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Aviation Training Programme

Airline Cabin Crew Training


COURSE TEXTBOOK

1st Edition

Aviation Training Programme


Airline Cabin Crew Training
COURSE TEXTBOOK

International Air Transport Association


Montreal Geneva

1st Edition

NOTICE
DISCLAIMER. The content of this publication is
based on survey results. The opinions given are
those of survey respondents and do not necessarily
reflect the views of the International Air Transport
Association. The information contained in this publication
is subject to constant review in the light of changing
government requirements and regulations. No
subscriber or other reader should act on the basis of
any such information without referring to applicable
laws and regulations and/or without taking appropriate
professional advice. Although every effort has been
made to ensure accuracy, the International Air
Transport Association shall not be held responsible
for any loss or damage caused by errors, omissions,
misprints or misinterpretation of the contents hereof.
Furthermore, the International Air Transport
Association expressly disclaims any and all liability
to any person or entity, whether a purchaser of this
publication or not, in respect of anything done or
omitted, and the consequences of anything done or
omitted, by any such person or entity in reliance on
the contents of this publication.
International Air Transport Association. All Rights
Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
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any means, electronic or mechanical, including
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and retrieval system, without the prior written
permission from:
Director
IATA Training and Development Institute
IATA
800 Place Victoria
P.O. Box 113
Monteal, Quebec
Canada H4Z 1M1

Aviation Training Programme


Ref. No: 8317-01
ISBN 92-9195-823-9
2006 International Air Transport Association. All rights reserved.
Montreal Geneva

AIRLINE CABIN CREW TRAINING


COURSE TEXTBOOK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction....................................................................................................................................... 1
Module 1 Introduction to the Cabin Crew Profession
1.0 Introduction to the Cabin Crew Profession................................................................................. 5
1.1 History and Origin of Profession................................................................................................. 6
1.1.1 Key Historical Milestones .................................................................................................. 6
1.2 A Day in the Life of a Crewmember ........................................................................................... 9
1.2.1 A Day in the Life ............................................................................................................... 9
1.2.2 Benefits and Challenges of the Cabin Crew Profession ................................................ 12

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................... 18

Module 2 Landing the Job


2.0 Landing the Job ........................................................................................................................ 19
2.1 Landing a Job ........................................................................................................................... 19
2.1.1 Resumes and applications ............................................................................................. 20
2.1.2 Training and Certification ............................................................................................... 20
2.2 Minimum Requirements............................................................................................................ 24
2.2.1 Minimum Requirements ................................................................................................. 24
2.2.2 What Skills Do You Have? ............................................................................................. 25
2.3 Grooming and Personal Appearance ....................................................................................... 28
2.3.1 Good Grooming Practices .............................................................................................. 28
2.3.2 Personal Hygiene ........................................................................................................... 29
2.3.4 Hair and Hairstyles ......................................................................................................... 30
2.3.5 Make-Up and Cosmetics................................................................................................ 30
2.3.6 Jewelry ........................................................................................................................... 31
2.3.7 Prescription Eyewear ..................................................................................................... 31

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................... 33

Module 3 Cabin Crew Healthy Living/Lifestyle


3.0 Cabin Crew Healthy Living/Lifestyle......................................................................................... 35
3.1 Healthy Crew Lifestyle.............................................................................................................. 36
3.1.1 Nutrition and Exercise .................................................................................................... 37

3.1.2 Proper Lifting Techniques .............................................................................................. 39


3.2 Adapting to Lifestyle Changes.................................................................................................. 42
3.2.1 The Lifestyle of Cabin Crew .......................................................................................... 42
3.3 The Pressures of Frontline Work............................................................................................... 46
3.4 Personal Health ........................................................................................................................ 48
3.4.1 Health Risks Associated with Travel and Flying ............................................................ 48
3.4.2 Other Recognised Effects From Flying .......................................................................... 50
3.5 Security and Safety While Away From Base............................................................................ 52
3.5.1 In Transit and in the Hotel .............................................................................................. 53
3.5.2 When Sightseeing or Leaving Your Room ..................................................................... 54
3.5.3 Emergency Situations to Prepare for When Traveling ................................................... 55

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................... 59

Module 4 Introduction to the Aviation Industry


4.0 Introduction to the Aviation Industry ......................................................................................... 61
4.1 Airlines, Charters, Private and Corporate Jets ......................................................................... 62
4.1.1 Scheduled Airlines and Alliances ................................................................................... 62
4.1.2 Charters and Corporate and Private jets......................................................................... 67
4.2 Regulatory Agencies and Aviation Regulations ...................................................................... 71
4.2.1 What Is ICAO? ................................................................................................................ 71
4.2.2 Government Agencies in Aviation Safety - CAAs, FAA, and JAA.................................. 74
4.2.3 IATA - International Air Transport Association ............................................................... 77
4.3 Customs and Immigration for Air Travel................................................................................... 78
4.3.1 Customs and Immigration .............................................................................................. 79

Module Summary............................................................................................................................... 83

Module 5 Introduction to Aircraft and Aviation Familiarisation


5.0 Introduction to Aircraft and Aviation Familiarisation ................................................................. 85
5.1 Aircraft Familiarisation .............................................................................................................. 86
5.1.1 Aircraft Types ................................................................................................................. 86
5.1.2 Aircraft Layout and Terminology ..................................................................................... 87
5.1.3 Aircraft Furnishings, Systems and Terminology............................................................. 90
5.1.4 General Aviation and Ground and Airport Operations Terminology .............................. 95
5.2 Theory of Flight and How Aircraft Fly ..................................................................................... 110
5.2.1 Take Offs and Landings .............................................................................................. 110
5.2.2 Movement of an Aircraft in Flight.................................................................................. 112

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5.3 Using Time Zones .................................................................................................................. 117


5.3.1 24-Hour Clock............................................................................................................... 117
5.3.2 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and Time Zones........................................................... 119
5.3.4 International Date Line ................................................................................................. 122
5.4 World Airport Codes and Airline Codes.................................................................................. 125
5.4.1 World Airport Codes ...................................................................................................... 125
5.4.2 Airline Designators ........................................................................................................ 126

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................. 128

Module 6 Crew Member Coordination and Communication


6.0 Crew Member Coordination and Communication .................................................................. 129
6.1 Roles and Responsibilities ..................................................................................................... 130
6.1.2 Cabin Crew .................................................................................................................. 132
6.2 Flight Preparations ................................................................................................................. 135
6.2.1 Pre-flight Crew Briefing ................................................................................................ 135
6.2.2 Pre-flight Preparations.................................................................................................. 139
6.2.3 Flight Preparation ......................................................................................................... 140
6.2.4 Boarding Process ......................................................................................................... 141
6.2.5 Pre Take-Off Preparations............................................................................................ 142
6.2.6 Passenger Safety Briefing............................................................................................ 142
6.2.7 Preparing for Take-off................................................................................................... 144
6.2.8 Preparing for Landing ................................................................................................... 145
6.3 Introduction to Crew Resource Management (CRM).............................................................. 149
6.3.1 Communication, Interpersonal Skills and Handling Information................................... 149
6.3.2 Basics of Crew Resource Management (CRM) ........................................................... 151

Module Summary ...................................................................................................... 155

Module 7 Customer Service


7.0 Customer Service ................................................................................................................... 157
7.1 Passengers are Guests .......................................................................................................... 158

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................. 166

Module 8 Managing Passenger Interactions


8.0 Managing Passenger Interactions.......................................................................................... 167
8.1 Care Giving............................................................................................................................. 168
8.2 Giving a Command and Making a Request............................................................................ 172
8.3 Flight and Fight Reactions...................................................................................................... 176

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8.4 Fear of Flying.......................................................................................................................... 182


8.5 Passenger with Special Needs .............................................................................................. 188

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................. 196

Module 9 Safety and Emergency Procedures


9.0 Safety and Emergency Procedures........................................................................................ 197
9.1 Accidents and Survivability..................................................................................................... 198
9.1.1 Routine Preparation...................................................................................................... 198
9.2 Evacuation and Emergency Procedure.................................................................................. 202
9.2.1 Unplanned or Planned Evacuations ............................................................................. 202
9.2.2 Emergency Landings.................................................................................................... 203
9.3 Turbulence.............................................................................................................................. 207
9.3.1 Air Turbulence .............................................................................................................. 207
9.3.3 Turbulence Related Incidents....................................................................................... 209
9.3.4 Injury Prevention........................................................................................................... 210
9.3.5 Response to Turbulence .............................................................................................. 211
9.4 Emergency Equipment ........................................................................................................... 214
9.4.1 Types of Emergency Equipment .................................................................................. 214
9.4.2 Types of Evacuation Equipment and Use .................................................................... 216
9.4.3 Firefighting Equipment ................................................................................................. 217
9.4.5 Emergency Equipment for Ditching.............................................................................. 219
9.5 Responding to Fires ............................................................................................................... 222
9.5.1 Classification of Fires ................................................................................................... 223
9.6 Decompression....................................................................................................................... 226
9.6.1 What is Decompression? ............................................................................................. 226
9.6.2 Basic Response Procedures in a Decompression ....................................................... 227
9.7 Hypoxia and How to Recognise it .......................................................................................... 228
9.7.1 Hypoxia......................................................................................................................... 228
9.7.2 Rapid/Explosive Decompression.................................................................................. 229
9.7.3 The Effect of Decompression on the Flight Crew: TUC or Time of Useful
Consciousness ............................................................................................................. 230

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................. 232

iv

Module 10 Medical Emergencies and Medical Training


10.0 Medical Emergencies and Medical Training.......................................................................... 235
10.1 Emergency equipment on board (First Aid Kit, Emergency Medical Kit, Automatic
Defibrillator, Personal Protection).......................................................................................... 236
10.1.1 First Aid and Medical Equipment................................................................................ 236
10.2 Basic First Aid and Personal Protection ................................................................................ 241
10.2.1 Check-Call-Care: First Aid Primer .............................................................................. 241
10.2.3 Protect Yourself! ......................................................................................................... 244
10.3 CPR, AED and Heimlich Maneuver....................................................................................... 247
10.3.1 Assisting Someone Who Has Stopped Breathing...................................................... 247
10.3.2 CPR ............................................................................................................................ 248
10.3.3 AED (Automated External Defibrillator)...................................................................... 251
10.3.4 Heimlich Maneuver..................................................................................................... 252
10.3.5 Sample Cabin Crew Medical Training Syllabus ......................................................... 253

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................. 256

Module 11 Introduction to Dangerous Goods


11.0 Introduction to Dangerous Goods ......................................................................................... 257
11.1 Dangerous Goods ................................................................................................................. 258
11.1.1 What are Dangerous Goods?..................................................................................... 258
11.1.2 Regulations and Standards ........................................................................................ 259
11.1.3 Classifications of Dangerous Goods .......................................................................... 259
11.1.4 Why Dangerous Goods At All?................................................................................... 260
11.2 Hasard Class Definitions - Identification and Recognition .................................................... 263
11.2.1 Dangerous Goods or Hasard Class Definitions ......................................................... 263
11.3 Precautionary Measures - Enforcement and Reporting ........................................................ 267

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................. 272

Module 12 Aviation Security


12.0 Aviation Security.................................................................................................................... 273
12.1 Threats to the Industry - Bomb Threats, Hostage/Hijacking, Threatening or Abusive
Passengers............................................................................................................................ 274
12.1.1 Who Poses a Threat?................................................................................................. 274
12.1.2 Major Threats to the Aviation Industry........................................................................ 275

12.2 Recognising and Responding to Suspicious Activities, Disruptive Passengers and Other
Threats ................................................................................................................................... 279
12.2.1 Disruptive Passengers ............................................................................................... 279
12.2.2 Response to Disruptive Passengers .......................................................................... 280
12.3 Cabin Crews Role in Aviation Security ................................................................................. 289

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................. 292

Module 13 Introduction to Airline Catering and Food Service


13.0 Introduction to Airline Catering and Food Service................................................................. 293
13.1 Airline Catering ...................................................................................................................... 293
13.1.1 Food Service in the Airline Industry............................................................................. 293
13.1.2 Caterers...................................................................................................................... 294
13.2 Galleys and Equipment Familiarisation ................................................................................. 297
13.2.1 The Galley .................................................................................................................. 297
13.2.2 Pre-Flight Galley Check ............................................................................................. 298
13.2.3 Delivery and Loading of Catering Services ............................................................... 299
13.2.4 Security Procedures ................................................................................................... 300
13.2.5 Types and Codes for Special Meals........................................................................... 301
13.3 Service Types and Levels ..................................................................................................... 316
13.3.1 Service Levels ............................................................................................................ 316
13.3.2 Types of Meal Service................................................................................................ 317
13.4 Food and Service Hygiene .................................................................................................... 321

Module Summary ............................................................................................................................. 326

Glossary ......................................................................................................................................... 327

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Aviation Training Programme

INTRODUCTION
Introduction to Cabin Crew Training
Welcome to the exciting world of the cabin crew profession! If you
have been thinking about becoming a flight attendant, otherwise
known as cabin crew, then this course will give you a sound
foundation on all aspects of the profession. You will learn about the
aviation industry as well as aircraft and how they achieve flight.
There is also a module dedicated to the basic terminology and
language that you will need to communicate with others in the
aviation industry.
There will be many challenges along with the rewards of this
profession and you will have the opportunity to explore both aspects
throughout the course. There are many helpful hints and guidelines
to help you navigate the obstacles and challenges you might expect
to find once on the job. Some of these hints involve living a healthy
lifestyle by following some basic principles of good nutrition and
exercise.
The course also outlines the basic duties and responsibilities that
you will be expected to perform as cabin crew, including safety and
emergency procedures, food and beverage service, emergency
landing and evacuation, recognising dangerous goods, handling a
medical emergency, crew coordination and communications,
managing passenger interactions, handling special needs
passengers and ensuring the safety and security of crew and
passengers. In addition, this course gives you a basic background on
effective customer service, which is an essential skill to being a
successful cabin crew.
After completing this course you will have a clear idea of what it
takes to be cabin crew. The assumption is made that you do not
have any experience as cabin crew, so that the material covered is
basic and written in a style that is easy to understand. Once you
have completed this course you will have a good idea on what it
takes to land a job as cabin crew and what the minimum
requirements are in order to qualify for the position.

Learning Aids
To help you successfully complete and enjoy the course in a
productive fashion, we have included the following learning aids:

Introduction

Aviation Training Programme

Real Life Examples


These appear throughout the Course. They will provide you with the
opportunity to see what you have studied in the context of
real world situations.

Progress Checks
At the end of each Module there is a set of questions and exercises,
covering the learning objectives. This provides you with an
opportunity to practice for the final exam. These questions enable
you to assess your understanding of the concepts discussed. An
answer key is provided to help you asses how well you did.

Key Learning Points


Key Learning Points are highlighted throughout the text and are
designed to emphasise particularly important issues and
conclusions.

Summary
Each lesson and module ends with a Summary drawing together the
main points.

Glossary
At the end of the Course, there is a GLOSSARY section, which
explains the most important terms used in the manual.

Recommended Reading
Should you wish to further research a given topic, a list of
recommended reading is included at the end of each lesson and/or
module.

Examination Procedures
The course fee covers the training material and mailing but does not
include any expense incurred by the student in connection with the
examinations.
Examinations leading to an IATA Certificate in Airline Cabin Crew
Training will be held in APRIL and OCTOBER of each year at IATA
Examination Centres (in Geneva, Miami, Montreal, Singapore and
many other locations).
The examination must be taken within 18 months of registering for
the course. Students who are not successful at the first attempt may
retake the examination once at no extra fee, within this period.

Airline Cabin Crew Training

Aviation Training Programme

Students must notify the IATA Training and Development Institute of


their intention to take the examination AT LEAST 2 months before
the examination date.
Candidates are required to bring their identity card or passport to the
examination.
Students who register for an examination and do not attend will be
recorded as no-show and will automatically lose one examination
attempt.
This course is designed to make the study of Airline Cabin Crew
professionals as enjoyable and as stimulating as possible. We hope
we have succeeded. Good luck with the course.

Introduction

Aviation Training Programme

Airline Cabin Crew Training

Aviation Training Programme

1.0 Introduction to the Cabin Crew Profession


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Ojectives
Upon completion of this Module
you should be able to:
x

Explain how the cabin crew


profession has evolved over
the years.

Describe a typical day in the


life of a crew.

List the rewards and


challenges of the cabin crew
profession.

The career as a cabin crew is exciting and allows you to travel to


many destinations. Although there are many challenges that come
with the job it can also be extremely rewarding. In this module we
will look at some of these challenges and offer tips for handling them.
The aim of this module is to give an overview of the history of the
cabin crew profession and how it evolved over time. We will take a
look at the responsibilities of the early cabin crew and how these
responsibilities grew over time. This module also describes a typical
day in the life of a member of the cabin crew. This section will cover
the duties before a flight, on the flight and after landing at the
destination.

Module 1 Introduction to the Cabin Crew Profession

Aviation Training Programme

1.1 History and Origin of Profession


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you will be able to:
x

List the key historical


milestones.

Explain the origin of the cabin


crew profession.

When aircraft were introduced in the 1920s, jobs were created to


support operations and expansion. During that period, air travel and
commerce were new, and much like today the airline companies
looked for ways to provide service and safety to passengers.
However, roles and jobs evolved as the industry grew. The
profession has come a long way from the very first cabin boys to the
well-trained crews of over 300,000 men and women today. The
presence and contribution of the cabin crew provides comfort to
millions of travelers around the world.

1.1.1 Key Historical Milestones


The airline industry has evolved over the years and has passed
through significant milestones that have shaped the entire industry
and the cabin crew profession.

CHRONOLOGICAL MILESTONES
Below is a list of major dates that have shaped the cabin crew
profession:

Did you know?


Some of the duties of early
cabin crew members
included swatting flies after
take off and checking bolts
on seats to make sure they
were securely fastened
down.

y In-flight service began with cabin boys or stewards in 1922


with Britains Daimler Airways.
y Cabin boys duties included checking passengers in, and
weighing and loading mail and luggage. They also offered
passengers general comfort and reassurance. In the late 1920s
a small lunch service was introduced.
y The year 1930 brought about a new direction in cabin crew, as
Ellen Church became the first stewardess, flying for Boeing Air
Transport (later to become United Airlines). Ellen Church was a
registered nurse who took flying lessons. After meeting with
Steve Stimpson of Boeing Air Transport (BAT) for an airline job,
Stimpson decided to create a stewardess position for
registered nurses.
y Stimpson hired Ellen Church as Chief Stewardess and seven
additional nurses to represent the airline. They were called the
original eight.

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y On May 15, 1930, Ellen Church launched a career as the


worlds first stewardess flying from Oakland, California to
Chicago, Illinois.
y Other airlines followed Stimpsons lead hiring air hostesses
(Eastern Airlines 1933). Swissair was the first European carrier
to hire an air hostess in 1934, a woman by the name of Nelly
Diener.
y By the 1950s government and regulatory agencies began to
require that cabin crew on commercial aircraft be thoroughly
trained in in-flight safety procedures. In studying accidents and
safety procedures over the years, it continued to become
apparent that the cabin crews were crucial to the safety and
security of passengers in emergency situations. Today strict
guidelines regulate cabin crew training programs.
Cabin crewmembers play an important role in safety, security and
service today. This is a huge change from the loading mail and
luggage duties they did in the professions early days.
GO SEE: Come Fly With Us!: A Global History of the Airline Hostess
by Johanna Omelia, Michael Waldock, Collectors Press
(March 1, 2003)
http://www.united.com/page/article/0,3214,00.html

Progress Check

TRUE

FALSE

1. Cabin crews provide passengers with


service, safety and security.

2. Todays cabin crews profession employs


more than 300,000 men and women.

3. The first stewardess was hired to work on an


airplane in the 1920s.

Module 1 Introduction to the Cabin Crew Profession

Aviation Training Programme

Answer Key
1. True
2. True
3. False

Lesson Summary
This lesson reviews the origin of the cabin crew profession and the
key historical milestones. Although the profession began in 1922 with
the cabin boys first in-flight service on Britains Daimler Airways, as
airlines grew so did the demand for airline staff.
In 1930, Ellen Church, a registered nurse, became the first
stewardess for Boeing Air Transport (later to become United
Airlines). Steve Stimpson of Boeing Air Transport hired Ellen Church
to be the first Chief Hostess, in addition to seven other nurses. They
were called the original eight. In 1933 and 1934 European airlines
followed Stimpsons lead. In the 1950s, the government and
regulatory agencies began to require that the cabin crew be trained
in safety procedures. Over the years these training programs have
grown, as the cabin crew is crucial for the safety and security of the
passengers. Today there are over 300,000 men and women working
in the cabin crew profession, ensuring that passengers feel
comfortable and safe.

Airline Cabin Crew Training

Aviation Training Programme

1.2 A Day in the Life of a Crewmember


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Describe the highlights of


one day as a crewmember.

Did you know?


A day in the life of a cabin
crew brings many rewards
and challenges. The key
is to be prepared and be
flexible.

No matter the type of airline you work for, the duties of a flight
attendant are primarily the same. Job responsibilities fall into the
categories of safety, security and service. The duties within each of
these categories are numerous and challenging. While there are
many rewards to being a cabin crewmember, it is also important to
understand the challenges and responsibilities that come with the job.

1.2.1 A Day in the Life


How does the day start for a cabin crew? This section will look at the
responsibilities of a crew from the moment he or she arrives at the
airport to the moment his or her duties end at the destination. This
will give you an idea of what it is like to work as a cabin crew.
A typical day for cabin crew begins at your home or your hotel on a
layover. Youve set an alarm or have a wake up call that will allow
for sufficient time to prepare for your report time at the airport. You
have to make sure you have enough time to finish any last minute
packing, shower and put on your uniform. You need to leave for the
airport early enough so that you have time to drive or take public
transportation and still arrive in time to report for duty. Remember,
you may be required to be at the airport as much as two hours prior
to a flight so it is important to plan accordingly.
Packing your bags the night before will make it easier for you to be
ready on time. In addition to your personal belongings you must also
be sure to pack certain items that are required by your airline. These
items must be with you on every flight so double-check that you have
them before leaving for work!
Most airlines will require the following when you check in at the
airport:
1. You must be in full regulation uniform at all times, note that a
watch is also required as part of your uniform.
2. Bring your Safety and Emergency Procedures Manual and make
sure it is up to date with current information.
3. Carry your passport, and wear your airline identification badge
and any other required security clearance badges. Your airline ID
will be required to allow you through security and have access to
the aircraft. Some airports may require a security clearance ID in
addition to your standard airline ID. Note that wearing a uniform
does not allow you access to the aircraft or secured airport areas

Module 1 Introduction to the Cabin Crew Profession

Aviation Training Programme

without ID. Your airline will assist you in obtaining all necessary
identification badges.
4. Airlines may also require that you carry a flashlight. The flashlight
may be one that they issue or you may be required to purchase
your own.
In-flight management or your senior cabin crew will check to make
sure you have met all requirements for check in. It is important to
double-check these items yourself before leaving for the airport.
Once you are checked in, you should have sufficient time to check
your mailbox or company email for any changes in procedures. You
will also get other important information you need to know before the
flights departure.
One of the reasons you need to arrive early to the airport is to attend
a crew briefing led by the captain and/or senior cabin crew or purser.
(The purser is sometimes referred to as the in-charge flight attendant
or #1 cabin crew). This briefing will take place in the offices or on
the aircraft where you will discuss pertinent information about the
flight and review safety practices and procedures. At this point you
will receive your duty assignments for which you will be responsible
before and during the flight.
Once the crew briefing is finished you will board the aircraft. This will
probably happen about 45 minutes or 1 hour prior to departure
(depending on the size of the aircraft and type of flight). At this time
you will stow your luggage and complete all the pre-flight duties.
Since there are a number of simultaneous tasks to be completed
during boarding, the whole process can be quite chaotic if not
properly organised. A well-organised crew will make the boarding
process seem effortless but in fact the entire crew is very busy.
Depending on your assigned duties you will be responsible for
completing a check of the emergency equipment, completing security
and galley checks and preparing the cabin for boarding. Once this is
done the aircraft is ready for boarding. At this point you will probably
take a position in a specific area of the cabin in order to perform at
least some of the following tasks:
y Assisting customers with luggage
y Assisting customers with finding their seats
y Conducting special briefings as required for special needs
passengers and those in emergency exit rows
y Answering questions
y Offering pillows, blankets and magazines

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Airline Cabin Crew Training

Aviation Training Programme

First and business class passengers generally receive a more


personalised service during boarding including amenities, beverages,
newspapers and even an offer to hang up their coats. Although first
and business class passengers receive extra attention, it is the cabin
crews responsibility to make all passengers feel both safe and
comfortable.
As departure nears, the cabin crew must make sure passengers are
seated, luggage is properly stowed and the cabin is ready with
closets, bins and compartments checked and secured for departure.
At this point you will most likely participate in the safety briefing.
Once this is completed all cabin crew take their assigned jump seats.
After take off, the cabin crew continues to monitor and insure all
safety and security policies are followed by everyone during the
flight. When the aircraft reaches an appropriate and safe altitude,
the cabin crew can begin to offer service. Cabin service may be as
simple as beverages on a short flight or multiple meal and beverage
service on longer flights. Meal services on long distance flights may
take 2 hours to complete. After the meal service, you may still have
another 8 hours or longer before landing at your destination. On
these longer, international flights, duty free service, in-flight movies
and snack services are also provided and must be coordinated.
International flights also require the cabin crew to distribute landing
cards and appropriate customs documentation to all passengers.
Between services, the cabin crew monitors the cabin for additional
requests from the passengers, responding to call buttons and
perhaps attending to a medical situation or an ill passenger.
Furthermore, the cabin crew is required to conduct a cabin walkthrough every 20 minutes. Fortunately, if the flight is long enough
you may have the option for a break and the opportunity to eat a
meal.
Near the end of the flight, you will have to complete any necessary
paperwork. For example, you will be responsible for conducting an
inventory of the carts containing duty free merchandise or liquor. In
addition, international flights may require specific documentation for
Customs and Immigration. There is also special documentation that
is required by many airlines in the event that any special situations or
incidents occur during the flight.
Just prior to landing you will secure the cabin by ensuring that
equipment is stowed, galleys are secured, overhead compartments
and closets are secured and that passengers are seated with
seatbelts fastened. Finally you return to your assigned jump seat for
landing.

Module 1 Introduction to the Cabin Crew Profession

11

Aviation Training Programme

At the conclusion of the flight and after passengers deplane you may
be required to assist with tidying the cabin. If you are on a turn
around flight you must prepare to do the whole process again for
another planeload of passengers. However, if youve traveled
internationally you may have already completed 12 or more hours of
duty. At this point, you collect your luggage and personal items,
deplane and immediately clear customs. Now you can go to your
hotel for a much needed rest and layover.
Consider the fact that although you woke up at 4am for a 7am
departure and it is 12 hours later (it is now 7pm on your body clock),
it may be another day or time at your destination. Youll need your
layover to recover from the physical and emotional demands of the
day, not to mention jet lag and the effects of being in an aircraft
cabin. Taking a much needed rest will rejuvenate you for your next
assignment, which may begin within the next 8-12 hours when you
will begin the process all over again. Some layovers may allow for a
day or two or more before you are required to work on another flight.
On the other hand, on some trips you may have a workday that
includes one long flight with perhaps many legs or several shorter
flights that fly domestically. In all cases it is wise to rest in between
flights whenever possible. A day in the life of the cabin crew can be
long and exhausting but in most cases they are very rewarding.

1.2.2 Benefits and Challenges of the Cabin Crew


Profession
Rewards of the Position
As a cabin crew you will be rewarded for your efforts and the time
you put in. According to your preferences you might view the rewards
of the job differently. While one person might find the traveling and
exposure to different cities and cultures an attractive part of the job,
others might enjoy the fact that being a cabin crew is not a typical
9am to 5pm position.
Schedule Flexibility
The 24/7 world of aviation with hundreds of flights per day offers
great variety in scheduling when compared to traditional 9 to 5 office
work. While you may not have total control of all aspects of
scheduling early in your career, as you progress you learn how to
manage and trade your schedule. You can choose to work longer
strings of days in a row with more days off together or perhaps lots of
short trips so that you are home more regularly. These options may
vary from airline to airline but you should be able to discover means
to make your schedule work for you.

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Geographic Flexibility and Opportunity


As cabin crew you may find yourself living temporarily in one city
while you are actually based in another city giving you the
opportunity to move to a city for a short period of time to gain new
perspectives. If you are a person that likes to experience life in
different cities, then geographic flexibility is certainly a favorable
reward.
Benefits Packages
While there is no standard rule for benefits packages, as they vary by
airline and country, you will most likely have vacation and holiday
time (although you may not have holidays off you may receive
compensation or alternate time off for those days). In addition, it is
common to have health care and other standard offerings from major
companies.
Travel Benefits
One of the biggest benefits to airline personnel is the opportunity to
travel for a nominal charge to cover appropriate taxes and fees.
While this is a great option one must also remember that you travel
according to space available or non revenue, which means you will
get on a flight only when seats are available. Joining the airline
community also means that you have access to travel benefits with
other airlines worldwide (depending on the agreements your airline
has with other airlines), hotels, cruises and other travel entities at
reduced rates. Cabin and flight crew also have additional perks that
sometimes allow them to travel on jump seats of other airlines.

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Cities, Cultures and Customs


As cabin crew you will have the opportunity to see and visit places
without having to plan a vacation or personal time there. You will
also encounter people from around the world giving you an
opportunity to learn about cultures and customs from a first hand
perspective by either providing service to people of a different culture
or by enjoying a layover in a new city. Being cabin crew provides
wonderful learning opportunities, as even the smallest cities of the
world have fascinating places and people to encounter.
Furthermore, there is a chance that in your career you will encounter
dignitaries and persons of fame who can be very interesting to have
on a flight.

Challenges of the Position


Although there are numerous rewards in the cabin crew profession,
some of these rewards can be seen as challenges as well. For
example, while you might view an aspect of the job as a reward, your
colleague or another crew might view it as a challenge.
Schedules
Although at times a varying schedule is a reward, you might also find
it a challenge to be required to work holidays and weekends causing
you to be away from family and friends. Although many cabin crew
have some control over their schedule, you are also expected, at all
times, to be flexible in the days you work and where you fly.
There are other scheduling challenges that come with the profession
of working in the airline industry, such as delays caused by an
aircrafts mechanical problems. Bad weather can impact your

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schedule too. Though you are scheduled to return home at a certain


date and time there may be conflicts with the schedule that are out of
your control. However, one could look at this aspect of the profession
in a positive way because knowing how this situation may feel helps
you empathize with an upset passenger who might be facing the
same problem.
Finances
Depending on your financial situation when you begin your career,
finances can be a challenge in the early days of becoming a cabin
crewmember. Most airlines, especially in todays challenging
business environment, do not provide compensation while you are in
training. However, if they do it is generally a nominal amount to cover
daily expenses. Some airlines offer a bonus or pay at the successful
completion of training.
It is important to consider a few financial aspects about the
profession before making a decision to train to be a cabin
crewmember. For instance you may have to complete 6-8 weeks of
training without a regular paycheck. In addition, though you might
complete the training, you may not be in sequence to receive a
paycheck until you complete several trips or a scheduled month of
flying. In order to be sure of the type of compensation you may
receive after your training, first research the airlines you are
considering working for in order to have some idea of what they offer.
Some airlines may offer short-term housing or reduced rate lodging
during the training. This is common for training centers that are
away from where they domicile. That is to say, the training centers
are often far from the crews home base or where they will live after
completing the training.
Airlines will also vary in how they handle uniforms. While some
airlines provide them, others require that you pay for your first
uniform. This often happens in several installments over a certain
period of time. You should factor the expense of the uniform, along
with the cost of appropriate shoes, luggage and other items that you
may be required to have such as a passport, watch and vaccinations.
It is also important to consider how you handle your finances and
banking while traveling as a cabin crewmember. A credit card is
recommended when traveling, as many hotels will not let you charge
things to your room without putting a card on record for incidentals.
The actual hotel lodging is arranged and paid for by the airline for
layovers; however, you will be personally responsible for any
charges incurred to your room for food, phone service, Internet
service and movies. (Airlines will often negotiate with hotels to

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receive discounts on services for crew such as local phone access,


meals, gym and facility fees).
The Work
Another reward that can also be seen as a challenge is the fact that
the cabin crew profession is a frontline service position. As a cabin
crew you are working with people all day, every day, which can be
physically and emotionally demanding. You will be subject to dealing
with irate and very irrational passengers, in addition to those who
become intoxicated and are difficult to deal with. Furthermore, you
may work long days or all night so it is important to get at least
8-12 hours of rest when you are off duty. This will enable you to
prepare for getting back to work the next day, especially if you are
called to work last minute. In addition, it is important to pack light but
with the unexpected in mind. Be prepared for the fact that on one
flight you may have a layover in a warm or tropical climate but then
be rescheduled for a flight that lands in a city that is snowy and cold.
These tips will help overcome some of the challenges that come
along with an otherwise rewarding profession as a cabin crew.

Progress Check
1. When you check in for a flight as a crew, you should possess
these items.
a) a watch
c) airline ID

b) passport
d) compass

2. What are the rewards of the cabin crew profession?


3. What are some reasons why it is important to research the airline
before going for the initial training?
4. List at least three tasks you will perform during boarding.

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Answer Key
1. a, b and c
2. Numerous places and cultures one gets to experience as cabin
crew member. As a cabin crew member you do not have a
typical 9-5 schedule and are often able to manage and trade
your schedule to suit your needs.
3. Many airlines do not offer compensation during the several
weeks training period, which is an important factor to consider
when choosing an airline. Research the different benefits the
cabin crew is eligible for such as vacation time, reduced fares on
flights and health-care.
4. y Assisting customers with luggage
y Assisting customers with finding their seats
y Conducting special briefings as required for special needs
passengers and those in emergency exit rows
y Answering questions
y Offering pillows, blankets and magazines

Lesson Summary
This lesson looks at the key points of the day in the life of a cabin
crewmember. A cabin crews day usually begins by checking-in early
so that you are ready for duty 1-2 hours before the flight, depending
on whether it is an international flight or not. During this time you will
attend a crew briefing usually led by the captain or the senior cabin
crew or purser.
When you report for work you are required to have:
1. Your regulation uniform and a watch
2. Your cabin crew manual that has up to date information
3. Passport, airline ID and security badges
4. A flashlight

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Besides in-flight duties like serving beverages and meals the cabin
crew is concerned with the safety and comfort of the passengers. It is
important to note that the cabin crew profession is a front-line
service, which means that you are constantly interacting with people.
This lesson also reviewed some of the rewards and challenges of the
cabin crew profession, including travel benefits, cultural experiences,
financial benefits, scheduling and lifestyle challenges to name a few.
The key to a successful experience as cabin crew is being prepared
and maintaining a calm and flexible attitude.

MODULE SUMMARY
This module gives an overview of the history of the cabin crew
profession, as well as some of the personal aspects of the job. The
historical information regarding the beginning of the profession gives
some perspective on how the profession has evolved from the cabin
boys of the 1920s to over 300,000 cabin crewmembers today. After
learning about a Day in the Life you have a better idea of the tasks
a cabin crew can expect to perform in one day as well as the rewards
and challenges one faces in the profession as a whole.
Though there are numerous rewards and travel benefits this module
also examines the challenges one might face as a cabin crew
professional. Furthermore, the module looks at the different benefits
a cabin crew may be offered in terms of health care and additional
perks. Finally, the module urges you to research these factors before
choosing an airline.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.

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2.0 Landing the Job


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this Module
you should be able to:
x

Identify sources and list the


steps and requirements for
starting a cabin crew career.

