stator field allows for a more precise speed and torque control. The most common position/pole sensor is the "Hall Effect Sensor". an external permanent magnet rotor and an internal electromagnet stator or an internal permanent magnet rotor and an external electromagnet stator. Encoders and Potentiometers as used in radio control models such as airplanes and boats etc. The output shaft of a servo motor does not rotate freely as do the shafts of DC motors because of the gearbox and feedback devices attached. the polarity of the electromagnets is switched by the motor control drive circuitry.2. providing precise speed control. Advantages of the Brushless DC Motor compared to its “brushed” cousin are higher efficiencies. high reliability. Brushless DC motors can be constructed to have. 2. Then the construction of a brushless DC motor is very similar to the AC motor making it a true synchronous motor but one disadvantage is that it is more expensive than an equivalent "brushed" motor design.4 Brushless DC Motor The brushless DC motor (BDCM) is very similar to a permanent magnet DC motor. in that it this type of motor incorporates some means to detect the rotors angular position (or magnetic poles) required to produce the feedback signals required to control the semiconductor switching devices. However their disadvantage is that they are more expensive and more complicated to control. Using Hall Effect sensors. good speed control and more importantly. but does not have any brushes to replace or wear out due to commutator sparking. Then the motor can be easily synchronized to a digital clock signal. low electrical noise. .

Because of back EMF. . and get rotary motion out. Meanwhile.6. using DC motors is pretty straight forward . 2.6 DC Motor Behavior At a simplistic level.2. the coils' current curves will overlay each other.2 Back EMF Just as putting voltage across a wire in a magnetic field can generate motion.6.there are a number of subtleties of DC motor behavior that should be accounted for in BEAMbot design. Even without these avoidable factors. Going back to our example two-pole motor. any electric motor will put noise on its power lines by virtue of the fact that its current draw is not constant throughout its motion.you put power in. 2. of course. photo poppers or solar rollers). moving a wire through a magnetic field can generate voltage.6. 2. it generates voltage the output voltage is known as back EMF. back EMF can damage sensitive circuits when a motor is stopped suddenly. many BEAM bots (walkers. if the motor is part of a gear motor) are three big contributors. Life. and gearing roughness (via back EMF. roughness in bearings (via back EMF). a spark is created at the commutator as a motor's brushes switch from contact to contact. While this is fine for some BEAM bots (say. This means that as a DC motor's rotor spins.3 Noise (ripple) on power lines A number of things will cause a DC motor to put noise on its power lines: commutation noise (a function of brush / commutator design & construction).1 High-speed output This is the simplest trait to understand and treat most DC motors run at very high output speeds (generally thousands or tens of thousands of RPM). is never this simple . its current draw will be a function of the angle between its rotor coil and field magnets: Since most small DC motors have 3 coils. heads) require lower speeds.

consider an oscilloscope trace of the current through a Mabuchi FF-030PN motor supplied with 2 V (1ms per horizontal division.05 mA per vertical division) Figure 2. as even a high-quality motor will display a current transient at each commutation transition. Reality is a bit more complex than this. and each coil is energized in both directions over the course of a rotor rotation. while the average motor current is just under 31 mA. there will be a surge of current as the commutator's brushes first touch a coil's contact. Note that since this is a 3-pole motor. this ideal motor's current will then look something like this. one revolution of the rotor will correspond to six of the above curves (here. the peak-to-peak current ripple is approximately 0.0144 sec. As a good example. Since each coil has inductance (by definition) and some capacitance. . the motor puts about less than 1% of current ripple onto its power lines (and as you can see from the "clean" traces. and another as the brushes leave the contact (here. 0. 6 x 2.Added together.29 mA.4 ms = 0. corresponding to a motor rotation rate of just fewer than 4200 RPM).4 Current Ripple In this case. it outputs essentially no high-frequency current noise). So under these conditions. there's a slight spark as the coil's magnetic field collapses).

motor power ripple can be put to good use . On the flip side of this coin. ripple frequency can be used to measure motor speed. and its destabilizing tendencies can be used to reverse a motor without the need for discrete "back-up" sensors 2. though . Fortunately.you'll always see curves like the ones above being imposed on your power).as was shown above.Motor power ripple can wreak havoc in Nv nets by destabilizing them inadvertently. Figure 2.5 A: Shunt B: Series C: Compound and f = Field Coil . this can be mitigated by putting a small capacitor across the motor's power lines (you'll only be able to filter out "spikey" transients this way.6.4 Characteristics of DC Motor Voltage in steady state condition Where:  V = input voltage  Eb = back EMF  Ia = Armature current  R = total resistance The total resistance R is equal to Armature Resistance (Ra) + External resistance (Rph).

