Atlas Black: Management Guru?

Written by:

Jeremy Short Talya Bauer Dave Ketchen

All Rights Reserved @ 2010 Jeremy Short, Talya Bauer, Dave Ketchen

Illustrated by:

Len Simon

Flat World Knowledge, Inc.

New York

Atlas Black: Management Guru?

Flat World Knowledge, Inc.

Atlas Black: Management Guru?

A" Rights Reserved @ 2010 Jeremy Short, Talya Bauer, Dave Ketchen

Flat World Knowledge, Inc.

For information address:

Flat World Knowledge, Inc. 13 N. Mi" Street Nyack, NY 10960 www.flatworldknowledge.com

fla~rld

KNOWLEDGE

ISBN-10: 0-9823618-7-4 ISBN-13: 978-0-9823618-7-0

Rob Nason Colorist

James Stoyanof Shading Lettering

Layout design

Tessa Short Shading

Final editing

Debbie Stoyanof Inker

Scott Henricks Lettering Layout design

Ian Baird Inker

Acknowledgements and Dedications

To Tessa and Jack, the motivation and inspiration for all that I do.

- Jeremy

This book is dedicated to two funny guys. Thank you to Alexander and Nicholas, who followed

A tlas' adventures all along the way.

- Talya

My dedication is to Sharon Ketchen, who makes me work hard for laughs by setting a high bar for comedy.

- Dave

Dedicated to my daughters, Cooper and Charlie.

-Len

Not Just Comics: Or, Why Are Graphic Novels Valuable for Management Education?

The term graphic novel is reserved for book-length works that are targeted toward adult audiences. Graphic novels are often used to convey serious, nonfiction content. For example, Jacobson and Colon (2006) published a graphic novel adaptation of the 9/11 report. The graphic novel Maus, by Art Spiegelman (1973), recounts his father's story as a Holocaust survivor in Nazi Germany. Maus was the first graphic novel to receive the Pulitzer Prize and exemplifies the medium's ability to convey serious topics. Mar jane Satrapi' s Persepolis (2003) tells the story of her childhood in Iran during the Islamic revolution. A number of graphic novels, including 300, V for Vendetta, A History of Violence, Ghost World, Stardust, and Road to Perdition have been adapted into feature films that also targeted adult audiences.

Graphic novels are widely read by college students, and in recent years educators have incorporated graphic novels into many university courses. Topics adapted to the graphic novel format include chemistry, genetics, psychology, history, physics, statistics, and ethics-to name only a few. The Federal Reserve Bank currently offers a dozen titles that are available for free to the public covering topics such as monetary policy, interest rates, and the history of money. Kaplan, the test preparation firm, has recently incorporated the graphic novel format into its SAT prep courses, and Wired magazine's Daniel Pink has recently written a career guide in the graphic novel format. In Japan, it is common to see businesspeople on commuter trains reading graphic novels about business, and universities there have long used the format for teaching.

MSNBC notes that the graphic novel market was $207 million in 2005 and grew to $330 million in sales in 2006. In 2007, sales of graphic novels in the United States surpassed sales of comic books for the first time. Booksellers in America, Britain, Germany, Italy, and South Korea cite graphic Literature as one of their fastest-growing categories. In Borders bookstores in the United States, graphic novel sales have risen more than 100':10 in three years. Five of the 10 best-selling books in France in 2006 were graphic novels. Megatrends! author John Naisbitt notes that the graphic novel is the only category of novel that is gaining ground in this increaSingly visual age (Naisbitt, 2007).

Today's students encounter and thrive on a vast array of stimulation and media input. To captivate students' attention, new educational material is needed, including the teaching of management concepts and ideas through engaging stories (e.g., Short & Ketchen, 2005). Graphic novels appeal to anyone interested in learning more about management and can be used for a variety of purposes including: (1) A great basic reference for courses that have a lot going on or do not make heavy use of a textbook. The graphic novel makes for a short, sweet, and lively introduction to important concepts-such an approach might be especially useful for business minors' classes as well as other courses incorporating key management concepts that are outside of a traditional college of business setting; (2) A supplement to a traditional textbook for those interested in making the textbook concepts more accessible by putting them in a specific context; (3) A replacement for a traditional textbook, particularly in short or condensed-term courses. We are pleased to present the first ever graphic novel in management, and one that combines all the advantages of the increasingly popular format with the time-tested theories and concepts that are central to management texts. Our graphic novel is accompanied by a full teacher's guide to highlight key concepts and to aid in the integration of content in classroom usage in a variety of potential contexts.