As with any job, there are certain steps that you need to take to
prepare yourself when applying for a job as cabin crew. Before
applying for a position as cabin crew you need to ask yourself:
y Do I meet the minimum requirements for the job?
y Where do I go to apply for a job?
y Do I understand common hiring practices and procedures for
the airline industry?
y What information do I need to have in order to apply for a job as
cabin crew?
y What will the training be like, if I get hired?
These and many other questions will be answered when you
complete this module, which will give you an overview of what you
need to do and how you should prepare to land a job in the airline
industry and in particular as cabin crew (or flight attendant). You will
be introduced to the general application process and minimum
requirements for applying on a job as well as basic personal hygiene
and grooming requirements for the position of cabin crew.

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Identify different sources of


recruitment in the airline
industry.

Identify common recruitment


practices.

Identify key elements and


information that should be
included in resumes and
applications.

Explain the training and


certification process for cabin
crew (where applicable).

2.1 Landing a Job


LESSON OVERVIEW
These days you can view and apply for vacant cabin crew positions
online. Most major airlines have information on their websites
regarding cabin crew hiring and the application process. Some
airlines have links to contractors that do the hiring and recruitment for
them. Traditional advertisements in local or national newspapers are
still used today but mainly for large-scale hiring. To this day, the
cabin crew profession is perceived to be prestigious and even
glamorous. Therefore, airlines receive thousands of applicants every
year and you have to be prepared to compete with many other
aspiring cabin crew.
This lesson gives you a detailed idea of the various steps in the
recruitment process, starting from submitting the application to being
called for an interview and ending up in training. You will also be
introduced to some of the skills and experiences that are required by
airlines. This lesson concludes with a look at the training aspect of
the cabin crew as you will be introduced to the training process and
content that will be covered during training sessions.

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2.1.1 Resumes and applications

Key Learning Point


You will probably
participate in a group
interview during the hiring
process.

Depending on the airline, some will require that you fill out their
application form while others may accept your resume/CV and cover
letter. If possible, it is recommended to submit both. Remember to
highlight the most important skills and experiences you have that fit
within your customer service background.
To apply for a job you must be able to sell yourself by highlighting
skills that airlines are looking for. Review your previous work or life
experiences that will translate to skills you will need as cabin crew.
Mention any skills or experiences in your past that would translate
well to this career such as medical background, security background,
volunteer work, taking care of children or the elderly, or work in any
service or customer relations business. Focus on customer service
and/or jobs that involved people, even for a short duration. If you
have held a waiter/waitress job during your college days, it could
prove helpful to mention in your application.
In addition, completing tasks efficiently, good attendance and
dependability is paramount in this industry. It would be beneficial to
mention these qualities in your work history.
Airlines require an extensive background and criminal records check.
Take the time to organise and list all the places youve worked at and
lived in. Some countries/airlines require 5 years and others may
require as many as 10 years of background check.
You should also list any language, computer, or first aid courses you
may have taken. If you have no experience in these areas, it is
advisable to take a class or two that will contribute to these
necessary skills.
Similar to applying to other professional jobs, your resume/
application should show professionalism. This includes proper use of
grammar and correct spelling. Ask someone with experience to read
your CV/resume and your cover letter in order to get feedback before
you submit it. Remember, first impressions are very important!

2.1.2 Training and Certification


Becoming a member of the cabin crew requires extensive training.
For that reason, every reputable airline will have its own training
program or will require you to complete one through their contracted
training provider.
Since the aviation industry is very heavily regulated and the primary
responsibilities revolve around safety for the public, each airline must
maintain a training program that meets specific standards. Training

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programs vary in length from 4-12 weeks. After the completion of the
initial training you may be on a probation period or trial period for
approximately 3-6 months.
With such relatively long training programs, the content that is
covered is diverse in nature. As a trainee, expect training to include
the following topics:
y Company history and orientation.
y Safety and emergency procedures.
y Drills and simulation exercises for firefighting, operating
emergency equipment and ditching (you will be in a pool and
required to swim and board life rafts. You will also become
familiar with the survival equipment contained in the life rafts).
y First aid.
y Aircraft familiarisation (studying and understanding each type of
aircraft that the airline flies, including how exits operate, the
location of equipment and aircraft features).
y Customer service and how to handle passengers with special
needs.
y Service (food preparation and presentation and serving
standards).
y Administration (paperwork, bidding, schedules).
y Initial orientation experience (you will be sent on a short flight or
two and observed by a training instructor or certified personnel.
You will assist the working crew for the flight).
The training is intense and focused. You will be tested on the
material almost daily and passing grades must be maintained
throughout the training or you may fail the course. Expect to attend a
full day of class as well as spending additional time in the evening
studying.
After graduation, you will return every year for a refresher training
(sometimes called recurrent training) to review safety and emergency
procedures and other important topics related to the job.

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Progress Check
TRUE

FALSE

1. Group interviews are done to observe communication


and listening skills with others.

2. Once an applicant has completed the online


application or submitted an application, he/she will
immediately be invited to a one on one interview.

3. Training programs can vary in length from 4-7 weeks.

4. After the completion of training you may be on a


probation period or trial period for 3-6 months.

5. Describe the hiring process adopted by airlines.


6. What are interviewers looking for in potential candidates for the cabin
crew profession?
7. List at least 6 topics covered in training sessions.

Answer Key:
1. True
2. False
3. True
4. True
5. y Fill out application on line
y Telephone interview
y Group interview
y One-on-one interview
y Medical examination
y Background check
y Training

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6. y Customer service and or community work experience


y Flexible (cope well with change), work well under pressure,
good communication skills, friendly, able to work in teams,
good presence, body language and poise
7. y Company history and orientation
y Safety and emergency procedures
y Drills and simulation exercises
y First aid
y Aircraft familiarisation
y Customer service
y Service
y Administration
y Initial orientation experience

Lesson Summary
This lesson explored the process that you will follow when applying
for a job as cabin crew. You now can prepare properly for the
application and interview process, which can include: filling out an
application, an initial phone interview, group interviews that can last a
day or more and one-on-one interviews. These interviews are
conducted because the companies need to select only a few very
qualified candidates from thousands of applicants. In the next lesson
you will be introduced to the minimum requirements for qualifying as
a cabin crew.

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2.2 Minimum Requirements


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Airlines or placement agencies hiring cabin crew will have varying


requirements depending on the airline and the country. Corporate
and private jet requirements for cabin crew are often much more
defined and specialised. While there may be some variation, most
airlines will look for some minimum requirements for the job. It is
strongly suggested that you research the airline to which you are
applying, to ensure that you meet the necessary qualifications.

Identify the minimum


requirements to be
considered for a cabin crew
position.

The following lesson will give you a clear idea of what minimum
requirements airlines generally look for.

Identify basic skills and traits


needed to be considered for
a cabin crew position.

Requirements vary between airlines some of which involve skill and


others personal traits and characteristics. Skills can always be
learned, however, there are some requirements that deal with such
things as age and height, which cannot be acquired. Listed below are
the minimum requirements that airlines take into consideration when
making hiring decisions:

2.2.1 Minimum Requirements

y Minimum age requirements vary worldwide between 18 and


21 years.
y Height requirements are generally between 1.57m and 1.85m.
y Weight should be in proportion to height and you should be in
excellent physical and medical condition. Many airlines will
conduct a medical check including vision and hearing screening
and ask you to take a drug test. Contact lenses and eyeglasses
are allowed. Most airlines will also require that you have the
ability to swim.
y Background check (work history and criminal record) varying
from 5-10 years depending on the requirements of the country
or airline that you are applying to.
y Some airlines may have specific language requirements of
fluency in one or more languages. Multiple language skills are a
hiring advantage at most airlines. If an airline flies
internationally you must be able to speak English as aviations
international language.
y You must be a holder of a valid passport without restrictions.
(You may be asked to bring it to your interview).

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y High school diploma or certificate of completion is required by


most airlines, but university education is not required for all
airlines:
In case you were wondering why airlines have height and weight
requirements, they are for health and safety purposes. You must be
tall enough to reach overhead lockers and compartments, as well
able to easily move throughout the cabin aisle and emergency exits.
Medical tests are often done as a precaution to make sure that you
are fit for the environment you will be working in. Hearing is often
tested, as well as adequate back and shoulder strength.

2.2.2 What Skills Do You Have?


Airlines base their hiring decisions on skills you possess and
experiences you have under your belt. Listed below are experiences
and qualities that airlines generally look for in candidates for cabin
crew.
Place a checkmark (9) next to the ones that you think apply to you.
This checklist will help you identify which areas need further
development.
Customer service experience
Strong communication skills
Experience in dealing with the general public
First aid or medical training
Ability to work well in a team
Good judgment
Ability to handle pressure in stressful situations
Outgoing
Flexible
Positive self image with excellent grooming and appearance
Outstanding attendance and dependability
Willingness to work on an unpredictable schedule, holidays,
nights and weekends

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Progress Check
1. Minimum age requirements vary worldwide between ___ and
____ years.
a) 24
b) 21
c) 18
d) 25
2. Height requirements are generally between ____ and 1.85m
a) 1.46m
b) 1.57m
c) 1.64m
d) 1.73m
3. List at least 4 skills and/or qualities for employment as cabin
crew.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

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Answer Key
1. c) and b)
2. b)
3. y Customer service experience
y Strong communication skills
y Experience in dealing with the general public
y First aid or medical training
y Ability to work well in a team
y Good judgment
y Ability to handle pressure in stressful situations
y Outgoing
y Flexible
y Positive self image with excellent grooming and appearance
y Outstanding attendance and dependability
y Willingness to work on an unpredictable schedule, holidays,
nights and weekends

Lesson Summary
You are now more familiar with the qualities and skills the airlines are
looking for in new recruits for cabin crew. You are also able to
identify which of these you already possess and can begin to think
about what qualities or skills you need to develop before applying for
a position as cabin crew.

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2.3 Grooming and Personal Appearance

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Assess what are the


acceptable standards for
grooming and professional
appearance for cabin crew
professionals.

List generally accepted


practices and identify how
you will apply these to your
grooming in preparation for
the cabin crew profession.

LESSON OVERVIEW
Airlines have high expectations for personal appearance and
grooming. As cabin crew you will be highly visible and the way you
represent the airline is important. The customers impression is
influenced by image. Looking professional and well groomed also
gives the customer a sense of confidence and reassurance in your
abilities as a cabin crew professional and the services that you
provide. First impressions are lasting and you will make them even
before you get to the aircraft while riding public transportation or
walking through the airport. Your appearance and conduct matter
because any time you are wearing the airlines uniform you are
representing the company.
This lesson will look at common grooming practices required by
airlines. These include personal hygiene, hairstyle, make up, jewelry,
and prescription eyewear.

2.3.1 Good Grooming Practices


Good grooming and appearance will start long before you take the
first flight. Look your best at the interview process and continue to do
so throughout training. Each airline will have exact standards for
hair, jewelry, make up and other personal grooming requirements,
these are considered part of the uniform. In addition many of the
standards and guidelines are set with personal safety in mind. You

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will learn about them during training and you will be expected to
maintain those standards in order to successfully complete the
program. Most airlines consider the following grooming and attire
standards to be a condition of employment.
Treat your approach to appearance each day in training as if you
were going to a job interview. Just because youve been offered a
spot in a training class does not mean your appearance or anything
else can slide until you graduate. Every day you will be assessed
and evaluated on your skills, abilities, participation, appearance and
your image. Do not take it lightly when you are given feedback to
improve or change some aspect of your look to meet standards.
Use feedback as an opportunity to learn and grow.
The following are categories where you will be expected to maintain
airline standards. The descriptions are general and you can expect
further detail in an airlines uniform and appearance manual.

2.3.2 Personal Hygiene


You are expected to maintain proper hygiene standards at every
moment of your work. High standards in this area require fresh
breath, clean teeth, and a clean body (particularly hands and
fingernails).
Your complexion should be healthy, clean and clear. Maintain (or
begin) a good skin care routine with cleansers and moisturizers that
work for your skin type. Regular care and moisturizing will be key in
keeping your skin healthy in the cabin environment.
You will be required to maintain a clean body and fresh scent, free of
unpleasant or unclean odors. Always use deodorants, perfumes and
mouthwash to make sure that you smell your best at all times. Light
colognes, after shave or scented lotions are acceptable but be
mindful that others may have allergies. Also, be aware that in a
confined airplane cabin too much perfume or cologne can be
overwhelming for others.
Fingernails and hands should be well maintained. As a cabin crew
your hands will take a beating from the dry environment and constant
washing. Fingernails should be clipped short. Womens fingernail
requirements may vary according to airline regulations but length and
color of nails should be uniform, without extreme colors, jewels or
adornments. Since you will be working extensively with your hands,
extremely long nails may inhibit your ability to do your job as best as
possible and can easily be ripped or broken during service. 6.5 mm
beyond the tip of the nail is a recommended length for women.

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Although tattoos may have different cultural or religious importance in


certain societies and are currently fashionable, most airlines require
you to cover them completely.

2.3.4 Hair and Hairstyles


Hair must be clean and styled appropriately for a professional
business look. It should be styled so that it does not fall into your
face during meal services.
Hair for females:
In general most airlines will allow hair that is shoulder length or
shorter to be worn loose. If your hair is longer there are
requirements to have it secured in a braid, ponytail or worn up in a
twist/knot/chignon. Loose strands, hanging wisps, or tendrils do not
represent a professional image. As you evaluate your own style be
mindful of the necessary maintenance that this job entails. Long
days, early mornings, and short timeframes in which you must ready
yourself should be taken into account. Hairstyles that require
extensive amount of time to fit the standards can be frustrating. Hair
products used should compliment a style and not distract from it. Hair
accessories should not be extreme or distracting. You should try to
keep hair accessories to a minimum.
Extreme styles and unnatural colors are not generally accepted.
Dyed hair should not show visible roots.
Hair for males:
In general, hair should not extend below a shirt collar or past the ear
on the sides. The style should be neat and clean without extreme
curls or length. Bald and shaved heads are acceptable. Hair on
closely shaved heads should be of an even length.
Beards, goatees and mustaches are generally allowed if they are
conservative in style. However, they must be fully-grown and
trimmed to fit the contour of the face. Otherwise face should be
clean-shaven without stubble or visible growth

2.3.5 Make-Up and Cosmetics


Some airlines may require women to wear makeup as a means to
look their best. If worn it should be natural and complimentary to the
skin tone. Remember that the purpose of make up is to enhance
overall appearance and not detract from it.

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2.3.6 Jewelry
Jewelry should again follow conservative guidelines without
extremes. For safety reasons, it is not recommended to wear items
in excessive size or length. Generally, one pair of earrings (small
hoops or small gem studs, and not ones that dangle), a single
bracelet, and a single strand necklace is acceptable. Watches are
considered part of the uniform and should be worn daily. However,
watches should also be conservative rather than flashy.
It is important to note that wearing nose studs/loops, eyebrow rings
and tongue studs is not permitted while on duty.

2.3.7 Prescription Eyewear


If you wear eyeglasses, they must be conservative in color and
contact lenses should also be natural in color.
Airline practices for grooming and appearance tend to be
conservative or should mirror the clientele served. What may be
popular in todays fashion world may not be at all accepted by airline
grooming standards. Some candidates find it challenging to change
their look to fit the standards. Although at times difficult, it is
advisable to take constructive feedback about your appearance and
apply it to your grooming habits. It may help you land the job.

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Progress Check
1. High personal hygiene standards require ________, _______,
and a _____________
2. Explain why grooming is important to the airline industry.
3. Jewelry that is permitted while on duty are:
a) Nose ring
b) Watch
c) Small hoops earrings
d) Small bracelet
4. Trimmed beards, goatees and mustaches
Acceptable

Unacceptable

5. Bald heads for men


Acceptable

Unacceptable

6. Shoulder length hair for men and women


Acceptable

Unacceptable

7. Long fingernails
Acceptable

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Answer Key
1. Fresh breath, clean teeth, clean body.
2. As cabin crew you are highly visible and the way you represent
the airline is important. The customers impression is influenced
by image. Looking professional and well groomed gives the
customer a sense of confidence and reassurance in your abilities
as a safety professional and the services that you provide. You
appearance and conduct matter because any time you are
wearing the airlines uniform you are representing the company.
4. Acceptable
5. Acceptable
6. Unacceptable
7. Unacceptable

Lesson Summary
Among the topics covered in this module you have learned about the
minimum requirements in regards to personal hygiene, hair and
hairstyles, make-up and jewellery. You also have a clear
understanding of what is expected from cabin crew professionals in
terms of personal hygiene and grooming.

MODULE SUMMARY
This module introduced you to what you need to do and how you
should prepare to land a job in the airline industry and in particular as
cabin crew (or flight attendant). You are now aware of the general
application process and minimum requirements for applying for a job
as well as basic personal hygiene and grooming requirements for the
position of cabin crew.

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To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
In the next module you will learn how to maintain a healthy lifestyle in
order to keep up with the demands of the job.

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3.0 Cabin Crew Healthy Living/Lifestyle


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this Module
you should be able to:
x

Explain the benefits of good


nutrition and doing regular
exercise.

Recognise and identify ways


to adapt to the lifestyle
changes inherent to the
cabin crew profession.

List the various pressures


encountered in frontline work
as cabin crew.

Identify strategies for coping


with sense of displacement
and loneliness during travel.

List the dos and donts in


regards to personal security
and safety when away from
the base.

As a member of the cabin crew, it is critical to maintain a healthy


lifestyle in order to keep up with the demands of the job. The aim of
this module is to demonstrate how healthy habits can help you to
efficiently and effectively meet the requirements of being a member
of the cabin crew. It is important to learn about nutrition, exercise and
other healthy habits in order to help you maintain a healthy lifestyle.
A cabin crews lifestyle is different from most, as the demands of the
profession are different from most other jobs. This module will also
look at these expected lifestyle changes and will provide a variety of
coping strategies to help you manage and deal with these changes,
as well as offer techniques to use in stressful situations. We will also
look at the health risks associated with flying and the steps that must
be followed in order to prevent illnesses.
The module finally talks about your personal security on the road. We
will discuss the various measures that can be taken to reduce your
risk of being targeted while away from the base.

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3.1 Healthy Crew Lifestyle


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Explain the benefits of good


nutrition and regular
exercise.

Create a balanced nutrition


plan for healthy living.

Develop a strategy for


balanced eating while
travelling.

List types of exercises


recommended while
travelling.

List strategies for


maintaining a regular fitness
schedule.

Describe lifting techniques to


avoid injury.

Key Learning Point


Through exercise and
nutrition, one can maintain a
healthy lifestyle.

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Maintaining good health can be a challenge for a member of the


cabin crew if you dont think about planning for it in advance. By
leading a healthy lifestyle on a daily basis, you can ensure that your
health is at its best while performing the duties of your job.
In order to build good daily health routines, you should be aware of
the benefits of nutrition and exercise. This lesson will give you
various nutrition and exercise tips that will help you maintain a
healthy lifestyle.

Aviation Training Programme

3.1.1 Nutrition and Exercise


Although your regular routine will virtually disappear when you
become a cabin crew, there is no reason you cant maintain a healthy
routine even when traveling. A healthy routine comes with preplanning, self-evaluation and some experimentation. The time you
spend will prove to be extremely beneficial; not only will you protect
yourself against illness, but you will also feel better and be able to
perform at optimum levels while on duty even though you may work
long hours and be away from home for many days at a time.
Good nutrition and exercise are key elements in being able to handle
the physical and mental demands of being a member of the cabin
crew. These elements are also important in combating the effects of
jetlag. If you already have good diet and exercise habits, then you
are well on your way to making minor adjustments to make those
practices work for your career. If you are not already leading a
healthy lifestyle, its time to start.
Nutrition
The difficulty in maintaining good nutrition and eating habits in this
profession is that your days are not your own. You may have meals
provided for you by your airline or you may have to rely on your own
resources to obtain food as sometimes you may be asked to bring
food with you. (If you are traveling internationally, keep in mind that
there might be restrictions on bringing food into certain countries).
Think about what your needs are today and how you can translate
those needs into your daily routine as cabin crew. This is particularly
relevant if you have certain dietary requirements imposed by
religious beliefs or for health reasons (such as allergies). It is very
difficult to get in main meals if you have a long day of flying be
prepared by making sure you have healthy snacks and try to plan
your meals in advance. Hotels usually offer restaurants and room
service but sometimes you arrive so late in the evening that the
service is no longer available. Without planning in advance, you
could end up having a long night with an empty stomach.
There are many steps you can follow to ensure that you maintain a
healthy diet while working as cabin crew. It is a good idea to have
mini-meals throughout the day with nutritious food such as fruit,
whole grains and nuts that will give you energy and keep you filled.
Drink plenty of water and non-carbonated beverages (soda drinks
can add to gas expansion and swelling). Avoid caffeine and candy
as a quick fix or meal replacement. Also, make sure to avoid alcohol

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consumption (you should note that airlines have strict requirements


regarding consumption of alcohol prior to a duty period).
If funds are limited, look for local grocery stores to obtain food for
meals while on layover, especially if dining at restaurants or ordering
room service is not the best options for you.
Exercise
Being active off the airplane is important in order to strengthen and
build your muscles to avoid injury and increase flexibility. It will also
help you sleep better, reduce stress and increase overall well being.
Your hotel may offer a workout facility or contract with a local gym if
they do not have their own. Take the opportunity to learn how to do
some in-room exercises and stretches if you are limited on time or
facilities. Learn basic yoga poses as a form of exercise and
meditation.

Walking and jogging are good options for getting exercise and seeing
the local sights. You should check with the hotel concierge for local
safe walking or running routes. Also, as a safety measure, find a
crew who is willing to work out or walk with you. This may also be a
nice way to build relationships and encourage you to stay active.

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3.1.2 Proper Lifting Techniques


Proper lifting techniques are critical to your good health routine as
cabin crew. Cabin crew often experience back injuries by lifting
improperly when dealing with luggage in overhead bins, lifting your
own luggage, or moving and relocating galley equipment (carts,
pushing and pulling and carrying trays).
Below are steps for a proper lifting technique:
1. Plan ahead before you lift; clear the path.
2. Lift close to your body. Have a firm hold of the item and keep it
close to your body.
3. Make sure your feet are shoulder-width apart to give a solid base
of support.
4. Bend your knees and keep your back straight. Raise and lower
to the ground by using your knees.
5. Tightening your stomach muscles will hold your back in a good
lifting position and prevent excessive force on the spine.
6. Lift with your legs they are many times stronger than your
back.
7. Ask for assistance with large, heavy items or any item that is
awkward in shape dont strain to accomplish the lift.

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Progress Check
1. Of the following, what are the recommended nutritious food to
consume during flying?
a) nuts
b) fruits
c) chocolate
d) varied sandwiches
e) whole grains
2. What are the benefits of good nutrition?
3. What are the benefits of exercise for cabin crew?
4. List possible ways in which cabin-crew members can maintain a
solid fitness schedule between flights.
5. Describe the process of a good lifting technique.

Answer Key
1. a), b), and c)
2. To handle the physical and mental demands of being a cabin
crew and to combat the effects of jetlag.
3. Activity off the airplane is important to strengthen and build
muscles to avoid injury and increase flexibility, help achieve
better sleep, reduce stress and increase overall well being.
4. Your hotel may have an exercise facility or there may be a local
gym that you can access. Crews can also practice exercise and
poses in their hotel rooms if they do not have the means to use a
facility. Crews are also advised to inquire about safe walking
routes and find a partner with whom they can walk.
5. To avoid injury a good lifting technique is achieved by lifting with
the legs and not the back. Wrap your hands around the object
and bring it close to your body. In lowering objects bend your
knees and not your back. Remember to ask for assistance if the
load is heavy.

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Lesson Summary
In this lesson we discussed the importance of creating a balanced
nutrition plan and exercise routine for healthy living, especially while
traveling.
By making sure that you maintain a healthy and balanced lifestyle,
you will be better equipped to perform your duties as a crew. It is
important to plan ahead by having mini-meals and keeping yourself
hydrated throughout the day in order to ensure you receive the
nutrients you need while on the job. You should also keep up with a
regular fitness regimen when you are off-duty so that you have the
energy you will need while in the air.
It is easy to experience injury as a crew as you will be lifting heavy
items frequently. In order to prevent this, it is essential that you
practice good lifting techniques.

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3.2 Adapting to Lifestyle Changes


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Identify the lifestyle changes


that will occur between current
lifestyle and the one you will
encounter as a cabin crew.

The nature of the cabin crew profession, with its scheduled hours
and destinations, requires considerable adaptation on the part of
cabin crews. These changes can have a direct effect on your current
lifestyle. To minimise the initial shock of your new profession, you
should make arrangements that will help you deal with the new
lifestyle.
After going through this lesson you will have a better idea of the
various lifestyle changes that come with this profession. You will
learn how to adjust your personal life and make arrangements in
regards to your personal life back home. We will also look at some
strategies that will help you deal with these changes.

3.2.1 The Lifestyle of Cabin Crew


Some of the very things that make the lifestyle of the cabin crew
appealing are also the aspects that can contribute to the pressures
that it can add to your life. Be aware of them and think about how
you might respond to these changes and evaluate if these are
changes you can and want to make in your life.

Key Learning Point


The pressures of the cabin
crew profession are
challenging yet equally
rewarding.

There are several areas of your life that will change when you begin
a career as a cabin crew. As you train for the job and go through the
first years of flying, you will realise that you have little (if any) control
over your work schedule - this includes days off, type of flying,
destinations, vacation selection and holidays away from work.
Schedule
Many cabin crews start off their career as reserve flight attendants
those who are on call for assignment. You have set days off and set
days on in which you must be ready to be called out for assignment
at any time sometimes with little notice. In some situations you
may even be assigned trips that will continue into days off that you
had scheduled. In these situations, your time-off will be moved to a
different point in the month. Reserve cabin crew are on call to cover
flights for other cabin crew who have called in sick, or because of
operational issues such as bad weather, mechanical delays, or
cancellations. Adding extra crew to provide service for increased
passenger load deals with these situations.
While being on reserve can indeed be challenging, it may also give
you the opportunity to fly to destinations that you might otherwise not
be able to pick as a schedule holder. (Schedule holders have set

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trips/flights and days off, although they too can experience delays
and cancellations that impact their schedules and plans).
Personal Life
Because your month-to-month schedule is never guaranteed as
either a schedule holder or reserve, you must be able to adjust your
personal life accordingly. You may be flying weekends one month
and the next month you might have a different series of days off.
You may be gone for a day, or up to 6 to 8 days, or longer. When
packing for your trip, have extra items in case of a delayed return or
in case you wind up in an alternate destination. Even if your flight is
scheduled to return at a particular time, your return may be delayed
hours or days because of weather or mechanical issues. Its a good
idea to think about how you will arrange your personal life and attend
to things at home when you are not there. Being away from home for
what might be an unknown period of time should make you think of
arrangements in regards to the care of your spouse, children, pets
and property (such as paying bills, mail, and security).
Relocation
Another reality you may face as a crew is that you may be relocated
to a base or domicile which is not presently your home. You may
have some opportunity for choice but business needs for staffing
may not allow you to live in the city which you had anticipated
residing in.
You might even need to make decisions that impact your family. For
example, will you move your spouse and children or commute from
the city where you live to the city where you are relocated? If you are
single, are you comfortable uprooting yourself from where you are
now? You may not be able to be near your parents, siblings and
other family and friends. Even if this is something you can handle,
your family and friends may not be supportive, and they may
influence your career choice. These factors have to be taken into
account when deciding if being a cabin crew is the right choice for
you.
Loneliness
Consider that even if you have been relocated, you may have little
control over being home to attend events, functions and holidays as
you have in the past. In fact, you may spend a holiday with people
you have never met before or be on a layover in a country that does
not recognise a holiday that you celebrate. All of these changes can
create feelings of loneliness.

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To help you deal with these changes, you can adopt one or more of
the following strategies:
y Stay connected with family and friends through email or cards
and letters.
y Educate your family and friends about your career and gain
their support.
y Accustom yourself to celebrating special events with family and
friends such as special parties or gatherings (even if it doesnt
coincide with the actual date of the event), so that it will work
with your career and schedule.
y Find ways to celebrate and recognise important occasions with
your crew or on your trips. The good news is you are usually
with a crew and, often, are with many other airline personnel in
hotels during holidays - you wont be alone if you reach out.
y Find churches, synagogues, mosques and organisations that
provide an opportunity for you to worship or recognise a holiday.
Hotels provide sources and guidance on where to find these.
y Your job provides a wonderful opportunity to learn and
experience cities all over the world. Use this time to educate
yourself, your family and friends with postcards, gifts, trinkets
and other objects that describe the places youve visited. Most
people spend their whole lives experiencing only one place, so
see your career as a wonderful opportunity to experience other
places while being paid to do it!

Progress Check
TRUE

FALSE

1. As a cabin crew you will always have control


over days off, destinations and holidays off.

2. Schedule holders have specific flights and


trips as part of their assignments

3. List and describe the 4 areas of your life that you may need to
adjust while away on work.

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4. List strategies that can be followed to help one cope with the
changes that come with being a crew.

Answer Key
1. False
2. True
3. y Schedule (vacation days, scheduled time off may become
work time).
y Personal life (arranging for payment of bills, making
arrangements for commitments to family, kids and pets).
y Relocation (relocating to another city, commute to visit family
or bring them with you).
y Loneliness (being away from friends and family).
4. y Stay connected with family and friends.
y Educate family and friends about your job.
y Celebrate occasions on days that work with your schedule.
y Celebrate special events with other crews.
y Find places of worship while visiting other countries.
y Experience the culture of the country you are in while away
from home.

Lesson Summary
Being a cabin crew means your schedule will be unpredictable. You
may have to depart suddenly or extend a trip, or even permanently
move to a different location. You must arrange your life to
complement the unexpected obligations that may arise. You may
also experience a sense of loneliness while on the job, but this can
be remedied by maintaining a connection with loved ones and
seeking places of comfort while away from home. The change of
lifestyle may seem daunting at first, but it is important to see your job
as a chance to experience the world and engage in new and exciting
opportunities.

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3.3 The Pressures of Frontline Work


LESSON OVERVIEW

Upon completion of this lesson


you should be able to:

Being a frontline service provider is exciting and ever changing. It is


also very demanding and can sometimes be stressful. As cabin crew,
you are on stage all the time and everything you do and say is seen
and heard by customers. This means that there are many
opportunities for you to demonstrate your skills, but if you are
stressed and tired, it can also be a time of difficulty.

Frontline Pressures

Lesson Learning
Objectives

Identify which pressures of


frontline work are within your
control and which ones are
not.

You will deal with customers every day, on every flight and will
experience difficult situations that are not under your control. You
cannot fix what happened but you can provide an appropriate
response to a specific situation. That means looking out for yourself
as well as the passengers.
Below are some tips that can help you calm down:
y Breathe deep breathing will help you relax. Take a deep
breath through your nose, hold it for a few seconds and let it out
slowly through your mouth.
y Smile it will make your mood more positive and lighten
someone elses.
y Maintain a sense of humor dont make inappropriate jokes but
remember that laughing at yourself or the situation may help
you look at it in a more positive light.
y Relax let tension out of your muscles by making a fist and
then relaxing it; push your palms together and release your
arms; rotate your shoulders.
y Let it out by keeping a journal or writing an experience down,
you can express your frustrations rather than taking it out on
someone. Your journal can also be used as a learning tool for
self-improvement by studying your most challenging customer
service interactions.
y Talk Positively dont make the situation worse by reliving the
situation over and over. Instead, try to discuss it with others
constructively.

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You should also remember that taking proper care of your health,
sufficient rest, exercise and good nutrition all help to minimise and
deal with pressures of front-line work.

Progress Check
1. List three of the six techniques stated in the lesson that can help
you maintain a calm demeanor.
2. Proper care of your _______, _______, and ______ and
_________ help to minimise and deal with pressures of front-line
work.

Answer Key
1. y Breathe
y Smile
y Maintain a sense of humor
y Relax
y Let it out
y Talk positively
2. Health, sufficient rest, exercise, and good nutrition.

Lesson Summary
You will often find yourself faced with unhappy customers. In order
to ensure you keep yourself composed and fit to perform your job,
you should practice certain calming techniques. These consist of
deep breathing, smiling, maintaining a good sense of humour,
relaxing, letting it out, and keeping a positive attitude. Most

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importantly you can control your own responses to difficult situations.

3.4 Personal Health


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Identify categories of
personal care and health that
cabin crews should be aware
of.
Identify health and
environmental risks that are
associated with air travel.

Health issues during flying and in the cabin environment are different
from those we experience on the ground. Those differences should
be considered and evaluated as part of personal health not just for
the passenger who travels for business or pleasure but also for the
crew who will live and work in this environment a good portion of the
time. The following information is not meant to strike fear but to give
you the tools to minimise the risks as well as prepare you for the
ways in which your body may react to flight.
This lesson looks at some health risks associated with flying and the
effects on the human body. You will also be advised of required and
probable vaccinations that you will need in order to ensure your
safety as well as the safety of everyone on board.

3.4.1 Health Risks Associated with Travel and Flying


Before we look at the contents of this lesson, it is important to note
that if you have a medical condition, you should consult with your
physician to obtain professional advice before considering this
career.
Environmental and Health Risks In-Flight
Aircrafts are not pressurised to sea level where most of us are
accustomed to functioning. The aircraft cabin is pressurised between
1,828m - 2,438m, (the actual altitude of the aircraft is much higher)
which is the equivalent of being on a small mountain.

Key Learning Point


Cabin crews must be aware
of the health risks of flying.
Although these risks are not
life threatening, awareness
will allow you to take the
necessary measures to
minimise their effects on
your body.

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The two factors that impose stress on the body are less oxygen and
expansion of gas in the body. The body can adjust to the lower
concentration of oxygen which is about 7% less than at sea level if
the person is not suffering from a heart, lung or blood disease. As
cabin altitude increases and gas expands in the body as much as
25%, it can cause discomfort or problems in the abdomen (bloating
or cramps), ears (crackling sounds or ear blockage) and
respiratory/sinus difficulties.
Cabin crew (and passengers) should not fly when they have an ear,
nose or sinus infection as it generally prevents the air from flowing in
these cavities and can result in pain, bleeding or a ruptured ear
drum. Medication can be taken to relieve the pressure; however,

Aviation Training Programme

crews need to be mindful of over-the-counter medications and their


side effects and the fact that taking medication while on duty is
forbidden. Your airlines company policy will outline these
parameters. When in doubt, always consult your in-flight
management for advice on over-the-counter medication and
medication that your doctor has prescribed.
Exposure to Infectious Diseases
Even though the cabin air quality is good in modern aircraft cabins,
the fact that it is a small, enclosed environment increases the chance
of person-to-person transmission of infections from coughing or
breathing, as would happen in any office building or closed-in area.
To protect yourself from potential threat, practice good self protection
as a means to prevent illnesses.
In addition, vaccinations are important for you as a crew and the
types you will require may vary depending on the destinations to
which you are assigned to fly. Most airlines will instruct you and
validate those needs and in some cases offer the vaccinations you
need either through a health plan or a contracted medical facility.
Cabin crews should be vaccinated in accordance with
recommendations from the World Health Organization.
Some examples of the more common vaccinations required are:
y Tetanus, Pertussis (Whooping Cough) and Diphtheria
y BCG
y Measles, Mumps and Rubella
y Polio
y Hepatitis B
y Haemophilus Influenzae
Others that may be required:
y Hepatitis A
y Yellow Fever
y Meningococcal Meningitis
Radiation
The earth is always being impacted by radiation from the sun and
outer space. The atmosphere serves as protection for most cosmic
radiation but the radiation does increase as you go to a higher
altitude. The exposure of the radiation to flight and cabin crew will
depend on the route, altitude and aircraft type. Directives have been

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issued in the European Union Member States and through the


Environmental Protection Agency in the US designating flight and
cabin crew as operationally exposed to natural sources of ionising
radiation. Many airlines work with scientific groups to measure
radiation rates. This work has been on the rise with aircraft flying
longer distances and at higher cruising altitudes. In general it is found
that under normal flight operations, radiation levels remain below
acceptable limits.