6. and have become predominant in fractional horsepower . Usually the armature resistance of a motor is less than 1 Ω therefore the current through the armature would be very large when the power is applied.7 Permanent magnet motor Permanent-magnet types have some performance advantages over direct-current. Series wound motors were widely used as traction motors in rail transport of every kind. but are being phased out in favor of AC induction motors supplied through solid state inverters. This suits large inertial loads as the speed will drop until the motor slowly starts to rotate & these motors have a very high stalling torque.5 Shunt wound motor A shunt wound motor has a high-resistance field winding connected in parallel with the armature. excited. The counter-EMF aids the armature resistance to limit the current through the armature. The output speed torque characteristic is the most notable characteristic of series wound DC motors.2. but there is a danger of the windings becoming overheated.6 Series wound motor A series wound motor has a low-resistance field winding connected in series with the armature. Therefore the need arises for an additional resistance in series with the armature to limit the current until the motor rotation can build up the counter-EMF.6. As the motor rotation builds up. The speed being almost entirely dependent on the torque required to drive the load. 2. It responds to increased load by trying to maintain its speed and this leads to an increase in armature current. the armature does not rotate. If the motor is stalled. This makes it unsuitable for widely-varying loads. the resistance is gradually cut out. 2. the current is limited only by the total resistance of the windings and the torque can be very high. synchronous types. which may lead to overheating. the counter-EMF is zero and the only factor limiting the armature current is the armature resistance. When power is first applied to a motor. At that instant. the current increases and the torque rises in proportional to the square of the current since the same current flows in both the armature and the field windings.6. It responds to increased load by slowing down.

and the torque is proportional to the current. in parallel with the motor. the average voltage at the motor will be 25 V. variable supply voltage. other problems are realized. Only recently have advances in materials technology allowed the creation of high-intensity permanent magnets. As the "ON" to "OFF" ratio is varied to alter the average applied voltage. The direction of a wound field DC motor can be changed by reversing either the field or armature connections but not both. At 100% "on" time. Therefore. the supply current will be zero. They are smaller. mercury arc rectifiers. At this point in the cycle. Permanent magnets have traditionally only been useful on small motors because it was difficult to find a material capable of retaining a high-strength field.8 Speed Control Generally. lighter. The rapid switching wastes less energy than series resistors. The effective voltage can be varied by inserting a series resistor or by an electronically controlled switching device made of thrusters. Speed control can be achieved by variable battery tapings. resistors or electronic controls. In a circuit known as a chopper. formerly.applications. 2. the armature's inductance causes the current to continue through a diode called a "fly back diode". the speed of the motor varies. the average voltage applied to the motor is varied by switching the supply voltage very rapidly. During the "OFF" time. allowing the development of compact. the rotational speed of a DC motor is proportional to the EMF in its coil (= the voltage applied to it minus voltage lost on its resistance). This method is also called pulse-width modulation (PWM) and is often controlled by a microprocessor. and therefore the average motor current will always be higher than the supply current unless the percentage "on" time is 100%. such as neodymium magnets.6. Originally all large industrial DC motors used wound field or rotor magnets. An . transistors. more efficient and reliable than other singly fed electric machines. or. But as these high performance permanent magnets become more applied in electric motor or generator systems. This is commonly done with a special set of contactors (direction contactors). The percentage "on" time multiplied by the supply voltage gives the average voltage applied to the motor. the supply and motor current are equal. high-power motors without the extra real-estate of field coils and excitation means. with a 100 V supply and a 25% "on" time.

though it is not without its advantages in DC schemes. Series motors must never be used in applications where the drive can fail (such as belt drives). the motor will increase speed above its normal speed at its rated voltage. Extremely good speed control from standstill to full speed. and trams. the armature (and hence field) current reduces.output filter is sometimes installed to smooth the average voltage applied to the motor and reduce motor noise. Field weakening is used in some electronic controls to increase the top speed of an electric vehicle. The reduction in field causes the motor to speed up until it destroys itself. This can not only cause problems for the motors themselves and the gears. it is often used in traction applications such as electric locomotives. unless quickly brought under control. Once the resistor is in circuit. It is a method of controlling a DC motor (usually a shunt or compound wound) and was developed as a method of providing a speed-controlled motor from an AC supply. can be obtained by varying the generator and/or motor field current. One interesting method of speed control of a DC motor is the Ward Leonard control. The shunt field windings of both DC machines are independently excited through variable resistors. When motor current increases. but due to the differential speed between the rails and the wheels it can also cause serious damage to the rails and wheel treads as they heat and cool rapidly. The AC supply is used to drive an AC motor. This method of control was the de facto method from its development until it was superseded by solid state thyristor systems. the control will disconnect the resistor and low speed torque is made available. The DC output from the armature is directly connected to the armature of the DC motor (sometimes but not always of identical construction). Another application is starter motors for petrol and small diesel engines. This can also be a problem with railway motors in the event of a loss of adhesion since. Since the series-wound DC motor develops its highest torque at low speed. The simplest form uses a contactor and field-weakening resistor. usually an induction motor that drives a DC generator or dynamo. As the motor accelerates. and consistent torque. the electronic control monitors the motor current and switches the field weakening resistor into circuit when the motor current reduces below a preset value (this will be when the motor is at its full design speed). It found service in . the motors can reach speeds far higher than they would do under normal circumstances.

