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Manufacturing Workforce Training

HGRS MASTER - MAINTENANCE
Training Module:

Weigh Feeders

Presentation:

Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt

Version:
Last Update:

1.0
23-03-03

Objective
Weigh Feeder is intended to be a comprehensive
training material for all technical staff within Holcim
Group companies
It will familiarize you with the general knowledge as
well as with the maintenance requirements

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Holcim Group Support

Weigh Feeder

7.3.2003
Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt

Content of Presentation
Weighfeeder
Function
Operating Principle
Material Flow

Mechanical components
Mechanical Components

Electrical components
Weigh Measuring Circuit
Speed Measuring Circuit
Flow Control Circuit
Driving Motor Circuit

Calibration Function
Calibration

Taring and Zero Setting
Weight Check Calibration (Test Weights)
Material test

Maintenance

Maintenance
Training of Belt
Changing of Belt
Belt Splicing

Troubleshooting
Overview

Tracing Back the Defect

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Set Point Increase – System Reaction

Holcim Group Support

Weigh Feeder

7.3.2003
Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt

Function of a Weigh Feeder
 Weigh feeders are designed to deliver a designated rate of material

in a process. They are used to convey, weigh, and control the flow
rate of bulk materials by varying the speed of the belt.
 They transform a variable material flow into a constant and

controllable flow
 A sub-function of a weigh feeder is to reduce the possibility of

spillages, leakages, and dust emissions

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7.3.2003
Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt

platform LOAD.Operating Principle of a Weigh Feeder  Weigh feeder continuously weighs and feeds bulk solids.  The weighbridge is limited by two carrying idlers.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. By means of a centrally positioned weigher idler and a lever system. 5 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. The belt load is measured through a weighbridge located under the conveyor belt. A control loop adjusts feed rate FLOW to a preset set point via belt SPEED. Basic Formula: SPEED  x LOAD = FLOW In all cases: “This is the first control function of the flow”.ppt . on a load cell.3.  The speed and load of the belt and material determines the flow. the load on the platform exerts a force. The output voltage of the load cell is proportional to the platform load and is transformed into digital information though an AD converter.

3.Operating Principle of a Weigh Feeder In short:  The material flows from the hopper onto the moving belt.ppt . the speed is adjusted to achieve the desired flow Changes in its thickness and shape may reveal the presence of problems in the material flow up-line from the belt Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 6 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. and over the weigh bridge  The material on the belt exerts a load on the weigh bridge (limited by two idlers)  The output signals of the weigh bridge and the belt speed is converted into a flow and compared to a preset value  Through a feedback loop to the motor drive of the belt.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.Applications in the Plant  Raw Mill Feed  Cement Mill Feed  Coal Mill Feed  Coal Feed  AFR Dosing  Kiln Feed (seldom) 7 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .Mechanical Components  Feeding Hopper  Manual Control Gate  Side Skirts  Calibration Weight  Idlers and Idler Support  Driving Pulley  Belt Cleaning Device  Tensioning Device 8 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.

9 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Feeding Hopper Function:  The feeding hopper forms a small buffer stock between the material storage and the proportional feeder.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3. It absorbs large flow fluctuations from preceding equipment.ppt .

Manual Control Gate Function:  It defines the initial setting of the bed height to be in the operating range of the load cell. changes to the height of the material bed on the belt is possible. The height of material bed determines also the operating speed range of the weigh feeder – Some weigh feeders do not have a control gate! 10 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.ppt . By adjusting the gate position.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. This is simply a thick steel plate positioned and fixed with bolts. The gate is set during the initial calibration of the weighing device and is fixed once the optimum height has been determined.

thus influencing the reading.3.ppt . In other designs the skirting rubber is an integral part of the belt. Care has to be taken that they do not exert force on the load cell. avoiding the above risk.Side Skirts Function:  Side skirts contain the material within the belt width. 11 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. avoiding spillages to the sides They are generally made of rubber.

ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Calibration Weight Function:  Calibrated weights are hooked to the weighing mechanism to check the correct functioning of the load cell. They must be removed after calibration !!!!!!!! 12 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.