3.4.2 Other Recognised Effects From Flying


y The fluctuating air pressure and time zone changes impact
hormonal and irregular menstruation cycles (periods).
y Jet lag is basically unavoidable if you are traveling over 3 to 4
time zones. Its symptoms are worsened by stress, overeating,
dehydration, sleep deprivation, alcohol consumption and with
travel to the east.
y The relative humidity in the cabin is very dry - at less than 20%.
Although there is discomfort along with this, there is no real risk
to your health. To offset its impact, it is recommended to
consume more water and juice. At the same time you should
limit alcohol, coffee, tea and caffeinated drinks as they cause
you to lose fluids.
y Contact lens wearers may notice eye discomfort. Have drops
available for additional lubrication or wear glasses especially
on longer night flights.
y For dry skin, apply moisturiser to skin and hands.
y Motion, noise and vibration can also cause discomfort and
sickness during or following a flight especially in your first
experiences working as a crew. Eat well, drink fluids, and rest
to minimise reactions.

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Progress Check
1. List the categories of personal care and health that cabin crew
should be aware of.
2. Identify the environmental and health risks that are associated with
air travel.
3. What are some of the more common vaccinations that cabin crew
require?

Answer Key
1. Environmental and in-flight health risks, exposure to infectious
disease, radiation, others (air pressure and time zone change, jet
lag, cabin humidity, eye discomfort, dry skin, motion sickness).
2. Aircraft cabin pressure and less oxygen and expansion of gas in
the body cause abdominal problems, ear and respiratory/sinus
difficulties.
3. Polio, Hepatitis B, Haemophilus Influenzae, BCG.

Lesson Summary
Due to the expansion of gas in the body and a decrease in oxygen
levels, discomfort can occur while flying. Crews who are sick should
not fly in order to minimise these effects. It is important to protect
yourself against illnesses through self-protection methods as well as
vaccinations. The most common vaccinations include, but are not
limited to, Tetanus, BCG, Measles, Polio, Hepatitis B and Influenza.
There are many other effects that may be experienced when flying,
namely jet lag, relative humidity discomfort and motion sickness.
Preparing in advance and taking the necessary steps to decrease the
likelihood of negative effects can prevent all of these.

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3.5 Security and Safety While Away From Base


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

List the personal security


and safety dos and donts
when away from the base in
regards to yourself and your
valuables.
Identify steps to take in the
event of an emergency while
away from the base.

Common sense is necessary for your personal security and safety as


a crew. You can avoid becoming an easy target for those with
criminal intent by following basic rules in every aspect of your travels.
Crews are high profile, easily identified even when not in uniform and
therefore, they are often targets for crime.
This lesson will list some safety measures that you should consider
prior to leaving and while you are away in a foreign country.

Preparation begins at home:


Below is a list of safety measures that you should take before leaving
your residence:
y Details of your schedule and when you will be away should be
left only with those closest to you relatives or friends who
need to know where you are.
y Do not share details of your schedule with any stranger and do
not let it be known that you are away for long periods of time.
y Check that your home security (locks, keys, windows and other
points of entry) are secure.

Key Learning Point


It is a good idea to have some
basic safety measures in mind
for unexpected emergencies.The
key is to have a plan so you can
take care of yourself and other
crews. First and foremost
STAY CALM.

y Arrange to have personal mail delivered to a secure box or


location so that it is not piling up in front of your door or left in an
unsecured box for extended periods of time.
y Leave valuables at home or use hotel safe deposit boxes for
valuables that you must take with you.
y Carry small amounts of cash and only the credit card(s) you
would use on a trip.
y Create a list of your credit cards and their phone numbers and
keep it at home in a secure location in the event your cards are
lost or stolen. Also make copies of your picture identification
(passport, drivers license) and keep in a secure location in case
originals are lost.
y Memorize all Personal Identification Numbers - do not write
them down or carry them in your wallet.
y Do not put your home address on luggage tags use phone
numbers or company contacts instead.

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y Ensure your supervisor has all your emergency contact


information so that if you are injured or become ill he/she know
who to contact.
y Carry emergency contact information on you so that if you are
injured or become ill, medical personnel will have a point of
contact if you do not have other crews around you or if you
cannot speak.
y If you use your personal vehicle (car) to get to work, ensure the
vehicle is locked and that you do not have valuables in the car.
Try to park in well-lit areas and ensure vehicle lights are off
before you walk away.

3.5.1 In Transit and in the Hotel


You should also be cautious when staying in your hotel or when
commuting in a foreign city for the purpose of sightseeing.
y Keep your luggage with you at all times until it is loaded into
crew transportation vans, buses, taxis.
y Use seatbelts whenever you are in a taxi.
y Do not discuss layover plans so that other travelers or taxi
drivers can hear you.
y Have any necessary fares and tips ready and separate from
your wallet to avoid having others see where you carry your
wallet or that you have cash and credit cards.
y Do not announce your room numbers to other crews. Similarly,
the hotel check-in staff should not announce your room number
as you check in. Although it is required that the captain and/or
senior cabin crew know your room number, you can provide that
to them individually. You may also choose to individually write
down or share your room number with other crews.
y Airlines have agreements with their layover hotels and try to
keep crews on the same floors. If this does not occur or you
feel unsafe in a particular location, do not hesitate to ask for
another room.
y If you are going to be staying away from the scheduled layover
location (and it is allowed by your airline), ensure that the
captain and/or senior cabin crew has your contact information.
y If you are uncomfortable going to your room by yourself, ask to
be escorted. Crews will often stand by and help check each
others rooms for intruders or tampering.

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y If your room is dark when you open the door, prop it open with
your luggage and turn on the lights. Check the room and
bathroom for anything suspicious. Do not leave the door
propped open during your stay for other crews to come and
visit.
y Check the dial tone of your phone and verify it works.
y Check the window locks, glass door locks and locks on
adjoining doors.
y Place your room key and shoes in the same location in every
hotel so that in an emergency (or if in a dark room) you know
exactly where they are. It is a good idea to have a personal
flashlight with you many airlines require you to carry one in
the event of a power outage or other emergency.
y Keep your bags and luggage organised and neatly packed it
is less tempting for workers who come in and clean your room
to go through your items.
y Check your surroundings and emergency exits so that you know
how to escape in the event of fire or other emergency. Plan
what you would do in the event of a fire, hurricane or tornado.
y Do not take unexpected deliveries made to your room or
requests for service unless you have requested them. If
someone shows up at your door unannounced, contact hotel
security.
y Be cautious when using elevators. If you are suspicious of
someone, do not enter. Instead, wait for the next elevator.
Stand near the controls so that if you are attacked, you can
push the alarm and as many floor buttons as possible.
y Check and recheck your room before departing to verify that
you have all personal belongings and valuables.

3.5.2 When Sightseeing or Leaving Your Room


y Do not draw attention to yourself with expensive jewelry or large
amounts of cash. These are best left at home.
y Do not advertise your social plans.
y Do not leave the hotel alone at night.
y Ask the hotel staff for directions and recommendations for safe
touring in the area obtain local maps from the hotel.

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y Know a few phrases of the language of the country where you


are staying so that if you are lost you can communicate.
y Dress down or in local styles.
y Have the hotel address and phone number with you - take a
piece of paper from the notepad in your room, as it usually has
all the required information.
y Be aware of your surroundings and the people around you.
Stay where the area and streets are well lit and there are people
around. Dont look like a victim.
y Friendly strangers can have motives - be cautious of those
you meet and those who appear to be friendly.
y When purchasing items, make sure they are wrapped in front of
you. Do not accept packages from others.
y If your bags have been out of your sight at a hotel room, with a
porter or in another office, open them and check the contents.

3.5.3 Emergency Situations to Prepare for When Traveling


It is a good idea to have some basic safety measures in mind for
unexpected emergencies the key is to have a plan so you can take
care of yourself and other crews. First and foremost - STAY CALM.
Hotel Fire
y Report any fire immediately to the front desk or hotel operator.
y Know the number of doorways and fixtures between your room
and an exit in case you are unable to see because of darkness
or smoke.
y If your escape route is blocked, you may need to remain in your
room - many people have survived hotel fires by remaining in
their rooms.
y Verify if you can escape through a window or balcony.
(Dropping more than two floors will most likely result in injury).
Go to the roof only as a last resort.
y If smoke is present, stay close to the floor smoke and deadly
fumes rise.
y Feel the door or door knob with the back of your hand; if they
are hot, do not open the door. Otherwise, open the door slowly
but be prepared to close it if danger is present.

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y Take your room key and close the door behind you. If smoke is
present, crawl to the nearest exit. If you cannot reach it, look for
an alternate route. If exits are blocked, return to your room.
y If you must remain in your room, hang a sheet out the window
to let others know you are there.
y Fill the bathtub with water and use the ice bucket to throw water
on doors or walls to cool them. Soak sheets, blankets or towels
to beat out or smother flames. Wet linen can be used to stuff
around the cracks of doors and vent ducts to help keep out the
smoke.
y Make a tent over your head with a blanket to get fresh air to
breathe from a slightly open window.
y Do not use the elevator.
Earthquake
y Take cover under a desk, table, or bench against an inside wall
or doorway.
y Stay away from mirrors and windows.
y Do not use elevators.
y If outdoors, stay away from damaged buildings and overhanging
power lines.
y Listen to TV or radio for updated bulletins.
y Do not light matches or candles in the event of broken gas lines.
If you smell gas open the window and leave the building if it is
safe to do so.
Hurricane, Cyclone or Tornado
y Remain indoors unless otherwise instructed by the hotel staff.
y Fill the sink, ice bucket and tub with potable water before the
storm hits for your use later if water is not available after the
storm.
y During a tornado, if possible, open the window slightly to relieve
air pressure inside the building.
y Protect yourself from flying debris with a mattress, blankets or
pillows.
y Remain indoors until you are told that all is clear.
y Listen to radio or TV for updated bulletins.

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y During a hurricane, the eye of the storm may pass over during
which there will be calm for a period of time. Following this, the
remainder of the storm approaches, the wind direction changes
and returns with force.
Civil Unrest
y Coordinate actions with other crews. Stay together and remain
indoors.
y Do not seek out troubled areas to discover what is happening.
y Keep windows closed and draperies drawn.
y Respect the laws of the host nation.
y Remain neutral, quiet and inconspicuous.
y If the airport has not been targeted, you may go there if you can
safely do so. If you are at the airport with the aircraft, stay
there.
y Attempt to contact the embassy/consulate to identify yourself
and where you are.
y In all emergency incidents such as the ones described, it is
important to advise crew scheduling where you are and that you
are all right.

Progress Check
1. List 5 safety precautions you can take before leaving your
residence.
2. List 5 things you should not do while in your hotel or sightseeing
when traveling.
3. List the steps that must be followed in the event of an earthquake
while in a foreign country.

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Answer Key
1. y Make sure your locks are secure
y Write down emergency contact information and keep it with
you
y Carry only a small amount of cash
y Have mail delivered somewhere else so it does not pile up
y Put your phone number on your luggage tags instead of your
address
2. y Do not accept unexpected deliveries in your hotel room
y Do not share your social plans with others
y Do not wear expensive jewelry
y Do not leave the hotel alone at night
y Do not look like a victim
3. y Take cover under a desk, table, or bench against an inside
wall or doorway.
y Stay away from mirrors and windows.
y Do not use elevators.
y If outdoors, stay away from damaged buildings and
overhanging power lines.
y Listen to TV or radio for updated bulletins.
y Do not light matches or candles in the event of broken gas
lines. If you smell gas open the window and leave the
building if it is safe to do so.

Lesson Summary
Before leaving your residence, you should take certain precautions
as a means of self-protection. These may include keeping your
schedule private, ensuring your home is secure and carrying a
minimal amount of money. It is important to protect your identity by

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keeping your PIN number private as well as your address. Personal


information should only be made available to others if it is vital to
your personal safety.
You should also follow similar steps when traveling, whether you are
at the hotel or sightseeing. Always keep your luggage with you and
do not share personal information with others. It is essential to be
aware of your surroundings at all times and protect yourself from
possible threats by making sure your hotel room is secure and
avoiding situations that put you in a vulnerable position.
Emergency situations may arise while traveling. The most important
rule at all times is to remain calm. By familiarising yourself with the
specific steps that must be followed in specific situations, you can
protect yourself from harm, specifically in the event of a fire, natural
disaster, or civil unrest.

MODULE SUMMARY
This module introduced you to healthy habits that will help you to
meet the requirements of the challenging lifestyle of the cabin crew.
You have learned about nutrition, exercise and other healthy habits
that help you maintain a healthy lifestyle.
This module also looked at lifestyle changes that you can expect
when you become a member of the cabin crew. It listed a variety of
coping strategies to help you manage and deal with these changes.
You can now apply some of the suggested techniques to help you
cope with stressful situations and you can identify the steps that must
be followed in order to prevent illnesses and other health risks.
Finally this module introduced you to important aspects of your
personal security on the road as well as steps to minimize risk and
injury during natural disasters and civil unrest. Your personal safety
and health are your most important concern and now you are better
equipped to make sure that you are safe and healthy while traveling.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.

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4.0 Introduction to the Aviation Industry


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this Module
you should be able to:
x

Explain where aviation


industry procedures and
regulations originate from
and how they impact the
roles and responsibilities of
cabin crew.

An airline's basic function is to transport people and goods from one


location to another using the airways. Quite simply, the airline
industry consists of organisations that provide this service for
passengers and/or cargo. Since there are a variety of customer
demands, there are several types of airlines that provide different
services for passengers. While this module examines 3 types of
airlines, it also gives a brief overview of the regulatory agencies that
govern the security standards of these airlines. This module will help
you understand the different airlines and their specific functions, as
well as understand the different agencies that regulate the security
standards you must follow.

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4.1 Airlines, Charters, Private and Corporate


Jets
LESSON OVERVIEW
Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Describe 3 types of air travel


and explain their similarities
and differences.

This lesson looks at the three main types of air travel; scheduled
airlines and alliances, chartered airlines and corporate and private
jet travel. First we will examine the characteristics of scheduled
airlines and alliances, followed by an introduction to chartered
airlines as well as private and corporate jet travel. It is important for
you to be familiar with these different types of air travel since it allows
you to make an informed decision regarding what type of airline you
would want to join. In addition, it is important to learn about the
various types of air travel to help passengers with questions about
them.

4.1.1 Scheduled Airlines and Alliances

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Scheduled Airlines
Most passengers flying today use scheduled airlines, which provide a
scheduled service. The characteristics of scheduled airlines or
scheduled services are:
y Flights are scheduled according to a published timetable.
y Passengers can reserve seats on a single, multi city or round
trip flight to any of the airlines destinations.
y The airline offers a reservation center or Internet site that assists
in finding economic fares or flight schedules based on a
persons preference or need.
y Scheduled airlines include major airlines and commuter or
regional airlines.
y Some scheduled airlines may also offer charter services or nonscheduled flying, For example, professional sports teams often
approach major airlines to charter flights for their teams as they
travel and compete in other cities.

Alliances
Alliances are a cooperative arrangement that links the route networks
of two or more scheduled airlines. Forming an alliance allows an
airline to expand its network overseas without adding new service.
This is accomplished through codesharing. Codesharing with an
alliance partner allows the airline to sell tickets under its own name
for travel that occurs in the partners networks. Depending on the
degree of cooperation within the alliance, it can offer cost reduction

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for airlines in the way of sharing sales offices and staff, maintenance
facilities, catering systems, computer systems, ground handling
personnel at check in and boarding desks. As a result, this sharing
lowers cost for the traveler and offers more destinations with one
ticket purchase.
For example, in booking a flight from Chicago to Zurich under the
Star Alliance, you can take a United Airlines flight from Chicago to
Frankfurt and then continue on a Lufthansa flight from Frankfurt to
Zurich all under the same reservation.
The first alliance that involved codesharing on a large scale started in
1989 between Northwest Airlines and KLM Royal Dutch Airlines.
Later in 1992, the Netherlands signed the first open skies agreement
with the US, despite objections from the European Union. While
landing rights are generally granted for a set number of flights per
week to a set destination, the alliance gave both countries
unrestricted landing rights on each others soil. Today, the three
largest alliances are the Star Alliance, Skyteam and Oneworld. Star
Alliance was the first global alliance.

Did you know?


The first large alliance that
is still functioning started in
1989 between Northwest
Airlines and KLM Royal
Dutch Airlines.

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Impact Of Alliances On The Cabin Crew


The concept of airline alliances can be confusing for a traveler. For
instance, a customer may become confused if he or she buys a ticket
on one airline, but then encounters two differently branded airlines
during one trip i.e. airplanes, crew or signage. Although as cabin
crew you work solely for one airline, you should be able to explain
the notion of airline alliances to passengers.

Aviation Training Programme

The list of all members of the various alliances and additional


information is available at these websites:
http://en/wikipedia.org/wiki/airline_alliance
www.staralliance.com
www.oneworld.com
www.skyteam.com
http://www.tourismfuturesintl.com/special%20reports/alliances.html

Progress Check
1. Describe the characteristics of a scheduled airline.
2. Explain what is an alliance and why airlines form them.
3. State how alliances impact the Cabin crew.
4. Passengers can reserve seats on a single flight, multi city or
round trip on any of the scheduled airlines destinations.
5. Scheduled airlines offer only scheduled flights.
6. Identify a scheduled airline and a non-scheduled airline in your
region or area. (You can do a search on the Internet). List it in
the space provided.
7. In what areas can alliances offer cost reductions for airlines?
8. An ______ allows airlines to expand their networks without
adding new service.
9. _______ with an alliance partner allows an airline to sell tickets
under its own name for travel that occurs in the partners
networks.

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Answer Key
1. i.
ii.

Flights are scheduled according to a published timetable


Passengers can reserve seats on a single, multi city or round
trip flight to any of the airlines destinations

iii. The airline offers a reservation center or Internet site that


assists in finding economic fares or flight schedules based
on a persons preference or need
iv. Scheduled airlines are often considered certified airlines,
meaning they have met government standards to offer
services to the public
v.

Scheduled airlines include major airlines and commuter or


regional airlines

vi. Some scheduled airlines may also offer charter services or


non-scheduled flying
2. It is a cooperative arrangement that links the route networks of
two or more airlines. It allows an airline to expand its network
overseas without adding new service.
3. Alliances can make it difficult for the passengers to understand if
which airline they are actually booking a ticket, since they could
book on one airline and encounter two differently branded
airlines for the same trip i.e. airplanes, crew, signage.
Crewmembers will need to understand this because they often
make announcements and need to assist in explanations to
customers as they travel. However, Crewmembers do not mix
with alliance agreements. They remain and work for their
respective carriers.
4. True
5. True
6. British Airways and Air Canada are examples of scheduled
airlines. Air Memphis and Air Transat are examples of nonscheduled airlines.
7. Sharing sales offices, staff, maintenance facilities, catering
systems, computer systems, ground handling personnel at
check-in and boarding desks.
8. Alliance
9. Code-sharing

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4.1.2 Charters and Corporate and Private jets

Charter Airlines
The service on chartered flights can range from basic air service with
little or no amenities to a flight with a top of the line service with all
the frills.
Like commercial scheduled airlines, chartered airlines often fly
scheduled flights. However, a passenger can book flights on a
scheduled airline directly through the airline, while booking a seat on
a chartered flight is done through a travel agent or a travel firm
operating a tour (tour operator).
Another important difference between scheduled and chartered
flights is the legal responsibility of the airline. While scheduled
airlines are responsible for the performance of their flights, in the
case of chartered flights it is the tour operator that bears
responsibility for the charter airline.
Chartered airlines often arrange flights according to the destination
chosen by the traveler or the business that is scheduling the service.
They are used for a variety of purposes responding to the needs of
the traveler. A given company that charters the aircraft dictates the

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destination of the chartered flight. Tour operators often charter flights


to promote special packages during a winter or summer holiday
season. In addition, government charter flights to move troops or
rescue personnel and equipment in the event of a disaster.
As cabin crew it is important to note that charter companies often
have stricter standards and hiring requirements. These hiring
requirements are often dictated by the client or by the type of service
the charter company provides. There are advantages and
disadvantages to working for a chartered airline that one must
consider. For instance, while working for a charter airline generally
provides less of a predictable schedule, it may offer longer layovers
and a greater variety of destinations.
It is also important for the cabin crew to understand the differences
between scheduled and chartered flights in terms of the passengers
experience. The main differences are:
y Chartered flights are often much less expensive that scheduled
flights.
y In some cases chartered flights may have less elbow and leg
room than seats on scheduled flights.
y Chartered flight have less frequency in terms of trips to a given
destination than scheduled flights.
y Chartered airlines operate independently from other airlines,
which makes services found on many scheduled airlines. For
instance you cannot buy one ticket through one reservation that
will encompass both a charter and a scheduled airline to get you
to your destination.
y If the charter flight is delayed and a passenger misses a
connection with another charter flight or a scheduled airline
flight, then the passenger is unable to change the ticket and will
most likely lose the money and the flight. Charter reservations
are only good for one flight.
y Some charter airlines exclusively offer flights to certain vacation
destinations.
y Charters can cancel a flight and not be required to provide you
service to your destination - in most cases reputable charters
will refund your money.

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Corporate and Private Jet Travel

Corporate and private jet travel is similar to charter flights in that they
are non-scheduled forms of airline transportation. However, these
flights are not available to the general public. Many large businesses
own their own jets and use this as a means of travel for their
employees who must travel to conduct their business.
Like charters, the work schedule for the cabin crew can be quite
varied and unpredictable. In some cases, corporate or private jet
travel has a very strict on-call or standby policy established by the
individual or corporate owner. Training for cabin crew of corporate
and private jets is often outsourced. Another thing to consider is that
due to the small size of the aircrafts and limited number of
passengers, cabin crew for a private jet often work alone.

Progress Check
1. Explain how charter air travel and scheduled airlines are similar
and how they are different.
2. In Charter airlines the ___________ dictate where the flights go.
3. Both charter and _______________ are similar in being nonscheduled forms of airline transportation

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Answer Key
1. Same:
y

Both have scheduled flights

Different:
y

Usually booked by tour operators or travel agents.

Chartered flights are often less expensive than scheduled


flights.

Chartered flights often have less elbow and leg room for
passengers.

Chartered flights have less frequency in terms of trips to a


given destination than scheduled flights.

Chartered airlines are not in alliances with other airlines.

Some charter airlines only offer flights to certain vacation


destinations.

Charters can cancel a flight and not be required to provide


you service to your destination - in most cases reputable
charters will refund your money.

2. traveler or business
3. corporate and private service

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4.2 Regulatory Agencies and


Aviation Regulations
LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

List the major regulatory


agencies.

Explain what these


regulatory agencies do and
how it relates to cabin crew
professionals.

This lesson introduces you to the major air transport regulatory


agencies and explains what these agencies do. As cabin crew you
need to be aware of these agencies and how their regulations affect
the cabin crew profession. These agencies are the ones that
regulate the training and safety procedures for cabin crew. You will
become familiar with ICAO, CAAs, FAA, JAA and IATA. Throughout
your career as cabin crew you will be expected to adhere to the
safety and emergency procedures established by these agencies.

4.2.1 What Is ICAO?


ICAO is the International Civil Aviation Organization and is a
specialised agency of the United Nations. ICAO sets the standards
for aviation safety, security, efficiency and aviation environmental
protection. Learning what ICAO is and how it operates allows the
cabin crew to understand the standards that make aviation safe
throughout the world. Learning about ICAO will also give context to
the origin of airline procedures, safety practices and guidelines that
are used in the industry today.
ICAO provides a forum for requirements and procedures in need of
standardisation to be introduced, studied and resolved. ICAOs
objectives are to:
y Set standards and rules for training and certification of aviation
personnel.
y Set standards for communication systems and procedures.
y Set standard requirements for airworthiness aircraft.
About ICAO
ICAO was created in November 1944, when the US government
invited 55 states or authorities to attend an international conference
in Chicago. The 32 states that attended formed ICAO. The most
important work accomplished by this initial conference was the
creation of rules and regulations for air navigation.
Today ICAOs membership comprises 189 contracting states. It is
headquartered in Montreal, Canada with regional offices in Bangkok,
Cairo, Dakar, Lima, Mexico City, Nairobi and Paris.

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The Assembly, composed of representatives from all contracting


states, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It meets every 3 years,
reviewing in detail the work of the Organization, setting policy for the
coming years and establishing a triennial budget. The Assembly
elects the Council, the governing body for a 3-year term.

Did you know?


In 1944, ICAO was formed
with 32 member states. In
2006, 189 contracting states
were ICAO members.

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The Council is composed of members from 36 States who maintain


their offices and conduct their business at the ICAO Headquarters.
The Council sets the Standards and Recommended Practices, which
are adopted and incorporated as Annexes to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation. With regard to the development of
standards, the Air Navigation Commission assists the council for
technical matters, while the Air Transport Committee assists for
economic matters. In addition, the Committee on Unlawful
Interference assists the council for aviation security matters.
http://www.icao.org//icao/en/anb/mais/index.html (reference for
above information on Assembly and Council).
More information on ICAO standards and recommended practices
and other requirements are available at:
http://www.icao.org//icao/en/anb/mais/index.html.

Aviation Training Programme

Progress Check
1. What does ICAO stand for? And what is it responsible for?
2. What year and under what circumstances was ICAO formed?
3. List ICAOs objectives.
4. Today ICAOs membership comprises _____ contracting states.
It is headquartered in _______ with regional offices in Bangkok,
Cairo, Dakar, Lima, Mexico City, Nairobi and Paris
5. The _______ composed of representatives from all Contracting
States, is the sovereign body of ICAO.
6. The Assembly meets every three years, reviewing in detail the
work of the Organization, setting policy for the coming years and
establishing a triennial budget. The Assembly elects the ______,
the governing body for a three-year term.

Answer Key
1. ICAO is the International Civil Aviation Organization and is a
specialized agency of the United Nations and sets the standards
for aviation safety, security, efficiency and aviation environmental
protection.
2. ICAO was created in November 1944, when the US government
invited 55 States or authorities to attend an international
conference in Chicago. 32 states that attended formed the ICAO.
3. y

Set standards and rules for training and certification of


aviation personnel

Set standards for communication systems and procedures

Set standards for airworthiness (fit to fly) requirements for


aircraft.

4. 189; Montreal, Canada.


5. Assembly
6. Council

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4.2.2 Government Agencies in Aviation Safety - CAAs,


FAA, and JAA
Since the earliest days of aviation history, governments have played
an important and necessary role in regulating safety including
establishing air routes, developing air navigation systems, licensing
pilots, mechanics and aircraft as well as investigating accidents.
Every country in the world with an international airport will have some
form of regulatory body within their government that monitors and
sets standards within their own countries and for their own airlines
(these are in addition to ICAO). This regulatory body is generally
called the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA).
Although all countries have their own agency, they all work toward
the common goal of providing safe and reliable air transport. Some
of the larger and more influential agencies in the world are the
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the European Joint
Aviation Authorities (JAA).
y The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the governing body
of the aviation industry in the United States and is responsible
for the safety of civil aviation. The FAA writes and enforces all
the rules and regulations of all aircraft manufactured in the
United States. The FAA also operate the US Air Traffic Control
system. Although the FAA does not have jurisdiction in other
countries it is considered the leading expert in aviation safety so
many governments and regulatory agencies follow their lead.
y The European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) is the civil
aviation regulatory authority for a number of European States
who have agreed to cooperate in developing and implementing
safety and regulatory standards. Each member of the European
Civil Aviation Conference has their own aviation regulatory
agencies, plus a representative on the Joint Aviation Authorities.
(For instance France has its own Civil Aviation Authority but also
participates as a member of the JAA). The FAA and JAA have
agreed to mirror or harmonise their standards when appropriate.
There are 40 member countries that participate in JAA.
y As an example of some of the goals of a regulatory agency,
here are the primary aims of the FAA:

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Regulating civil aviation to promote safety.

Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including


new aviation technology.

Developing and operating a system of air traffic control


and navigation for both civil and military aircraft.

Aviation Training Programme

Researching and developing the National Airspace


System and civil aeronautics.

Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft


noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation.

Each regulatory agency has a division that sets standards for cabin
safety. For example, the Cabin Safety Office in the UK is managed
by 4 people who are authorised to conduct cabin safety inspections
on UK registered aircraft and to conduct audits on cabin safety
aspects of public transport operations. The Cabin Safety Office is
responsible for operational cabin safety issues and provides
guidance on design and production standards.
The primary aims of the Cabin Safety Office are:
y To conduct inspections on UK registered aircraft.
y To conduct audits on UK Air Operator Certificate (AOC) holders.
y To consider the operational cabin safety aspects of applications
and variations of AOCs .
y To consider and develop changes to both national and
international requirements.
y To participate in national and international committees such as
the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), Cabin Crew Steering Group
and the Cabin Safety Steering Group.
y To participate in aircraft certification projects on behalf of the
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the JAAs Joint
Operational Evaluation Board.
y To provide guidance and advice to the public on matters of
operational cabin safety.
y To provide guidance and advice to the UK aviation industry on
matters of operational cabin safety.
y To respond to operational cabin safety related accident
recommendations and any required follow-up action.
These goals are applicable to the Cabin Safety Offices of most other
regulatory agencies, as the primary goal of each agency is the safety
of the passengers onboard the aircraft. (Reference:
http://www.caa.co.uk/default.aspx?categoryid=884).
Additional information can be found on these web sites:
http://www.caa.co.uk/default.aspx?categoryid=884
http://www.jaa.nl/
www.faa.gov

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Progress Check
1. Each country in the world with an international airport has its own
civil aviation regulatory agency. TRUE or FALSE
2. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the governing body
of the aviation industry in Canada. TRUE or FALSE
3. European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) is the civil aviation
regulatory authority for a number of European States who have
agreed to cooperate in developing and implementing safety and
regulatory standards. TRUE or FALSE
4. Describe the role of civil aviation regulatory agencies.
5. How many member countries participate in the JAA and where
are they located?
6. List the 5 primary goals of the FAA.
7. The Cabin Safety Office is responsible for operational cabin
safety issues
8. Name 5 out of 9 primary aims of the Cabin Safety Office:

Answer Key
1. True
2. False
3. True
4. They all work toward the common goal of providing safe and
reliable air transport.
5. There are 40 member countries in the JAA all from different parts
of Europe.
6. i.
ii.

Regulating civil aviation to promote safety.


Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new
aviation technology.

iii. Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and


navigation for both civil and military aircraft.

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iv. Researching and developing the National Airspace System


and civil aeronautics.
v.

Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft


noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation.

7. Cabin Safety Office


8. i.
ii.

To conduct inspections on UK registered aircraft.


To conduct audits on UK Air Operator Certificate (AOC)
holders.

iii. To consider the operational cabin safety aspects of


applications and variations of AOCs.
iv. To consider and develop changes to both national and
international requirements.
v.

To participate in national and international committees such


as the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), Cabin crew Steering
Group and the Cabin Safety Steering Group.

vi. To participate in aircraft certification projects on behalf of the


European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the JAAs
Joint Operational Evaluation Board.

4.2.3 IATA International Air Transport Association

IATA is the aviation industrys global trade organisation and should


not be confused with ICAO. Although IATA is a trade association
and not a regulatory body, because of its international standing it is
consulted by governments and regulatory bodies. IATA was founded
in 1919 and brings together nearly 280 airlines and air transport
companies whose flights comprise more than 95% of all air traffic.
Working to foster cooperation among airlines, IATA helps bring that
cooperation together to provide the safest and highest standard of
service to customers.
IATA seeks to improve understanding of the industry among decision
makers and increase awareness of the benefits that aviation brings
to national and global economies. It fights for the interests of airlines
across the globe, challenging unreasonable rules and charges,
holding regulators and governments to account, and striving for
sensible regulation.

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IATAs aim is to help airlines help themselves by simplifying


processes and increasing passenger convenience while reducing
costs and improving efficiency. Moreover, safety is IATAs number
one priority, and IATAs goal is to continually improve safety
standards, notably through IATAs Operational Safety Audit (IOSA).
Another main concern is to minimise the impact of air transport on
the environment.

3.0 Customs and Immigration for Air Travel


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:
x

Explain the purpose of


customs and immigration in
international travel and the
importance of appropriate
documentation for goods and
people.

Explain procedures on flights


in regards to customs and
immigration.

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Anyone who has traveled to international destinations has had


experience with customs and immigration in the arrival airport. Each
country has its own requirements for entering the country and these
usually include being processed by an immigration official and a
customs officer. In some cases the immigration official will also
serve as a customs officer or vice versa. As cabin crew you will find
yourself crossing many borders and entering many different
countries. No matter how many times you enter a country, you are
still subject to the same immigration and customs regulations and
procedures as a first time visitor. You will be expected to complete
forms and documentation related to the flight upon arrival in a foreign
country and again when you return to your own. You will be
expected to provide the officials with a current passport and also
declare any goods that you may be bringing either into a foreign
destination or have brought back to your own country.

Aviation Training Programme

4.3.1 Customs and Immigration

Customs is an authority within a country that is responsible for the


movement of people, animals and goods in and out of that country
(including personal effects and hasardous items). They also collect
duties or taxes on imported and exported goods. Each country has
regulations regarding the importing and exporting of goods and they
enforce these rules. Some goods may be restricted or even forbidden
from being brought into or out of a country. For instance, most
countries will not allow an international traveler to bring plants or fruit
into a country to avoid the spread of disease or harmful insects.
The immigration authority may be a part of customs within a country
or it may be a separate agency. Immigration authorities monitor
people entering and leaving a country, making sure they have
appropriate authorisation to do so by validating passports or visas.
They also apprehend those who may be wanted by search warrants
or who may be considered dangerous to the country.
Procedures Upon Arrival in a Foreign Country
All passengers, cabin crew and flight crew are required to present
themselves to immigration and to clear customs upon arrival into any
country (immediately after deplaning). This applies when you return
to your home country as well. At customs you will present your
passport and if required a declarations form where you will document
any pertinent items that you purchased and are carrying with you.
Busy international airports can process thousands of passengers
from many different flights at the same time. Many airports have a
special line/queue where flight and cabin crew are processed more

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quickly without waiting in the general line/queue. The special


line/queue is meant to process crew more quickly but it does not
exempt you from the normal customs and immigration requirements.
It is imperative that cabin crew who work internationally travel with
their passports. Airlines generally require cabin crew have their
passports with them anytime they are on duty remember you could
be rescheduled at any time and may unexpectedly find yourself on
an international flight. Being thousands of miles away from your
home country trying to enter another country without your passport is
not a good thing since you can be barred from entering that country.
Most airlines also require that cabin crew carry a passport that will be
valid for at least the next 6 months. In addition, some countries
require visas from citizens of other countries and cabin crew is
responsible for making sure they have all required visas.
These regulations also apply to all passengers aboard a flight and as
cabin crew you may find yourself answering questions regarding
customs and immigration procedures awaiting them at the
destination.
Customs and Immigration requires airlines to provide certain
documents to the passengers and expect everyone to follow certain
procedures upon arrival into their country. These will vary just as
regulations vary from country to country. Your airline will provide you
with the information you need to fulfill these requirements for each of
the destinations. There are, however, some common practices
including:
Landing card - Prior to landing you will provide passengers the
appropriate landing card or declaration form for them to complete.
It is generally their responsibility to complete these forms. However,
you may be asked questions about the information required on the
form such as: the inbound flight number, airport name and other
general questions. Be prepared to answer these questions.
Customs declaration - You should know in advance what the
limitations and restrictions are for items being brought into a country.
Specific information is generally provided to you by your airline and
you can also research in advance if you are unsure. Restrictions
vary by country. Sometimes, crew are subject to different duty free
limitations from the passengers, because they often travel
internationally much more frequently than most people.
General declaration - This form is completed by the captain for
international flights and multiple copies are required to give to the
departing and arriving airport authorities and customs. It contains
information pertaining to the crew (number and names), aircraft

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registration, itinerary, and verification of the health of those on board


and disinfection if it is required.
Onboard documentation - You will be required to complete forms
for all merchandise/goods on board that may have been used as part
of the service or sold. This would include liquor and wine and any
remaining merchandise from the duty free carts that was not sold.
The items in these carts (liquor cart/kit or duty free cart/kit) must be
inventoried and locked prior to landing. The forms from these kits will
be turned over to customs upon arrival and the contents validated
after everyone has deplaned. The purser or senior cabin crew has
the responsibility of making certain that all appropriate
documentation has been completed and the carts/kits have been
properly sealed or locked.