some very large ones (thousands of horsepower) remain in service. Although electronic (thyristor) controllers have replaced most small to medium WardLeonard systems. Its principal disadvantage was that three machines were required to implement a scheme (five in very large installations. The generator output current is in excess of 15. as the DC machines were often duplicated and controlled by a tandem variable resistor).9 Protection To extend a D. For overloaded conditions. which would be prohibitively expensive (and inefficient) to control directly with thyristors.000 amperes. Bimetallic heaters function the same way as embedded bimetallic protectors. In motor-generators. In many applications. Ground fault relays also provide over current protection. Heaters are external thermal overload protectors connected in series with the motor’s windings and mounted in the motor contactor. reverse current relays prevent the battery from discharging and . They are designed such that the bimetallic strips will bend in opposite directions when a temperature set point is reached to open the control circuit and de-energize the motor. which cause the motor control circuit to de-energize the motor. excessive moisture.almost any environment where good speed control was required. in one installation. The field currents are much lower than the armature currents. the motor-generator set was often left permanently running. They monitor the electrical current between the motor’s windings and earth system ground. motors are protected with thermal overload relays. to avoid the delays that would otherwise be caused by starting it up as required.6.C. from passenger lifts through to large mine pit head winding gear and even industrial process machinery and electric cranes. protective devices and motor controllers are used to protect it from mechanical damage. Bi-metal thermal overload protectors are embedded in the motor's windings and made from two dissimilar metals. motor’s service life. high dielectric stress and high temperature or thermal overloading. Solder pot heaters melt in an overload condition. For example. Fuses and circuit breakers are over current or short circuit protectors. a 300 amp thyristor unit controls the field of the generator. allowing a moderate sized thyristor unit to control a much larger motor than it could control directly. These protective devices sense motor fault conditions and either annunciate an alarm to notify the operator or automatically de-energize the motor when a faulty condition occurs. 2.

power can be protected conditioning from overvoltages or surges equipment.C. DC Motor Starters The counter-Emf aids the armature resistance to limit the current through the armature. the armature does not rotate. explosive vapors. 2.motorizing the generator. When the field current decreases below a set point. At that instant the counter-Emf is zero and the only factor limiting the armature current is the armature resistance and inductance. water. and high ambient temperatures. When power is first applied to a motor. To protect a motor from these environmental conditions. motor field loss can cause a hazardous runaway or over speed condition. loss of field relays are connected in parallel with the motor’s field to sense field current. Environmental conditions. arrestors and with harmonic solation filters. Since D. In addition. This current can make an excessive voltage drop affecting other equipment in the circuit and even trip overload protective devices. such as dust. the resistance is gradually cut out. As the motor rotation builds up. can adversely affect the operation of a DC motor. A locked rotor condition prevents a motor from accelerating after its starting sequence has been initiated. motors transformers.7. MOVs. the relay will deenergize the motor’s armature. the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and the International Electro technical Commission (IEC) have standardized motor enclosure designs based upon the environmental protection they provide from contaminants. Distance relays protect motors from locked-rotor faults. . Usually the armature resistance of a motor is less than 1 Ωtherefore the current through the armature would be very large when the power is applied. Under voltage motor protection is typically incorporated into motor controllers or starters. Therefore the need arises for an additional resistance in series with the armature to limit the current until the motor rotation can build up the counter-emf.