3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Idlers and Idler Support Function:  The weigh feeder belt moves on a series of idlers. The idlers around the load cell must be fixed with precision supports  Some idlers are mounted on a frame supported by the weighing mechanism on the load cell 13 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .

3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Mechanical Drive Parts Function:  The drive is the mechanical link between the variable speed motor and the driving pulley It consists of a:  Coupling and a  Reducer or Chain Drive Any mechanical problem will obviously disturb the operation of the weighing device 14 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.ppt .Driving Pulley Function:  The drive pulley provides the force to move the belt. It is driven by a variable speed motor via a reducer or a chain 15 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

Belt Cleaning Device Function:  The belt cleaners ensure that material does not build up on the belt and alter the calibration  The cleanliness of the area is highly depended of the proper functioning All conveyors are to be equipped with a suitable belt cleaning system for removing the maximum amount of carry-back material from the belt’s surface prior to exiting the discharge chute enclosure. the minimum requirement is a dual belt cleaning system.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. 16 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt . In all applications.3. consisting of a pre-cleaner / primary cleaner and a multi-bladed secondary cleaner.

Tensioning Device Functions:  The TD stretches the belt. in order to have a defined zero load on the load cell  It forces the belt to remain centered on the pulleys (sometimes guiding idlers or limit idlers are additionally fitted on the sides) The device normally consists of a tensioning screw on each side of the tail pulley Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 17 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .3.

Electrical Components of a Weigh Feeder DRIVING MOTOR CIRCUIT WEIGH MEASURING CIRCUIT (LOAD MEASURE & AMPLIFIER) FLOW CONTROL CIRCUIT (FLOW MEASURING CIRCUIT) SPEED MEASURING CIRCUIT (SPEED MEASURE) 18 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.

ppt . The circuit consists of:  Load Cell Power Supply  Load Cell  Belt Load Indicator  Weight Amplifier 19 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. The small signal of the load cell must be amplified before it can be used for the speed control and accordingly for flow control.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. The latter transforms the load pressure into an electric signal.Weight Measuring Circuit Some idlers are supported by a weighing mechanism on a load cell.3.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.c.ppt . load cell. or a.c.3.c. depending on the rectifier cell of the load cell 20 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. It transforms the network voltage (220Vac) into a 30V d.Electrical Feed of the Load Cell Power Supply Function:  It supplies the appropriate power to the d.

the signal goes through a rectifier cell before being stabilized 21 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.DC supply of the Load Cell Function:  It stabilizes the voltage feed to the load cell. When the power supply is an alternating voltage (30vac).3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .

The resistance varies linearly with the load applied on the load cell.Load Cell Function:  The load cell converts the weight measurement from the belt into a proportional electric current Principle: The stabilized voltage ± 15V is applied to a Wheatstone bridge. 22 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. a voltage proportional to the load is generated. the voltage difference between the middle points of the two branches fed in parallel is zero.3.ppt . If load is applied. If no load is applied.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .Swing chord load cells (new development)  Almost no deflection under load (<0.3.05mm)  High resolution  Fast stabilizing  No hysteresis  Insensitive towards vibration This system is not recommended by Holcim 23 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

Belt Load Indicator
Function:
 It indicates the weight measured (conversion of the 0-6 V signal to

a scale expressed from 0 – 100%; could be kg/m)

Often not available
in older systems
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Holcim Group Support

Weigh Feeder

7.3.2003
Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt

Weigh Amplifier
Functions:
 To amplify the output signal of the load cell from between 0 and 30

mV and,
 To convert it into a 0-6 V or a 0-10 V signal depending upon the

equipment

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Weigh Feeder

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7.3.2003
Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt

Speed Measuring Circuit
In order to control the belt speed it must first be measured. A
tachometer is connected to the driven pulley. The former produces
an electric signal. The tachometer signal must be transformed and
amplified for use.
The circuit consists of:

 Tachometer (Revolution Counter)
 Speed Signal Amplifier
 Belt Speed Indicator
 Belt Index Indicator (Optional)

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Holcim Group Support

Weigh Feeder

7.3.2003
Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt

Tachometer (Revolution Counter)
Function

Remark: In latest developments the speed is
directly taken from the VSD (Variable Speed Drive)