Key Learning Point


Cabin crew will also be
responsible for distribution
of appropriate landing
cards or customs and
immigrations forms to
passengers before
landing. In addition, there
will be additional forms
that pertain to the
merchandise on board
such as items that are
boarded to offer duty free
service, liquor and wine.

Your airline training will provide specifics on these procedures and


requirements and you will know based on your position on a flight if
you are required to complete these forms. For example, if you are
assigned to the beverage carts during service you will be responsible
for the money and the forms associated with the sales and inventory
of wine or liquor from that cart. Some liquor and wine is provided
complimentary however the contents must be inventoried at the
beginning and the end of the flight. At the conclusion of the flight you
will complete the forms leaving one copy in the cart/kit and providing
one copy to the senior crew or purser in charge.
The senior cabin crew or purser is required to verify that all
necessary documents are on board the aircraft prior to departure and
that all forms are completed correctly prior to arrival. Cabin crew who
fly internationally will be required to clear customs and immigration at
their first airport of entry into a country.
Site for all customs websites by country:
http://www.wcoomd.org/ie/En/CustomsWebSites/customswebsites.html

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Progress Check
1. Explain how customs and immigration rules apply to cabin crew.
2. What is the difference between customs and immigration?
3. Cabin crew who fly internationally will be required to clear
______ and _______ at their first airport of entry into a country.
4. Usually you need to write the inbound flight number, airport
name and other general questions on the ________.
5. The _____________ has information about the purchases you
made and are carrying with you.
6. Cabin crew has to complete forms that document all ______,
______, and ________ merchandise sold on board.

Answer Key
1. All passengers, cabin crew and flight crew are required to
present themselves to immigration and to clear customs upon
arrival into any country (immediately after deplaning). This
applies when you return to your home country as well. At
customs and immigration you will present your passport and, if
required, a declaration form where you will document any
pertinent items that you purchased and are carrying with you.
2. Customs is an authority within a country that is responsible for
the movement of people, animals and goods in and out of that
country they also collect duties or taxes on imported and
exported goods.
Immigration authorities monitor people entering and leaving a
country, making sure they have appropriate authorisation to do
so by validating passports or visas. They also apprehend those
who may be wanted by search warrants or who may be
considered dangerous to the country.
3. Customs; immigration
4. Landing card
5. Customs declaration
6. Wine; liquor; duty-free

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Lesson Summary
This lesson discussed general information about customs and
immigration in international travel and how it relates to cabin crew
and international travel. You are now aware of the importance of
appropriate documentation for goods and people in regards to
requirements for customs and immigration. You can now also
explain procedures on flights in regards to necessary documentation
for customs and immigration
You can also explain why it is important that cabin crew carry their
passports on every flight, as they will be required to present it upon
entering any country, even their own home base.

MODULE SUMMARY
This module gives an introduction to the types of airlines and
regulatory agencies that make up the airline industry. Lesson 1 of
this module examined the three types of airlines: scheduled and
alliance airlines, chartered airlines and corporate and private jet
travel. Each is different and offers a unique service for passengers. It
is also important to understand the different types of airlines in terms
of cabin crew hiring requirements, standards and scheduling.
Lesson 2 draws out the main regulatory bodies of the airline industry.
ICAO is a specialised agency of the United Nations that sets the
standards for aviation safety, security, efficiency and aviation
environmental protection. ICAO sets the standards that make
aviation safe throughout the world. In addition, every country in the
world with an international airport has some form of regulatory body
that monitors and sets standard within their own countries and for
their own airlines. The main regulatory agencies are the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA), and the European Joint Aviation
Authorities (JAA). In addition, regulatory agencies often have a Cabin
Safety division, like the CAAs cabin safety Office, which work to sets
standards for the security of the passengers onboard the aircraft.

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This lesson also briefly described IATA and explained its role in the
aviation industry.
Lesson 3 presented some basic information regarding customs and
immigration and how it affects your role as cabin crew. As cabin crew
you will be subject to all customs and immigration requirements as
anyone upon arrival in a foreign country. Cabin crew is responsible
for distribution of appropriate landing cards or customs and
immigrations forms to passengers before landing. In addition, there
will be additional forms that pertain to merchandise on board such as
items that are boarded to offer duty free service, liquor and wine.
In the next module you will have the opportunity to explore the basics
of aircraft, flight and general aviation principles. As cabin crew you
will be spending a great deal of time on aircraft and in the air it is
very important to have a clear understanding of how it all works.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.

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5.0 Introduction to Aircraft and Aviation


Familiarisation
MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this Module
you should be able to:

Describe general aircraft


information and explain how
they function in relation to
aviation operations in the air
and on the ground.

Explain basic principles of


flight.

Define basic aviation


terminology.

Explain how time is kept


around the world and how it
affects international travel.

As cabin crew you will spend a considerable amount of time in the


air, travelling to many different destinations around the world. You
will become a part of an industry that has its own vocabulary and
ways of communicating. With training and practice this vocabulary
will soon become second nature to you.
This module introduces you to the basics of aviation, so that you feel
more comfortable with the terminology used during initial training and
subsequently on the job. To begin with you will become familiar with
the basic components of aircraft and general principles of how they
achieve flight. Following those lessons, you will be introduced to the
24-hour clock, and how it is used in the aviation industry. Finally, you
will learn about the different time zones and how to calculate the time
difference between the different zones. This skill is particularly
helpful when travelling as you will find yourself crossing time zones
on a regular basis.

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5.1 Aircraft Familiarisation


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify major types of


aircraft and their
components.

Explain how an aircraft


achieves flight.

As cabin crew you will be flying in one main type of aircraft. It is


important for you to know what that aircraft is and what other aircraft
types are used and why. All aircraft must have certain basic parts.
Your knowledge in describing the types of aircraft, and their basic
parts and functions are essential to being a successful member of
the cabin crew.
The airline industry has many terms that are unique and that you will
have to use. This lesson includes the terminology that you need to
master efficient conversations with other crew and passengers.

5.1.1 Aircraft Types


There are many types of aircraft of various sizes and capabilities,
which are placed in the following 3 categories.
1. Commercial Transport Aircraft
As cabin crew, you will be flying in commercial transport aircraft.
These are large aircraft owned by airline companies and used for
making a profit by carrying cargo or passengers. Most of these
are also called airliners, a term which refers to an aircraft that
carries passengers and cargo together. Some aircraft are
designed to carry cargo only.
2. General Aviation Aircraft

Did you know?


Aircraft can be placed in
three categories:
commercial transport
aircraft, general aviation
aircraft, and military
aircraft. As cabin crew, you
will be flying in commercial
transport aircraft.

General aviation aircraft are smaller than most commercial


aircraft and are certified for and intended for noncommercial or
private use. They can land and take off at smaller airfields.
These aircraft are often used for personal transportation and
enjoyment. Businesses also own this type of aircraft often
referred to as corporate aircraft and used to fly employees as
needed to conduct business. General aviation aircraft are also
used for emergency aid and are often used to teach student
pilots to fly. Farming and agriculture also use a type of general
aviation aircraft.
3. Military Aircraft
Military Aircraft are used for a countrys armed forces. There are
many types, sizes and unique capabilities of this type of aircraft.
(Source http://encarta.msn.com/text_761556643___35/Aircraft.html)

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Go see the following websites for additional information:


Aircraft types by category:
http://www.luftfahrtmuseum.com/htmi/general/itkd.htm
Detailed list of aircraft types:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_aircraft_by_category#Airliners

5.1.2 Aircraft Layout and Terminology


Basic Aircraft Parts
There are 5 basic parts found in all large or small aircraft. Note that
you may find differences in some experimental aircraft.
The five basic parts of an aircraft are: (1) fuselage, (2) wing, (3) tail,
(4) landing gear, and (5) engine. The wing, fuselage, tail and landing
gear are referred to as the airframe.
1. Fuselage: the body of the aircraft that spans from nose to tail.
The fuselage contains the aircraft controls, the crew, passengers
and cargo. Most large aircraft have a cockpit for the crew and a
cabin for the passengers. Larger aircraft also have separate
decks (floors) for passengers and cargo.

2. Wing: extends from each side of the fuselage. A wing is almost


flat on the bottom and curved on the top. This shape called an
airfoil, helps create the force called lift which gets the aircraft off
the ground and keeps it in the air.
A wing has other specific parts called the root, tip, leading edge
and trailing edge. Most aircraft wings have moveable control
surfaces that balance the aircraft in flight called ailerons, flaps
and spoilers. Refer to the glossary for more information on these
terms.

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3. Tail: also called the empennage, is located in the rear of the


aircraft. It guides the aircraft and keeps it balanced in flight. Most
tails consist of a fin, rudder, stabiliser and elevator.

4. Landing Gear: also called undercarriage is made up of wheels


(for aircraft that move on the ground) or floats (for aircraft that
move on water). The landing gear supports the weight of the
aircraft.
Most aircraft have a tricycle landing gear with two main wheel
assemblies under each wing and a third wheel assembly under the
nose. Larger aircraft may have more to support the additional
weight.

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The landing gear is fixed or retractable. Most high speed aircraft use
retractable landing gear that is drawn into the wing or fuselage after
take-off.
5. Engine: not considered part of the airframe. The engine
produces power that makes the aircraft move fast enough to fly.
Nearly all newer airliners and some private aircraft have jet
engines. The other two types of engines are reciprocating and
rocket. (Rocket engines are the most powerful but are used
mainly for research.)

Did you know?


The five basic parts of an
aircraft are: (1) wing,
(2) fuselage, (3) tail
(4) landing gear, and
(5) engine. The wing,
fuselage, tail and landing
are referred to as the
airframe.

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5.1.3 Aircraft Furnishings, Systems and Terminology


The following terms are used to describe aircraft furnishings and
systems. You will use these terms regularly as you perform your
tasks and when you have conversations with other members of the
cabin and flight crew. These terms and their definitions are also
found in the Glossary.
Learn these two terms carefully: aircraft left and aircraft right. These
are two terms that can sometimes cause some confusion. When you
discuss location of equipment on an aircraft, you will use these terms
from the perspective of the passenger who is in the aircraft and
facing forward.
Some airline training programs may have you use the terms port and
starboard to describe the same thing (refer to the Glossary).

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Term

Definition

Aircraft Left or Port

Left side of the aircraft when


facing forward.

Aircraft Right or Starboard

Right side of the aircraft when


facing forward.

CABIN

The interior of the aircraft where


passengers are seated.

Aviation Training Programme

Term

Definition

COCKPIT (FLIGHT DECK)

The area of the aircraft where


all the controls and navigational
equipment are located to fly the
aircraft. It is where the pilots sit.
On commercial aircrafts the
cockpit has retractable windows
that allow a means of escape
for pilots in the event of an
emergency. Ropes or straps
are provided to allow safe
egress to the ground.

CALL LIGHT

A light signaling the cabin crew


to respond to a passengers
needs.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Lights, bells or audio systems


that allow crewmembers to
communicate with each other or
to communicate with
passengers.

CONTROLS (INSTRUMENTS)

The mechanical and hydraulic


devices used by the pilots to fly
the aircraft.

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Term

Definition

EMERGENCY
DOOR/AIRCRAFT EXITS

Designated as a way out of the


aircraft in the event of an
emergency. Most aircraft doors
operate in a disarmed or
normal mode (for boarding and
exiting the aircraft in normal
circumstances) and an armed
or emergency mode (the door
has been activated so that
special features will allow for
quick and safe exit from the
aircraft either on the ground or
in the water via an escape slide
or chute that inflates when the
exit is opened).

MANUAL INFLATION HANDLE

Handle or strap at the top of a


slide that is pulled to inflate the
slide when the exit is opened in
an emergency. Cabin crew are
trained to always pull the
manual inflation handle as a
back up procedure to insure
proper and quick inflation of a
slide during an emergency
evacuation whether or not the
slide is designed to inflate on its
own.

GALLEY

Area on aircraft where food and


beverages are stored and
prepared.

Aviation Training Programme

Term

Definition

JUMPSEAT

Pilot or Cabin crew seats in an


aircraft. Cabin crew jumpseats
are located at or near the
aircraft doors/emergency exits.
This is where you will sit for
take off and landing. The area
around the jumpseat is often
referred to as a cabin crew
station. Within this area you
will find a handset for internal
crew communication, lighting
controls and the microphone for
the public address system.
Emergency equipment is often
located within this proximity as
well.

LIGHTING AND ELECTRICAL


SYSTEMS

These systems provide light


and power to the cabin. Cabin
crew have access to the
controls for lighting and can
adjust as flight time or
standards require. These
systems also provide light and
power for the galleys. When
the aircraft is on the ground,
power is often supplied by two
sources an Auxiliary Power
Unit (APU) or a Ground Power
Unit (GPU).

AUXILIARY POWER UNIT


(APU)

Alternate or back up source of


power located in the tail of the
aircraft and is used to provide
internal power while the aircraft
is on the ground.

GROUND POWER UNIT


(GPU)

A portable unit attached to the


aircraft when on the ground that
provides power to the aircraft
when the engines or APU are
not operating.

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Term

Definition

OVERHEAD LOCKERS
(OVERHEAD BINS)

Compartments installed above


the seats in an aircraft. They
are used by passengers to
place their belongings.

AIR SYSTEMS

These systems provide


breathable air and appropriate
cabin pressurisation to travel in
safety and comfort. These
systems also provide heating
and cooling for the aircraft.
Additionally there is an
emergency oxygen system that
provides breathable air in the
event of a decompression

PASSENGER SERVICE UNIT

Located above the passenger


seats, this contains all or part of
the following: reading lights, air
outlets, oxygen outlet, cabin
crew call button, emergency
oxygen mask and No Smoking
and Fasten Seat Belt signs.

Aviation Training Programme

Term

Definition

WATER SYSTEMS

Aircraft are equipped with a


water system that provides
potable water for consumption
in the galleys and hot and cold
water to the lavatories.

In-flight Entertainment
Equipment (IFE)

Refers to the equipment, which


allows for passengers to watch
movies, listen to music or play
electronic games.

5.1.4 General Aviation and Ground and Airport Operations


Terminology
One of the common challenges that you will encounter is the jargon
or slang that is used in the airline industry. It would be impossible to
come up with an all inclusive list of terms and abbreviations, learning
the basics however will help you identify terms and descriptions you
have never heard of before. Please note that some terms might have
slight variations from airline to airline or country to country.
The table below lists the some examples of expressions used by the
cabin crew.
Expressions

What does it mean?

The block out for a flight is


1215, the wheels up time is
1245.

After the blocks were removed and


the aircraft left the gate, the aircraft
taxied for 30 minutes before it was
cleared for take off.

Our ETA into JFK is 1945


local.

The flight is scheduled to arrive at


New Yorks JFK airport at 7:45pm
local time.

We blocked in at 0730 local.

The flight arrived at the gate at


7:30am.

ATC diverted us to LGW


because of fog.

Air Traffic control could not allow the


flight to land at the originally
scheduled airport because of fog and
the flight was directed to land at
Londons Gatwick Airport.

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The Captain said well be


holding for the next
0:30 minutes because of
congestion at CDG.

Air Traffic Control cannot give


clearance for the flight to land at
Charles De Gaulle Airport (Paris)
because of heavy air traffic into the
airport. The Captain has been
directed to fly in at a specific altitude
and in a circle pattern holding at
that altitude and in that flight pattern
for the next 30 minutes

The plane is scheduled


at 1300 and turns in
0:45 minutes.

The plane is scheduled to arrive


at 1:00pm and departs again in
0:45 minutes.

There are 20 throughs on


the flight to Frankfurt.

There are 20 passengers who will


remain on the flight that makes a
stop between the origination of the
flight and destination in Frankfurt.

Flight 7 originates in JFK and


makes an intermediate stop
in ORD and terminates in
LAX.

Flight #7 leaves John F Kennedy


Airport in New York, makes a stop
in Chicagos OHare Airport and then
continues on and ends in
Los Angeles.

Im a non rev on the


standby list for the flight to
YUL.

Im using a reduced rate benefit, or


non revenue ticket to take a flight to
Montreal.

Phonetic Alphabet
English is required to be used in radio communications between an
aircraft and the control tower during international travel. English is
also used in communications between pilots and other aircraft and
airline personnel in the air or on the ground. The NATO phonetic
alphabet is a form of code used in the aviation industry that aids this
communication. The phonetic alphabet is the common name for the
international telephony spelling alphabet. Code words are
assigned to letters of the English alphabet to spell out parts of a
message or call signs that are critical or might be hard to recognise
with voice communication. Regardless of ones native language it
clearly identifies letters and information that might otherwise be
easily misunderstood.
For example saying taxiway C-C might easily sound like T-T over a
radio or other voice communication and be misinterpreted. Saying
taxiway Charlie-Charlie avoids that potential mistake.

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The chart below will help you associate letters and numbers with the
right English code words. You will notice with the numbers that 3, 5
and 9 vary from their English pronunciation.

LETTER

CODE WORD

Alfa

Bravo

Charlie

Delta

Echo

Foxtrot

Golf

Hotel

India

Juliette

Kilo

Lima

Mike

November

Oscar

Papa

Quebec

Romeo

Sierra

Tango

Uniform

Victor

Whiskey

X-Ray

Yankee

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Zulu

Zero

One

Two

Tree (Pronounced)

Four

Fife (Pronounced)

Six

Seven

Eight

Niner (Pronounced)

As cabin crew you will most likely use these codes to clarify gate or
location information.
For example, you may need to make announcements over the
airplanes public address system about connecting gate information
for passengers transferring to other flights, or you may request
information from the captain or another member of the crew. Let us
say that you need to announce that passengers connecting to a flight
will have to go to gate D5, you would say, Delta Fife, or if a
passenger asks at which concourse is Airflow Airways, you could
say, Airflow Airways is located at the Echo Concourse
(E Concourse)
Call Signs
Call signs are another form of radio communication used in aviation.
Call signs are unique words or call letters for a particular transmitting
station. You may be more familiar with call signs that are associated
with radio and television broadcasting stations such as KTTT.
Aviation call signs come from several different policies depending on
the type of flight operation. Most commercial airlines including air
cargo and air taxi operators will use an ICAO registered call sign for
their company which is used along with their flight number to identify
themselves to the air traffic controllers or other aircraft. For example,
Speedbird is the registered call sign for British Airways, so the
Captain on British Airways flight 476 would identify the flight as this
is Speedbird four-seven-six. To find out more information on call
signs go to http://www.airodyssey.net/reference/airlines.html.

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On the next few pages you have a mini-glossary of terms and


definitions that will help you master the language of the airline
industry.

Term

Definition

AIRPORT

Location where an aircraft takes off and


lands, and loads and unloads passengers
and cargo.
Many of the larger airports have their own
fire and law enforcement departments,
customs and immigration and medical
facilities along with retail and hotel
establishments.

AIRWAY

A controlled pathway or corridor of flight, a


highway in the sky.

ALTERNATE AIRPORT

An airport other than the originally


scheduled destination airport. The
alternate airport is used in the event that
the aircraft cannot land at the original
destination, usually due to weather.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL


(ATC)

Official authority in charge of the safe,


orderly, and quick flow of air traffic in flight
or operating in the area of a runway.

AIR TRAFFIC
CONTROLLER

A person working in air traffic control.

APPROACH

Final part of the flight when the aircraft is


about to land. Also referred to as initial
approach and final approach. When an
aircraft is on final approach it is in direct
line with the runway for landing.

ARRIVALS

Passengers enter this area as they leave


the aircraft. This is the area where
passengers encounter immigration,
customs and baggage claim.

BAGGAGE CLAIM

A place in the airport terminal where


passengers locate and retrieve their
luggage.

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Term

Definition

BOARDING PASS

Ticket given once a customer has checked


in. It assists the customer with seat and
gate assignments and departure time. It
must be presented to allow the customer to
board the aircraft. It contains the following
information: customer name, flight number,
date, class of service, seat number and
departure and arrival information and any
special requests (meal, wheelchair
assistance, etc).

BUREAU DE CHANGE

Office or location where money can be


changed from one form of currency to
another.

BLOCKS, CHOCS

Rubber or wooden stops that are used to


keep the aircraft from rolling when parked.

BLOCK TO BLOCK
(BLOCK TIME)

The time from removal of the blocks at flight


departure to placement of the blocks at
flight arrival.

BLOCK IN

When blocks are placed at the aircraft


wheels upon arrival or to park the aircraft.

BLOCK OUT

When blocks are removed from the aircraft


wheels for departure and after movement of
the aircraft begins.

BOARD (BOARDING)

Process of enplaning (or loading)


passengers onto the aircraft.

BOARDING STAIRS

Steps used to enter or leave an aircraft.


The stairs are a moveable unit which is
placed at the aircraft door if an aircraft does
not have access to a jetway at the terminal.

CARRY ON LUGGAGE

Item brought in the cabin by a passengermust be stowed in the overhead


compartment or under the seat.

CATERING

Food, beverages and galley supplies


brought to the aircraft for a flight. Catering
or commissary also refers to the
department responsible for handling all
food, beverages and supplies.

Aviation Training Programme

Term

Definition

CALL LIGHT

A light signaling the cabin crew to respond


to a passengers needs, usually located
above the passengers seats, or on the
armrest.

CONTROL TOWER

Airport building where air traffic controllers


can oversee and direct aircraft movement.

CUSTOMER SERVICE
AGENT (also referred to as
Passenger Service Agent)

Staff that assists with the passenger and


operational related functions of an airline at
the airport.

DE-ICE

Process of removing ice from aircraft wings,


usually with chemicals

DEAIRCRAFT

Term used to denote passengers leaving


the aircraft.

DIVERSION

When an aircraft is not allowed to land at its


destination and directed to land elsewhere,
usually because of weather.

ECONOMY CLASS

The least expensive seats in an aircraft. In


the US it is referred to as coach class.

CARGO

The shipment of goods in the baggage


compartment of the aircraft; an additional
source of revenue for the airline.

DEBRIEF

A meeting following an event that requires


authorities to get information about what
happened, what procedures were used and
what could have been done differently. It is
mandatory after an accident or critical
incident.

DEAIRCRAFT/DISEMBARK

To leave the aircraft.

DEPARTURE LOUNGE
(GATE AREA)

Area where passengers wait before


boarding the aircraft.

DISPATCH

The department responsible for providing


flight plans, weather reports and other
important information regarding the flight to
the cockpit crews.

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Term

Definition

E-TICKET

Electronic ticket issued from a machine or


via email that confirms a booking or
reservation.

ESTIMATED TIME OF
ARRIVAL (ETA)

The time at which a flight is estimated to


arrive at the destination

ESTIMATED TIME OF
DEPARTURE (ETD)

The time at which a flight is scheduled to


depart from a particular city.

ENROUTE

On or along the way. Example: The flight is


enroute from New York to London.

ESTIMATED FLIGHT TIME

The estimated flight time between two


points.

Letter used on a ticket to designate First


Class service or fare.

FERRY FLIGHT

To fly an aircraft from one point to another


without passengers onboard.

FLIGHT PLAN

Information provided to the cockpit crew by


dispatch prior to every flight. It includes the
planned routing, flying time, altitude,
amount of fuel on board.

FLIGHT SCHEDULE

Timetable showing all flights of an airline.

GATE

The exit in the departure lounge that leads


to the aircraft

GROUND TIME

Period of time an aircraft and/or crew spend


on the ground between flights.

Aviation Training Programme

Term

Definition

HANGAR

A building where aircrafts are sheltered and


serviced by maintenance personnel.

HOLDING (HOLDING
PATTERN)

When an aircraft is near its destination


airport but must fly in a pattern around the
airport at a specified altitude and wait for
landing clearance from Air Traffic Control.
Usually due to weather or heavy air traffic
into an airport.

HUB (HUB and SPOKE)

Base or home port of an airline.


Passengers will fly in from other airports to
this hub and connect with other aircraft to
get to their destinations.

IMMIGRATION

Official point of entry into a country where


visas and passports of passengers are
checked.

INTERLINE

When a passenger travels and connects to


a different airline to reach a destination.

INBOUND

Passengers or flight coming into an airport.

INTERMEDIATE STOP
(TRANSIT)

Any city where a flight stops between its


originating and terminating points.

Letter used on a ticket to designate


business class service or fare.

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Term

Definition

JETWAY (JETTY)

Enclosed tunnel like passageway brought


to the aircraft that allows entry and exit from
the aircraft.

LANDING CARD

Form completed by passengers and


handed to immigration upon arrival in a
country.

LAYOVER

To a passenger this term refers to the time


between flights at an airport. To a
crewmember a layover period is the amount
of time that separates two on duty periods.
The layover station or city refers to the
actual location where you are off duty for
your rest period. Example: You arrive in
Paris at 1800 and depart the next day at
2100. Your layover period is 27 hours and
your layover station is Paris.

MANIFEST

List of passengers and cargo.

NO SHOW

Can refer to a passenger who reserves a


seat on a flight but does not check on or
travel OR it can refer to a crewmember who
fails to report for a flight assignment.

NON REVENUE
PASSENGER

A person traveling on a free or service


charge only ticket. Airline employees
traveling as part of their benefit are referred
to as non revs or pass riders.

OUTBOUND

Refers to a flight or passengers leaving an


airport.

PASSENGER

Person traveling often referred in shortened


form as PAX.

Aviation Training Programme

Term

Definition

PASSENGER LOAD

Total number of passengers on the aircraft.

POSITIVE SPACE

A confirmed reservation, guaranteed


seating.

RAMP (APRON, TARMAC)

The paved area on the field side of the


terminal building where aircraft are parked
to load and unload passengers.

RAMP SERVICE AGENT

A person who handles and loads the


aircraft with luggage and cargo.

REVENUE PASSENGER

Refers to customers who pay full fare for air


transportation

RUNWAY

The specially prepared concrete surface


used for take-off and landing, usually
aligned so aircraft can take off into the
wind.

SCHEDULED FLIGHT
TIME

The total projected time of a flight, from


take-off to landing.

SEAT ASSIGNMENT

Specified seats assigned to passengers at


the time they check in prior to boarding.

SECURITY CHECK

A point in the airport where all passengers,


crew and airport personnel will be screened
before boarding a flight or gaining access to
the gate area.

SLOT

Refers to the pre arranged time that a flight


is scheduled to take off, fly and land at the
next destination.

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Term

Definition

SPECIAL MEAL

Meal that meets dietary restrictions or


preferences. Passengers order these in
advance of a flight and include types such
as kosher, vegetarian or childrens
meal.

STAND-BY PASSENGER

A passenger who does not have a


confirmed reservation but arrives at the
airport with the hope of being
accommodated at departure time. Non
revenue travelers are considered stand by.

TAXIWAY

A prepared portion of land over which


aircraft will move to and from a runway or
hangar.

TERMINAL BUILDING

A building at the airport where passengers


check in and depart or arrive on a flight

TRANSIT PASSENGER

A person continuing on a flight through an


intermediate (transit) stop. Also referred to
as a thru passenger.

TERMINATING STATION

The city where a flight makes its last stop


for the day.

THROUGH PASSENGER
(THRU PASSENGER)

A person continuing on through an


intermediate stop to a further destination.

TICKET

A coupon or series of coupons issued by an


airline that confirms a passengers
reservation and allows him/her to board the
aircraft.

Aviation Training Programme

Term

Definition

TURN TIME

Refers to the amount of time between


arrival and an aircrafts next flight. Used by
staff to reference how much time they have
to ready the aircraft for the next flight.

UM

Unaccompanied minor, a child traveling


without an adult.

VIP

Very important person or passenger.


Usually requires extra attention and have
special requests regarding his/her travel.

WEIGHT AND BALANCE

A mathematical calculation done prior to


departure of a flight to assure aircraft
stability and flight safety. It takes into
account load factor (passenger, cargo, fuel)
and other conditions of the flight.

WHEELS ON

Refers to the aircraft landing gear touching


the runway. The wheels on time for a flight
may be 1830 but block in (or the time it
reaches the gate and is parked) is 1850.

WHEELS UP (WHEELS
OFF)

Refers to actual take off time of the aircraft


as it leaves the runway. The block out for a
flight (when the blocks are removed and the
aircraft leaves the gate) is 1215, the wheels
up or off time is 1245 the aircraft taxied
for 30 minutes before it was cleared for take
off.

Letter that designates economy or coach


class or service.

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Progress Check
1. List the 4 different uses for General Aviation Aircraft?
2. List the aircraft that cabin crew flies in, who owns this aircraft
type and the main reason why this aircraft is used move
passengers and cargo?
3. Commercial Transport Aircraft are used to carry passengers and
cargo. TRUE or FALSE
4. General Aviation Aircraft are also known as corporate aircraft.
TRUE or FALSE
5. Choose the correct statements:
a) A wing is almost flat on the bottom and curved on the top.
b) The wings airfoil shape helps create the force called drag.
c) A tail is also known as the empennage.
d) Landing gear is also known as the undercarriage.
e) Most high speed aircraft, use fixed landing gears.
f)

The landing gear is the only aircraft part that is not referred
to as airframe.

6. What is a tricycle landing gear?


7. Using the phonetic alphabet in aviation communication how
would you say the following:
y The flight arrives at Gate E 3.
y Northwest Airlines is located on Concourse F at terminal C.

Answer Key
1. Personal transportation, business trips, emergency aid and teach
student pilots to fly.
2. Commercial Transport Aircraft, Airlines, to make a profit.
3. True
4. True

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5. a), c), d)
6. Two main wheels or wheel assemblies under each wing and
another other the nose
7. ECHO TREE; Concourse FOXTROT at Terminal Charlie

Lesson Summary
In general, aircraft can be placed into the following three categories:
1. Commercial transport aircrafts are owned by airlines and used
for transporting passengers and cargo. As cabin crew, you will
be flying in commercial transport aircrafts.
2. General aviation aircrafts are smaller than most commercial
aircrafts and are certified for and intended for noncommercial or
private use.
3. Military aircrafts are used for a countrys armed forces.
Common to all aircraft are the five basic parts of an aircraft:
(1) fuselage, (2) wing, (3) tail, (4) landing gear, and (5) engine. The
wing, fuselage, tail and landing are referred to as the airframe.
This lesson introduced you to the language that is heard in the
aviation industry. As a member of cabin crew, you must be familiar
with this language to help you communicate efficiently with those you
work with. This lesson includes the terminology that you need to
master to have efficient conversations. Once you start working, you
will learn the terminology more quickly than if you memorize the
terms and definitions. They are provided here so that you are aware
of what they are and how and when to use them.

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5.2 Theory of Flight and How Aircraft Fly


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will
be able to:

Identify what an aircraft


needs to take off and land.

Identify and describe the 3


basic movements of an
aircraft.

You will be spending most of your working hours in flight. To be the


best at your job, you need to be able to describe how an aircraft take
offs, cruises and lands, turns and travels. While this information is
interesting to know, there are also very specific times when you will
be asked specific questions about this before, during and after your
flights, so it is important to be ready when the time comes.
Keep in mind that flying an aircraft is different from driving an
automobile. Unlike turning a steering wheel of an automobile to
make a turn a pilot must manage several controls at once to change
the direction of an aircraft.
Be prepared to discuss this information when:
1. Testing or completing an airline certification course.
2. Customers ask about how aircraft fly or move.
3. Explaining noises or sensations felt during flight.

5.2.1 Take Offs and Landings


It is important for you to identify what is required for an aircraft to take
off, cruise and land. There are four basic forces that affect the flight
or movement of an aircraft and together they work to help an aircraft
take-off, ascend (go up), cruise (travel), descend (go down) and land.
These are the 4 basic forces that help an aircraft take-off, ascend,
cruise, descend and land. These forces describe the theory of
flight.
1. Gravity pulls an aircraft toward the ground.

Did you know?


Gravity, lift, drag, and
thrust work together to
make an aircraft fly. These
forces describe the theory
of flight.

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2. Lift pushes an aircraft up against the force of gravity. Lift is


created by each wing as it moves through the air. The aircraft is
able to fly when the force of lift exceeds the weight of the aircraft.
3. Drag the natural force of the air that resists forward movement.
4. Thrust created by propellers or engines.

Aviation Training Programme

Lift

Thrust
Lift

Did you know?


Birds and aircraft use the same
forces (gravity, lift, drag and trust)
to fly. The shape of a birds wing is
curved the same way as airfoils on
aircraft. When a bird glides during
level flight, it stays in the air just
like aircraft do - its wings provide
the lift. However, birds flap their
wings up and down to go higher in
the sky while aircraft use a
combination of control surfaces
and powerful engines.
(http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/aero/bac
kground/)

Gravity

Drag

As shown in the graphic above, gravity and lift, and drag and thrust
work against each other. An aircraft is in level cruising flight, when
lift equals the force of gravity and thrust equals drag.
(Gravity = Lift) + (Thrust = Drag) =

Aircraft Flies

Picture it the wind rushes around the wing, which builds lift (see
graphic). To get more lift, the pilot increases the angle of attack (or
angle between where the wing is pointing and where it is going) and
also lowers the flaps. The aircraft takes off when lift becomes
greater than gravity. The direction, altitude or speed of the aircraft
changes when one or more of the forces change.
Be prepared to discuss the theory of flight when: testing or
completing an airline certification course, customers ask about
how aircraft fly or move, explaining noises or sensations felt
during flight.

Did you know?


In the 19th century, before aircraft,
inventors tried to fly by strapping
homemade wings to their arms and
jumping off buildings. They tried to
copy the flapping motion of birds usually with deadly results. Unlike
humans, birds have strong wing
muscles that give them the power
needed for flight. So, after millions
of years of evolution, birds and
insects continue to fly on their own
- humans on the other hand will
have to continue to depend on
machines like aircraft.
(http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/aero/bac
kground/)

For an aircraft to land, speed must be reduced by decreasing the


engine power. Picture it the aircrafts speed reduces, lift is
reduced and gravity increases this allows the aircraft to land. But
to land gracefully, the pilot must control gravity by increasing the
angle of attack (or angle between where the wing is pointing and
where it is going) and lowering the flaps.
As an aircraft approaches the airport, the pilot will use controls to
slow the aircraft and create a slow controlled descent. During this
time, passengers will hear the engine noise change, feel the aircraft
slow down and descend or slowly drop, and may see and hear
components of the wings move. This is all normal and while these
sensations and sounds will sound normal to the seasoned crew
member, a passenger may become alarmed at these sounds and
sensations thinking something is wrong.

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Tips

Did you know?


A wing produces lift only if it is
moving forward through the air.
For an aircraft to take off, it must
move down the runway at high
speed. An aircraft requires
thrust to create this movement.
Aerodynamic lift is based on the
Bernoulli principle: the pressure
of a flowing fluid decreases as its
velocity increases. Daniel
Bernoulli (1700-1782) was the
first person to define the
fundamental relationship
between pressure, density and
velocity in fluid flows.
(http://www.boeing.com/commer
cial/safety/pf/pf_how_aircraft_fly.
html#lift)

Did you know?