This starter includes a no-voltage magnetic holding feature. repairing any mechanical failures. as shown in this image. 2. which causes the rheostat to spring to the off position if power is lost. The very first motor management systems were almost completely manual.2 Three-Point starter . so that the motor does not later attempt to restart in the full-voltage position. There were two different classes of these rheostats. The first DC motor-starters were also completely manual. cleaning the equipment.2.6 Manual Starting Rheostats When electrical and DC motor technology was first developed.7. and so forth. one used for starting only.1 Manual-starting rheostat Figure 2. The starting rheostat was less expensive. It also has over current protection that trips the lever to the off position if excessive current over a set amount is detected. with an attendant starting and stopping the motors.7. and one for starting and speed regulation. but had smaller resistance elements that would burn out if required to run a motor at a constant reduced speed. much of the equipment was constantly tended by an operator trained in the management of motor systems. Normally it took the operator about ten seconds to slowly advance the rheostat across the contacts to gradually increase input power up to operating speed.

On the first step of the arm. full line voltage is applied across the shunt field. The holding magnet and starting resistors function identical as in the three-point starter. In order to control the speed. As the name implies there are only three connections to the starter.7 Three Point Starters The incoming power is indicated as L1 and L2. iii. It will hold the arm in position when the arm makes contact with the magnet. The connections to the armature are indicated as A1 and A2.3 Four-Point starter The four-point starter eliminates the drawback of the three-point starter.Figure 2.EMF is built up. the speed of the motor will not be excessive. The coil of the holding magnet is connected across the line. In addition to the same three points that were in use with the three-point starter. The arm is spring-loaded so. The ends of the field (excitement) coil are indicated as F1 and F2. additionally. . L1. it will return to the "Off" position when not held at any other position. As the motor picks up speed counter . a field rheostat is connected in series with the shunt field. the arm is moved slowly to short. Since the field rheostat is normally set to minimum resistance. and the starting resistance limits the current to the armature. Meanwhile that voltage is applied to the shunt field.7. The components within the broken lines form the three-point starter. The starter also connects an electromagnet in series with the shunt field. the other side of the line. ii. i. 2. the motor will develop a large starting torque. One side of the line is connected to the arm of the starter (represented by an arrow in the diagram). iv. is the fourth point brought to the starter when the arm is moved from the "Off" position.

or mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy (in the generator). They are sometimes called I2R losses. 2.5 Advantages of DC Motor . The residual magnetism of the iron or steel of which the armature is made causes these losses. causing currents to flow within the core.The possibility of accidentally opening the field circuit is quite remote. because it is "transverse" to the direction in which these currents tend to flow. Hysteresis losses are caused by the armature revolving in an alternating magnetic field. since they are due to the power dissipated in the form of heat in the resistance of the field and armature windings. If the power fails. it has no effect on the magnetic circuit. The insulation between laminations reduces eddy currents. The thinner the laminations. This sets up an EMF. they have no hysteresis losses. The four-point starter provides the no-voltage protection to the motor. 2. A laminated core is made of thin sheets of iron electrically insulated from each other. others are mechanical. Electrical losses are classified as copper losses and iron losses.7. Some losses are electrical. However. the motor is disconnected from the line. these losses must be kept to a minimum. Eddy current losses occur because the iron core of the armature is a conductor revolving in a magnetic field. a laminated core usually is used. Since the field magnets are always magnetized in one direction (dc field). therefore. Iron losses are subdivided in hysteresis and eddy current losses. To reduce eddy currents to a minimum. For the machine to be efficient. if they become excessive. across portions of the core. These losses are proportional to the square of the current. It.7. becomes magnetized first in one direction and then in the other. the more effectively this method reduces eddy current losses. These currents heat the core and. mechanical losses occur in overcoming the friction of various parts of the machine. As far as the output is concerned. the power consumed by eddy currents is a loss. may damage the windings.4 Energy Losses in DC Motors Losses occur when electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy (in the motor). Copper losses occur when electrons are forced through the copper windings of the armature and the field.

it is used for drilling the PCB’s (Printed circuit boars). This can be achieved in dc shunt motors by methods such as armature control method and field control method. Quick starting.i. Accurate steep less speed with constant torque: Constant torque drives is one such the drives will have motor shaft torque constant over a given speed range.8. reactive power consumption and many factors which make dc motors more advantageous compared to an AC induction motors. cranes. . drives shaft power varies with speed.8 Drilling Machine 2. stopping.1Introduction Drilling machine can be defined as an instrument which is used to drill holes. as in rolling mills and in paper mills. Today the Industrial growth is purely depends up on latest machines. reversing and acceleration Free from harmonics. because today wide varieties of drilling machines are designed for various applications. DC series motors will have a staring torque as high as 500% compared to normal operating torque. Therefore dc series motors are used in the applications such as in electric trains and iii. A drilling machine comes in many shapes and sizes. In such iv. 2. This is one of the main applications in which dc motors are widely used in fine speed applications such ii. Drilling machine plays an important role in mechanical workshops. The most advanced version-drilling machine is CNC (Computer Numeric Control). therefore the subject of drilling machines is extended too widely. CNC Drilling is commonly implemented for mass production. v. Speed control over a wide range both above and below the rated speed: The attractive feature of the dc motor is that it offers the wide range of speed control both above and below the rated speeds. High starting torque: dc series motors are termed as best suited drives for traction applications used for driving heavy loads in starting conditions. The purpose of this project work is to get hold of complete information pertaining to drilling machines. from small hand-held power drills to bench mounted and finally floor-mounted models.