References:

Sid Jacobson and Ernie Colon, The 9/11 Report: A Graphic Adaptation (New York: Hill and Wang, 2006).

John Naisbitt, "The Postliterate Future," Futurist, March-April 2007, 24-26.

Marjane Satrapi, Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood (New York: Pantheon, 2003).

Jeremy C. Short and David J. Ketchen, "Teaching Timeless Truths through Classic Literature:

Aesop's Fables and Strategic Management," Journal of Management Education 29 (2005): 816-32.

Art Spiegelman, Maus: A Survivor's Tale (New York: Pantheon, 1973).

About the Authors

Jeremy Short is the Jerry S. Rawls Professor of Management at Texas Tech University. His award-winning teaching includes classes such as Principles of Management, Strategic Management, Entrepreneurship, and Management History. Jeremy's research focuses on the determinants of firm and organizational performance. His work appears in such journals as Strategic Management Journal, Organization Science, Personnel Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Academy of Management Learning and Education, and Journal of Management Education, among others. He is an associate editor for the Journal of Management and serves on the editorial board of Organizational Research Methods. He also coauthored the first Harvard Business School case in graphic novel format.

Talya Bauer is the Cameron Professor of Management at Portland State University. Talya' s teaching of Organizational Behavior, Negotiations, Interviewing, and Power and Influence has led to multiple teaching awards. Talya's research focuses on socialization/onboarding of new employees, recruitment and selection, leadership, stress, contingent workers, and

person-job fit. Her work appears in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Academy of Management Learning and Education, and she is also a Fellow of the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology. She is the editor of the Journal of Management, has served on several editorial boards, including the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology, and has been interviewed on National Public Radio's Talk of the Nation.

Dave Ketchen is the Lowder Eminent Scholar in Entrepreneurship and a Professor of Management at Auburn University. An award-winning educator, Dave has taught Principles of Management, Strategic Management, and Franchising. His research interests include strategy, entrepreneurship, research methods, and strategic supply-chain management. His work appears in journals such as Academy of Management Journal and Strategic Management Journal. He has served on 12 editorial boards, including those of Academy of Management Review and Strategic Management Journal. He has served or is serving as associate editor for the Academy of Management Journal and four other journals. He and his wife, Sharon, enjoy (usually) raising their two Labrador retrievers. His outside interests include golf, fishing, and driving on Colorado jeep trails.

About the Illustrator

Len Simon is the cofounder and co-owner of FatCat Animation. Before starting FatCat animation, Len was a member of the team that started Fox Animation Studios. Len's Animation Director credits include numerous feature films such as Anastasia, Bartok the Magnificent, Titan AE, Curious George, Fat Albert, All Dogs Go to Heaven, Rock-A-Doodle, A Troll in Central Park, Thumbelina, The Pebble and the Penguin, The Thief and the Cobbler, Felide, Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron, and Eight Crazy Nights. Len's animated classical shorts-CrocPond's Rindin the Puffer and The Gathering Place: The Coyote and the Tortoise-have won numerous awards and accolades in the industry. His credits extend to a number of European animated features as well.

Chapter 6

Key Concepts Illustrated in A tlas Black: Management Guru?

Active and passive listening (pages 16-17) Business plan elements (page 20)

Communication process (page 5)

Communication channels (page 6)

Communication freezers (pages 13-14)

Effective business correspondence (page 3) Entrepreneurial orientation dimensions (page 22) Information overload (page 8)

Information richness (page 6)

Noise (pages 5-6)

Selective perception (page 8)

Chapter 7

Conflict types (pages 9-10)

General Adaptation Syndrome (pages 4-5) Negotiation mistakes (pages 11-12) Negotiation steps (pages 16-18) Negotiation styles (pages 14-15)

Stages of moral development (page 19-22) Stress (pages 1-6)

Chapter 8

Board of directors (pages 15-17)

Effective meeting guidelines (pages 10-11) Group decision-making techniques (pages 19-20) Group stages (pages 3-5)

Punctuated equilibrium (page 8)

Social loafing (pages 21-23)

Task interdependence (pages 17-18) Team contract (page 13)

Chapter 9

Equity theory (pages 14-15)

ERG theory (pages 8-9)

Expectancy theory (pages 13-14)

Herzberg's two-factor theory (page 9) Incentives (pages 17-19)

Job design (pages 21-24)

Organizational justice (page 16)

Maslow's hierarchy of needs (pages 7-8) McClelland's acquired needs theory (pages 10-12) Reinforcement theory (pages 2-7)

SMART goals (page 20)

Chapter 10

Authentic leaders (page 13) Bases of power (pages 14-18)

Classic leadership decision-making styles (pages 2-3) Impression management (pages 19-21)

Influence techniques (pages 6-7)

Leader-member exchange theory (page 12) Situational leaders (pages 8-9)

Transactional leaders (page 11)

Transformational leaders (pages 10-11)

CHAPTER 7:

NEGOTIATION AND ONFLICT- THRIVING CHAOS

DAVID ...