 The tachometer is a motor-coupled device that generates a voltage

between its terminals proportional to the rotation of the motor

Two systems are generally used:
 1st case – the tachometer generator which generates a direct voltage
 2nd case – the rotation controller generates pulse signals, proportional to

the rotation speed. These signals are transformed into an analogue signal
proportional to the speed through a frequency to voltage converter

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Holcim Group Support

Weigh Feeder

7.3.2003
Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt

ppt .3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Speed Signal Amplifier Function:  It converts the speed measuring signal to the input range of the multiplier used for calculating the flow Generally. this is an attenuator since the speed measuring signal can reach 40 V while the input signal of the multiplier cannot exceed 6 V 28 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

Belt Load & Belt Speed.3.Belt Speed Indicator Function:  It displays the belt speed by converting the input signal 0…6V to a 0…100% scale (could be m/s) Two standard signals are available. their product gives the FLOW.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. This multiplication is carried out in the flow measuring circuit Often not available in older systems Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 29 7.ppt .

Belt Index Indicator (Optional) Function  A mark (belt index) is attached to the belt in one position.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. This device is included in some newer application.ppt .3. It is used for:    Belt Speed Calibration Slip Warning for belt Segmental taring of belt Belt Index Indicator Belt Index Tachometer 30 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. The belt index indicator is giving a signal each time the belt has made a complete turn.

The effective flow is compared to the set point. the flow measuring circuit sends a signal to increase the belt speed and vice versa. Their product gives the FLOW and is displayed as the effective flow.Flow Control Circuit Two signals are available. If the former is lower than the set point. This multiplication is carried out in the flow measuring circuit.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. The circuit consists of:  Integrator  Flow Totalizer  Multiplier  Instantaneous Flow Indicator  Set Point Indicator  Controller Comparator 31 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. BELT LOAD and BELT SPEED.ppt .3.

ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.Integrator Function  The integrator converts the voltage signal from the weigh amplifier into a pulse signal with a frequency proportional to it The integration function is done by the totalizer !!! 32 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

Flow Totalizer Function:  The flow totalizer counts the pulse coming from the frequency converter (integrator) to give a total weight indication of material supplied by the weighing device since resetting 33 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.ppt .Multiplier Function  The multiplier produces a voltage (Q) proportional to the product of the voltages of the belt speed (V) and of the material weight on the belt (P). Q = V x P 34 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

Instantaneous Flow Indicator Function:  It allows the visualization of instantaneous flow by converting the output signal of the multiplier (0-6 V) to a scale of 0-100% (could be kg/s) Often not available in older systems 35 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.

3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Set Point Indicator Function  Adjusting a set point in the controller-comparator will change the belt speed after a comparison between the actual and the set point flows 36 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .

Controller Comparator Function  To compare the actual measured flow with the set point and act upon the belt drive to bring the actual flow to the level of the set flow The comparator calculates the difference between the set point and the actual flow. The resulting error signal is sent to the control module of the motor Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 37 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.ppt .

3. The driving motor circuit transforms the electric signal coming from the flow measuring circuit into mechanical action.ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. The circuit consists of:  Belt Driving Motor  Ampere Meter  Power Supply  Command Module of the Motor 38 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Driving Motor Circuit The signal coming from the flow measuring circuit is used to modulate the belt speed according to the set flow.

3.Belt Driving Motor Function  It is the driving force for the belt It is either a VSD (Variable Speed Drive) or in older applications a DC (Direct Current) Motor. The direct current motor was especially adapted as variable speed motor by acting on the induced voltage.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt . Example of characteristics of a DC Motor 39 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Ampere Meter (Intensity): DC Motor example! Function  The ampere meter is a digital or dial-type indicating instrument for displaying the current drawn by the induced coil of the direct current motor that drives the belt 40 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.ppt . will be greater than or equal to the voltage that will be rectified by the diode bridge to supply the induced voltage (constant) 41 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Power Supply Function  It supplies the motor command module with alternating current DC Motor example! In case of a VSD it is integrated in the motor command module Depending upon the DC motor power. the alternating voltage that will be rectified by the thyristor control module to supply the variable induced voltage.

ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. The thyristor triggers are fed through a pulse generator transforming the 0-10 V DC signal received from the controller-comparator 42 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Command Module of the Motor Function  The command module supplies an adequate electric feed to the motor DC Motor example! In case of a VSD it is integrated in the motor command module The inductor circuit is fed from 220 V network via a diode rectifier while the induced circuit is fed from the high voltage (500 V) through the thyristor card.3.

Weigh Feeder Control with PCS There is a tendency within Holcim to integrate the controlling functions of a weigh feeder into the plant control system (PCS)  Main reason to use own PCS system       Known technology No spare parts available from original supplier No local service from supplier Better visualization Better alarming Plant PCS concept can be applied Most plants using PCS integrated weigh feeder control have either good own PCS knowledge or a good local engineer.3. 43 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.

Speed PCS Process Control System 44 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.a Variable Speed Drive Belt Conveyor with Weight Measurement Belt index Weight Setpoint.Weigh Feeder Control with PCS Weigh Feeder .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.ppt .

Calibration generally is no longer an issue (performed every 6 month).supplier measurement guarantee: 1% accuracy  Standard Software can be used for PID.   Special Software is required for calibration  In most applications the calibration can be performed from the central control panel (no local panel required).Requirements for the PCS  Any modern PCS can perform a weigh feeder control. VSD. Further information in Holspace under Engineering Services / CoP Process Control & Electrical Back to Main menu 45 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. alarming and visualization. integration.ppt . 30 years ago the suppliers used the PI controller of the DC drive – the multiplication was performed using the load cell signal instead of the speed feedback .3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Calibration It is important to understand that a weigh feeder is only as reliable as the standard to which it is calibrated The need for calibration can come from different sources:  An interval given by the planned maintenance routine (PMR's)  When readings are suspicious (mainly from process side)  After each intervention (repair) to a component of the feeder Preparation for Calibration:  The mechanical installation must be free of vibration  Proper dedusting has to be assured  If a bypass device is installed it needs to be free of leaks A calibration task is a measurement of the respective parameters.3. Only if the difference to the last measurement is too large the new parameters should be used for further operation (change calibration parameters) Stability is therefore the most important factor 46 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .

)  Base for correction of plant reports The documentation can be a page including all the necessary details and stored in a respective folder or it can be a data base (for several feeders) 47 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Calibration Documentation Every Calibration has to be properly documented There are three reasons:  Requirements from standards (ISO 900x)  Internal follow up for maintenance planning (drift trends.3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt . etc.

ppt .or on-line.Calibration Methods Weigh feeders can be calibrated off.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. Off-line calibration methods include:  Taring (weigh feeders) or Zero Set (belt weighers)  Belt Speed Calibration (optional)  Weight Check Static test weights  Test chains  Material test (if weigh out method is applied)  On-line calibration is:  Material test (if loss of weight method is applied) Material test with loss of weight method is the most accurate calibration method because it uses known standards under actual operating conditions Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 48 7.3.

ppt . The same calibration run might also be used for the belt speed calibration. If a belt index indicator is used (as in modern equipments).Calibration – Taring (recommended for weigh feeder) With taring the dynamic reference is set.3. the taring can be conditional to the belt position. With this it allows for differences in the belt segment weight due to:     Initial discrepancies in the belt weight Uneven wear of the belt Splices Other influences All this can be then electronically compensated.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. 49 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. It is carried out with an empty but turning belt.

 Volumetric Mode  No Material on belt.3. Program run time is set with Parameter P 02.01 Start-up and Operating Conditions:  Weigher ON (local mode). Program End: Value tare N is stored as Parameter P 03.03 50 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Calibration – Taring (recommended for weigh feeder) The following procedure is a typical example for a commonly used weigh feeder type: The acquired value is stored as tare N and deducted from gross value in normal mode.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .

3.x% Tara: x. Aktiv.  Check weigh is positioned on feeder.xx% Tara: x. Remove PRG 51 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.xx% Abw: x.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. additional messages are displayed TW:  Program start is acknowledged after approximately 7 sec E-prog.ppt . Program is not started.  Store value  Abort program.Calibration – Taring (recommended for weigh feeder) Program Sequence FUNCTION  Display in sub-function distributor TW: TARE  Start program. Automatic Weigh Check If automatic weigh check has been selected. TW: Remove check weigh.xx% [% total time] and deviation from zero point [%qNENN]  End display showing tare correction N [%qNENN] and the deviation from previous value [%qNENN].  Running display showing residual run time of program TW: xx.

ppt .03 52 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. Program run time is set with Parameter P 02. Program End: Value of Zero Set is stored as Parameter P 03.  Volumetric Mode  No Material on belt.Calibration – Zero Set (recommended for belt weigher) The following procedure is a typical example for a commonly used belt weigher type: The acquired value is stored as Zero Set and deducted from gross value in normal mode.01 Start-up and Operating Conditions:  Weigher ON (local mode).

3.xx% Abw: x. Program is not started.  Running display showing residual run time of program TW: xx.  Check weigh is positioned on feeder.ppt .xx% [% total time] and deviation from zero point [%qNENN]  End display showing Zero Set correction N [%qNENN] and the deviation from previous value [%qNENN]. Aktiv.  Store/accept correction value  Abort program.x% Tara: x. additional messages are displayed TW:  Program start is acknowledged after approximately 7 sec E-prog. Remove PRG 53 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. TW: Remove check weigh.xx% Tara: x.Calibration – Zero Set (recommended for belt weigher) Program Sequence FUNCTION  Display in sub-function distributor TW: ZERO SET  Start program.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. Automatic Weigh Check If automatic weigh check has been selected.

It is carried out with an empty but turning belt Belt Index Indicator Belt Index Tachometer 54 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Calibration – Belt Speed (optional) With belt speed calibration the drive and control circuit are tested.ppt .3.

ppt .Belt Speed Calibration .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. This method is less accurate. and measured length (should not exceed ± 10%) A belt speed calibration can also be carried out by using a stop watch.Steps  Calculate travel distance of belt for one tachometer impulse using the mechanical parameters  Count number of tachometer impulses for one complete turn of belt (one impulse of belt index indicator)  Calculate the belt speed (distance/time)  Calculate the difference between theoretical. actual. Mark the belt and record the time for several turns (divide it afterwards by the number of turns).3. 55 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

3. Weight  max. points of converter Delta Weight 56 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. Steps using Static Test Weights  Position different known weights on the central weigh bridge  Verify that the weight indicated corresponds to the actual weight  Read values into program Remark: The weigh bridge has to be properly aligned The dynamic of the moving belt is not taken into consideration with this method Scale Range  Cal. It is carried out with the belt stopped.ppt .Calibration – Weight Check In the weight check procedure the span of the load cell is tested and calibrated for.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.

 Check Weight (P 02.06 57 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. Program End: Span correction KOR is stored as Parameter P 03.  Volumetric Mode.3.ppt .09) in position.  No Material on belt.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. The weight should not exceed the range of 2/3 to 4/3 of the nominal platform load.Calibration – Weight Check The following procedure is a typical example for a commonly used weigh feeder type:  Program “CW” acquires mean value of platform load for the check weigh applied. Start-up and Operating Conditions:  Weigher ON (local mode).

3. check set parameters and KOR: x.  Check weigh is not in position.xx shows the span correction KOR.97).Calibration – Weight Check Program Sequence: FUNCTION CHECK Q  Display in sub-function distributor  Start program.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. CW: Remove check weigh.  Store value  Abort program.x%  Upon program end running message stops at 0%. Program is not started. additional messages are displayed CW:  Program start is acknowledged after approximately 7 sec E-prog.03 or KOR<0. If deviations exceeds 3% CW: 0% (KOR>1.  Running display showing residual run time of program [% total time] and indicating the relation of set point to measured value CW: xx. Position PRG 58 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. Aktiv.ppt . Automatic Weigh Check If automatic weigh check has been selected. the lower line SOLL/IST: x.xxxx mechanical equipment.

Calibration – Weight Check Using Test Chains The very same procedure as with the test weights applies.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.ppt . therefore the dynamic of the moving belt is not taken into consideration with this method  Accuracy is lower than with test weights This method is old fashioned and should no longer be applied Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 59 7. The difference is that:   Chains are used instead of the test weights It is carried out with a running and empty belt.