Jetliners are highly efficient
gliders. Even without engine
thrust, they can glide about 6m
forward for each 30cm of altitude
they lose. If all engine power
were lost at cruise altitude, a
typical
jet could glide more than 160 km
before landing at sea level.
(http://www.boeing.com/commer
cial/safety/pf/pf_how_aircraft_fly.
html#lift)

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While some passengers may be curious about sounds or aspects of


how the aircraft flies, others could actually be fearful of sounds they
are hearing or vibrations they are feeling. You may sense that in
their expression or demeanor or by the questions they ask.
Go see the following websites for additional information:
Axis of Rotation: http://www.aviation-history.com/theory/axis.htm
Flight Control Surfaces: http://www.aviationhistory.com/theory/flt_ctl.htm
Forces Action on an Aircraft: http://www.aviationhistory.com/theory/force.htm
The Basic Principles of Flight: http://www.rc-aircraftworld.com/how-aircraft-fly.html

5.2.2. Movement of an Aircraft in Flight


An aircraft has the ability to rotate on its center of gravity. This
means that an aircraft is in perfect balance on a certain point, no
matter how the aircraft is turned or rotated around that point This unit
discusses what the pilot does and the basic directions available to
move an aircraft.
If you drive, you use a steering wheel to drive or control a car. In
order to control an aircraft, the pilot uses 3 basic control surfaces:
aileron, elevator and rudder as shown below.

Aviation Training Programme

Fin

Did you know?


A pilot uses 3 basic control
surfaces: aileron, elevator
and rudder to control an
aircraft.

Stabilize

The fin and rudder make up vertical sections of a tail. The fin stands
upright and does not move and prevents the aircraft from swinging to
the right or left. The rudder is hinged to the fin and can be moved
from side to side. It controls the aircraft during a turn.

Did you know?


The 3 basic movements of
an aircraft in flight are
pitch, roll and yaw.

The stabilizer and elevator are horizontal surfaces of the tail. The
stabilizer keeps the tail from going up and down and keeps the
aircraft at a steady altitude. The elevator is hinged to the stabilizer.
Moving the elevator up or down raises or lowers the nose of the
aircraft.
There are 3 basic movements of an aircraft in flight.

Movement

Description

Visual

Pitch

The aircrafts movement on its


lateral axis as the nose moves
up or down. It is controlled by
the aircrafts elevators.

Roll

The aircrafts movement on its


longitudinal axis as one wing
dips lower than the other. An
aircraft rolls when it banks or
when one wing tip dips lower
than the other. It is controlled by
the aircrafts ailerons.

Yaw

Is the aircrafts movement on its


vertical axis as the nose turns
left or right. It is controlled by
use of the aircrafts rudder.

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Did you know?


Aircraft are considered
heavier-than-air. This
means that an aircraft is
heavier than the air it
displaces. Aircraft do not
fly like airships or blimps
which are known as
lighter-than-air aircraft.
Airships rise and float
because they are filled
with a gas that is lighter
than air.

Progress Check
1. Match each force to the appropriate definition.
Forces

Definitions

Gravity

A. The natural force of the air that resists forward


movement.

Lift

B. The natural force that pulls an aircraft toward the


ground.

Drag

C. Created by propellers or engines.

Thrust

D. The force that pushes an aircraft up against the


force of gravity.

2. Gravity and _________ are opposing forces.


3. Thrust and __________ are opposing forces.
4. Identify each of the four forces in the image below. Graphic: Use
the same one used within the lesson.

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5. A wing can produce lift only if it is moving forward through the air.
6. When lift is lower than gravity, the aircraft takes off.
7. Match each force to the appropriate definition.
Forces

Definitions

Pitch

A. The aircrafts movement on its lateral axis as


the nose moves up or down.

Roll

B. The aircrafts movement on its vertical axis


as the nose turns left or right.

Yaw

C. The aircrafts movement on its longitudinal


axis as one wing dips lower than the other.

Answer Key
1. Gravity (B), Lift (D), Drag (A), Thrust (C)
2. Lift
3. Drag
4.
Lift

Thrust
Lift

Gravity

Drag

5. True
6. True
7. Pitch (A), Roll (C), Yaw (B)

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Lesson Summary
For aircraft to take-off, go up, travel, go down and land, the forces of
gravity, lift, drag and thrust must work together. The pilot uses
controls and powerful engines to make an aircraft fly and bring
passengers safely to their destinations. Noises and sensations
throughout the flight are caused by the gravity, lift, drag and thrust
and can be easily explained to passengers. It is important to be able
to answer passengers questions and concerns about how an aircraft
flies in order to reassure them when they are frightened.
Pilots use control surfaces to move or turn the aircraft. These are:
aileron, elevator and rudder. There are 3 basic movements that an
aircraft can make on its center of gravity: pitch, roll and yaw.

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Aviation Training Programme

5.3 Using Time Zones


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Read time using a 24-hour


clock.

Define Greenwich Mean


Time (GMT) and relate it to
the 24-hour clock set at a
specific time zone.

Define International Date


Line and relate it to flight
itinerary and travel time.

Identify standard airport


codes used by the airline
industry.

Did you know?


The 24-hour clock is the
most commonly used timekeeping format. Midnight
to midnight is considered
one day and the day is
divided into 24 hours.

Have you ever taken a very long trip? If you have you may have
crossed through one or more time zones. Knowledge of time zones
will help you to read flight timetables and schedules. Since times
zones use military timing, you may need to help passengers to read
schedule or departure times as they travel.
As you help a passenger to read his/her travel schedule, you should
help him/her to understand that a flight that is seven hours long does
not necessarily mean that the arrival time will be seven hours later in
local time at the destination.
The International Date Line can also cause confusion among airline
passengers. The most troublesome situations usually occur with
short journeys from west to east. For example, to travel from Tonga
to Samoa by air takes approximately 2 hours. If a person leaves at
noon on Tuesday, they will arrive at 2 pm on Monday. Meanwhile,
someone in Samoa inquiring about the departing flight may be told
there is no flight until the next day.
If passengers are not prepared, there could also be confusion when
the passenger gains a day by having Monday repeated in his/her
schedule. Journal entries and photographs may end up out of
sequence, and there could be errors in a person's medication
schedule. In addition, those making connecting flights might choose
the wrong date for the reservation. Be prepared and organised with
your flight schedules so that you may properly assist your
passengers. Keep in mind that all printed airline schedules, tickets
and boarding passes will always show the local time of the departure
and arrival city.
Finally, as a crewmember you will also use airport codes everyday.
Airport codes are used in flight schedules and you will need to know
them to properly assist passengers understand their tickets and
determine connecting flights. In your crewmember training, you can
also expect to be tested on the airport codes that apply to your
airlines destination cities.

5.3.1 24-Hour Clock


The 24-hour Clock is the most commonly used time-keeping format.
Midnight to midnight is considered one day and the day is divided
into 24 hours. The 24-hour Clock is also referred to as military time

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(US and Canada), continental time (UK) and international standard


notation of time.
In a 24-hour clock the hours are numbered from 00 to 23. Military
and emergency services personnel show midnight both as 2400 or
0000. However, digital watches, clocks and computer equipment that
display time in a 24-hour format treat midnight as the start of a new
day and show it as 0000.

The time difference between 0900 and 1300 is four hours. This is
easily calculated by subtracting the smaller number from the larger
number. This method does not work with the 12-hour clock (9:00am
and 1:00pm).
Conversion Table

Did you know?


The US is the one place
in the world where the
12-hour system is more
common than the 24-hour
clock. A significant number
of US citizens are
unfamiliar with 24-hour
time. 12-hour notation is
used on some airline
tickets in the US even
though the airlines rely
heavily on 24-hour time for
communication.

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24-hour clock

12-hour clock

24-hour clock

12-hour clock

Military Time

Regular Time

Military Time

Regular Time

00:00

12:00 midnight

12:00

12:00 pm

01:00

1:00 am

13:00

1:00 pm

02:00

2:00 am

14:00

2:00 pm

03:00

3:00 am

15:00

3:00 pm

04:00

4:00 am

16:00

4:00 pm

05:00

5:00 am

17:00

5:00 pm

06:00

6:00 am

18:00

6:00 pm

07:00

7:00 am

19:00

7:00 pm

08:00

8:00 am

20:00

8:00 pm

09:00

9:00 am

21:00

9:00 pm

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10:00

10:00 am

22:00

10:00 pm

11:00

11:00 am

23:00

11:00 pm

Example: Military to Regular Time


Assume that an event occurs at 00:20 military time. To convert this to
regular time, separate the hours from the minutes. The hours are
shown below in red: 00:20. Look up the hour digits (00) in the
conversion table. The table shows that 00 hours in military time is
12:00 midnight in regular time.
The next two digits (20) represent the minutes past the hour. Since
military time and regular time use minutes in exactly the same way,
no conversion is required.
Therefore, 00:20 military time translates to 12:20 am or twenty
minutes past midnight regular time.
Example: Regular to Military Time

Did you know?


Worldwide time zones
were established in 1884.
The meridian of longitude
passing through the
Greenwich Observatory in
England was chosen as
the starting point for the
world's time zones. This
Greenwich Meridian, a
North-South line also
called the prime meridian,
has a 0 longitude, and all
other meridians of
longitude are numbered
East or West of it.

Assume that you want to convert 3:10 pm. Using the conversion
table, this translates to 15:10.

5.3.2 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and Time Zones


There are 24 world time zones. You live in one of the 24 time zones
and everyone that lives in that zone has the same standard time or
local time. Each time zone spans a 15 longitude distance in width.
The starting point for the time zones is at 0 and is located at the
Greenwich Meridian, in London, England. The mean solar time at the
Greenwich meridian is traditionally known as Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) or Greenwich Civil Time (GCT).
World time zones

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If you travel East of Greenwich, the time becomes one hour later with
each time zone entered. Moving to the West, the time becomes one
hour earlier with each zone.

This graphic indicates that there is a 7-hour difference between a city


located 5 time zones West of the GMT(UTC) and a city that is 2 time
zones Aast of the GMT (UTC).
5.3.2.2 Standard and Local Time
Clocks in various parts of the world do not all show the same time.
Suppose they all did show the same time 3 p.m., for example. At that
time, people in some countries would see the sun rise, and people in
other lands would see it high in the sky. In still other countries, the sun
could not be seen because 3 p.m. would occur at night.
If every town used a different time, travelers would be confused. To
avoid this confusion, standard time zones were established. As a
result, clocks in all locations show 12 o'clock (or noon) at midday.
The time at any particular place is called the local time. Noon local
time in one town, might be 11 a.m. West of the town or 1 p.m. East of
that time.

Location

Bangkok,
Thailand

GMT Offset from 0 longitude

Current
Day of the
Week

Current
Time

Time Zone
Name

Fri

2:01:00 AM

Not Available

Standard time
zone

Daylight
saving time

Local time
zone offset

UTC/GMT

No daylight
saving time at
the moment

Not Applicable

+1 hour

UTC/GMT

+7 hours
The plus(+)
tells you that
this time zone
is East of
Greenwich

Paris,
France

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9:02:54 PM

Central
European
Summer
Time (CEST)

UTC/GMT
+1 hour
The plus(+)

+2 hours

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tells you that


this time zone
is East of
Greenwich
California,
USA

Thurs

12:04:48 PM

Pacific
Daylight
Time (PDT)

UTC/GMT
-8 hours

+1 hour

UTC/GMT
-7 hours

The minus (-)


tells you that
this time zone
is West of
Greenwich
There are many abbreviations that are used instead of GMT, such as
GCT, UTC, Z or Z Time. These abbreviations all refer to time at 0
longitude or at the prime meridian. Universal Time Coordinated
(UTC) is the international time standard. It is the current term for
what is commonly referred to as Greenwich Meridian Time (GMT).
As a result, the current abbreviation being used is UTC/GMT.

Did you know?


GMT is defined by the
rotation of the earth. In the
1940's, experts began to
realise that time based on
astronomical
measurements was not
completely smooth, since
the earth slowed down and
speeded up in an irregular
fashion.

Zero (0) hours UTC is midnight in Greenwich England, which lies on


the zero longitudinal meridian. Universal time is based on a 24 hour
clock therefore afternoon hours such as 4 pm UTC are expressed as
16:00 UTC (sixteen hours, zero minutes).
Daylight Savings Time (DST)
Daylight Savings Time (DST), or summer time as it is called in many
countries, is a way of getting more out of summer days by advancing
the clocks by one hour during the summer only. During Daylight
Savings Time (DST), the sun sets and rises one hour later than
standard time. Not all countries use DST.
To make DST work, the clocks have to be adjusted manually one
hour ahead when DST begins (during spring), and adjusted back one
hour to standard time every autumn. There are many countries that
use DST, and many who do not. Is DST always 1 hour ahead of
normal time? Currently it is mostly 1 hour ahead of normal time. In
the past adjustments of 20, 30, 40, and also 120 minutes have also
been used.

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Below is an example of a timetable of flights that includes the flight


number, the departure city and departure time and the arrival city and
arrival time.
Flight #

City

Date & Time

1441

JFK

05/15/2006 8:17 (EST)

City

Date & Time

DFW

05/15/2006
11:05 (CT US)

DFW
802

YUL
05/15/2006 13:16 (CT - US)

05/15/2006 17:40 (EDT)

JFK
1165
1932

MIA

061

BKK

05/15/2006 09:50 (EDT)

MIA

05/15/2006 12:50 PM (EDT)

05/15/2006 20:15 (EDT)

YUL

05/15/2006 23:39 (EDT)

05/13/2006

05/13/2006
LHR

7:45 (CXT)

11:10 (UTC)

05/20/2006
317

05/21/2006

LHR

SIN
12:00 (DST)

7:45 (AWST)

05/13/2006
061

05/13/2006

ZNZ

NBO
16:30 (EEST)

18:00 (EEST)

05/20/2006
317

05/21/2006

LHR

SIN
12:00 (DST)

7:45 (AWST)

Go see:
http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/
http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/info/timezone.htm

5.3.4 International Date Line


Did you know?
People on the western
side of the date line in
New Zealand start
celebrating New Year's
Day 22 hours ahead of the
people on the eastern side
of the date line in Hawaii.

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International Date Line also known as Date Line, is an imaginary line


located opposite the Prime Meridian. At this spot, each new calendar
day begins and the date changes as you travel east or west across it.
The date just to the west of the International Date Line is one day
later than the date just to the east of the line.
The Date Line is located, more or less, at 180 longitude. The
difference occurs to keep the date line from crossing nations and
allow citizens of the same country to have the same date. It
corresponds to the time zone boundary separating +12- GMT.

Aviation Training Programme

Did you know?


When Magellan was
exploring the world, his
crew returned to a Spanish
stopover confident of the
day of the week, as shown
on carefully updated
sailing logs. However,
those in the town insisted
the day was different. At
the time, this caused great
excitement and as a result,
a special message was
sent to the Pope to explain
this event to him.

Progress Check
1. Define Greenwich Mean Time.
2. The date just to the west of the __________is one day later than
the date just to the east of the line.
3. Your flight is scheduled to depart LHR at 12:00 BST heading to
SIN (AWST) on June 1.
a) What is the date and time in SIN when you depart LHR?
b) Your flight is scheduled to arrive in SIN at 0745 what is the
date?
c) How many hours will it take to complete the flight?

Answer Key
1. The starting point for the time zones is at 0 and is located at the
Greenwich Meridian, in London, England. The mean solar time at
the Greenwich meridian is traditionally known as Greenwich
Mean Time (GMT) or Greenwich Civil Time (GCT).

Did you know?

2. International Date Line

The sun travels over 15 of


the earth's surface each
hour. For each 15 east of
Greenwich, the time is
advanced one hour. For
each 15 west of
Greenwich, the time is set
back one hour. At
longitude 180 East, the
time is 12 hours more
advanced than Greenwich
time. At longitude 180
West, the time is 12 hours
behind Greenwich time.

3. a) June 1, at 1900; b) June 2; c) 12 hours 45 minutes

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Lesson Summary
The 24-hour Clock is also referred to as military time (US and
Canada), continental time (UK) and international standard notation of
time. In military time, hours are numbered from 00 to 23, for example
00:00 refers to midnight. There are similarities and differences
between standard and military time. As a member of cabin crew, you
will use the 24-hour clock to help passengers read flight timetables
and schedules.
There are 24 world time zones. The starting point for the time zones
is at 0 and is located at the Greenwich Meridian. Time zones and
the 24-hour clock work together closely. For example, if your flight is
at 07:00:00, lasts 12 hours and crosses three time zones, you will not
necessarily arrive at 19:00:00 on the same day.
It is also important to consider the International Date Line also known
as Date Line. It is an imaginary line located opposite the Prime
Meridian, located, more or less, at 180 longitude and corresponds to
the time zone boundary separating +12- GMT. A new date first
begins on the western side of the date line and moves towards the
west around the earth, over a period of 24 hours until it reached the
Date Line again.

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5.4 World Airport Codes and Airline Codes


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Explain why airport and


airline codes are important to
the airline industry.

Identify the 3-letter airport


codes of some of the major
airports.

Identify the 2-letter airport


codes of some of the major
scheduled airlines.

Codes are an integral part of the airline and travel industry. They
streamline communication and help to clarify locations. As cabin
crew you will become familiar with location identifiers (airport codes)
and airline designators (airline codes). Each code is used to identify
a specific airport or airline and helps maintain efficient
communication throughout the airline industry.

5.4.1 World Airport Codes


Finally in order to accurately use time zones, you will also need to
know and use airport codes. While there are 2 airport coding systems
in the airline industry, the most commonly used is the 3-letter IATA
code. These codes help to differentiate several airports within the
same city and helps maintain efficient communication throughout the
airline industry.
While there are thousands of city codes, you will become familiar
with the codes of the major cities of the world and the cities that your
airline serves.
It is important to know that some cities have more than one airport
and many airlines provide service to more than one airport in a city.
The letters and numbers used do not necessarily match the name of
the city or place.
For example, these are all airports for London, England.
y LCY London City Airport
y LGW London Gatwick Airport
y LHR London Heathrow Airport
y LTN London Luton International Airport
y STN London Stansted Airport
IATA defines and assigns the codes and they are published triannually. There are more than 17,000 codes that identify airport
locations, cities, bus and train stations and harbors and ports.
City codes identify a metropolitan area but that area may have
several different airports each with their own airport code. For
instance the city code for London, England is LON and as you saw in
our previous example, there are several airport codes for the London
metropolitan area. NYC is the city code for the New York

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metropolitan area and JFK, LGA, ISP and HPN are all codes for
airports in the New York area.

5.4.2 Airline Designators


IATA also assigns codes to airlines that are called airline designators
which identify airlines for all commercial purposes. This 2-character
code is used in reservations, timetables, tickets, flight information
screens and baggage tags. Some examples of airline codes are:
y British Airways: BA
y Air France: AF
y Air Canada: AC
y Emirates: EK
ICAO also has an airport and airline coding system that is less
familiar to the general public and is used by air traffic control and
flight planning. These are three and four letter alphanumeric codes.
As a cabin crew, you will use the IATA airport codes to read airline
timetables, reservations, and baggage handling documentation and
your flight schedule. Airline codes appear on tickets, flight information
screens and baggage tags.
Go see the following websites for additional information:
Search for world airport codes: http://www.world-airport-codes.com/
Search for airline codes:
http://www.airodyssey.net/reference/airlines.html
IATA three-letter codes: http://www.airporttechnology.com/codes/D.html
ICAO four-letter codes:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICAO_airport_code
Search for codes by country:
http://www.logisticsworld.com/airports.asp

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Progress Check
1. Using the information on the web site, http://www.world-airportcodes.com/ identify the city codes below:
JFK _____
DFW ______
MIA _____
NBO _____
YUL _____
SIN _____
BKK _____
LHR ______
2. Using the same web site, identify the three-letter airport codes of
cities you would like to visit and/or work in.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
3. Your flight is scheduled to depart LHR at 12:00 BST heading to
SIN (AWST) on June 1.
a) What is the date and time in SIN when you depart LHR?
June 1, at 1900.
b) Your flight is scheduled to arrive in SIN at 0745 what is the
date? June 2.
c) How many hours will it take to complete the flight? 12 hours
45 minutes.

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Answer Key
1. JFK (New York), DFW (Dallas), MIA (Miami), NBO (Nairobi), YUL
(Montreal), SIN (Singapore), BKK (Bangkok), LHR (London)
3. a) June 1, at 1900
b) June 2
c) 12 hours 45 minutes

MODULE SUMMARY
Now that you have completed Module 5 you can describe general
aircraft information and explain how they function in relation to
aviation operations in the air and on the ground. You have also
become familiar with basic aviation terminology that will become part
of your vocabulary as a member of a cabin crew.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
In the next module you be introduced to crew coordination and
communication during flights.

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6.0 Crew Member Coordination and


Communication
MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this Module
you should be able to:

Describe how a crew


functions as a team and the
coordination and
communication involved in
everyday operations.

Each flight has a team that includes the members of the cabin crew
and the flight crew. This module describes in detail the role and
responsibilities of the flight crew and cabin crew and discusses the
relationship between the entire team.
It is essential that all members of the flight and cabin crews function
as a team and coordinate all of the everyday operations. In order to
ensure an efficient and safe flight, the entire team must be able to
communicate with each other effectively and understand each others
roles and responsibilities. As cabin crew you will have to work
closely with all of your crewmates. Good communication skills are
essential for good teamwork.

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6.1 Roles and Responsibilities


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will
be able to:

Explain the roles and


responsibilities of crews in:

The coordination and


communication of important
information.

Following procedures prior to


and during flights.

In order to understand how a member of the cabin crew fits into the
team, you must first get to know all the members of the entire team.
The flight crew includes the captain (or commander) and the co-pilot
or first officer. The leader of the cabin crew is the purser or in-charge
flight attendant. In some airlines this position is also known as senior
cabin crew, lead or #1 flight attendant. In this course we refer to this
person as the purser or senior cabin crew.
The number of cabin crew on a particular flight depends on the size
and type of the aircraft. Regulations require a minimum crew
(the minimum number of cabin crew required to operate the flight).
Airlines will sometimes add cabin crew based on the number of
passengers on board and the service level required for the flight.
The captain is completely in charge of the entire team as well as the
passengers. The captain is responsible for and has authority over
everything that happens on an aircraft before, during and at the end
of a flight. As a member of the cabin crew you will take your orders
and assignments for each flight from the purser who then reports to
the captain.
You need to understand the roles and specific responsibilities of
each member of the flight and cabin crew. This will help you
maintain a high level of efficiency and safety aboard an aircraft.

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Chain of Command
The captain is in charge of all crew and passengers. The first officer
or Co-pilot is the second in command. The purser or in-charge flight
attendant is the leader of the cabin crew. Each of these individual
has specific roles and responsibilities within the chain of command.
Captain / Commander
The captain or commander is a rank that designates a pilot as the
leader of the crew, who is assigned to each flight and is responsible
for the operation and safety during that specific flight. He or she is
the team leader and therefore must establish an effective crew
atmosphere that encourages teamwork. This requires excellent skills
in communication and resource management.
In addition to flying the aircraft, while on duty, the captain has full
control and authority over the operation of the aircraft as well as over
all other crew without limitation. The captain is in full command of the
aircraft and crew and all orders and directions must be followed even
though they may be at variance from written procedure. This is a
tremendous responsibility that requires the captain to be highly
trained and very experienced. He or she must log thousands hours of
flying time, pass many written and practical tests and have his or her
performance evaluated regularly.
The captain has to be prepared for any situation that might arise
while in control of the aircraft. In an emergency that requires
immediate decision and action the captain will follow procedures and
take the action he or she deems necessary under the circumstances
to ensure the safety and well-being of the passengers. It is the
responsibility of the cabin crew to follow the instructions of the
captain.

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Co-Pilot or First Officer

Did you know?


The captain is not always
the one flying the airplane.
Traditionally the captain
will alternate flying with the
first officer, with the
captain flying the first flight
of a trip and the first officer
flying the next.

Every flight has at least 2 active pilots that can fly the aircraft. The
co-pilot or first officer is the person assisting the captain and sits in
the right hand seat in the cockpit as you face the cockpit from inside
the aircraft. Since the first officer is the second in command and is
often the one flying the aircraft, he or she must also pass many
practical and written exams. In many cases the first officer will fly one
leg of a trip, however, some airports require that the captain perform
the take-off or the landing.
The first officer has an independent set of controls and instruments
and flies the aircraft about half the time, usually swapping duties with
the captain on each leg of a flight. In addition to flying the aircraft, the
first officer also assists the pilot with the pre-flight duties by reviewing
paperwork and performing aircraft pre-flight checks.)

6.1.2 Cabin Crew


The cabin crew is a team that must work in harmony. This is
essential in order to ensure the safety and comfort of the passengers
aboard the aircraft.

Key Learning Point


In order to be an effective
member of the cabin crew it
is essential that you
understand your role and
responsibilities as an
individual. You must also be
able to work with a team to
handle the routine as well as
the unexpected.

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As cabin crew, you will need to coordinate with the rest of the team.
In order to do this effectively you must be very familiar with the roles
of each member of the team. There are many tasks performed by
the cabin crew before and during a flight as well as in preparation for
landing. At one time or another you will be required to perform all of
these duties so it is important that you are familiar with them. This
lesson describes the duties of all members of the cabin crew and
discusses communication among cabin and flight crews. Therefore,
you must be clear on what your roles and responsibilities are as an
individual. You must also know how to work with a team to handle
the routine as well as the unexpected.
Senior Cabin Crew or Purser
The senior cabin crew is usually the designated leader of the cabin
crew and takes orders directly from the captain. This position is also
referred to in the industry as the purser, in-charge flight attendant,
lead flight attendant or #1 flight attendant. This position often comes
with additional training in the areas of leadership, company policy
and procedure and other skills to qualify someone for the additional
responsibility. The senior cabin crew is responsible to lead the cabin
crew and ensure safety and excellent customer service. He or she
also makes sure that company policy is followed during the flight.
The senior cabin crew coordinates, completes and prepares
important paperwork for customs and duty-free and prepares reports

Aviation Training Programme

that summarise any irregularities or special situations that may have


occurred during the flight.

Key Learning Point


The senior cabin crew or
purser is the person in
charge of the cabin crew
and is responsible for
coordinating flight safety
and cabin service. He or she
is the main point of contact
for the captain in
coordination with the cabin
crew and the operation of
the flight. As leader of the
cabin crew, the senior cabin
crew is responsible for
managing the team.

Some airlines also have a cabin crew member in charge of each


class of service such as first, business and economy or premium
economy. While they are responsible for each of these areas
specifically, these positions still report to the senior cabin crew or
purser.
Role of Cabin Crew
The roles of the remaining cabin crew are determined by the
positions they are assigned in the aircraft for each flight. Each airline
may have a slightly different variation on how the remaining positions
are assigned or selected. The number of cabin crew on any one
flight depends on the size of the aircraft, the length of the flight and
the number of passengers. The size of the cabin crew team can
range from 2 to 16 or more.
It is important to be prepared to take on any of the duties required of
a member of the cabin crew, since actual and assigned
responsibilities on different flights may vary. No matter your role as
cabin crew you are responsible for bringing any condition,
occurrence, malfunction or situation that may affect the safety of
everyone on board passenger and crew and the safety of the flight to
the attention of other crew members, particularly the captain.
Examples of these conditions or situations can include:
y A strong odor of smoke or of something burning
y An electrical component in the galley malfunctioning
y Passengers fighting or causing a disturbance
y An ill passenger
If you are interested in additional information about flight and cabin
crews, visit the web site:
http://travel.howstuffworks.com/pilot.htm/printable

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Progress Check
1. List the different flight crew and their ranks.
2. Briefly describe the responsibilities of each of the flight crew.
3. The senior cabin crew member is the _____ of the cabin crew
and takes orders directly from the ______.
4. A purser is responsible to _______, ________ and the following
of ________ during the flight.

Answer Key
1. Pilot-captain/commander, co-pilot /first officer
2. The captain is the pilot and is solely responsible for the operation
and safety during that specific flight. He or she is the team leader
and has full authority over everything and everyone on his or her
flight.
The first officer is the co-pilot and is the second in command. He
or she is often the one flying the aircraft. In addition to flying the
aircraft, the first officer also assists the pilot with the preflight
duties by reviewing paperwork and performing aircraft pre-flight
checks.
3. Leader; captain
4. Ensure safety; customer service; company policy

Lesson Summary
Each flight has a flight crew and a cabin crew. The flight crew
includes the pilot and co-pilot. The pilot is also the captain or
commander and he or she has complete authority for his/her
assigned flight. Pilots are responsible for all crew, passengers and
equipment. The co-pilot, also known as the first officer, has specific

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duties during the pre-flight preparations and usually flies the aircraft
during one leg of the trip. The captain conducts a crew briefing prior
to all flights in order to share information among the flight and cabin
crews. The cabin crew, led by the senior cabin crew, also known as
the purser or in charge flight attendant, has many duties to perform
before and during a flight. It is very important that each member of
both crews fulfill their required responsibilities in order to prepare the
aircraft and to ensure a safe and efficient flight.

6.2 Flight Preparations


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will
be able to:

Describe the role and


responsibilities of the flight
crew and purser in pre-flight
cabin crew briefings.

Describe the duties of the


cabin crew in pre-flight
preparations, boarding,
during flights and in
preparation for landing.

This lesson focuses on the specific responsibilities of the cabin crew


before take off and in preparation for landing. In order for flights to go
smoothly and in an orderly manner, the cabin crew must pay
attention to every detail of the necessary preparations.
There are many tasks that have to be performed in order to prepare
for each stage of a flight. Many of these tasks also impact the
readiness in the event of an emergency, making it extremely
important that every member of the cabin crew complete all expected
tasks. The cabin crew is busy from the minute they arrive at the
airport, 1-2 hours prior to departure, with the following:
y Pre-flight crew briefing
y Pre-flight preparations
y Flight preparation
y Boarding process
y Pre take-off preparations
y Passenger safety briefing
y Preparing for take-off
y Preparing for landing
It is important to become familiar with the tasks outlined in this
lesson, since as cabin crew you will most likely be assigned to any
number of the tasks before and during a flight.

6.2.1 Pre-flight Crew Briefing


As cabin crew, you will be required to report to the airport or at an
assigned location up to 2 hours before a flight. During this time you
can pick up important mail, verify that you have all the latest manual

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revisions and bulletins that pertain to company policy and procedure.


This is important because there could be a new regulation to follow
or a change in the flow of service for a particular flight.
It is also important to arrive at your assigned report time prior to a
scheduled flight so that you can attend a crew briefing. Soon after
reporting for duty, both flight and cabin crews meet for a crew briefing
that is conducted by the captain. The briefing has several purposes.
If the members of the crew have not worked together previously, then
they are introduced to each other and they review their expectations
for that specific flight. They discuss the details of the flight, special
situations and instructions and share important information. Pre-flight
briefings are required by industry regulations. At a minimum, the
captain will review the following topics during the crew briefing:
y Weather at point of departure, point of arrival and en-route
y Flying conditions for the entire flight
y Anticipated turbulence or storms
y Destination weather
y Flight time
The crew briefing is important because it helps to:
y Establish the basis for communication
y Set the tone for how everyone will work together
y Ensure a safe and pleasurable flight by reviewing information
and procedures that are important for safety and service.

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The briefing may take place at an assigned room at the airport or on


the aircraft. The timing has to be coordinated so that it does not
interfere with the flights timely departure or with the other essential
preflight duties that must be accomplished by both the flight crew and
cabin crew prior to departure.
Sometimes it is difficult or impossible to have a joint briefing with the
flight and cabin crew together. In those situations, the captain will
brief the senior cabin crew who will then conduct a briefing with the
rest of the cabin crew. At that point additional information that
primarily concerns the cabin crew is discussed. The purser or senior
cabin crew will:
y Validate that the required minimum crew is present.
y Assign duty positions with assigned stations and emergency
duties.
y Review communication procedures.
y Review selected emergency procedures and equipment.
y Review safety demonstration procedures.
y Give out general information about the flight.
y Discuss reported equipment irregularities that may affect the
service or the passengers directly (inoperative lavatories,
broken entertainment units, seats that cannot be reclined,
inoperative coffee machines, etc.).
y Coordinate rest breaks (particularly on flights with long durations
or where it is required).
y Discuss service routine, catering and food service, duty free
sales.

Sample Briefing Scenario


You arrive at LHR at 1400 in time for the crew briefing led by captain
J. Ross.
The first officer is K. Bell.
The Cabin Crew is:
1A: K. Tom
2A: T. Bauder
2B: J. Reilly
1B: (yourself)

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Flight: 171
LHR to CDG: (departing London - Heathrow to Paris Roissy Charles
de Gaulle Airport)
Departure: 1615
Arrival: 1830
Captain Ross reviews that the flight time will be 1 hour and
15 minutes.
The aircraft is an Airbus 320
He informs the crew that the departure weather is: cloudy, windy,
temp 12C turbulence on take off and first 15 minutes of flight and
cabin crew should remain in their jump seats until advised by the
captain. Captain Ross indicates he will make an announcement after
take off to passengers about the anticipated turbulence and that he
has asked the cabin crew to remain seated until advised.
The arrival weather is expected to be: cloudy, temp 15C no
anticipated weather delays for arrival
Aircraft Capacity: 12/132 Passenger Count: First Class:
12 Economy: 100
Security Information: standard operating procedures apply
Safety Information: Senior cabin crew conducts review of
emergency equipment on board, location and use of equipment and
areas of responsibility.
Service: First Class Beverage/Meal Service Main Cabin
Beverage/Snack.
Task Assignments:
As indicated on Service Flow Chart.
Special Requests:
20A R .Robins - (WHCR) requires wheelchair assistance.
5C J. Fellows - (UM) unaccompanied minor.
The crew has the opportunity to ask questions and as soon as the
aircraft is ready, you will board and begin flight preparations.
Once the briefing is complete, the cabin crew will go to their assigned
duty positions/stations and complete the pre-flight duties that pertain
to their area of responsibility and prepare for the flight.

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6.2.2 Pre-flight Preparations


In addition to the responsibilities during a flight, there is considerable
coordination and preparation that takes place before the first
passenger boards the aircraft. The flight and cabin crews are
typically required to report to the airport at least 1 hour before a
domestic flight departs and usually 2 hours before international flights
for pre-flight preparations.
When the flight crew reports to the airport, they begin to gather
important information about the flight, including the weather, the
number of passengers and a list of the other cabin crew. They also
prepare the flight plan and file it with air traffic control.
If there is enough time in between turn-around flights, the captain
may meet with the arriving flight crew to see if they experienced any
issues on the inbound flight either with the aircraft or with the
weather while en-route.

As part of the pre-flight preparations, the first officer will always


perform an inspection of the exterior of the airplane looking for
anything that may be out of the ordinary for the aircraft. This is
sometimes referred to as a walk-around. The flight crew does the
same inside the cockpit making sure that instruments and controls
are working properly. They will also review the aircraft maintenance
logbook to see if specific items or issues were previously
documented. The flight crew is responsible to make sure that all
technical problems are either corrected by maintenance immediately

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or if they are not safety related repairs then these items may be
addressed at a later time (deferred). For example, if a passenger
seat may not be functioning properly (it does not recline or does not
stay in the upright position) the seat may be blocked from
passenger use if the flight is not booked to capacity. The flight can
take off without endangering the passengers and the seat can be
repaired when there is more time between flights. This way, the flight
is not delayed unnecessarily. Every aircraft has a list of equipment
that must be in working order on the aircraft for it to operate. This list
is called the Minimum Equipment List (MEL) and equipment that
requires repair or replacement cannot be deferred and must be
repaired or replaced before the aircraft can fly again. This list is a
regulated document that requires compliance by the airlines and
covers everything from the highly technological equipment that flies
the plane to the emergency medical kits that are required to be on
board. The most important thing to remember is that a captain will
not operate an aircraft that is not airworthy or capable of being
operated safely.
While the flight crew is conducting the checks of the cockpit and
exterior of the aircraft, they rely on the cabin crew to be doing the
same with their assigned areas in the cabin. The purser or senior
cabin crew will confirm that all pre-flight emergency equipment and
required security checks have been completed. They also need to
confirm whether or not there are issues to be resolved, for example,
broken or missing emergency equipment or galley units that are not
functioning properly.

6.2.3 Flight Preparation


Once on board the cabin crew is very busy preparing for the flight.
There are many duties shared among all crews to be accomplished.
These duties include:
y Security checks
y Safety equipment checks
y Galley checks
y Forwarding appropriate checklists to the senior cabin crew who
then advises the captain of any issues or discrepancies found in
the cabin.