II m busy managing!

A manager MANAGES!

TALYA 'BAUER . VAV£ KErctlEN

ILLUSTRATED BY

LEN SIMON

Welcome, dear reader to the increasingly stressful world of Atlas Black and David Chan. In this episode, they learn that not all conflict is bad, that not all negotiations are easy, and that starting a business is a lot more work than they had imagined.

What's up, David?

So, ready to plan out our business? We need to get a space, hire people, plan a menu, get permits and documents, find bands for live music. Et cetera, et cetera.

Which part?

You're not even listening to me, are you?

Are you sure you don't want to playa little celebratory World of Warcraft first?

I don't think you get it-I'm STRESSED OUT! I can't just think about all the things we need to get done and then sleep all day!

Hmmm. Stress is common in today's doggy dogg world, but I thought that it came AFTER you actually had a job.

First, it's dog eat dog.

Second, you might consider that individuals such as yourself with Type B

personalities are less prone to stress.

-

This entire process is stressful. Everything

about a restaurant is stressful. Did you know that being a waiter

is one of the top 10 most stressful jobs?

We're going to be MANAGERS, not waiters. Second, maybe we don't point that out during the interviews, OK?

Yeah, I figure once we get famous with the restaurant, doors will open up to us for becoming becoming best-selli authors. I've got a few ideas covers written down in my ideas book.

Wow, the mark of a man with lots of free time on his

handswhich we won't have anymore now that we'll be

GAS? Is this a joke? You're going to say I

have GAS?

No, it's a real thing.

The General Adaptation Syndrome consists of alarm, resistance, and eventually exhaustion if the stress goes on for too long.

Let me back up.

There are three phases of the getting stressed out model.

In the alarm phase,an

outside stressor jolts the individual, insisting that

something must be done.

Exactly. And if the response is sufficient, the body will return to its resting state after having successfully dealt with the source of

But we'll be working on the restaurant for the foreseeable future.

Excellent point, David. This leads us to what you're in now, the resistance phase. Your body is

releasing cortisol and drawing on its reserves of fats and sugars to find a way to adjust to the demands of

stress. This reaction will work for a while, but it is only a temporary

fix.

Well, if you go on like this too long you'll reach the exhaustion phase, and you can literally be stressed out to the point of becoming sick. In fact, in extreme cases, prolonged stress can lead to death.

We're engaging in a number of the most stressful life events that can affect people. Graduation, change in responsibilities at work, and even outstanding personal achievements such as getting our bank loan can lead to high stressespecially when they all come at once.

Yeah, I asked him to come along to make sure there weren't too many problems with the

That's because I'm often a bit tardy with that little chore. But

he's actually a nice guy once you get past the gruff exterior and lingering expectation to be paid what he is due.

Huh. I have to say I'm a little less stressed already.

Want to order pizza?

Maybe we should just go to the coffee shop to map out any negotiations we might need to do, should this space work out for the restaurant.

Wow, you'll go to no ends to avoid eating healthy and getting

whooped by me at Tekken!

tension in the air. Is there some

sort of conflict between you two?

Nor does he want to do anything about it. With a long "to do" list only getting longer, we need to start getting something accomplished before I go nuts.

Wow! If you guys are going to be partners, you have some issues you Ire going to have to work out!

Aside from the personal attacks, conflict can be helpful when planning. Avoiding all conflict keeps you from working through important issues. You better start dealing with this now, because jobs where people have to work together, like a restaurant, are at higher risk for conflict.

If you managed your conflict better, David wouldn't be so stressed out, both of you would be more eager to participate, you'd trust each other more, and it would inspire creativity instead of complaining.

So when did you become an expert

Besides having three

sisters, working here the last few years has allowed me to deal with each

of the main types of conflict.

versus

envi ronment, man versus lion,

I think you're confused. Anyway, the first type of conflict is within a person, like

when a certain new

hire lacks the confidence in himself about how to make a cappuccino and has to

have me watch over his shoulder for the first 50 times.