A comprehensive drill and tap size chart lists metric and imperial sized drills alongside the required screw tap sizes. . etc. Specialized bits are also available for non-cylindrical-shaped holes.8. or can refer to a drill bit for use in a drilling machine. the movement is controlled accurately. described in the drill bit sizes article. these machines cannot be used for number of machining operations for specific applications. The term drill can refer to a drilling machine. are quite common. which rotates them and provides torque and axial force to create the hole. for clarity. To overcome all these problems. drill bit or bit is used throughout to refer to a bit for use in a drilling machine. is described in the drill bit shank article. This article describes the types of drill bits in terms of the design of the cutter. As the machine contains drill motor. and drill refers always to a drilling machine. Bits are held in a tool called a drill. 2. we can find these machines everywhere. these all are the drawbacks. this automated drilling machine is designed which is aimed to drill the holes automatically over a job according to the drilling depth data programmed through a key board. Often these machines are used for drilling a through hole over the job. drilling depth cannot be estimated properly. In this article. sequence is maintained. Human force is required to drill the hole.2 Drill bit Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. Drill bits come in standard sizes. The other end of the drill bit. and different size holes cannot be drilled without changing the drill bit. The main concept of this machine is to drill the holes over particular jobs repeatedly at different depths. Consumes lot of time for doing repeated multiple jobs. power feed drilling machines. the shank. job may spoil due to human errors.Simple drilling machines like hand held portable drilling machines.

1863. Tools recognizable as twist drill bits are currently produced in diameters covering a range from 0. The original method of manufacture was to cut two grooves in opposite sides of a round bar.3 Twist drill The twist drill bit is the type produced in largest quantity today. most holes are still drilled with a conventional bit of high speed steel. then to twist the bar to produce the helical flutes. Manufacturers can produce special versions of the twist drill bit. and wood. This gave the tool its name. It drills holes in metal. . Lengths up to about 1000 mm (39") are available for use in powered hand tools. For larger bits. He received U. Twist drill bits are available in the widest choice of tooling materials.002") to 100 mm (4"). the drill bit is usually made by rotating the bar while moving it past a grinding wheel to cut the flutes in the same manner as cutting helical gears. However. Massachusetts in 1861. to suit particular machinery and particular materials to be cut.8. varying the geometry and the materials used. special grinding jigs are available.S. The twist drill bit was invented by Steven A. plastic. Nowadays. Patent 38.119 for his invention on April 7. even for industrial users.05 mm (0. Morse of East Bridgewater.8 Drill Bits 2. because they are inexpensive and sharpening them well is difficult. The geometry and sharpening of the cutting edges is crucial to the performance of the bit. and replace them with new bits. Users often throw away small bits that become blunt.Figure 2. A special tool grinder is available for sharpening or reshaping cutting surfaces on twist drills to optimize the drill for a particular material.

flat-bottomed hole is required. A shallower angle. is suited for very soft plastics and other materials.· Some of the parts of a drill bit are diagramed below as viewed from the cutting tip of the drill. Drills with no point angle are used in situations where a blind. These drills are very sensitive to changes in lip angle. such as 90 degrees. There are flutes to carry the chips up from the cutting edges to the top of the hole where they are cast off. This is a suitable angle for a wide array of tasks. Figure 2.9 Top view of Drill Bit . but will not bind or suffer premature wear when a proper feed rate is used.The twist drill does most of the cutting with the tip of the bit. This style bit requires a starter hole. A more aggressive (sharper) angle. and will not cause the uninitiated operator undue stress by wandering or digging in. is suited for drilling steels and other tougher materials. such as 150 degrees.The most common twist drill (the one sold in general hardware stores) has a point angle of 118 degrees. and even a slight change can result in an inappropriately fast cutting drill bit that will suffer premature wear. The bit will generally be self-starting and cut very quickly.