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6.2.4 Boarding Process


The cabin crew has an important role to play while passengers board
the aircraft. The cabin crew must be available in the cabin to
welcome and assist passengers as they board. This is not only good
customer service but also a time when the cabin crew can observe
the passengers as they board. An observant cabin crew can
anticipate the needs of the passengers and help them. For example,
they might help a passenger stow the luggage appropriately, or
provide them with pillows and blankets. It is also a time to make sure
that luggage conforms to size and weight restrictions of the airline.
As they greet passengers, the cabin crew must also able to detect
any suspicious behaviour or take note of nervous passengers.
Pre-boarding is offered to passengers who may want or require
special assistance. These passengers board in advance of others
and may include the elderly, families traveling with small children or
those using crutches or wheelchairs to board the plane. This allows
the cabin crew to provide special attention and care without
congestion in the aisles. Some of these passengers may also
require an individual safety briefing. You will learn more about
special needs passengers in Module 8.
As part of the boarding process, certain cabin crews are responsible
for verifying exit row passengers. Persons seated in an exit row
seat have to meet certain special criteria since these passengers
may have to assist in the event of an emergency. At this time, the
cabin crew must communicate with these passengers to ensure they
meet the criteria and are willing to assist in the event of an
emergency.

Criteria for Exit Row Passengers


Must be at least 15 years old.
Must be willing and able to assist in the event of an
emergency.
Must be sufficiently mobile and able to open
emergency exits.
Must understand instructions in printed or graphic
form and understand oral commands given by the
crew member.
Must not be travelling with an infant or someone who
requires assistance in the event of an emergency.

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When passengers check in for the flight, they are asked a series of
questions to confirm that they meet the requirements. Generally,
these passengers are given documentation with the necessary
information describing the requirements and their responsibilities in
the event of an emergency. However, the cabin crew must always do
a final assessment on board before the flight departs to confirm
passengers meet these requirements. If a passenger does not meet
the criteria and requirements to sit at an exit row then they must be
reseated somewhere else. The exit row seats do not have to be
occupied. More importantly, someone who does not fit the necessary
criteria to assist in the event of an emergency must not occupy an
exit row. Once the exit row seating is confirmed the information is
then communicated and verified with the senior cabin crew Member.

6.2.5 Pre Take-Off Preparations


Once all the passengers are on board the cabin crew is very busy
preparing for take off. They must complete many tasks before the
aircraft doors are closed. These tasks include:
Inspect the cabin to ensure that lavatories are unoccupied and
locked.
Confirm that all compartments, closets and overhead bins are
closed.
Confirm that all passengers are seated.
Confirm that all luggage is properly stowed.
Galley equipment is secured and locked.
Galley floors are clean of any leaks or spillage.
Galley power is turned off for takeoff.
Exit Rows have been verified.
Finally, the senior cabin crew will wait to receive confirmation that
appropriate cabin and galley checks are completed and then will
advise the captain that the cabin is secure. The doors will not close
or the aircraft cannot be moved until this verification has been
received by the captain.

6.2.6 Passenger Safety Briefing


One of the most important duties you will have as a crew is the
passenger safety briefing. This is your opportunity to educate your
passengers on how to respond in the event of an emergency. It is

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important to remember that this may be the only time passengers will
get any information on emergency procedures if a situation occurs
suddenly on take-off or landing. The passenger safety briefing should
be taken seriously and done with professionalism. The lives of
everyone on board may depend on the passengers being able to
follow safety procedures in the event of an emergency.

It is required that all airlines provide a briefing and visual


demonstration to passengers prior to take-off. Many of todays
commercial flights accomplish the passenger safety briefing with the
use of video equipment, with the cabin crew standing by at their
assigned exits or demonstrating positions so that they are fully visible
to the passengers. All cabin crew are trained on accomplishing the
briefing whether or not a video is present or available. The senior
cabin crew will coordinate or accomplish the reading of the
announcement while the remainder of the crew demonstrates and
points out the equipment and features. The safety briefing covers the
following topics:
y Stowage of luggage on board an aircraft
y Smoking regulations
y Use of electronic devices
y Seatbelt operation and requirement
y Oxygen masks and their use
y Location and purpose of the passenger safety card
y Location of emergency exits and emergency escape lighting
y Location of life vests and other survival equipment and their use

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Once the safety briefing is complete, the cabin crew will walk through
the cabin to answer questions and complete any needed cabin
preparations for take-off. The cabin crew is then required to
be seated in their assigned jump seats for taxi as well as for all
take-off and landing phases of the flight.
Passengers with special needs such as those who need the
assistance of someone else to get to an emergency exit receive an
individual briefing tailored to their needs. These passengers can
include children travelling alone, or someone who is blind or deaf or
in a wheelchair.

6.2.7 Preparing for Take-off


Before the flight departs, the captain must sign a flight release
confirming the crew is fit and that the appropriate flight information
has been completed and reviewed by the flight and cabin crew. The
pilots will also receive up-to-date flight and cargo information, such
as weather conditions and passenger count.
There is a very specific sequence of communication that occurs
before a flight can take off and after the crew briefing. Prior to take off
the following must occur:
1. All documentation is reviewed and confirmed by the captain.
2. Flight release is signed by the captain.
3. Cabin crew secures the door.
4. Aircraft ready for pushback (moving the aircraft from the gate to
the runway).
5. Takeoff.
During the flight the cabin crew will continue to monitor the cabin,
galleys and lavatories regularly, looking for anything that may pose a
risk to the aircraft or the safety of the flight. Special attention is paid
to lavatories because someone may have tampered with a smoke
detector or may attempt to smoke in the lavatory. Smoking is
prohibited in most flights today, and smoking in a lavatory is
particularly dangerous.
The cabin crew also regularly monitors the passengers safety and
well-being. They make sure that the passengers are using seatbelts
and are following the instructions given by the captain or cabin crew.

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6.2.8 Preparing for Landing


During the approach phase of the flight, the cabin crew prepares the
cabin and galleys for landing in the same way as they did prior to
take-off. They must check the following:
y Compartments, bins and closets must be closed.
y Passengers must be seated and have their seat belts fastened
and luggage properly stowed.
y All service items returned and galley equipment stowed.
y Aisles are clear of luggage or other items and the floor in front of
emergency exits is clear.
The senior will advise the captain the cabin is ready for landing and
the cabin crew will return to their assigned jump seats. Once the
flight has landed and the aircraft has arrived at the gate, the cabin
crew may prepare the exits for arrival. A designated member of the
cabin crew then opens the main aircraft door and the passengers are
allowed to deplane (get off the aircraft).

Progress Check
1. Explain briefly why the crews are required to report to the airport
at least an hour before departure.
2. The following topics must be covered in a pre-flight briefing:
a) Weather
b) Flying conditions
c) Ground transportation at arrival
d) Anticipated turbulence or storms
3. Crew briefing is important because it helps to:
a) Establish the basis for communication
b) Gives the crew an opportunity to relax before the flight
c) Set the tone for how everyone will work together
d) Ensure a safe and pleasurable flight.

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4. Before landing the crew must check


a) Compartments, bins and closets must be closed
b) Passengers must be seated and have their seat belts
fastened
c) All passengers have a drink and snack in hand
d) All service items returned and galley equipment stowed
5. One of the most important duties you will have as a crew is the
___________.
6. List the flight preparation duties of the cabin crew.
7. List at least 5 topics covered in the safety briefing.
8. Read the following scenarios and circle the correct answer
(appropriate or inappropriate). Then explain your answer in the
space provided.
a) As passengers board the aircraft a cabin crew is standing in
the rear galley eating lunch out of a fast food container. She
is facing the rear of the aircraft.
Appropriate

Inappropriate

Explain your answer:


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
b) As the passengers board the aircraft one of the cabin crew is
standing at the entrance of the aircraft greeting the
passengers. He leaves this post to help a passenger stow a
bag in the overhead compartment.
Appropriate

Inappropriate

Explain your answer:


___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________

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Answer Key
1. During this time you can pick up important mail, verify that you
have all the latest manual revisions and bulletins that pertain to
company policy and procedure. This is important because there
could be a new regulation to follow or a change in the flow of
service for a particular flight. It is also important to arrive at your
assigned report time prior to a scheduled flight so that you can
attend a crew briefing.
2. a), b), and d)
3. a), c), and d)
4. a), b), and d)
5. Passenger safety briefing
6. y

Security checks

Safety equipment Checks

Galley checks

Forwarding appropriate checklists to the senior cabin crew


who then advises the captain of any issues or discrepancies
found in the cabin.

7. y

Stowage of luggage on board an aircraft

Smoking regulations

Use of electronic devices

Seatbelt operation and requirement

Oxygen masks and their use

Location and purpose of the passenger safety card

Location of emergency exits and emergency escape lighting

Location of life vests and other survival equipment and their


use

8. a) Inappropriate. Cabin crew should greet the passengers and


observe carefully for any unusual behaviour or determine if the
passengers need any assistance. They must behave in a
professional manner and eating their lunch during this time is
unprofessional.
b) Inappropriate. Although the cabin crew member is doing the
right thing by greeting the passengers, and offering assistance to
someone who needs help, he should have remained at this post

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and asked another cabin crew to help the passenger or ask to be


replaced. It is very important for the designated person to stay at
the boarding door or entrance. It would not give a good first
impression if a passenger boarded the flight and there was not
cabin crew present to provide a welcome. It is also important to
observe each passenger as they board to look for any special
needs or unusual behavior.

Lesson Summary
The lesson focused on the specific responsibilities of the cabin crew
before take off and in preparation for landing. Many of these tasks
also impact the readiness in the event of an emergency, making it
extremely important that every member of the cabin crew complete
all expected tasks. You had the opportunity to become familiar with
the many tasks that have to be performed in order to prepare for
each stage of a flight including:
y Pre-flight crew briefing
y Pre-flight preparations
y Flight preparation
y Boarding process
y Pre take-off preparations
y Passenger safety briefing
y Preparing for take-off
y Preparing for landing
In the next lesson, you will learn more about the roles and
responsibilities of the flight and cabin crew. Each member of the flight
and cabin crews has specific duties during pre-flight preparations,
boarding, before take-off and before landing.

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6.3 Introduction to Crew Resource Management


(CRM)
LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you will be able to:

Now that you are familiar with the duties performed by a cabin crew
you are ready to learn a tool used to manage communication and
resources during both routine and emergency situations during a
flight.
During the 1970s, aviation accident investigators discovered that
more than 70% of air crashes involve human error rather than
failures of equipment or weather. In further research, NASA found
that the majority of the errors resulted from failure in leadership, team
coordination and decision-making. The aviation community
responded by turning to psychologists to develop training for flight
crews focusing on the elements that were lacking. Initially, this
training was known as Cockpit Resource Management and was
designed for the flight crews. The focus has expanded to include
cabin crews and others who are a part of the safe operation of a
flight. It is now called Crew Resource Management or CRM.

Describe Crew Resource


Management (CRM) as an
effective communication and
situational awareness tool
during routine and
emergency situations.

List the interpersonal skills


required for effective
teamwork.

List and describe various


types of obstacles for
effective crew performance.

List the strategies to remove


obstacles for effective crew
performance.

Using CRM takes into account human factors and their impact on the
error chain. Its application is very important in day-to-day operations
and therefore it is very important that all members of the flight and
cabin crew understand what it is and how it is used. CRM is based
on the ability to communicate effectively, which is essential to
teamwork and handling of information and resources. Once hired
you as cabin crew will attend CRM training on a regular basis.

Identify key elements of


CRM and explain its
importance in day to day
operation.

6.3.1 Communication, Interpersonal Skills and Handling


Information

Explain the importance of


crew cooperation and
teamwork in order to function
smoothly under difficult
circumstances.

Effective Communication
Working as a crew brings together individuals from diverse groups
who may not share common norms, values, or vocabularies but who
do offer unique expertise, insights, and perspectives. Many factors
affect how well a team communicates and works. Some of these
factors include conflicts, workload, stress and group interactions.
Your interpersonal skills are a key contribution to successful
teamwork even when faced with difficult group dynamics or stressful
situations. Some of those skills include:

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y Being able to communicate clearly.


y Being able to actively listen and respond, asking appropriate
questions or clarifying unclear situations.
y Being able to give and receive constructive feedback.
y Maintaining professionalism in all interactions.
y Being adaptable and flexible.
y Being respectful of others ideas, opinions and feelings.
y Being able to recognise your own biases and judgments.
y Being open to others ideas and suggestions.
y Managing conflict effectively.
y Being supportive if others need assistance or are having a
difficult time.
y Making the best decisions for the situation at hand rather than
striving to be right.
y Being supportive of the decisions being made.
Barriers to Effective Crew Performance
There are many factors that challenge communication between
crews. Some of these are:
y Fatigue
y Workload
y Stress
y Cultural differences
y Fear
y Bias
y Language barriers
y Lack of understanding of anothers situation, job and
responsibilities
y Poor listening Skills
y Poor communication
As cabin crew, you must develop the necessary skills and become
aware of the factors that interfere with good teamwork and
communication. You should evaluate how the factors mentioned in
the previous list impact your ability to perform as cabin crew.

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During initial and recurring training, you will be introduced to ways to


overcome these barriers and challenges in order to achieve effective
crew performance. For example, you will learn how to recognise
fatigue and stress in yourself and others and learn how to remain
calm under stressful conditions.
Some of the other topics covered are:
y Supportive team behaviors
y Balanced participation
y Established ground rules
y Clearly defined roles and responsibilities
y Good leadership
y Support from leaders and other team members
y Motivation
y Effective time management
y Effective workload management

6.3.2 Basics of Crew Resource Management (CRM)


CRM is the effective use of all available resources (equipment,
procedures and people) to achieve safe and efficient flight
operations.
Effective CRM helps to:
y Avoid human error.
y Stop errors and their consequences before they occur.
y Minimise and effectively handle the consequences when they
occur.
A secondary, but very important benefit of CRM is improved morale.
Good morale leads to improved efficiency and performance by
individuals and teams, which leads to better results for the airline.
ICAO requires CRM training for all airlines. In addition, it is
recommended that airlines combine the flight and cabin crews
whenever possible in this training. However, logistics and size make
it difficult or impossible for some airlines to combine the training so
often it is often conducted separately. CRM is required in both initial
training and recurrent training for all cabin crew. It is important for all
cabin crew members to be aware of these CRM basics. Part of
understanding CRM is to be aware of how people contribute to

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efficient and safe operations and also what barriers might impact that
effective performance.
The basic elements of Crew Resource Management (CRM) are:
y Leadership It starts with the captain but involves all cabin
crew. A good leader invites and also expects feedback from
others up and down the chain of command and also allows
others to take leadership roles.
y Communication clear and accurate sending and receiving of
information, instructions and feedback. It involves
understanding that communication is not just words but we send
messages intentionally or unintentionally with our body
language and tone of voice. Active listening is also a key part of
effective communication.
y Situational Awareness taking into account and being able to
identify the important elements of what is happening around you
and using that information to avoid mistakes or to communicate
more effectively. Factors that reduce situational awareness and
ones ability to respond and increase the potential for errors are
fatigue and stress, task overload, difficult operating conditions
and lack of crew communication,
y Assertiveness and Participation Sharing of ideas and
knowledge and performing with team goals and not personal
goals in mind. Making sure that your input is heard and
understood rather than silently watching as mistakes might be
made.
y Decision Making the ability to use sound judgment and all
available information to make the best decision for the situation.
This involves assessing the problem, verifying the available
information and asking questions to clarify, anticipating
consequences of the decision and informing others of the
decision and the reasons behind it.
Keeping these basic elements in mind when working as a team fosters
an environment where everyone feels their input is valued. This
approach has a strong and positive effect on how well individuals and
the crew will function together in day-to-day operations. It is
particularly useful and effective during times of high workload and
stress. When an emergency arises, crews are already working
together using parameters that produce good communication and
coordination without having to think or reflect on it.

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Real Life Examples


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenerife_disaster
(http://yarchive.net/air/airliners/dc10_sioux_city.html

Progress Check
1. Define CRM and what it is used for.
2. List at least 8 interpersonal skills required for effective teamwork
3. Explain the importance of crew cooperation and teamwork in
order to function smoothly under difficult circumstances.
4. List and describe various types of obstacles to effective crew
performance
5. In order to overcome barriers to effective crew performance you
can learn to __________________________ and learn how to
______________________.
6. Two skills that will help overcome challenges to successful crew
performance are effective ____________ and effective
__________________.
7. The _________ works in an environment that is very confined
and quiet.
8. Factors that affect how well a team communicate and works
effectively include, ________, _______, _______, and ______.

Answer Key
1. CRM is the effective use of all available resources (equipment,
procedures and people) to achieve safe and efficient flight
operations. CRM helps to avoid human error and to stop errors
and their consequences before they occur. CRM is also used to
minimize and effectively handle the consequences when they do
occur.
2. Being able to communicate clearly, being able to actively listen
and respond, asking appropriate questions or clarifying unclear
situations, being able to give and receive constructive feedback,
maintaining professionalism in all interactions, being adaptable

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and flexible, being respectful of others ideas, opinions and


feelings, being able to recognize your own biases and
judgments, being open to others ideas and suggestions
managing conflict effectively, being supportive if others need
assistance or are having a difficult time, making the best
decisions for the situation at hand rather than striving to be right
and being supportive of the decisions being made.
3. Crew cooperation and teamwork ensures the safety and well
being of the passengers and crew before and during flights and
in particular during unusual or difficult situations.
4. Fatigue, workload, stress, cultural differences, fear, bias,
language barriers, lack of understanding of anothers situation,
job and responsibilities, poor listening skills, and poor
communication (body language, non verbal's, tone of voice).
5. Recognise fatigue and stress in yourself and others; remain calm
under stressful conditions.
6. Time management; workload management
7. Flight crew
8. Conflict; workload;stress; group interactions.

Lesson Summary
Now you are be able to describe CRM, a communication and
situational awareness tool used during routine and emergency
situations. You are also able to identify key elements of CRM and
explain its importance in day-to-day operations. You can also explain
the importance of crew cooperation and teamwork in order to
function smoothly under difficult circumstances. In addition, you
have also learned about the different skills needed for team
coordination and communication and the barriers to a successful
crew performance.

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MODULE SUMMARY
In this Module, we discussed how all members of the flight and cabin
crews function as a team and coordinate all of the everyday
operations. In order for the flight to go smoothly and to ensure an
efficient and safe flight, the entire team must be able to communicate
with each other effectively and understand everyones roles and
responsibilities. In addition, this module introduced you to the Crew
Resource Management, a tool used to ensure effective crew
performance and to prevent human errors during flights.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
In the next module you will be introduced to the principles of
customer service and how they apply to the cabin crews duties and
responsibilities.

Module 6 Crew Member Coordination and Communication

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7.0 Customer Service


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
At the end of this Module you
should be able to:

Explain how a cabin crew


member can make a
passenger feel like a valued
guest.

Describe the impact of good


customer service on the
airline, on flights and on
cabin crew members.

When a passenger is satisfied with the customer service that you


have provided, this looks good for the airline and for the members of
cabin crew. In this module you will be able to identify customer
service tips and techniques to make a passenger feel like a valued
guest. If you can perform your duties as cabin crew efficiently and
still maintain a good rapport with the passengers you will succeed.

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7.1 Passengers are Guests


LESSON OVERVIEW
As a member of cabin crew, there are many opportunities to provide
excellent customer service. Think about your passengers as your
guests and treat them with respect.

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify ways to show


hospitality to passengers.

List ways to ensure comfort


and safety of passengers
before and during a flight.

List ways to make a


passenger feel like a valued
guest.

Identify strategies to
establish trust between you
and the passengers.

Focus on tasks that will help your customers have an excellent flying
experience. Use the tips and checklists in this lesson to deliver
excellent customer service every time you can take comfort in
knowing that your work and attention will be noticed.

Customers dont expect you to be perfect. They do expect you to fix


things when they go wrong.
Donald Porter, Sr. VP, British Airways

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Imagine that.
You are getting ready for a party at your house. You plan your party
based on what you know your guests will enjoy. In the same way,
customer service is not about one interaction but a combination of
things done well. As you prepare to interact with passengers, think
about them as your guests. With this mindset, you will have the skills
you need to be an excellent service provider.
As you perform your job as a member of cabin crew, passengers will
consciously and subconsciously rate you on the 5 following areas:
1. Reliability how well you deliver on commitments.
2. Responsiveness how quickly and how well you interact and
communicate.
3. Assurance how well you know the airline and its products.
4. Empathy when you care about the situation the passenger
is in.
5. Tangibles - what a passenger sees or touches.
There are 4 areas of knowledge and skills. Mastering the knowledge
and skills listed below will help you successfully provide reassuring
service.
y Product knowledge Customers expect you to know all
aspects of about your airline and the product you deliver. For a
cabin crew member this includes everything from the technical
features (safety procedures, cabin features) to food and wine
choices for a meal service.
y Company knowledge - Knowing your organisation helps you
understand how and why things sometimes go wrong This
awareness is crucial in helping customers understand a service
failure.
y Listening skills The need for this skill is crucial. In quality
service you listen to seek understanding and to identify what it is
the customer need. Ask questions to clarify and gain
understanding.
y Problem solving skills In quality customer service, you
should be able to recognize customer needs as they are
expressed or observed and deliver. If things go wrong,
customers will expect you to know how to fix them and do it in a
timely manner.

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If this situation
occurs

Do not respond

Do respond

A passenger tells
you that he has
contacted
reservations in
advance of his last
3 flights to confirm
his special meal
and it has not been
provided.

I dont know.

I apologise that you


have not received
your meals as
ordered. I will
document this in my
service report and
have our Customer
Care Department
follow up with you. I
can also provide you
with their direct
number if you would
like to contact them
as well.

Thats not my job I


just serve what is put
on board.

(Company
Knowledge)

I also have some


options from our meal
selections in First and
Business Class,
perhaps I can
combine some of
those selections to
match the
preferences you
ordered.
A passenger asks if
your airline
provides service
between Paris and
Rome
(Product
Knowledge)

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Im new so I dont
know for sure, check
the in-flight magazine
and see if it shows on
the route map.

Yes sir, we just


announced twice
daily direct service
between Paris and
Rome.
OR
Currently, we have an
agreement with a
codeshare partner
that provides service
in cooperation with
our frequent flyer
program.

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A passenger asks
which white wines
you serve and
which oneyou
recommend.
(Product
Knowledge)

As passengers are
boarding, a man
approaches you
and says he is
traveling with his
wife but he has just
noticed that they
are seated 2 rows
apart.
(Problem Solving)

I dont drink wine so


Its hard for me to
comment.

I dont like white


wines, I only drink red
and would
recommend the
Cabernet Sauvignon.

I dont assign the


seats but if you go
back out to the gate
agent perhaps they
can switch your seat
assignments.

The flight is full today,


you will have to take
your assigned seat

We offer 3 white
wines, Chardonnay,
Riesling and
Sauvignon Blanc. My
recommendation for
dinner would be the
Sauvignon Blanc
from California, it is
described as crisp
with green flavors.

Id be happy to help
you. Please wait
here with your wife
and I will check with
the boarding agent to
obtain another seat
assignment.

I think we can work


this out. I see you are
in row 20 and your
wife is in row 18, let
me check with other
passengers in those
rows and see if they
will be willing to
change seats with
you.

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Did you know?


As you prepare and
interact with passengers,
think about them as your
guests. With this mindset,
you will have the skills you
need to be an excellent
service provider.
Below is a list of tasks that you should follow to show your
passengers hospitality, comfort, value, and trust.
Use this checklist in the following two ways to help you provide
excellent customer service.
1. As you prepare for your flight review the list to be ready for
your passengers.
2. After your flight review which tasks you did well and which
tasks you need help with.

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Did well

Need help

Describe the tasks required to perform your job safely and with skill

Check emergency equipment

Identify items that need repair or replacement

Check cleanliness of the cabin, galleys and lavatories

Assist passengers during boarding (proper stowage of luggage and


briefings)

Perform a safety briefing

Check cabin temperature

Check the lighting

Follow the service sequences and requirements as designed for this


flight

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Tasks to help you deliver excellent customer service

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Did well

Need help

Tasks to help you deliver excellent customer service

Keep the cabin quiet and controlled

Walk through the cabin to offer assistance before and during the
flight

Check your personal presentation and professional image


(cleanliness )

Use friendly body language

Use friendly facial expressions

Anticipate passenger needs

Say hello and introduce yourself

Use passengers names when possible or appropriate

Say thank you

Apologise when expectations have not been met

Be honest

Keep the customer informed

Listen

Take responsibility

Describe the company

Respond to requests in an appropriate time-frame


Go see the following website for additional information:
Awards for best airline worldwide in several categories:
http://www.oag.com/oag/website/com/en/Home/

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Progress Check
1. List 3 ways to show hospitality to passengers.
2. List and describe 3 knowledge and skills to establish trust
between you and the passengers.
3. What are the 5 elements of quality that customers use (in any
business) to evaluate service?
4. Match the element of quality service in column A to correct
description in column B.
A

1. Reliability

Show that you care about the situation


the passenger is in

2. Responsiveness

What a passenger sees or touches


leaves a lasting impression

3. Assurance

How reliable is the service that is


expected

4. Empathy

How trustworthy you are, you do what


you say you will do

5. Tangibles

How quickly and in what way you


interact and communicate

5. Given the following 5 situations, explain the proper actions you


will take to demonstrate proper customer service.
Mini-situation
a) A passenger is
afraid of flying
b) The flight is
delayed
c) There are no more
pillows
d) A baby is crying

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As a member of cabin crew, I will

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Mini-situation

As a member of cabin crew, I will

e) The other
passengers are
noisy

Answer Key
1. Greet them with a smile, listen to them when they speak to you,
offer them a pillow and blanket (if available), ask them if they
need anything.
2. Product knowledge, company knowledge, ability to listen,
problem solving skills
3. Reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibles.
4. Reliability (4), Responsiveness (5), Assurance (1), Empathy (3),
Tangibles (2).
5. a) Reassure and offer information. Ask questions about their
needs.
b) Keep customers informed about the delay, offer service,
answer questions, be visible in the cabin to offer assistance.
c) Apologise to the customer. Try and look for alternate
solutions, ( i.e. perhaps fold a blanket to be used for a pillow
or, if on the ground before departure, try and request
additional supply.
d) Approach the parent and ask if there is something they need
to help make the infant more comfortable.
e) Offer to relocate a customer who is being disturbed.
Approach the noisy group and tell them you are glad they are
having a good time, and in order for everyone to have an
enjoyable flight it helps if the conversation is kept to a normal
level.

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Lesson Summary
Providing customer service is very similar to throwing a party!
Customer service is not about one interaction but a combination of
things done well. As you prepare and interact with passengers, think
about them as your guests. With this mindset, you will have the skills
you need to be an excellent service provider.
There are 5 elements of quality (service) that customers use (in any
business) to evaluate service and everything you do, every single
day on every flight: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy
and tangibles.
Remember to use the tips and checklists in this lesson to deliver
excellent customer service every time and you can take comfort in
knowing that your work and attention will be noticed and appreciated.

MODULE SUMMARY
When a passenger is satisfied with the customer service that you
have provided, this looks good for the airline and for the members of
cabin crew. Use the customer service tips and techniques presented
in this module to make a passenger feel like a valued guest.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
In the next module you will learn about an important skill that is linked
to providing good customer service, that is, managing passenger
interactions.

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8.0 Managing Passenger Interactions


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
At the end of this Module you
should be able to:

In this module you will acquire knowledge on how to manage


passenger interactions efficiently. There are many different things
that you can do to help passengers feel they are being cared for
during a flight. The key is in how well you observe what is going on
around you and how you communicate back to the passengers.

Identify different ways of


managing passenger
interactions in a variety of
circumstances by using
appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication.

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8.1 Care Giving


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Explain how the cabin crew


can care for passengers
before, during, and after a
flight.

Distinguish between giving a


command and making a
request and determine in
what circumstance each is
appropriate.

Describe how you give a


command in a manner that is
not threatening or rude.

Identify the flight and fight


reactions in individuals and
state how you would
respond.

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Identify ways to recognize


and anticipate needs of
special passengers to make
their flight pleasant,
comfortable, and safe.
List the dos and donts of
what to say to special needs
passengers without being
condescending or offensive.

Airline Cabin Crew Training

Whether a passenger requests help or not, there are many


opportunities available for helping passengers before, during and
after a flight. In this module you will learn how you can use your
observation and listening skills to identify an opportunity to help a
passenger, assess what the best action is for the passenger based
on your observation, how to act on the opportunity, and then ask for
feedback. The more opportunities you take, the quicker you will learn
how to successfully manage interactions with your passengers to
improve their travel experience and make them feel that they are well
taken care of.
Caring for Passengers
There are many ways to care for passengers before, during, and
after a flight. As you plan for your flight you will be given a list of
passengers that requested special assistance at the time of
reservation or check in. The requests may be for a special meal (you
will learn about special meals in module 13), about transportation of
the family dog, about a reservation of an empty seat next to them, or
for special attention to a child traveling alone. You can properly
manage the customer interaction, by confirming the special request
with the passenger and addressing the request.
Five Steps for Managing Passenger Interactions: Special
Assistance
y Review requests for special assistance
y Make eye contact and smile: this non-verbal behaviour
establishes trust and shows that you care
y Confirm the request with the passenger
y Address the request
y Ask the passenger for feedback: was the request for special
assistance filled to their satisfaction?

Request

Customer Interaction

A special meal

Mr. Lee, the vegetarian meal you


requested will be served shortly
following our beverage service.

Transportation of a family dog

Miss Jones, the captain advised me

Aviation Training Programme

that your dog Scooter has been


boarded on the plane and that the
ramp staff made sure that he had
water and food for the flight as you
had requested.
Reservation of an empty seat

Mrs. Scott, Ive confirmed with the


boarding agent that she was able to
keep the seat next to you open as
requested.

Special attention to a child traveling


alone

Hello Sam, my name is John. We


are so pleased to be taking you to
visit your grandmother. Have you
been on an airplane before?

Managing passenger interactions also involves caring for passengers


that do not request special assistance. Observing passengers
carefully can provide hints that lead you to know there is something
you can offer or do to make your passengers travel more
comfortable. In each of the observations in the table below, there is
an opportunity for you to provide care and service. These
passengers may never actually ask for assistance. Acting on your
observation creates an opportunity to make the passengers travel
experience more pleasant - otherwise, the moment is lost. These
simple tasks will let the customer know that you care and want to
establish trust.
Five Steps for Managing Passenger Interactions:
No Special Assistance Requested
y Observe and listen to passengers: body language, things they
say to you or others, facial expressions.
y Make eye contact and smile: this non-verbal behaviour
establishes trust and shows that you care.
y Decide what to do to help the passenger.
y Offer assistance.
y Ask the passenger for feedback: I hope your travel experience
has been pleasant.

Observation

Customer Interaction

You notice someone who is visibly


upset or crying and looking out the
window.

Offer a tissue and a glass of water.

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You notice an elderly gentleman


struggling to stow his luggage and
find his seat.

Approach the elderly gentleman


and ask if you can help with his
luggage and find his seat.

You overhear a woman saying that


this is her first flight.

Introduce yourself to the first time


flier, ask if she has questions and
tell her about the airplane.

You see a young woman trying to


maneuver two small children and
multiple bags down the aisle.

Approach the woman and ask


which seats she has been assigned
and offer to assist her with the
bags.

Whether a passenger requests help or not, there are many


opportunities available for helping passengers before, during and
after a flight. Use your observation and listening skills to identify an
opportunity, assess what the best action is for the passenger based
on your observation, act on the opportunity, and then ask for
feedback. The more opportunities you take, the quicker you will learn
how to successfully manage interactions with your passengers to
increase their travel experience.

Progress Check
As cabin crew focused on customer service, you will be required to
assist passengers throughout the flight.
1. List two simple actions that establish trust and reveal customer
care.
2. List two other actions that are not listed in this lesson that you
can do to establish trust with your passengers.
3. List three observable actions by passengers that indicate their
need for assistance.
4. What are the five steps to follow for managing passenger
interactions for passengers that have requested special
assistance?
5. What are the five steps to follow for managing passenger
interactions for passengers that have not requested special
assistance?

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Answer Key
1. Make eye contact and smile: this non-verbal behaviour
establishes trust and shows that you care.
2. Other actions that you can take are: 1. Use a gentle soft tone of
voice, 2. Ask for the passengers name and use it as you speak
to the passenger, 3. Nod as the passenger is speaking to show
that you are listening and then repeat what the passenger just
said to confirm that you have understood.
3. Crying and looking out of the window, unable to find their seat,
having trouble placing bags in the storage compartments or
trying to settle in with two small children.
4. Review requests for special assistance, 2. Make eye contact and
smile: this non-verbal behaviour establishes trust and shows that
you care, 3. Confirm the request with the passenger, 4. Address
the request, 5. Ask the passenger for feedback: was the request
for special assistance filled to their satisfaction?
5. Observe and listen to passengers: body language, things they
say to you or others, facial expressions, 2. Make eye contact and
smile: this non-verbal behaviour establishes trust and shows that
you care, 3. Decide what to do to help the passenger, 4. Offer
assistance, 5. Ask the passenger for feedback: I hope your travel
experience has been pleasant.

Lesson Summary
Whether a passenger requests help or not, there are many
opportunities available for helping passengers before, during and
after a flight. Use your observation and listening skills to identify an
opportunity, assess what the best action is for the passenger based
on your observation, act on the opportunity, and then ask for
feedback. The more opportunities you take, the quicker you will learn
how to successfully manage interactions with your passengers to
increase their travel experiences.

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8.2 Giving a command and making a request


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this
lesson you should be able to:

Distinguish between giving a


command and making a
request, and determine in
what circumstance each is
appropriate.
Describe how you give a
command in a manner that is
not threatening or rude.

Rules and regulations in the airline industry exist to keep people


safe. Cabin crew have many regulations and procedures they must
follow and enforce to maintain the safety of a flight. However, it is
important to remember that as you do this you must also maintain
good customer service. After all, your responsibilities involve
ensuring the safety and comfort of your passengers. Remember,
happy customers will keep coming back! This lesson will provide you
with tips and techniques to help you enforce the necessary
regulations and procedures while maintaining good customer service.
Providing Safety with Service
As you follow and enforce the required safety and security
procedures keep in mind that your focus is to provide safety with
service. That is to say, your courteous behaviour will encourage
your passengers to follow the safety rules and procedures without
having to impose it on them in an authoritarian manner. Your goal is
to be professional and helpful as you explain or enforce safety
procedures. In other words, avoid sounding rude or threatening. To
help you with this, you will find in the following table, a list of words
and phrases to avoid and words and phrases that are service
minded. Use a calm, gentle voice and always maintain eye contact
for these words and phrases to work with your passengers.

Words and phrases that are


service minded

Words or phrases to avoid

Are you willing to?

You have to

It would be best if

You must...

We want your flight to be as


pleasant as possible.

You need to

May I assist?
We can even check your bag for
you
I understand your concern

Thats against the rules


SIT down
You should have done it this way
I dont make the rules
Its policy...
You have to find a place for that
I cant...

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Important Note: Use straight commands and strong forceful tone


during emergency evacuations, when you need people to act quickly.
While this seems easy enough, there will be times that you will forget
these tips. As you travel more often, you will become so familiar with
procedures, that it may be hard for you to understand why
passengers just dont get it. Since the aircraft is your home and
environment and because you understand the safety implications of
not following prescribed procedure, your good intentions to make
things safe can easily be taken as offensive, forceful or rude. In these
moments, it is important to have some empathy. Your passengers
may be new to flying or may not fly very often and others may be
thinking of their work or families. Since you are so familiar and have
respect for safety and procedure, it is a good idea to remind your
passengers of the things they must do to ensure their safety as you
help them feel comfortable in an environment that is not their usual
one.
What can you do when a passenger raises objections and does not
want to comply with a common safety rule, in a non-emergency
situation? Follow these simple steps to help you.
Five Steps for Managing Passenger Interactions:
y Make eye contact, smile and stay calm.
y Repeat the objection presented.
y Use service minded words and phrases to explain why the rule
or procedure needs to be followed.
y Make an alternate suggestion using this wording,
Are you willing to....
y Thank the passenger for understanding.
The more practice and exposure you have to objections the better
you will be at handling difficult passenger interactions.