Great, more obscure Star Trek references. Probably the most common type of conflict is between individuals. Li ke yesterday, when I found out I had to

work during spring break even though my boss assured me I could have the week off 9 months ago when I booked my ticket to Florida.

First, they're Star Wars references.

Second, I believe you're referring to interpersonal

conflict.

The final type of conflict is between different groups, like when the Red Hat Society and

the Goth tweens all show up here on the

Oh yes, I've heard of this intergroup conflict. Like the epic conflict between the jocks and the nerds made famous in the 1984 film, Revenge of the Nerds.

Yes, there's nothing worse than a revenge-driven nerd Speaking of angry nerds, why did you two come here exactly?

Atlas found a potential space for the No Cover Cafe and we need to practice negotiations.

I fear Atlas negotiating.

Well, this is certainly an opportunity to manage conflict. JFK once

said "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate."

Hey, I've got

plenty of experience in negotiations based on my

lengthy resume.

Although, thinking back, perhaps not all of these

Let me stop you right there-you had me at wage.

It's a deal!

But you said I could make any balloonanimal I

wanted!

So, let's talk retirement and stock

I didn't anticipate 50 snakes in a row.

Uh ... This is a hot-dog stand. Just put on the darn costume!

Getting overly emotional

On second thought, maybe I'm not the best one to lead the

Letting past negative outcomes affect the present ones

Just let me do the talking.

Here's where you gauge our negotiation prowess and

see if we adopt a distributive, or fixed pie approach, versus an integrative approach

that expands the pie for everyone!

You have no idea.

Esmeralda has been mentoring me on the finer art of negotiation. Did I mention she used to be an arbitrator?

Someone who settles

disputes when they break

down? I hope it doesn't

Relax, David. Today we are going to learn

about the five main negotiation styles and the

Oh, I'm sure he's just practicing his due diligence.

So, let's start with the first style.

Accommodating individuals enjoy solving the other party's problems and preserving personal relationships. Accommodators are sensitive to the emotional states, body language, and verbal signals of the other parties. They can, however, feel taken advantage of in situations when the other party places little emphasis on the relationship.

Avoiding individuals do not like to negotiate and don't do it unless warranted. When negotiating, avoiders tend to defer and dodge the confrontational aspects of negotiating; however, they may be perceived as

tactful and diplomatic. ....----1

Collaborating individuals enjoy negotiations that involve solving tough problems in creative ways. Collaborators are good at using negotiations to understand the concerns and interests of the other parties. They can, however, create problems by transforming simple situations into more complex ones.

Competing individuals enjoy negotiations because they present an opportunity to win something. Competitive negotiators have strong instincts for all aspects of negotiating and are often strategic. Because their style can dominate the bargaining process, competitive negotiators often neglect the importance of relationships.

Compromising individuals are eager to close the deal by doing what is fair and equal for all parties involved in the negotiation. Compromisers can be useful when there is limited time to complete the deal; however, compromisers often unnecessarily rush the negotiation process and make concessions too quickly.

phases, Five Forces, the Big Five personality dimensions.

Does everything in management come in fives?

The first step

in negotiation is to investigate, or to gather information. What are your goals for the negotiation?

What do you want to achieve? What do you value most? What would

you concede?

Essie and I agreed we wouldn't have any hard rock at the No

Cover Cafe since she lives upstairs, but jazz, blues, and acoustic will work.

The second step in negotiation is to determine your BATNA, which is an acronym that stands

for the "best alternative to a negotiated agreement. Thinking through your BATNA is important to helping you decide whether to accept an

offer you receive during the negotiation.

You are more likely to make concessions if you have fewer alternatives.

I considered a number of alternatives for the No Cover Cafe but they all seemed pretty lame.

No Cover Kiosk

Top five reasons why we are great ...

The third phase of negotiation is presentation, where you assemble the information you've gathered in a way that supports your position.

During step four, the bargaining phase, each party discusses their goals and seeks to get an agreement. A natural part of this process is giving up one thing to get something else in return.

Step five is closure. This comes at the close of a of a negotiation, either you and the other party have come to an agreement on the terms, or one party has decided that the final offer is unacceptable and therefore must be walked away from.

?

o

Thanks, Essie, this has been illuminating!

Illuminating for sure!

Today we're discussing the topic of ethics. The model I'll present today, developed by Lawrence Kohlberg, suggests

there are six distinct stages of moral development, and that some individuals move further along these stages than others.

Kohlberg's six stages were grouped into three

levels: preconventional, conventional, and post conventional.

stages of Moral Development

I 1 (PreconventionQ\)

~eve d ouni h

Obedience an PUniS men'\"

1. orientation

(HoW can I avoid punishmenf?)