otherwise and oversized hole may be produced. When done grinding. decreasing the tension on the blade. soft materials have lower point angles. The helix results in a positive cutting rake.Figure 2. 2. Standard Point Angle is 118° Harder materials have higher point angles.10 Side View of Drill Bit Typical parameters for drill bits are. often resulting in an increased tendency of .9 Hacksaw Blade A hacksaw is a fine-tooth hand saw with a blade held under tension in a frame. The blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. used for cutting materials such as metal or plastics. the arch will flex slightly. Drill sizes are typically measured across the drill points with a micrometer. Material is High Speed Steel 2. usually a pistol grip. Drill bits are typically ground (by hand) until they are the desired shape. Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal arch with a handle. with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. 1. the lips should be the same length and at the same angle. On the push stroke.

new production unit has great prospect. Hand-held hacksaws consist of a metal frame with a handle. It is Also required in auto repairing shops.9. Postal & Telegraph and Others are one of the main users of it.the blade to buckle and crack. A power hacksaw (or electric hacksaw) is a type of hacksaw that is powered by electric motor.1 Market Potential The demand of hacksaw blade is considerably increasing day by day with the growth of Industrialization. flat plates. channel. By considering its demand. Cutting on the pull stroke increases the blade tension and will result in greater control of the cut and longer blade life. It is used in almost every Sector for cutting of materials like angle. Defence. Department like Railway.9. rods and such other things. Most power hacksaws are stationary machines but some portable models do exist. welding shops And technical institutes. 2.11 Banco Hacksaw A hacksaw is a fine-tooth saw with a blade under tension in a frame. PWD.2 Basis and Presumptions . general repairing workshops. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. engineering sector. In India large nos. Govt. Figure 2. and pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. real estate. and automobile sector etc. used for cutting materials Such as metal. 2. fitting shops. of small enterprises are engaged in its manufacturing. Stationary models usually have a mechanism to lift up the saw blade on the return stroke and some have a coolant pump to prevent the saw blade from overheating.

Labor and wages are required as per present circumstances. 2.The information supplied is based on a standard type of manufacturing activity utilizing Conventional techniques of production and optimum level of performance.a 2.9. Bi-metal blades are meant to minimize this risk. raw material & selling price of finished product etc are those generally obtained at the time of preparation of project profile and may vary depending upon the location.75% of the envisaged capacity is taken as efficiency on single working shift of 8 hrs & 300 working days in a year. The blade used is based on the thickness of the material being cut.4 Recommended Teeth per 25mm (tpi) for each material type . Hacksaw blades are normally quite brittle.9. machine & equipment. with a Minimum of three teeth in the material. make and for variety of reasons. The cost in respect of land & building. so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade. The interest on total capital has been assumed @ 14% p. and with anywhere from three to thirtytwo teeth/inch (tpi).3 Technical Aspects and Design Blades are available in standardized lengths.

Hacksaw blades have two holes near the ends for mounting them in the saw frame and the 12 inch / 300 mm dimension refers to the center to center distance between these mounting holes. The pitch of the teeth can be anywhere from fourteen to thirty-two teeth per inch (tpi) for a hand blade. As hacksaw teeth are so small. now termed 'low alloy' blades. but was less stiff and so less accurate for precise sawing. They avoided breakage. A strip of high speed steel along the tooth edge is electron beam welded to a softer spine. rather than alternate teeth set left and right. or small machines may use the same hand blades. with as few as three tpi for a large power hacksaw blade. As the price of these has dropped to be comparable with the older blades. without risk of breakage. Since the 1980s. A softer form of high speed steel blade was also available. hacksaw blades have used high speed steel for their teeth. usually 10 or 12 inches for a standard hand hacksaw. their use is now almost universal. with a minimum of three teeth in the material.9.6 Hacksaw blade specifications The most common blade is the 12 inch or 300 mm length. bi-metal blades have been used to give the advantages of both forms. but the set of a hacksaw changes gradually from tooth to tooth in a smooth curve. For several decades now. they are set in a "wave" set. 2. this type is now obsolete. which limits the usefulness of this otherwise popular saw. "junior" hacksaws are half this size. which wore well and resisted breakage. The blade chosen is based on the thickness of the material being cut. giving greatly improved cutting and tooth life. but also wore out rapidly. so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade.2.9. As for other saws they are set from side to side to provide a kerfs or clearance when sawing. These blades were first available in the 'Allhard' form which cut accurately but were extremely brittle. . Early blades were of carbon steel. and were relatively soft and flexible. Hacksaw blades are normally quite brittle. Except where cost is a particular concern.5 Blades Blades are available in standardized lengths. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes. This limited their practical use to bench work on a work piece that was firmly clamped in a vice. 'Low alloy' blades are still the only type available for the junior hacksaw.