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When a customer
does not want to...

You can say or do this...

Dont do or say this

Check in their
luggage...

I know this is
inconvenient for you,
however we can check
your luggage for you right
here at the gate and it will
be carried down to the
ramp and placed in
cargo. I assure you it will
be on the flight and you
can claim it at your
destination.

Its not my fault theres


no more room for your
luggage. Everyone
brings on too much and
its out of my control.
Youll just have to check
it.

Turn off their cell


phone...

Mr. Von, I realize you


may be on an important
call but it would be best if
you end it shortly as cell
phones should be turned
off at this time.

You are breaking a rule;


your cell phone must be
turned off.

Buckle their seat


belt...

Miss Stein, You may not


have noticed the seat belt
sign has been turned on,
well be experiencing
turbulence for the next
few minutes, lets fasten
your seat belt for your
comfort and safety.

Weve announced
several times that your
seat belt has to be
fastened.

Stay seated...

Would you be willing to


stay in your seat for just a
few minutes? Well clear
the aisles of our service
carts and then youll have
plenty of room to get up
and walk around.

Can you PLEASE sit


down?

Calm down...

I see you are upset, how


can I help you?

You are being irrational


and I cant understand
what you are taking
about.

Aviation Training Programme

Progress Check
1. Identify if the following are words and phrases to avoid or words
and phrases that are service minded (See answers in the table
below)
Word or phrase

Category (circle the correct category)

It would be best if...

Avoid

Service minded

I cant...

Avoid

Service minded

I dont make the rules...

Avoid

Service minded

Are you willing to...

Avoid

Service minded

I understand your concern...

Avoid

Service minded

2. When is it appropriate to use straight commands and force?


3. When is it appropriate to be professional and courteous?
4. What do you do if the passenger does not want to wear a seat
belt when the captain has turned on the seat belt sign?

Answer Key
1. Service minded, avoid, avoid, service minded, service minded.
2. During emergency evacuations.
3. All the time (always).
4. Acknowledge to the customer that you understand the wearing
the seat belt may feel restrictive to them or uncomfortable.
State: However I need to ask you to fasten it at this time. Its
important that it be worn when the captain advises as he is
looking out for our safety. Once it is safe the captain will turn off
the sign and you may release the seatbelt again.

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Lesson Summary
The easiest way to get people to follow safety rules and procedures
is to build trust first. Use the strategies presented in the previous
lessons to build trust and you will see it will be much easier to get
your passengers to respect you as you explain and enforce the
safety rules and procedures. The language you use will also
influence how people perceive you. Remember to provide safety
with service as you manage passenger interactions.

8.3 Flight and Fight Reactions


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Given a scenario you will be able
to:

Identify the fight or flight


reaction in individuals and
state how you would
respond.

When passengers are exposed to high stress, frustration, or fear,


they can experience the fight or flight reaction. In fact, this is a
common reaction for many people, and you may also find yourself
reacting in this same way. As cabin crew you need to be prepared for
this reaction and be able to respond in an effective and appropriate
manner. You also need to recognize this reaction in yourself, so you
can avoid it. It is your responsibility to remain calm and help the
passengers remain calm in high stress situations such as
emergencies. This lesson will explain what causes this fight and
flight reaction and how to respond to it appropriately.

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The fight or flight reaction is a set of processes that occur in the


body when confronted with some form of physical or mental stress.
When faced with danger, a new situation or other exposure to stress,
the nervous system signals for adrenalin and other hormones to be
released into the blood. These hormones prepare the body either to
confront (fight) or to flee to safety (flight). When the body is in this
mode of survival, people are excitable, anxious, jumpy and irritable
and it reduces ones ability to think with their rational mind or to work
effectively with other people. It may also seem that only true life
threatening situations would cause this response but in reality it
does not have to be dramatic to cause both physical and mental
reactions. Most people when in this mode will eventually respond to
a calming, rational and sensitive approach.
The Fight Reaction
The fight reaction can be seen in the airline passenger who is
extremely angry over a situation or series of situations. It can also be
seen in people who have had other personal stress in their life and
they can react in a nervous way in situations that are not related to
their stress. While the person is living this fight reaction mode, they
are not thinking rationally and can say or do things that are strange.
For example, they can react sarcastically, with disgust, and can be
overly critical of many things. When dealing with a very unhappy
passenger, your challenge is to get them out of the fight reaction
mode and involved in a calm discussion where you can help them.
Below are some strategies to help passengers out of a fight
reaction mode:
Strategy

Definitions

How to use the strategy

Distract the passenger to calm


them down.

A distraction helps the angry


passenger to change their
focus. Once this occurs you
can help them calm down and
focus on something new.

Bring the passenger to a different


location: Ask them to come with
you to the galley so you can talk
or get them to a location where it
will be quiet. You can say, I see
that you are upset, lets go up
front to the galley where its quiet
and we can talk.
Change body language: Be at the
passengers eye level or stand up
to establish authority.
Ask questions that allow the
passenger to explain their anger
using their own words. Use

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questions that begin with what,


when or how rather than why.
Clarify what the passenger wants
or needs. Give them an
opportunity to explain this.
Have empathy to gain trust.

When you place yourself in the


passengers shoes, you may
be able to understand what
they are going through. This
helps to build trust and the
passenger will gain respect.

Take a moment to place yourself


in their point of view. This
technique sounds simple but
requires a lot of practice for you
to do it properly and without
thinking. You must be calm and
aware of the passengers anger
when you try this.
Listen actively. After the person
is finished speaking, repeat what
you have heard. This is called
mirroring and gives you a
chance to explain the facts,
feelings and understand the
meaning of what the person is
saying. This shows them you
have heard them, understand
their emotions and that you value
their feelings.

Respond to show that you are


listening.

After you calm the passenger


down, listen to them and
explain to them what you have
heard, it is time to try to have a
discussion with them to move
them out of the fight mode.
The angry passenger wants
you to help them and so it is
your responsibility to try to fix
the situation as best as you
can and within your limits.

Respond respectfully.
Avoid blaming the passenger.
Use I instead of you
statements. For example, I
would like to have a great flight
today, do not say you cannot
have a good flight today if you
dont calm down.
Respond respectfully and take
responsibility while you are not
accepting blame, you are
recognizing the other persons
situation, their emotions, and the
inconvenience.
Your goal is to try to get the
passenger to cooperate or to
come up with a solution.

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Here are some examples of situations that have caused passengers


to become angry:
y Missing a flight connection or important meeting because of a
flight delay or cancellation.
y Boarding a flight to find out that there is no room for their carryon luggage and it must be checked (tagged and carried in cargo
and claimed at baggage claim at their final destination).
y Being misled about delays or lack of information during delays
or cancellation of a flight.
As a member of the cabin crew, you need to recognize when a
passengers anger and disruption is threatening the crew or the
safety of the flight as referenced in the Aviation Security section.
Please stay clam when dealing with a passenger who is in fight
mode. You must stay away from becoming irrational, sarcastic, and
angry and do not enter into fight mode with the passenger. Avoid
counterattacking and responding with defensive statements! Also,
you should be aware of communication style differences in cultures
other than your own. When you think a passenger is angry or
disgusted, it is important to confirm that the passenger is feeling this
was by asking in a professional and calm way. Sometimes how
passengers show anger are different among cultures and misreading
someone can cause you to respond in a way that is inappropriate or
strange to them making a bad situation worse. As a suggestion, try
to identify how people from other cultures express angry feelings by
asking others or doing some research. It never hurts to be prepared.
Your biggest challenge when dealing with angry people is to stay
calm and avoid taking the anger personally. Naturally, you may want
to respond angrily however that response will only make emotions
worse without solving problems. It is your responsibility to recognize
high stress situations in others and avoid using confrontation. Using
authority will not solve the problem and keep in mind that it can and
probably will make things worse.
The Flight Reaction
A passenger in flight reaction mode will generally want to leave the
aircraft or their seat.
This is more of a physical reaction as compared to the mental state
of the passenger in the fight. However, they are still responding in
a manner that may seem irrational, with distorted perspectives about
what is happening. Much like the person in the fight mode they
may be difficult to deal with. The following are some examples of

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situations that have caused passengers to become fearful and


respond with a flight reaction:
y Mechanical Issues with the aircraft
y Fear of Flying
y Turbulence
The strategies for handling these situations are the same as what
you would use when interacting with passengers in the fight mode.
You basically want to change their focus and get them back into their
rational state of mind so that the things you are telling them register
in their mind and they calm down naturally. Approach them with care
and gain their trust, empathize and reflect their feelings.
For more information on this topic refer to the following references:
Knock your Socks of Answers by Kristin Anderson and Ron Zemke.
1995.
Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman, 1995.
Success with the Gentle Art of Verbal Self Defense. Suzette Haden
Elgin. 1989.
http://customerservicezone.com/products/defusing-chapter2-4.htm

Progress Check
1. List strategies the cabin crew should follow to deal with resolving
a situation where a passenger becomes angry and calming the
passenger down.
2. Describe a situation where a passenger is afraid and wants to
leave the aircraft (be as detailed as possible about how the
passenger is feeling and what happened to cause this). Then list
the steps the cabin crew should follow to deal with resolving the
issue and calming the passenger down.

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3. For each of the following, explain how you should respond:


Fight or Flight Reaction

How you should respond

a) Passenger is screaming.
b) Passenger refuses to return
to his seat.
c) Passenger is angry about not
having an aisle seat.
d) Passenger is afraid of the
turbulence and wants the
aircraft to land.

Answer Key
1. Stay calm, show empathy, confirm that the passenger is angry,
listen to the passenger, show passenger that you are listening
dont argue or become sarcastic.
2. Same strategies as fight mode and also try to distract the
passenger to change their focus.
3. a) Take the passenger to a different location, make eye contact
and ask questions that will allow the passenger to explain
what happened. The goal is to remain calm yourself and help
the passenger calm down.
b) Ensure you are in eye-level with the passenger. Listen to the
passenger, have empathy by repeating what the passenger
is saying, explain your point of view and then ask the
passenger what you should do next. By getting the
passenger involved in the solution, you will have a better
chance that they will listen.
c) Make eye contact, listen and apologize for the situation. Ask
questions to search for solutions that might be acceptable to
the passenger. (Window seat with an empty seat next to it,
being seated in a bulkhead row or near an emergency exit
may offer more legroom even though its not an aisle seat.
d) Bend down or kneel at the passengers level, speak slowly
and calmly. Acknowledge their feelings. Explain what
causes turbulence and that it is not unusual or dangerous.

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Lesson Summary
The fight or flight reaction is a set of processes that occur in the
body when confronted with some form of physical or mental stress.
When either fight or flight modes occur, the passenger needs to
be calmed down and listened to, before you can start to address the
situation. Remember that passengers want you to fix their problem.
While this may not always be possible, you can do something for the
passenger to let them know that you understand their situation and
will do what you can to help them. By recognizing what the
passenger wants or needs and providing for them, you can have a
significant impact on the degree of anger and frustration directed at
you.
Keep in mind that recognition of fight or flight reactions and the
strategies you use to respond to them can also be used with conflicts
in your working and personal relationships. It is a valuable skill to
have in your repertoire. As you encounter passengers who show you
these behaviours, try to make a list of what the situation is, how you
handled it, and what was the outcome so that you can be better
prepared the next time you are faced with similar situations.

8.4 Fear of Flying


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

List symptoms associated


with fear of flying.

List the factors linked with


fear of flying.

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Not everyone has a fear of flying. In fact, most people see flying as
just another means of transportation, like taking the train or driving a
car to get from one place to another. However, since individuals are
diverse and unique, there are some that have serious fears when it
comes to flying. Travelling by airplanes can certainly be a terrifying
experience for some passengers who are unable to cope with their
anxiety. Some people are afraid without ever having flown in an
aircraft; however, others have developed fear of flying as a result of a
traumatic event.
Learning how to cope with fear of flying is of great importance to your
profession as cabin crew. As cabin crew you will often encounter
passengers that are fearful of flying. In these circumstances you
should try to give them comfort and assure them that flying can
actually be a pleasant experience. By familiarizing yourself with the

Aviation Training Programme

factors that contribute to the fear of flying, you will be better equipped
to comfort the passengers. In this lesson you will learn about the
symptoms of fear of flying as well as some possible solutions.

Fear of Flying
As cabin crew you will be prepared and the reasons are two-fold:
Firstly, you will be able to help comfort passengers on board who
may suffer from a fear of flying. Secondly, you will learn ways to help
cope with your own fears about flying. This lesson explains the fear
of flying and how to cope with it. Understanding the fear of flying is
essential in being able to help someone who exhibits this fear.
Recent world events and terrorism have increased the fear of flying,
even though statistically, it is safer than ground travel. In fact, flying is
considered to be one of the safest forms of transportation - traveling
by air is 29 times safer than driving an automobile.
The fear of flying is a type of anxiety disorder. Like an anxiety, the
fear is of what might happen, rather than of what is likely to occur.
The fear is based more on awareness that life is fragile and we dont
have control over it. Since human beings were not designed to fly like
birds we are faced with human vulnerability when we get on an
airplane. There are three basic causes of fear of flying:

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1. Lack of information about basic aviation procedures


2. Psychological trauma resulting from an aircraft accident or incident
3. Symbolic transferring of an unrelated interpersonal conflict to the
experience of flying
Factors that contribute to a fear of flying are most often not even
related to flying. All these factors are different, but when combined
together, they can lead people to experience severe anxiety towards
flying. The following are the main factors that contribute to an
individuals phobia of air travel:
Factor 1: Fear of Heights
People who fear flying are usually also afraid of heights. Being
thousands of meters above the ground can certainly generate a
sense of uneasiness. So it makes sense that someone who has a
fear of heights will naturally be fearful of air travel, since flying is
perhaps the highest altitude experience people may ever encounter.
Factor 2: Claustrophobia (fear of closed-in spaces)
The airplane represents a closed space where passengers cannot
open a window or walk outside for fresh air. People that are
claustrophobic will usually have a stronger fear from flying due to the
feeling of being surrounded by solid walls from all sides. This feeling
of not being able to escape causes a great deal of anxiety for some,
especially during lengthy periods of travel in the air.
Factor 3: Loss of Control
Fear of flying is also the result of not being in control. For a trip to be
safe, you need to depend on other individuals (pilots, maintenance
crews, etc.) and mechanical components of airplanes (engines,
electronics, etc.). The pilot is the primary person in control of the
airplane and passengers have no choice but to trust the pilot for a
safe arrival. Putting ones life in the hands of another can prove to be
an extremely difficult task for many passengers.
Factor 4: Flying Conditions
Flying conditions, such as turbulence, increase fear of flying. External
forces, such as turbulence, can have a strong impact on the
movement of the airplane and this noticeable movement of the
airplane can greatly increase the uneasiness of the passenger.
Factor 5: Terrorism
Terrorism, which has become a permanent threat to the aviation
industry, has increased passengers fear of flying. Some passengers

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are fearful that this threat might reoccur on their flight. This fear
becomes disabling and can cause symptoms that are uncomfortable
when flying.
The fear of flying, as with many other phobias and anxiety disorders
are accompanied by certain physical symptoms. These symptoms
are directly related to the state of anxiety and are not necessarily due
to a medical or physiological illness. In recognizing the following
physical and psychological symptoms, you will be able to help your
passengers through their fear:
y Muscle tension and tremors
y Heavy breathing and dizziness
y Heart palpitations, chest pain
y Abdominal discomfort
y Sweating
y Flushed or Pale Face
y Dry Mouth
y Impaired memory and poor judgment
y Narrowed perception
Research shows that there are certain strategies that help cope with
the fear of flying. These strategies are associated with behaviours
and thoughts that accompany the fear. You can either use these
strategies for yourself or suggest them to someone who is afraid of
flying. For example,
Think about things other than the unpleasant situation and talk
yourself through the bad feelings: Say to your self, Im thinking about
going on that flight again and its still two days away. Let it go. Take a
deep breath. Come on, get back to work. or, Look! Its a nice view
from the window. Sitting here paralyzed wont make the plane any
safer.
Remind yourself that you are doing the best you can and that
progress takes time: Yes, I was very nervous the last flight. But
since then I have learned some new techniques for coping with
anxiety, I did the best I could. Ill get better with practice.
Give yourself credit for your own good sense: Im not really
helpless. I can take slow, deep breaths. I can practice relaxation
techniques.

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Acknowledge your fear, and then challenge it: OK. I will be afraid as
Im boarding. But have I ever run away from other problems before?
No. or OK. Maybe I will feel nervous. But I do have things I can
do to relax. Yes, I can imagine a lot of awful things that could
happen. But the reality is that none of these things is likely to
happen.
These tips are based on A Guide to Psychology and Its Practice
http://www.guidetopsychology.com/fearfly.htm
Remember, the solution lies in identifying where your fear or anxiety
is and addressing that.
Go see: For more information on dealing with a fear of flying,
including symptoms and treatment strategies, you can check out this
website: http://www.guidetopsychology.com/fearfly.htm
Cabin crew should also be aware that they may encounter a critical
incident at any time in their career which could manifest symptoms of
fear of flying or Critical Incident Stress. Critical incidents could be
emergency landings, death of a passenger on board, turbulence,
aborted take off or landing and severe injury.
Experiencing trauma causes a shock to your system. Physical or
emotional symptoms may not appear until days or weeks after the
incident. It is important to recognize the symptoms associated with
trauma, critical incidents or fear of flying in yourself and others so you
can offer or seek assistance and support.

Progress Check
1. Airline travel is ____ times safer than driving an automobile.
17

24

29

54

2. List three of the five factors linked with fear of flying.


3. What are three symptoms related to the fear of flying?

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Answer Key
1. 29
2. y Fear of heights
y Loss of control
y Flying conditions
y Terrorism
y Claustrophobia
3. y Muscle tension and tremors
y Heavy breathing and dizziness
y Heart palpitations, chest pain
y Abdominal discomfort
y Sweating
y Flushed or Pale Face
y Dry Mouth
y Impaired memory and poor judgment
y Narrowed perception

Lesson Summary
As a result, you can recognise when a passenger exhibits a fear of
flying and respond in a way that will help ease his or her fears. There
are many causes of fear of flying, mainly psychological trauma, lack
of information and symbolic transference. Various fears such as fear
of heights, closed spaces, loss of control, weather conditions and
terrorism can also greatly contribute to an individual feeling unsettled
about getting on an airplane. There are many physical symptoms
that a passenger may exhibit that can demonstrate a fear of flying.
As a member of the cabin crew you will, at one time or another,
encounter passengers that are afraid of flying. This knowledge will
help you recognize when a passenger is excessively afraid of flying
and hopefully will be able to offer them assistance and words of
comfort.

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8.5 Passengers with Special Needs


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify ways to recognise


and anticipate needs of
special passengers to make
their flight pleasant,
comfortable, and safe.

List the dos and donts of


what to say to special needs
passengers without being
condescending or offensive.

As cabin crew you will encounter many different people flying on


board your aircraft for any given flight. Some of these passengers
will have special needs, which can include unaccompanied
minors/children, passengers with mobility, speech, and hearing
disabilities, pregnant women, and passengers with infants and
children. It is your responsibility as cabin crew to make sure that the
special needs of these passengers are met so that they have a
comfortable and pleasant journey. You will also need to take certain
steps to ensure that they are safe and prepared in the event of an
emergency. This lesson provides you with information to help you
recognize and anticipate the special needs of passengers. You will
also learn about the dos and donts of what to say and do for
passengers with special needs.

Before closing the doors of the aircraft and commencing taxi, the
cabin crew is responsible for providing specific information that
applies to passengers with special needs. These special briefings are
crucial to provide passengers with special needs, the information that
is crucial in case of emergency and gives them an opportunity to ask
questions. If the need arises, appropriate assistance can be given so
that these passengers are comfortable. For example pregnant
women and passengers with infants and children require information
on proper restraint and seatbelt positioning.

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If an advanced copy of a Passenger Information List (PIL) has been


made available in advance, the senior cabin crew may review and
identify that information during the crew briefing. Once you have
identified which passengers require special attention you may be
assigned to give each of them an individual briefing prior to take off.
Individual briefings for passengers with special needs should include:
y Safety and emergency procedures
y Special instructions that would apply only to them
y Cabin layout (nearest exit and nearest lavatory)
y Special equipment passenger service unit, seat and seatbelt
operation, call button
It is important to keep in mind that many of the passengers, who fall
into the category of special travelers, are very capable, travel often
and may require little if any assistance. Others may be first time fliers
or very unfamiliar with the environment and stresses of traveling.
Follow these three simple steps to manage your passenger
interaction with passengers with special needs:
y Introduce yourself
y Be caring, and
y Ask questions about how you can assist them (dont assume
that they need help!)
Passengers with special needs and their escorts are offered the
opportunity to pre-board. Those passengers that are physically
incapacitated are asked to deplane after other passengers have left
the aircraft. This allows passengers better assistance with
wheelchairs and equipment without blocking the aisles and therefore,
is safer for all passengers and crew.
Guidelines for handling unaccompanied minors (UM)
Unaccompanied minor refers to a child traveling alone without parent
or guardian, between the ages of 5 and 12. The airline is responsible
for the safe arrival of the child to the next carrier or to the destination
as arranged by the parent or guardian. Documentation is provided
along with the childs ID and ticket that is given to the senior cabin
crew. Airlines will also often provide specialized easy identification
tags that are to be worn by the UM. Every airline has detailed
procedures on document completion, responsibilities and the
procedures on arrival.

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ABC AIRLINES
FULL NAME
OF MINOR

AGE
Given Name(s)

Nickname

SEX

LANGUAGES SPOKEN

Family or Surname

PERMANENT ADDRESS
AND TELEPHONE No.
OF MINOR
FLIGHT DETAILS
FLIGHT NO.
FLIGHT NO.
FLIGHT NO.

DATE
DATE
DATE

FROM
FROM
FROM

TO
TO
TO

PERSON SEEING OFF ON DEPARTURE Name, Address and Telephone No.

PERSON MEETING AND SEEING OFF AT STOPOVER POINT Name, Address and Telephone No.

PERSON MEETING ON ARRIVAL Name, Address and Telephone No.


SIGNATURE FOR RELEASE OF MINOR
FROM AIRLINES CUSTODY

1.

2.

3.
4.

DECLARATION OF PARENT GUARDIAN


I confirm that I have arranged for the above mentioned minor to be accompanied to the airport on departure and to be met at
stopover point and on arrival by the persons named. These persons will remain at the airport until the flight has departed and/
or be available at the airport at the scheduled time of arrival of the flight.
Should the minor not be met at stopover point or destination, I authorize the carrier(s) to take whatever action they consider
necessary to ensure the minors safe custody including return of minor to the airport of original departure, and I agree to idemnify
and reimburse the carrier(s) for the costs and expenses incurred by them in taking such action.
I certify that the minor is in possession of all travel documents (passport, visa, health certificate, etc.) required by applicable
laws.
I the undersigned parent or guardian of the above mentioned minor agree to and minor named above and certify that the
information provided is accurate.
Name, Address and Telephone No.

SIGNATURE
Date

AIRLINE STAFF IN CHARGE OF MINOR WHILST IN THEIR CUSTODY


ESCORT AT THE DEPARTURE AIRPORT
Name
Department/Airline code

ESCORT AT TRANSFER POINT No. 1


Name
Department/Airline code

ESCORT IN FLIGHT
Name
From/To
Department/Airline code

ESCORT IN FLIGHT
Name
From/To
Department/Airline code

ESCORT AT ARRIVAL AIRPORT


Name
Department/Airline code

ESCORT AT TRANSFER POINT No. 2


Name
Department/Airline code

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS, IF ANY


(to be completed by issuing office)

ESCORT IN FLIGHT
Name
From/To
Department/Airline code

ESCORT AT STOPOVER POINT TO PERSON MEETING*


Name
Department/Airline code
ESCORT AT STOPOVER POINT ON DEPARTURE*
Name
Department/Airline code
*Remove from set if not applicable

Distribution

This is a sample of the form that an unaccompanied minor will have


upon boarding a flight.
Here is a list of common procedures to be used for UMs:
y UMs are seated where they can be easily seen by the cabin
crew during the entire flight.
y UMs must never be allowed to deplane or go into the airport
unaccompanied.
y The person who meets the child upon arrival must provide
identification and be the person listed on the request for carriage
and handling document.

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Guidelines to keep in mind for good customer service to UMs:


y Introduce yourself. This may be the childs first time away from
parents or family.
y Let them know how to get the assistance of the cabin crew
during the flight.
y Parents/guardians have often taken special care to provide
travel items to keep them busy and comfortable. Make sure they
have access to those items and that they are not stowed away.
y Make sure they understand they are not to leave the aircraft
without being escorted.
y If airline procedures allow, a visit to the flight deck and/or
introduction to the flight crew is a good icebreaker for a child
traveling alone some children are quite seasoned travelers
and will ask anyway.

Guidelines for providing customer service to passengers with


disabilities:
y Have a warm and welcoming approach and introduce yourself.
y A smile with a spoken greeting is always appropriate.
y A person with a disability is a person like you with feelings.
Treat them as you want to be treated.

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y Ask them if they want assistance and how you can best assist
them. Passengers with disabilities have unique skills that allow
them to move about and take care of themselves quite well even
in an environment that is challenging they are the best judge
of what they need.
y Ask questions and listen.
y Avoid asking questions about their disability, if you must, be
sensitive and respectful.
y Look at the passenger and address them directly, not the
person who is escorting them.
y Dont make decisions for them or make assumptions about
them.
y Use people first language refer to the individual first then the
disability.
y Dont portray people with disabilities as brave, special or
superhuman. It implies that it is unusual for people with
disabilities to have talents.
y Dont use normal to describe people who dont have
disabilities. Instead say people without disabilities or typical.
y Relax if you forget a courtesy offer an apology and show
willingness to respectful.
y Do not push, lean on or hold onto a persons wheelchair unless
the person asks you to, this is part of their personal space.
y Try to put yourself at eye level when talking with someone in a
wheelchair, sit or kneel in front of the person.
Etiquette for individuals with hearing impairments:
y Face the customer.
y Identify yourself with your name and your job.
y Speak normally.
y Speak to the person with the hearing impairment and not the
interpreter if one is present.
y Avoid shouting.
y Offer pencil and paper if needed.
y Offer to personally inform them of announcements made during
flight.

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y If the customer does not understand, rephrase information using


different words as certain words or letters may be hard to
decipher.
Etiquette for individuals with visual impairments:
y Identify yourself with your name and your job.
y Introduce others who may be around you.
y Use their name if you know it or ask for it in your introduction.
y

Use a normal tone of voice.

y Tell them when you are leaving so they do not continue talking.
y Ask if they need guided assistance and stay one step ahead if
you guide them.
y Allow them to take your arm/elbow when guiding them.
y Provide them with Braille Cards and Large Print Safety Cards
(airlines have these on board for the safety briefing).
y When serving a meal, describe the contents of the tray and
plate going clockwise, use this same technique for describing
the location of other objects as well.
Etiquette for individuals with intellectual or psychological
impairments:
y Be warm and genuine.
y Introduce yourself.
y Be considerate of the extra time it may take for them to respond
or ask questions.
y Stay focused on them as they respond to you.
y Be patient.
y Give support and be reassuring if they are nervous or anxious.
Airlines strive to provide service to any passenger traveling with a
disability or special condition, however, there are certain services the
airlines are not required to provide, such as:
y Assistance with actual eating (however, assistance with opening
packages, identifying items or cutting food is offered).
y Assistance with elimination functions at their seat or assistance
in the lavatory. (Cabin crew provide assistance in getting to and
from the lavatory with an on board wheelchair).

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y Individuals that are traveling with these challenges are usually


with an escort who assists with these functions and their
medical needs.
y In situations where an individual has a severe condition or
medical illness that could impact their safety or the safety of
others on the flight, they may require medical clearance before
being allowed to fly.
y Your airlines training will provide specifics about contract of
carriage and which situations if any the airline may choose not
to allow someone to travel.
Go see: http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/reachingout/lesson22.htm
http://www.wiawebcourse.org/index.php

Progress Check
1. Special needs passengers require individual briefings prior to
closing the doors of the aircraft. True or False
2. What are the topics covered in an individual briefing prior to
departure?
3. As part of your profession, you will be encountering individuals
with limited abilities. Describe how you would go about providing
service to each of the following:
a. Individuals with mobility impairments
b. Individuals with hearing impairments
c. Individuals with visual impairments

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Answer Key
1. True
2. Safety and emergency procedures, Special instructions that
would apply only to them, cabin layout, special equipment
passenger service unit, seat and seatbelt operation, call button.
3. a) Have a warm and welcoming approach, introduce yourself,
smile and greet the customer, Ask questions about how you
can best assist. Give personal safety briefing.
b) Face the customer. Speak normally, identify yourself with
your name and your job, and ask how you can best assist
them. Give personal safety briefing.
c) Identify yourself with your name and your job. When serving
a meal, describe the contents of the tray and plate going
clockwise, use this same technique for describing the
location of other objects as well. Provide them with braille
cards and large print safety cards, (airlines have these on
board for the safety briefing); give them a personal safety
briefing.

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Lesson Summary
When providing service to passengers with special needs it is
important to be sensitive and patient. The information provided in this
lesson will help you to be aware of the care that is required with
these types of interactions.

MODULE SUMMARY
This module provided you with strategies for managing passenger
interactions efficiently during special and difficult circumstances. You
are now able to recognize the fight or flight reactions of passengers
and can explain several strategies to respond to passengers in these
reaction modes. You can also list the ways in which you can help
passengers with special needs feel they are being cared for before
and during a flight using the proper etiquette depending on the
passengers unique situation.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
The next module will explain the proper safety and emergency
procedures and the role and responsibilities of the cabin crew during
emergencies.

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9.0 Safety and Emergency Procedures


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
At the end of this Module you
should be able to:

Identify the emergency and


safety procedures in case of
an in-flight emergency and
explain the steps of each
procedure.

Every day more than 3 million people fly safely on commercial


aircraft. In 2000, 1.09 billion people travelled around the world on
more than 18 million flights, and there were only 20 accidents that
involved fatalities.
Thirty years ago fatal accidents on commercial jetliners occurred
approximately 1 in every 140 million miles flown. Today that statistic
is 1.4 billion miles flown for every fatal accident.
Over time flying has become even safer as government regulators,
manufacturers and airlines all work together to make better aircraft,
improve safety regulations and oversight, and provide top notch
training for all flight crew, cabin crew and all airline personnel
involved in the safe operation of a flight.
(www.boeing.com/commercial/safety/howsafe.html)
In spite of the fact that aviation accidents are so rare, it is the
responsibility of the cabin crew to be prepared for emergencies at all
times. Rapid response in the event of an emergency can be the
difference between life and death. As a result, the cabin crew
receives extensive training in evacuation procedures and in how to
respond to emergencies such as on-board fires, emergency landings,
various levels of turbulence, and decompression.
At the end of this module you will be able to identify the emergency
and safety procedures in case of an in-flight emergency and explain
the steps of each procedure. You will also be able to identify
emergency evacuation equipment and how to use it. In addition you
will learn about the elements that cause fires and how to fight the
fires in the event that they occur on board an aircraft.
Turbulence is one of the major causes of injuries during flights, in
particular when passengers are not wearing seat belts. You will be
able to identify the various levels of turbulence and the appropriate
responses to each one.
You will also be able to identify the various types of decompression
and its consequences on the aircraft and those on board as well as
the proper procedures in the event of either rapid or slow
decompression.

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9.1 Accidents and Survivability


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify those routine tasks


that will allow the cabin crew
to be ready and respond
quickly in the event of an
accident or emergency
landing.

Accidents are extremely rare, with the probability of a passenger


being killed on a single flight at approximately eight million-to-one. If
a passenger boarded a flight at random, once a day, everyday, it
would be approximately 22,000 years before he or she would be
killed during an aircraft or flight related incident.
(http://www.planecrashinfo.com/rates.htm)
Completing routine safety procedures are key to being prepared for
an emergency. The key to survival is readiness so that your
response rate is quick and effective. These routine duties that you
accomplish before and during every flight prepare you as well as the
entire crew and passengers to survive in an emergency.

9.1.1 Routine Preparation


Cabin crew training is a key element of preparation. You will learn
all aspects of how to survive accidents. It is important to know how
your duties contribute to that survivability. During your initial cabin
crew training you will become familiar with the aircraft, its emergency
equipment and how to operate the exits in an emergency. You will
also enlist the help of Able Bodied Persons to sit at emergency exits
and help during an emergency evacuation. A key task in routine
preparation includes identifying the ABPs (Able Bodied Persons)
aboard your flight. These are passengers who are physically and
mentally able to assist the cabin crew in the event of an emergency.
During the boarding process cabin crew should mentally identify
persons that they could call upon in the event of an emergency to
assist them for example other airline personnel are generally a
good choice because they have skills and knowledge that would
come to them naturally in an emergency. If you have police, fire or
military personnel on board they are also natural choices for
assistance in an emergency situation. Persons who are in the exit
rows are ABPs for the exits where they are seated and are asked if
they are willing to assist before the flight departs.
Routine cabin crew duties and responsibilities contribute to safe
operation and preparation for responding in an emergency through a
system of procedures and communication that prepare the crew for
an emergency. These procedures involve safety checks, reviews
and cabin preparation that puts the cabin crew and their
surroundings in the best possible situation for reacting to an
emergency. In addition, these duties and responsibilities aid

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passengers in providing an aircraft and cabin environment that is


safe through safety briefings, instruction, and attention during the
flight by the cabin crew.
These include:
y Pre Flight Safety Briefing with the captain and crew
y Pre Take-Off and Pre Landing Preparations
y Passenger Checks
y Passenger Safety Briefings
y Use of Seat Belts
y Regular Cabin, Lavatory and Galley Checks
y Emergency Procedures and Silent Review
Your duty position on each flight will identify which jump seat you sit
in for take off and landing. That jump seat will be at or near an exit
that you will open in the event of an emergency. The cabin crew is
required to be in their jump seats in the brace position during taxi,
takeoff and landing. This requirement is for your safety. It is also
important that you are at your assigned exit in the event of an
emergency and can respond quickly and give directions to the
passengers.
This is particularly important since most accidents occur during take
off and landing. At this time you should mentally prepare yourself to
respond quickly. During every take-off and landing Cabin crew
should conduct a Silent Review. The silent review consists of a
mental review of evacuation and emergency exit procedures and
being aware of any unusual sights or sounds that might indicate a
problem. A few general topics that should be included in a Silent
Review are:
y What type of aircraft am I on?
y Is the take-off (or landing) over land or water?
y What commands or signals would I expect to hear or see to
indicate an emergency?
y Am I properly secured in my seat? Am I in the Brace Position?
y How do I open the exit?
y Where is the manual inflation handle for the emergency slide
located at my exit (to insure it inflates properly in the event of an
emergency evacuation)?

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y What are my evacuation commands?


y What equipment do I take with me if we have to evacuate?
y Do I know where ABPs (Able Bodied Person) are sitting? (It is
important to mentally identify ABPs other than those sitting at
exit rows so that in the event of an emergency you can quickly
approach them, ask for assistance and give them the necessary
instructions.)
y Which passengers need special assistance? Where are they
sitting?

Progress Check
1. List the 7 routine duties and responsibilities of the cabin crew
that contribute to safety and emergency response.
2. Explain how routine duties and responsibilities of the cabin crew
help in preparing for an emergency.
3. During take off and landing you should be:
a. Clearing away the galley
b. Sitting in your jump seat in brace position
c.