2. Self-interest orientation

(What'S in it for me.?)

t..evel 2 (Conventional)

3. Interpersonal .accord and conformity

(Social norms)

A Authority

H· , , Qnd

rnamtQlni~ social-order

(I 119 Or'

.,aw and ord lentation

er l1'\orality)

f..,evel 3 (Po

5 s'tco

,SOCiQI t'\Ventionol)

orientCO~trQct

6, Unive Qtlon

rSQI

, princ' ethical

(PrinciPled 'Ples

cons' Clence)

preconventional level of moral reasoning is very egocentric in nature,and focuses on direct

In Stage One, individuals focus on the direct consequences that their actions will have. For example, they worry about punishment or getting caught.

In Stage Two, right or wrong is defined by the reward stage, where a "what's in it for me" or "you scratch my

back and I'll

And I'" be keeping the change!

In the conventional level of moral reasoning, morality is judged by comparing individuals'

actions with the expectations of society.

In Stage Three, individuals are conformity driven, and act with the goal of fulfilling social roles.

... And I said "Oh-my-gosh!"

Then she said "Oh-my-gosh!"

Then I said ...

In Stage Four, it is important to obey laws, social conventions, or other forms of authority to aid in the maintenance of a functional society. Although there is a concern for others in this stage, it should be pointed out that morality is still dictated by an outside force, such as what others think you ought to do.

The

post conventional level, or principled level, occurs when morality is more than simply following social rules or norms.

Stage Five considers different values and opinions. Thus, laws are viewed as social contracts that promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

Finally, in Stage Six, moral reasoning is based on universal ethical

principles. For example, the golden rule that you should do unto others as you would have them do unto you illustrates one such ethical principle.

At this stage, it should be noted that laws are grounded in the idea of right and wrong. Thus, individuals follow laws because they are just and not because they will be punished if caught or shunned by society. Thus, with this stage there is an idea of civil disobedience that individuals have a duty to disobey unjust laws.

You mean I'm buying. That's my 10 bucks!

I thought this was more of a planning retreat?

Like my grandmudda used to say, burning the

candle at both ends will soon leave you without a light.

Indeed, and I'm wondering when the light will go on with you. Edison noted that genius is 1/'0 inspiration and 99/'0 perspiration. He also observed that opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks

like work.

CLICK!

So, I need to put on overalls?

Gang, I just saw a vision that we need to turn on the light bulb of overalls

and get this place remodeled!

I understood the remodeling part at least.

Dude! I really think you should pay up the

rent you owe!

I think I finally understand the term "Painted

myself into a corner"!

~o CO\fER~

CAFE ~

OUR STORY SO FAR ...

Now that David and Atlas are funded, they are entering the "doggy dog" world of business. Atlas isn't great at everything, but he sure seems to know how to handle stress. David, on the other hand ... As our dynamic duo discover, finding a location for the No Cover Cafe is on the top of their to-do list. As Atlas avoids doing anything to induce stress, David is fully embracing his. When both get a handle on managing to get work done without stress overload, progress begins.

Effective stress management requires understanding the stages of stress starting with the alarm stage where a stressor demands attention to the resistance stage where a person's body draws on reserves to fight off the effects of stress. Finally, if the stress continues, it evolves into the exhaustion stage where a person can become ill. Atlas lets David know that stress management strategies include eating right, exercising, getting enough sleep, and time management.

Tess shares her frustrations with the guys and explains that awareness of conflict can be helpful when planning. She lets them know the three types of conflict include intrapersonal conflict (within a person), interpersonal conflict (between two or more individuals), and intergroup conflict (between groups).

As the boys consider their negotiation strategy, Atlas reflects on his past experiences with negotiating and shares lessons learned to avoid key negotiation mistakes such as the following:

Don't take the first offer made. Don't let your ego get in the way. Don't have unrealistic expectations. Don't get overly emotional.

Don't let past negative outcomes affect present negotiations.

Esmeralda explains the five different types of conflict styles. Avoiders (think Atlas) don't like to negotiate and defer when they do. Accommodators enjoy problem solving and preserving personal relationships. Collaborators like solving complex problems in creative ways. Competitors like to win. Compromisers are eager to be fair.

IN OUR NEXT EPISODE ...

Atlas will learn that managing a team is more than fun and games. As Atlas seeks to build cohesion and team unity, he needs to think more deeply about how to build, motivate, and manage a team. He'll also be surprised to learn that it's much more complicated than picking out a team uniform.

page 271

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