9.7 12 Inch Blade Hole to Hole: 11 7/8 inches / 300 mm Overall blade length: 12 3/8 inches / 315 mm (not tightly controlled) Mounting Hole diameter: 9/64 to 5/32 inch / 3. While stationary electric hacksaws are reasonably uncommon they are still produced but saws powered by stationary engines have gone out of fashion.70 mm The kerf produced by the blades is somewhat wider than the blade thickness due to the set of the teeth. while larger mechanical hacksaws are used to cut working pieces from bulk metal. A power hacksaw (or electric hacksaw) is a type of hacksaw that is powered either by its own electric motor or connected to a stationary engine.75 and 1. Most power hacksaws are stationary machines but some portable models do exist. The reason for using one is that they provide a cleaner cut than an angle grinder or other types of saw. power hacksaws are sometimes used in place of a band saw for cutting metal stock to length.6 mm depending on the pitch and set of the teeth.5 to 0. . It commonly varies between 0.2.027 inches / 0.5 to 4 mm (not tightly controlled) Blade Width: 7/16 to 33/64 inch / 11 to 13 mm (not tightly controlled) Blade Thickness: 0. The 10 inch blade is also fairly common and all the above dimensions apply except for the following: Hole to Hole: 9 7/8 inches / 250 mm Overall blade length: 10 3/8 inches / 265 mm (not tightly controlled) A panel hacksaw eliminates the frame.020 to 0. so that the saw can cut into panels of sheet metal without the length of cut being restricted by the frame.030 and 0. Stationary models usually have a mechanism to lift up the saw blade on the return stroke and some have a coolant pump to prevent the saw blade from overheating.063 inches / 0. Junior hacksaws are the small variant. Large.

rather than the entire work piece moving beneath the cutter. although technically a distinction can be made if one defines a true vertical shaper as a machine whose slide can be moved from the vertical. A slotter is fixed in the vertical plane. . Small shapers have been successfully made to operate by hand power. This motor drives a mechanical arrangement (using a pinion gear. contour and traveling head. Vertical shapers are generally fitted with a rotary table to enable curved surfaces to be machined (same idea as in helical planning). and with the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary work piece.2 Operation A shaper operates by moving a hardened cutting tool backwards and forwards across the work piece. universal. horizontal. hydraulically actuated shapers also exist. The horizontal arrangement is the most common. except that it is (archetypal) linear instead of helical. (Adding axes of motion can yield helical tool paths.1 Types Shapers are mainly classified as standard.2. The vertical shaper is essentially the same thing as a slotter (slotting machine). and it becomes necessary to use a motor or other supply of mechanical power. geared.10. or a chain over sprockets) or a hydraulic motor that supplies the necessary movement via hydraulic cylinders. The ram is moved back and forth typically by a crank inside the column. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe. 2.10. draw-cut. the mass of the machine and its power requirements increase. vertical.10 Shaping Machine A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the work piece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear tool path. as also done in helical planning. hydraulic. bull gear. and crank. 2. As size increases. On the return stroke of the ram the tool is lifted clear of the work piece. crank. but smaller.) A shaper is analogous to a plane. reducing the cutting action to one direction only.

splines. cutting stroke. due to the geometry of the linkage. flat surface on the top of the work piece. This adjustability.5cm Breadth: 18. and keyways.The work piece mounts on a rigid. and the table can traverse sideways underneath the reciprocating tool. Table motion may be controlled manually. enable the operator to cut internal and external gear tooth profiles. The ram is adjustable for stroke and. The ram slides back and forth above the work. it moves faster on the return (non-cutting) stroke than on the forward. dovetails.1 frame Specifications: Length: 68. The height of the table can be adjusted to suit this work piece. At the front end of the ram is a vertical tool slide that may be adjusted to either side of the vertical plane along the stroke axis. which is mounted on the ram. This tool-slide holds the clapper box and tool post. coupled with the use of specialized cutters and tool holders. The tool-slide permits feeding the tool downwards to deepen a cut. but is usually advanced by automatic feed mechanism acting on the feed screw.5cm Height: 71cm . box-shaped table in front of the machine.1 Frame Work Figure 3. This action is via a slotted link or Whitworth link CHAPTER-3 FABRICATION 3. from which the tool can be positioned to cut a straight.