Calibration by Material Tests Material test is the most accurate calibration method because it uses known standards under actual operating conditions In the material test calibration methods. a known weight of material is transferred through the machine and compared to the total measured by the integrator.ppt .3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. The calibration parameters in the integrator are then adjusted to compensate for any difference. 60 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

or it has to be assumed that the tarring did not change since the last time this check was performed!!!!  It is important to note that all of the known weight of material should pass through the weigh feeder.3.ppt . the belt has to be tarred properly (see Unit before). Sometimes the test materials can fall from the weigh feeder or become stuck in the bin or in-feed section.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.  This will alter the calibration !!! 61 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Calibration by Material Tests Consideration to be made  Before any calibration by material tests is to be carried out.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.Calibration by Material Tests The known weight of material can be obtained by two methods:  Weigh out method  Off-line calibration  Material can be weighed before or after the test  Loss of weight method  On-line calibration  Test load in a bin supported by load cells It is critical that the weighing device used for the test load be accurate and calibrated to a reliable standard 62 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .

Weigh out method The material is diverted to a place where it can be weight or a specific amount of material is fed to the weigh feeder. The amount of material is then compared to the flow totalizer of the weigh feeder  Most of the time it is taken out of the circuit by either a diverter chute or a reversible belt and then loaded onto trucks that are weight on a nearby scale  The disadvantage is the additional effort for material handling and weighing  A critical point in the procedure is the start and stop sequence of the calibration Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 63 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.ppt .

3.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Loss of Weight Method The amount of material flowing out of a bin (without further feed) is compared to the flow totalizer of the weigh feeder during the same period  This is the only on-line calibration method  It includes all possible errors throughout the measuring chain 64 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .

3.Loss of Weight Method Following parts of the weigh feeder will be used Shut off gate Load Cell Material & Belt Weight Belt speed Loss of Weight Control Module Motor 65 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .

K. Totalizer Man. Back to Main menu Correction if required 66 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Loss of Weight Method Step by step procedure The longer the calibration runs. the more accurate it will be Weigh Feeder running Material quantity in Silo O.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. corr. Close shut off gate Shut off gate close Time to Stabilize Stable Get Bin Weight Set point reached Control Module Calculation of Deviation Bin = Reference vs. or autom.ppt .3.

A check sheet with the important points to look at and the description of the correct state is making his work easier. since he is around the equipment all day and therefore knows it best.Maintenance The production person in the plant is the first line of defense against breakdowns. To assure reliability of the weigh feeder regular planed maintenance tasks (PMR’s) are to be carried out.3. He reports deficiencies using the proper channel and tools (notifications).ppt . There are different sources for the elaboration: Manufacturers recommendation  Experience from the plant personnel  Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) study The best structured approach is using the FMEA method  Finally there is the corrective maintenance carried out by the respective specialists 67 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. These routines are described in the maintenance schedule.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. or at least monthly  Conduct a span calibration check once each month during initial operations. clean.PMR’s . and drive assemblies  Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for maintaining the gear reducer and motor  Perform extra or specific maintenance required by extraordinary climatic or environmental conditions  Check daily for material lodged between the skirting and belt Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 68 7.3. over time. bearings. there is little deviation between routine span calibrations. sprockets.ppt .  Inspect. and apply lubricants as needed to the chain. This interval can be lengthened if.Minimum Guidelines  Check the weighbridge weekly and remove any material buildup that could influence the deflection of the scale  Verify daily that the belt is tracking properly and that appropriate belt tension is maintained  Perform a zero calibration weekly (important weigh feeders).

Adjustment of Idlers + 1 mm Adjusting Bolts Idlers around weigh bridge are to be aligned properly:  About 1 mm above the rest of the idlers/pulley  Forming a straight line within themselves 69 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.

9 0.3 0.3 10 20 30 40 50 60 Alignment Mistake 0 mm Alignment Mistake +0.5 0.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.5mm Alignment Mistake +1mm 70 80 90 100 110 Throughput t/h 70 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.4 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 0.ppt .3.7 0.8 0. in Weight (%) 1 0.2 -0.Example of Chart of Alignment Mistakes Differences in straight alignment of idlers lead to mistakes in the weight measured (Example from a specific weigh feeder model) Diff.6 0.

ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Training of the belt  Weight feeder belt training consist firstly of eliminating the root cause of the problem  The second step is a proper adjustment of the weight feeder components to ensure the correct tracking  Possible root causes are:         Splice is not square to the belt Structure is not accurately aligned Idlers and pulleys are not aligned in all three axes Material build-up alters the profile of idlers or pulleys Friction forces are not symmetric to centre Improper working condition of aligning idlers Deflection of pulleys Load is not centered (root cause is then related to chute design) 71 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. belt training mostly consists of aligning the tail pulley.ppt . and carrying idlers and head pulleys are normally not adjustable.3. Align in small steps and wait for reaction of belt. The belt is tensioned on the side it has the tendency to move out or Respectively un-tensioned on the side it has the tendency to move inward After each training of the belt the weigh feeder has to be calibrated Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 72 7.Training of the belt  As weight feeders are short.

 The sequence for changing a non endless belt is:     Cut the old belt Pull the new belt in Make the splice Tension adequately After each change of a belt the weigh feeder has to be calibrated 73 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. and in certain cases endless.Changing the belt  The belts for the weigh feeders are normally supplied to a specific length.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.3.ppt .

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .Changing the belt  The sequence for changing an endless belt is:        Cut the old belt out Loosen the tensioning system The upper parts of the system have to be supported Remove all components situated between the belt top and bottom on one side Shift the belt in position Place back all components in the original position Tension adequately After each change of a belt the weigh feeder has to be calibrated Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 74 7.3.

ppt .3.Splicing of the belt .Methods The following methods for belt splicing exist:  Hot vulcanization is normally not required as the belt tension is low.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.  Mechanical fastener are to be strictly avoided  Cold vulcanisation is the preferred solution it is highly cost-effective and fast (half expensive and time consuming than hot splicing) 75 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.

Factors to be considered are: .3.Labor for installation After the new belt is in the weigh feeder has to be calibrated 76 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Cold Vulcanisation vs. in competition with endless belts which are already spliced  The most economical solution according to the local circumstances shall be applied. Endless Belt Cold vulcanisation is the preferred solution.Belt costs (higher for endless belt) .ppt .Cost of equipment downtime (and required availability) .

Method Description  “Cold Vulcanisation” is a gluing method.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. with no change of the belt thickness in the spliced area. with liquid cold vulcanisers.  Cold vulcanisation places high demands on the quality of the vulcanisation materials and the skills of the personnel  Cold vulcanising fluids contain solvents which must be well vented prior to jointing the gluing surfaces  The belt must be longer than the final length needed  Both ends are cut in diagonal and layers are removed to assure overlapping of the belt web  Gluing and pressing assure cohesion (waiting time is at least 4 hours) depending on temperature and glue characteristic  The splicing must be of high quality. or cold glues  It is jointing the vulcanised or gelatinised rubber or PVC. Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 77 7.ppt . with the belt material and fabric surfaces.3.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.Troubleshooting Possible ways of identifying the reason for a breakdown:  By Conjecture  By Systematic Testing of all the Components  By Tracing Back the Defect "Tracing back" is the recommended strategy It is the method used by experts 78 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.ppt .3.

3. 79 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.Conjecture  This is the strategy of TRIAL and ERROR.  But generally this is a relatively unreliable approach to locate a breakdown in a rather complex machine.ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.  In some cases. conjecture may rapidly reveal the cause of a problem.

2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .Systematic Testing of all Components  Testing every component in turn until you locate a defective one is another possible strategy for an experienced user  This is a strategy that can surely lead to the result but it might be very slow (and therefore costly)! 80 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.

ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. Here are the two rules to “trace back” effectively: 1st Rule: Find the component up-stream which doesn’t operate within the normal range of parameters and follow its trace.Tracing Back the Defect  This is a more effective strategy used by professionals to trace the source of the breakdown based on the symptom.  “Tracing Back” is the recommended strategy for this type of problem solving. 81 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. 2nd Rule: Find the component lying up-line which operates within the normal range of parameters and exclude investigation of what lies up-stream of this component.3.  It is the METHOD USED BY EXPERTS.  However this strategy is not easy as it requires a knowledge of the way each component operates and the interactions between the different components.