2 Scotch Yoke Mechanism Figure 3.5cm Tube diameter: 2.3 Circular work table Specifications: Table diameter: Supporting link length: Supporting link height: 7.3 Work Table Figure 3.2 Scotch Yoke Mechanism Specifications: Tube length: 85.5cm Disc diameter: 14cm Slider height: 13cm Slider width: 5cm Rectangular frame length: 68.5cm Rectangular frame height: 36cm 3.3.5cm 18cm 13cm .

Figure 3. elimination of joint typically served by a wrist pin.  In an engine application.1 Advantages  High torque output with a small cylinder size  Fewer moving parts  Smoother operation  Higher percentage of the time spent at top dead center (dwell) improving theoretical engine efficiency of constant volume combustion cycles though actual gains have not been demonstrated.4 3D view of multipurpose machine CHAPTER-4 4. as side loading of piston due to sine of connecting rod angle is eliminated.2 Disadvantages  Rapid wear of the slot in the yoke caused by sliding friction and high contact pressures. .  Increased heat loss during combustion due to extended dwell at top dead center offsets any constant volume combustion improvements in real engines. and near elimination of piston skirt and cylinder scuffing. 4.

The following major conclusions may be drawn from the present project report. SyTech engine.  It is also used in multipurpose machines and I. and many hot air engines and steam engines.material removal rate with different type of equipments which can be run simultaneously and fabricate the work piece In multipurpose machine has been presented . which include cutting speed. Lesser percentage of the time spent at bottom dead center reducing blow down time for two stroke engines. when compared with a conventional piston and crankshaft mechanism. CHAPTER-5 CONCLUSION The scotch yoke mechanism is made and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed.C engines. It is concluded that this mechanism is a good choice to convert rotating motion into reciprocating motion because of fewer moving parts and smoother operation. 4. Its motion characteristics are studied. such as the Bourke engine. depth of cut. hot air engines. In this project report we provide an overview of the issues concerning different aspects of multipurpose machine using scotch yoke mechanism . the presented results can help to plan the machining of work piece with expected tolerance. .The project report focus on the principle of scotch yoke mechanism. It can be used in direct injection engines like diesel engines. type of tooling and machining parameters and process performance measure.3 Applications  This setup is most commonly used in control valve actuators in high pressure oil and gas pipelines  It has been used in various internal combustion engines.

The general purpose for any project is to find solutions on a certain problems. Moreover. simple hand tools that were in use before are no longer efficient for . the problems that need to be solved are:1) Any manufacturer wants to reduce cost and time taken to complete a product but gives better quality products and increases the outputs. Multipurpose machine is derived from turning lathe which has been a well established industrial processes offering attractive capabilities for handling work piece of various length to be used at micro level. The continuous quest to have the problems of man and his growing needs solved has led to the establishment of factories and other industries. The vital need for the fabrication of a multipurpose machine is significant in the much delay and time as well as energy wasted in using simple hand tools to carry out jobs. 2) Manufacturer tends to upgrade their machines to compete with the new machine with new technology. which necessitates an intermediate technology. For this project. 3) Lathe machine cutting tool can easily break and needs to enhance its tool life. However. multipurpose machine will helps to reduce the cost and consequently increase the rate of production and craftsman’s skill.  We have presented the development of multipurpose machine in various modes by which it can be actively adopted. It’s also gives main idea how the project to be completed.  Different types of attachments and tools which can be implemented on multipurpose machine has been discussed  We have discussed the entire time line and working chart . the cost of a lathe machine is too high for an average user.  We have explained the various parts and components of multipurpose machine using scotch yoke mechanism. Also.

18(4). Then. (2000). R. corrections and [2] defections: implications for Scotch yoke mechanism..G.com/?Using-Your.mass production. 10(6).W. (2000). G. Michel. & Karwan. A. 6-15. [3] The Journal of Services Marketing. The effectiveness of service recovery in a multi-industry setting. & Levesque. J. A. (2001).S. K. 12(1). (2001).. Craighead. Miller..multipurpose machines –Way & id=4352151 . Perceptions. Journal of links Management. (1999). REFERENCES [1] Mack. S. R. Analyzing service failures and recoveries a process approach. 596-583. 339-346. 387-400. C. Mueller. J.J. International Journal of Contemporary mechanism 11(1). [5] International Journal of kinematic links. Six types of service scotch-Yoke mechanism and rack and pinion mechanism (Chase [7] and Stewart.H.. 20-33. McDougall.R. Service recovery: a framework [6] and empirical Investigation. Crotts. there comes the need for urgent attention to better and useful multipurpose machines.L. Waiting for service: the effectiveness [4] of recovery strategies. 15(7). & Broderick. T... Mattila. 1994) http://ezinearticles.

Project pictures .