Tracing Back the Defect There is another recommendation to follow for finding the correct channel rapidly.3. The symptom of the breakdown generally appears when reading the flow indication.an incorrect WEIGHT or . Following the logic of the system. What exactly do we mean by “incorrect”? WEIGHT SPEED 82 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. Since the weigh feeder is a device regulating the FLOW.an incorrect SPEED.ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. the channel may either be:  The weight or  The speed That may be visualized like a tree! The problem may come from FLOW = OK .

ppt .2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. Incorrect measurement of a physical value or of the phenomenon itself. Bad transmission of a signal The cause of which may be:  the measurement of the signal  the routing of the signal  the signal assessment  the display of the measured value B. Let us examine what this means… 83 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.3.Tracing Back the Defect An incorrect signal may be a result of: A.

3.ppt . 84 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. or the indicator output signal is incorrect.Troubleshooting In the case of the flow of a weigh feeder. there are two possible cause of an incorrect signal: Actual flow of material FLOW Output signal at the flow indicator The actual flow of material.

either of transformation or of signal transmission). In this way. you can immediately eliminate from the investigations.the mechanical construction of the weigh feeder 85 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7. the components.3.ppt . etc.the measuring circuit of the weight .3 3rd Rule: If a signal is incorrect. or  in the connections: the difference between the actual load of the belt and the indicated load could be due to: . either:  the origin (physical value. first check the physical value that is at the origin of the measurement stream.Troubleshooting This can be formulated in rule no. the tree diagram of causes can be extended. If the indicated WEIGHT is abnormal the cause may be:  at the origin: a problem in the material flow.  With the help of the 3rd rule.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.) or  the connections between the origin and the output signal (the cables. for example the speed. belt load.

Troubleshooting Where could the cause of breakdown be located if the SPEED indication gives an incorrect value? 1. or 2. In the connections: the difference between the actual motor speed and the speed indicated results from a problem in: .the mechanical connection between the motor and tachometer The tree-diagram of causes now appears as follows:  FLOW = OK WEIGHT SPEED Material Flow Motor Speed Mechanical Construction Mechanical Connection Weight Measurement Circuit Speed Measuring Circuit Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 86 7.3. or  .the speed measuring circuit. At the origin: motor speed incorrect.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.ppt .

3. The tree-diagram of causes FLOW = OK WEIGHT SPEED Material Flow Motor Speed Mechanical Construction Mechanical Connection Weight Measurement Circuit Speed Measuring Circuit To identify the defective component. you can rapidly locate the circuit were the problem lies.Troubleshooting With the tree-diagram of causes in mind. Back to Main menu Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 87 7.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. all you have to do is apply the three rules in the respective circuit.ppt .

88 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.  The increase of motor speed also corresponds to an increase of the output voltage of the Tachometer and of the Ampere Meter.  The output voltage of the tachometer is amplified by the Amplifier and the new belt speed is displayed by the Speed Monitoring.  The Flow Controller transmits a signal to the Monitoring Module of the Driving Motor to increase the motor speed. extracting more material from the hopper thus increasing the flow.  The increase of motor speed makes the belt rotates faster.3.ppt .Set Point Increase – System Reaction (1/2)  The Flow Controller records a deficit between the measured flow and the required flow.  The thyristor card increases the induced voltage and the Motor begins to accelerate.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module.

via the Integrator. relatively unchanged.Set Point Increase – System Reaction (2/2)  The Amplifier is informed of the speed increase. This marks the end of an adjustment cycle which has permitted a flow increase. the displayed flow and the set point are identical.  Any new modification of the set point by the operator will start the adjustment process again. The belt load. A reduction of the set point will obviously lead to a reduction of the flow.  The measured flow is compared with the set point.2003 Weigh Feeder Training Module. the motor stops accelerating and the belt speed stabilizes at the flow set point.  At all times. 89 Holcim Group Support Weigh Feeder 7.  As soon as the belt speed has stabilized to the new flow. If there is no difference.3. is then multiplied by the new belt speed to give the new flow.ppt . the measured flow is displayed by the Speed Indicator and the quantity of the transported material is accumulated by the Totalizer.