Sitting in your jump seat watching the passengers

d. Checking that passengers have their seat belts on


4. Explain when a silent review should be done and why you should
do it.

Answer Key
1. y

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Pre Flight Safety Briefing with the captain and crew

Pre Take Off and Pre Landing Preparations

Passenger Checks

Passenger Safety Briefings

Use of Seat Belts

Regular Cabin, Lavatory and Galley Checks

Emergency Procedures and Silent Review

Aviation Training Programme

2. Routine cabin crew duties and responsibilities contribute to safe


operation and preparation for responding in an emergency
through a system of procedures and communication that prepare
the crew for an emergency. These procedures involve safety
checks, reviews and cabin preparation that puts the cabin crew
and their surroundings in the best possible situation for reacting
to an emergency. In addition, these duties and responsibilities
aid passengers in providing an aircraft and cabin environment
that is safe through safety briefings, instruction and attention
during the flight by the cabin crew.
3. b
4. Silent review is important since most accidents occur during take
off and landing. It helps you prepare mentally respond quickly so
that you can respond to an emergency. You should do it during
every take off and landing and consists of a mental review of
evacuation and emergency exit procedures and being aware of
any unusual sights or sounds that might indicate a problem.

Lesson Summary
The key to surviving accidents involves more than luck. In fact, in
most cases it is due to the quick thinking and skill of highly trained
cabin crew. Your ability to think fast and lead everyone on board an
aircraft to safety after an emergency landing or another dangerous
situation is your best tool for survival.

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9.2 Evacuation and Emergency Procedure


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

List the types of


emergency landings.

Explain ditching and how the


cabin crew prepares for an
emergency landing in the
water.

This lesson will enable you to identify the various types of emergency
landings, whether they are on land or on water. By having an
understanding of these potential situations you will be better
prepared to handle such a situation, which creates a safer
environment for the passengers. This lesson will also examine some
general procedures for emergency landings, which when followed
lowers the chances of injury for the passengers and crew. This
lesson will discuss ditching and water survival, ditching and
preparation as well as elements for surviving a water landing.

9.2.1 Unplanned or Planned Evacuations


There are two major situations when it is necessary to carry out an
evacuation - Unplanned/Unprepared or a Planned/ Prepared
Evacuation. Cabin crew training provides you with specific
procedures in dealing with either situation.
Unprepared or Unplanned Emergency involves an incident or
emergency that develops without warning during the taxi, takeoff or
landing phase of a flight. In this situation the cabin crew has no time
to coordinate action with the captain. In fact, the cabin crew simply
hears an announcement from the captain to brace for impact or in
extreme situations may not even receive notification prior to impact.
This is why it is so important that the cabin crew is seated in their
jump seats in the brace position during these critical phases of flight.
According to the Boeing Statistical Summary of Accidents and
Fatalities on Commercial Jets from 1995 through 2004, 20% of

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accidents occur during take off and initial climb of a flight, 51% occur
during the final approach and landing.
(http://www.boeing.com/news/techissues/pdf/statsum.pdf) Even with
little or no information about what has happened, during basic cabin
crew training you will be trained to react with commands and to take
quick action to open available exits and conduct an evacuation.
Prepared or Planned Emergency involves an emergency
situation where time and prior information allows preparations to be
carried out while airborne. This is often the case in situations where it
is known in advance that an evacuation is necessary immediately
after landing. In this type of emergency, the captain will provide as
much information as possible and give directions to the cabin crew to
prepare. It is absolutely necessary that everyone follows the
captains instructions at all times, especially during an emergency.
The information that the captain provides includes:
y The time available to prepare before an emergency landing
y The nature or cause of the emergency and the type of landing
expected
y The signal that will be used to let the cabin crew know that the
plan is going to land. Any other special instructions that might
impact the preparation or evacuation.
Precautionary Emergency Landings - a normal landing is expected
and the captain does not expect that there will be a need to
evacuate, however, the circumstances require that the captain be
particularly cautious and the crew prepares in case an emergency
ensues. An example of this situation might be if the flight crew
receives a landing gear error message or indicator in the cockpit.
However they have been able to verify the landing gear is extended
and will proceed with landing. Nevertheless, as a precaution the
captain will have emergency vehicles in place at the airport, on
standby, and the cabin crew prepares for a potential landing gear
problem on landing.

9.2.2 Emergency Landings


There are two types of landings that can be anticipated in an
emergency and each requires a different approach for evacuation.
y Land Evacuation where the emergency landing takes place on
land
y Water Evacuation (Ditching) where the emergency landing
takes place on water.

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In some situations you may need to be able to react to both some


airports are close to bodies of water and while the captain anticipates
landing at the airport, loss of aircraft control or power could result in
an impact in the water.
How to Prepare for Emergency Landings
Airlines specify the duties and responsibilities for each cabin crew
duty position. Your training will cover these in great detail and the
Cabin Crew Manual outlines specific details and checklists for
unplanned, planned, land, and water evacuations. As cabin crew you
will have to be able to apply these procedures and complete the
necessary tasks under potentially difficult situations. Being able to
execute the necessary steps in preparation for and during an
evacuation can mean the difference between life and death and must
be taken very seriously.
Once the captain has informed the senior cabin crew that the cabin
and passengers must be prepared for an emergency landing there
are several general areas of preparation that will be addressed:
1. Cabin crew preparation - cabin crew is briefed by the senior crew
and as such they will:
y Review roles and responsibilities of exits and emergency
equipment
y Verify the exit is armed and review operation of the exits in an
emergency
y Assume proper brace position at the signal
2. Passenger preparation during this time announcements will be
made to inform passengers of what is happening and how to
prepare themselves for the emergency landing and potential
evacuation. They will be shown how to brace for impact at the
correct signal and what to do after the aircraft stops. If water
landing (ditching) is expected, passengers will be instructed to put
on life vests and directed to inflate them as they leave the aircraft.
(This procedure is always covered in the initial Passenger Safety
Briefing prior to take-off).
3. Cabin Preparation This type of emergency landing time allows
for the cabin crew to:
y Secure galleys
y Check and lock lavatories
y Check and verify emergency equipment that will be needed

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y Secure passenger carry-on luggage


y Conduct final cabin checks
y Relocate special needs passengers closer to exits
y Assign assistance from ABPs (Able Bodied Passengers) as
needed
y Relocate ABPs who can assist in the evacuation to the
emergency exits
y Instruct ABPs on conducting evacuation in the event the cabin
crew is unable to

Progress Check
1. Preparation for emergency landing includes:
a) Cabin crew preparation
b) Cabin preparation
c) Emergency Food preparation
d) Passenger preparation
e) All of the above
2. List major differences between planned and unplanned
emergencies.
3. List and describe the types of emergency evacuations.

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Answer Key
1. a, b, and d
2. Planned emergency landing - an emergency situation where time
and prior information allows preparations to be carried out while
airborne in the event that an evacuation becomes necessary
after landing.
Unplanned emergency landing - involves an incident or
emergency that develops without warning during the taxi, takeoff
or landing phase of a flight. In this situation the cabin crew has
no time to coordinate action with the captain and the cabin crew
may not even receive a notification prior to impact.
3. Land Evacuation when the emergency landing takes place on
land.
Water Evacuation when the emergency landing takes place on
water.

Lesson Summary
After completing this lesson you can now list the types of emergency
landings. You can also explain ditching and how the cabin crew
prepares for an emergency landing in the water. Emergency landings
can either be planned (prepared) or unplanned (unprepared). You
now understand the implication of each type of landing and how to
prepare for both.
This lesson also explained the general procedures for emergency
landings, which are critical in order to reduce the chances of injury for
the passengers and crew. Following procedures will increase
survivability in the event of an emergency landing.
In the next lesson we will introduce the topic of turbulence and
explain how it affects the aircraft during flight.

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9.3 Turbulence
LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify the types of


turbulence and the
corresponding appropriate
response by cabin crew.
Identify the correct
procedures for each type of
turbulence in order to ensure
the safety of the crew and
passengers.

By understanding the different levels of turbulence, you will be able


to respond to passengers when they question why the seat belt sign
is on and cabin service is interrupted. This lesson explains air
turbulence and its various types and level of intensity. It also gives
an overview of how turbulence affects flights and the appropriate
response by cabin crew in order to make flights affected by
turbulence safe for the passengers and crew.

9.3.1 Air Turbulence


Air turbulence is the primary reason that the seat belt sign remains
on during most of a flight. Air turbulence is a disturbance or
movement of the air that is often felt by the passengers and crew of
aircraft but cannot always be seen or predicted. Turbulence can
occur from the take-off phase of flight through the approach and
landing, it does not just happen during the cruise portion of flight.
Turbulence is most often associated with bad weather conditions and
most often thunderstorms but there are other factors that influence
turbulence such as:
y Heating of the earths surfaces. This heating causes hot air to
rise and in higher altitudes this hot air rises and then sinks as it
begins to cool causing ripples in the air that are felt as
turbulence.
y Strong winds over mountain ranges will create mountain waves;
these upward and downward air currents can be strong and
cause turbulence. Flying at high altitudes over mountain ranges
minimizes the ripples or waves being felt in flight.
y Low-level turbulence during take off or landing can be felt by
surface winds close to the ground.
y Wake turbulence is caused by airflows mixing over and under
an aircrafts wings. Large aircraft cause the greatest amount of
wake turbulence because of the sight of their wings and this can
impact smaller aircraft. Air traffic control ensures that aircraft
are spaced appropriately to avoid this type of turbulence.
y Clear air turbulence is associated with unstable air surrounded
by stable air. As warm air rises in this area it creates a swirling
effect, which is felt as a sudden jolt by the aircraft. It is
undetectable by radar so it occurs without much warning to the
flight and cabin crews. Jet Stream is a tunnel of air with fast

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wind speeds caused by the mixing of polar and subtropical air.


No cloud formations are present with the jet stream, so clear air
turbulence is always present. Turbulence in the jet stream can
be just as severe as turbulence associated with thunderstorms,
although these jet streams can also be beneficial in providing
strong tail winds to reduce flight times.
y Thunderstorms and weather fronts can also cause a situation
called wind shear. Wind shear is any rapid change in wind
direction or velocity causing airspeed changes, which affects the
amount of lift keeping the aircraft in the air. If the airplane is
slowed down, like on take off or landing, the effect of wind shear
can be very dangerous. Wind shear is associated with
thunderstorms and weather fronts that can force an airplane to
the ground.
http://www.math.unl.edu/~jfisher/NSF_96/windshear.html
There are different intensities of air turbulence, and therefore it is
divided into various categories.
Categories of Turbulence
y Light Turbulence - This type of turbulence is a common
occurrence, where slight, rapid and rhythmic bumpiness occurs.
An example of what is meant by light is that usually unsecured
objects remain stable. For example, coffee in a cup would shake
slightly but not splash out. In addition, one might have slight
difficulty walking in the plane during this type of turbulence.
y Moderate Turbulence This type of turbulence is a common
occurrence as well, as it is similar to light turbulence, though it
has a greater intensity. Moderate turbulence can be described
as having slight, momentary changes in altitude, attitude and
airspeed while the aircraft remains in positive control. However,
it is common that unsecured objects move about, walking
remains difficult, and liquids can spill out of cups. During
moderate turbulence, passengers can also feel a strain against
their seat belts.
y Severe Turbulence - This type of turbulence involves large and
abrupt changes in altitude, which can cause the airplane to be
out of control momentarily. Passengers may be violently forced
against seat belts. Walking is impossible during this type of
turbulence as it might be dangerous for the cabin crew or the
passengers on board.

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y Extreme Turbulence This type of turbulence forces the


airplane to be tossed violently and it is virtually impossible to
control. This type of turbulence may cause structural damage.
y Clear-Air Turbulence or CAT is air turbulence that is not
readily visible. Clear-air turbulence can occur at extremely high
altitudes, where clouds are rarely present. Clear-air turbulence
also occurs over mountain ranges. CAT is categorized in the
same levels as mentioned above. Therefore, it is possible to
have light, moderate, severe and extreme types of CAT
turbulence.
Note: Turbulence, except in the most severe cases, does not cause
damage to an aircraft, however, even light turbulence can affect
occupants in the aircraft who are not wearing a seatbelt. Passengers
who are not wearing a seat belt during turbulence can be knocked
around and thus be injured. Because of the unpredictability of
turbulence, it is recommended passengers have their seat belts
fastened at all times even while seated.

9.3.3 Turbulence Related Incidents


The following are events where at least one passenger or cabin crew
was injured during an unexpected turbulence encounter.
y During a flight from Singapore to Sydney with 236 passengers
and 16 crew, the airplane encountered turbulence over central
Australia. The plane hit an air pocket" which caused it to drop
91 meters. Nine passengers including one pregnant woman and
three cabin crew suffered various neck, back and hip injuries,
with one of the passengers requiring surgery. It is important to
emphasize that those who were injured were not wearing
seatbelts.
y During a flight from Japan to Brisbane, 16 passengers were
injured when a large aircraft encountered turbulence.
Passengers had been advised to keep their seatbelts fastened
while seated. The pilot in command reported that flight
conditions were smooth prior to encountering the turbulence.
The weather radar did not indicate adverse weather, so the crew
did not turn on the seatbelt signs. A number of the passengers
who were not wearing their seatbelts were injured when they
were thrown from their seats.
y A jet hit air turbulence shortly before it landed at a Hong Kong
airport, injuring 47 people, seven of them seriously. It happened
very suddenly and everything was very chaotic," one of the 160
passengers aboard the flight said. "The plane just dropped and I
saw things flying all over."

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9.3.4 Injury Prevention


Seatbelts
In-flight turbulence is the leading causes of injuries to passengers
and crew. Occupants injured during turbulence are usually not
wearing seatbelts. This often occurs because passengers ignore
recommendations to keep seatbelts fastened even when the signs
are not illuminated. It is recognized that passengers need to move
around the cabin to use restroom facilities or to exercise on long
flights. However, it is the responsibility of the cabin crew to ensure
that all the passengers keep their seatbelts fastened at all times
when seated and especially when the captain illuminates the seatbelt
sign.
From 1981 through 1997, there were 342 reports of turbulence
affecting major air carriers. Three passengers died, two of these
fatalities were not wearing their seat belt while the sign was on, 80
suffered serious injuries; 73 of these passengers were also not
wearing their seat belts.
http://www.casa.gov.au/airsafe/trip/turbulen.htm (reference for
statistics above.)
Instructions to Remain Seated

Did you know?


In-flight turbulence is the
leading cause of injuries to
passengers and crew.
Occupants injured during
turbulence are usually not
wearing seatbelts.

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It is imperative to follow the directions and instructions of the captain


at all times. If the captain instructs the passengers to be seated
immediately, it is important that the cabin crew ensures that they
follow instructions. In some cases where there is severe turbulence
without warning, the captain will announce over the Public Address
(PA) system that everyone should be seated, including the cabin
crew. In that situation, you would take the nearest seat. You might
have to take an empty passenger seat, or sit on the floor and ask
someone to hold you in case a seat is not available. It is important
not to attempt to get to your jump seat. In severe or extreme
turbulence you would not be able to move about safely and you could
be thrown within the cabin.

Aviation Training Programme

9.3.5 Response to Turbulence


Type of Turbulence
Light
Turbulence/Moderate
Turbulence

Severe or Extreme
Turbulence

Response
The captain makes an announcement
and turns on the fasten seatbelt sign.
Or
Cabin crew will make an
announcement in response to the
fasten seat belt sign, to make sure
everyone is aware that the seatbelt
sign has been illuminated and that
passengers return to their seats.
Flight crew should notify cabin crew of
the degree of turbulence expected
and announce the discontinuation of
service.
Make announcements to passengers
requiring seatbelts and ensure that
they immediately return to their seats.

What to do
Check that overhead compartments are
closed and baggage appropriately stowed.
Check to make sure that lavatories are
unoccupied.
Check if the captain has permitted the
continuation of beverage service, although he
or she may have restricted serving hot
beverages.
Return trolleys and stow galley and service
equipment.
Cabin crew should be seated with their
seatbelt/harness fastened and remain seated
until further advised by the captain.
During unexpected turbulence and or sever
turbulence the cabin crew may not have
enough warning to stow equipment and may
be required to seat immediately.

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Progress Check
1. List some of the precautionary measures taken by cabin crew in
response to light or moderate turbulence.
2. In moderate turbulence, the airplane is tossed violently about,
virtually impossible to control and may cause structural damage.
TRUE or FALSE
3. Light turbulence is a common occurrence, slight, rapid and
rhythmic bumpiness occurs. Unsecured objects remain stable.
TRUE or FALSE
4. Given the categories of turbulence, match with its corresponding
definition.

212

A) Light Turbulence

1. This type of turbulence involves large and abrupt


changes in altitude, which can cause the airplane to
be out of control momentarily. Passengers may be
violently forced against seat belts. Walking is
impossible during this type of turbulence as it might
be dangerous for the cabin crew or the passengers
on board.

B) Moderate Turbulence

2. This type of turbulence forces the airplane to be


tossed violently and it is virtually impossible to
control. This type of turbulence may cause
structural damage.

C) Severe Turbulence

3. This type of turbulence is a common occurrence,


where slight, rapid and rhythmic bumpiness occurs.
An example of what is meant by light is that usually
unsecured objects remain stable. For example,
coffee in a cup would shake slightly but not splash
out. In addition, one might have slight difficulty
walking in the plane during this type of turbulence.

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D) Extreme Turbulence

4. This turbulence is not readily visible. It can occur


at extremely high altitudes, where clouds are rarely
present. It also occurs over mountain ranges. It is
possible to have light, moderate, severe and
extreme types of this type of turbulence.

E) Clear Air Turbulence (CAT)

5. This type of turbulence is a common occurrence


as well, as it is similar to light turbulence, though it
has a greater intensity. Moderate turbulence can be
described as having slight, momentary changes in
altitude, attitude and airspeed while the aircraft
remains in positive control. However, it is common
that unsecured objects move about, walking remains
difficult, and liquids can spill out of cups. During
moderate turbulence, passengers can also feel a
strain against their seat belts.

Answer Key
1. y Check that overhead compartments are closed and baggage
appropriately stowed
y Check to make sure that lavatories are unoccupied
y Check if the captain has permitted the continuation of
beverage service, although he or she may have restricted
serving hot beverages
2. FALSE
3. TRUE
4. A) 3
B) 5
C) 1
D) 2
E) 4

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Lesson Summary
While it is important to understand light, moderate, severe, extreme
and CAT turbulence, it is also crucial to understand how to respond
to them. This lessons guide on how to respond to turbulence and the
importance of ensuring that passengers use seatbelt when seated
will help the crew and passengers remain safe during a turbulent
flight.

9.4 Emergency Equipment


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

List and describe the


emergency and evacuation
equipment found on aircraft.

Describe the procedures for


using the emergency and
evacuation equipment on
land and on water.

The cabin crew is responsible for ensuring the safe evacuation of


everyone on board the aircraft in the event of an emergency landing
or accident. This lesson focuses on the various types of emergency
equipment available on board and the procedures for using them. In
addition, the lesson reviewed the procedure for evacuating an aircraft
on land or on water. After completing this lesson you will be able to
explain the importance of following procedure when using emergency
equipment on board an aircraft or when evacuating the aircraft. This
information will enable you to be better prepared in the even of an
emergency and to better ensure passenger safety.

9.4.1 Types of Emergency Equipment


Regulations require that certain types of emergency equipment must
be provided on each aircraft. As a member of the cabin crew it is also
required that you are trained in their use and know the exact location
of each item so that you can respond quickly in the event of an
emergency.
Prior to each flight you will be required to check and verify that the
emergency equipment in your assigned duty area is in its proper
location and is ready for use. This is called an Emergency
Equipment Check. Other pre-flight check duties will include checks of
the galleys, lavatories, and required security checks. Company
procedures may require you to complete a checklist with a signature
to verify to the captain that all equipment is on board and meets the
check requirements and that all other required areas have been
checked as well. The emergency equipment that is on board will vary

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according to specific country and government regulations, the size of


the airplane and the types of routes the airplane flies (land, water,
etc)

Sample of emergency equipment checklist that is found on board an


aircraft.
In an emergency you may use equipment from any one or all 4 of the
following categories:
y Evacuation Equipment
y Firefighting Equipment
y First Aid
y Medical Equipment

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9.4.2 Types of Evacuation Equipment and Use


Aircraft Emergency Evacuation Devices, Doors and Emergency
Exits, are equipped with devices to assist passengers and crew in
exiting the aircraft in an emergency. These devices referred to as
slides and slide/rafts. Each is designed to inflate either automatically
or by a manual inflation handle. In a land evacuation, passengers
and crew evacuate by sliding down the device and then move away
from the aircraft for safety. However, in a water evacuation, the
slide/raft becomes a flotation device, which the passengers and crew
get into. Once the passengers board the raft it is then released from
the aircraft.
Additional emergency equipment that should be taken on board the
emergency rafts include a megaphone, a flashlight, a life vest (worn
by each individual), and an Emergency Location Transmitters:
Megaphone Each raft is equipped with a megaphone used to
communicate with passengers, rescuers or other crewmembers
during an evacuation or irregular situation.
Flashlight Aircrafts are equipped with Emergency Flashlights at all
Cabin Crew Duty Stations. They are used to provide additional
illumination when evacuating at night or when evacuating a smoke
filled cabin. As cabin crew, your airline may also require you to carry
a personal flashlight, which can be used during your duties in nonemergency situations.
Life vest Used during a water evacuation. It is a water resistant
nylon flotation device equipped to keep ones head above water.
Most airplanes will be accommodated with life vests under or near
each passenger seat. Specially marked Crew Life Vests are at each
Cabin Crew Duty Station along with extra passenger vests and infant
life vests.
Emergency Location Transmitters (ELT) is a device that transmits
a radio signal that can be tracked and traced by satellites and rescue
teams. The Cabin crew is trained to use a portable ELT that is for
use in remote land accidents or evacuations in large bodies of water.
The ELT will be taken off the aircraft and activated by a Crewmember
to send a signal to search and rescue teams. This will let the search
and rescue teams know the location of the accident and the
survivors. Commercial airplanes are also equipped with radio
beacons that are automatically activated on impact or in a crash.
They are contained within the FDR (flight data recorder or black box).

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Flight Data Recorder (FDR) is a device used to record specific


aircraft performance parameters. Some of those parameters include:
time, pressure, altitude, airspeed, fuel flow, vertical acceleration and
magnetic headings. Todays FDRs can store up to 25 hours of flight
data. These devices are reinforced to withstand impact, high
temperatures from fire and water in an airplane accident. The data
contained within them can aid investigators into accident causes and
safety studies for aircraft performance improvements. This system is
commonly referred to as the black box. These ICAO regulated
"black box" devices are often used as an aid in investigating aircraft
accidents, and these devices are typically one of the highest priorities
for recovery after a crash, second only to bodies of victims. The
device's shroud is usually painted bright orange and is generally
located in the tail section of the aircraft. In addition, FDRs are
equipped with an underwater location beacon, in a ditching or
accident where the airplane lands in the water, the beacon sends out
a signal that is detectable by sonar and acoustical locating
equipment.
A separate device but often contained within the Flight Data
Recorder is the cockpit voice recorder (CVR). There are
microphones in the cockpit that are connected to the CVR that track
the conversations of the flight crew. These microphones are also
designed to track any ambient noise in the cockpit, such as switches
being thrown or any knocks or thuds. Any sounds in the cockpit are
picked up by these microphones and sent to the CVR, where the
recordings are digitized and stored. Most magnetic-tape CVRs store
the last 30 minutes of sound. They use a continuous loop of tape that
completes a cycle every 30 minutes.

9.4.3 Firefighting Equipment


Aircraft are equipped with components and materials that are fire
retardant or resistant. In addition, aircraft cabins are equipped with
fire fighting equipment for the cabin crew to use in the event of a fire.
The amount and types of the equipment on board will vary but they
will fit into these categories:
Fire Extinguishers
Halon Extinguisher a liquefied gas agent that deprives the fire of
oxygen. In general this type of extinguisher is recommended for fires
involving flammable liquids and electrical fires.
Water Fire Extinguisher extinguisher that uses water to cool the
fuel of the fire and removing the heat. It should only be used on fires

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of paper, material or ordinary combustibles that are not near or


around flammable liquids or electricity.
Smoke Hood/Portable Breathing Equipment a self contained,
portable personal breathing device that protects you from the effects
of smoke, carbon dioxide, harmful gas and oxygen deficiency while
fighting an in-flight fire. The hood is flexible and partly metallic and
covers the head and self-fitting neck opening. It is designed to
prevent gases and smoke from getting inside the hood and allows
the cabin crew to get closer to a fire to fight it. Once it is activated it
can provide cabin crew approximately 15 minutes of breathable air.

Fire/Crash Axe this axe is used when access is needed to fight


fires in difficult to reach areas. For instance, behind aircraft wall
paneling or behind a lavatory door. Opening the door may be
impossible because of the heat. It is important to note that opening
the door will give the fire added oxygen, which fuels the fire and
allows smoke in the cabin. By making a hole in the door with the axe
you can aim the fire extinguisher directly through the hole and
minimize the smoke in the cabin, while keeping the fire contained.
Lavatory Smoke Detectors aircraft lavatories are required to have
smoke detectors to provide early warning to a lavatory fire and the
presence of smoke.
Automatic Lavatory Fire Extinguishers aircraft Lavatories are
also equipped with automatic fire extinguishers in the waste
containers. These extinguishers are activated by heat.

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9.4.5 Emergency Equipment for Ditching


Aircraft have special equipment for water landings (ditching). The
types of equipment will vary from among different types of aircraft
and not all will have this equipment especially if they do not fly over
water for extended periods of time. All aircraft will have some type of
flotation device for passengers and crew to use in the event the
aircraft lands in the water. Airplanes that fly long distances are
equipped with slides that serve as rafts equipped with features and
components to aid in survival at sea until rescue can occur. In a
water landing, passengers evacuate and step into these slide/rafts
and the raft is manually detached from the airplane. The emergency
equipment for ditching includes:
Slide/Raft a slide that can also be used as a raft. The slide/raft has
the ability to function as a seaworthy floatation device for a large
group of passengers. Aircraft that fly over water must have enough
raft capacity to fit the maximum passengers and crewmembers on
the plane. Slide/rafts or portable circular rafts have similar features or
characteristics that include:
Life Lines - for keeping raft occupants and equipment secure and for
survivors in the water to hold onto.
Boarding Stations - position where handholds and stirrups are
available to assist passengers into the raft from the water.
Sea Anchor deploys automatically or by someone in the raft. The
anchor prevents drifting and spinning of the raft.
Locator Lights lights that illuminate the raft that enable search and
rescue teams to see the raft in the dark.
Survival Kits are located in the raft or are positioned and attached
to each slide/raft prior to the water evacuation.
Survival kits contain items such as:
Canopy brightly colored water resistant fabric that completely
covers the raft and protects occupants from exposure. The bright
color also provides a spotting target for rescue teams.
Bailing Bucket and Sponges used to keep water out of the raft
and to keep it dry.
Life Raft and Survival Manual Information on the equipment
available to use and other survival techniques.
First Aid Kit Contents are similar to those found in the first aid kits
on board the aircraft.

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Raft Repair Kit - Contents include patches and clamps which can be
used to repair tears or punctures in the raft.
Water Storage Containers Containers, which allow for the
collection of rainwater. Some survival kits may also contain small
containers of water or tablets that can be added to sea water to make
it potable (for drinking).
Signaling Devices such as mirrors, flares for day and night and a
whistle.
Flashlight and batteries in addition to the ones found on the
aircraft.
Sea Dye Marker chemical fluorescent dye that will dissolve in the
water and stain the water surrounding the raft to aid in sighting and
rescue.
Additional information available at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_extinguishers
http://www.h3r.com/halon/faq.htm
http://www.smokehoods.com/products/pbe_main.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emergency_locator_transmitter

Progress Check
1. Aircraft emergency evacuation devices, doors and emergency
exits, are equipped with ______ and ________ to assist
passengers and crew in exiting the aircraft in an emergency.
2. List at least 5 items in the survival kits.
3. Match the types of fire fighting equipment and their use.

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A) Needed to fight fires in difficult to reach areas.

1. Halon
Extinguishers

B) An automatic fire extinguishers in the waste


containers. These extinguishers are activated
by heat.

2. Water Fire
Extinguisher

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C) An extinguisher that uses water to cool the


fuel of the fire and removing the heat. It
should only be used on fires of paper, material
or ordinary combustibles that are not near or
around flammable liquids or electricity.

3. Smoke
Hood/Portable
Breathing
Equipment

D) Provide early warning to a lavatory fire and


the presence of smoke.

4. Fire/Crash
Axe

E) A liquefied gas agent that deprives the fire of


oxygen. In general this type of extinguisher is
recommended for fires involving flammable
liquids and electrical fires.

5. Lavatory
Smoke
Detectors

F) A self contained, portable personal breathing


device that protects you from the effects of
smoke, carbon dioxide, harmful gas and
oxygen deficiency while fighting an in-flight
fire.

6. Automatic
Lavatory Fire
Extinguishers

4. Explain the different uses of evacuation devices during land and


water evacuation.

Answer Key
1. slides, slides/rafts
2. y

Canopy

Bailing Bucket and Sponges

Life Raft and Survival Manual

First Aid Kit

Raft Repair Kit

Water Storage Containers

Signaling Devices

Flashlight and batteries

Sea Dye Marker

3. A) 4, B) 6, C) 2, D) 5, E) 1, F) 3
4. In a land evacuation, passengers and crew evacuate by sliding
down the device and then move away from the aircraft for safety.
In a water evacuation, the slide/raft becomes a flotation device,
which the passengers and crew get into. Once the passengers
board the raft it is then released from the aircraft.

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Lesson Summary
This lesson focused on the various types of emergency equipment
available on board and the procedures for using them. In addition,
the lesson reviewed the procedure for evacuating an aircraft on land
or on water. After completing this lesson you now have an
understanding of the importance of following procedure when using
emergency equipment on board an aircraft or when evacuating the
plane. This information will enable you to be better prepared in the
even of an emergency and better to ensure passenger safety.

9.5 Responding to Fires


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify the elements that


constitute fire.

Identify the three


classification of fires.

Identify the procedure for


responding to a fire on
board.

Fire on board an aircraft is an extreme emergency. As a member of


the cabin crew, it is your responsibility not only to keep a sharp look
out for fires on board, but also to be prepared to put the fire out
immediately. You must be alert at all times to the possibility of fire
and do your best to follow the procedures in order to stop it.
Although there is special equipment on board to stop the fire, in order
for the equipment to be effective it is important that you follow the
proper procedures for extinguishing a fire. This lesson will examine
the elements that constitute a fire, the classifications of fires and the
procedure for responding to a fire on board.

Demonstration of how to use a fire extinguisher during Cabin Crew


Training course courtesy Kenya Airways).

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9.5.1 Classification of Fires


There are three elements that are common to a fire. The elimination
of any of the three elements will extinguish the fire. The classification
of a fire is determined by what is fueling it.
Fire needs three elements to burn: fuel, heat, and oxygen

Fire Classifications are determined by what is fueling the fire. There


are three classes of fire that cabin crew are trained to respond to:
Class A Fire: Common Combustibles, like paper, wood, fabric, and
trash.
Class B Fire: Flammable Liquids, Gasoline, Kerosene
Class C Fire: Electrical - On an airplane this could be galley
equipment, lighting or any area that has electrical
equipment or wiring in the area.
Dealing with a fire during a flight
In the event of a fire on board, it is very important not to panic and
follow procedure in order to stop the fire as soon as possible. A quick
response is essential to prevent injury or even death!
Basic Response to a fire in flight.
1. Locate the source of the fire and identify the class of fire.
2. Request back up assistance and obtain the appropriate fire
extinguisher and equipment to fight the fire and coordinate
immediate notification to the captain with another crewmember.
3. With the extinguisher, aim at the base of the flames and discharge
the extinguisher in a sweeping motion.

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4. Once the fire is extinguished, continue to monitor for possible reignition.


5. Ensure Customer Safety relocate if necessary and pass out
damp cloths and instruct the passengers to cover their nose and
mouth if breathing is difficult because of smoke. Remember
NEVER to use oxygen near open flames.
6. Follow the captains instructions if an emergency landing must
take place direct passengers to get into the brace position and
secure the cabin.
Available Extinguishers on aircraft to fight a Fire

Did you know?


In addition to a fire
extinguisher you can also
use other readily available
material that could douse
or smother flames,
depending on the type of
fire it is.

Class A (Common Combustibles): Water Extinguisher - which is


using water to put out the flame, can be used to put the fire out.
Other available non-flammable liquid such as juice, coffee or soda
can be used as well. However, it is important never to use liquor to
put out a fire because it could further fuel the fire
Class B (Flammable Liquids): Halon Extinguisher- It is important to
never use water on a class B fire as it will spread the flammable
liquid and spread the fire.
Class C (Electrical Fire): Halon Extinguisher- make sure to turn
electrical power off in the vicinity of the fire and do not use water as it
may conduct electricity and cause electrical shock.

Progress Check
1. Throwing water on a fire is the best response. TRUE or FALSE
2. Water Extinguishers are recommended for class A fires. TRUE or
FALSE
3. How should you extinguish a fire if you do not have a fire
extinguisher?
4. List and describe the steps for responding to in-flight fire
emergencies.
5. List the three classes of fires and the extinguishers you should
use for each.

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Answer Key
1. FALSE
2. TRUE
3. You should smother it with a cover, blanket, or sand, or other
non-combustible items. Eliminate the oxygen from the fire as
quickly as possible.
4. y Locate the source of the fire and identify the class of fire.
y Request back up assistance and obtain appropriate fire
extinguisher and equipment to fight the fire and coordinate
immediate notification to the captain with another
crewmember.
y With the extinguisher, aim at the base of the flames and
discharge the extinguisher in a sweeping motion.
y Once the fire is extinguished, continue to monitor for possible
re-ignition.
y Ensure customer safety relocate if necessary and pass out
damp cloths and instruct the passengers to cover their nose
and mouth if breathing is difficult because of smoke.
Remember NEVER to use oxygen near open flames.
y Follow the captains instructions if an emergency landing
must take place direct passengers to get into the brace
position and secure the cabin.
5. Class A (Common Combustibles): Water Extinguisher, which is
using water to put out the flame, can be used to put the fire out.
Other available non-flammable liquid such as juice, coffee or
soda can be used as well. However, it is important never to use
liquor to put out a fire because it could further fuel the fire
Class B (Flammable Liquids): Halon can be used. It is important
to never use water on a class B fire as it will spread the
flammable liquid and spread the fire.
Class C: (Electrical Fire): Halon. Also, make sure to turn
electrical power off in the vicinity of the fire and do not use water
as it may conduct electricity and cause electrical shock.

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9.6 Decompression
LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Describe the dangers that


occur in a decompression.

Explain the appropriate


responses in such a
situation.

Describe the two types of


decompression rapid/
explosive and slow.

The aircraft flies at an altitude that the human body cannot tolerate
for more than a few seconds. This is because the air does not have
enough breathable oxygen. This module gives an overview of cabin
decompression, which can be very dangerous for the people onboard
the aircraft. Cabin pressurisation is the maintenance of a cabin
altitude lower than the actual flight altitude. Because of the vast
difference in pressure the possibility of a loss of pressurisation exists
the uncontrolled loss of pressurisation is called decompression.
Decompression is categorised into rapid/explosive and slow. Their
identifiers describe their differences. As cabin crew you must be
aware of their differences and how to react accordingly, in order to
ensure the your safety and others on board.

9.6.1 What is Decompression?


Decompression is defined as the inability of the airplane's
pressurisation system to maintain its designed pressure differential.
This can be caused by a major malfunction in the pressurisation
system or structural damage to the airplane. Decompressions fall into
three categories and are defined by how rapidly the actual loss of
pressurisation occurs. The categories are:
Slow Decompression: Gradual loss of cabin pressure, caused by a
malfunction of the pressurisation system or a pressure leak in the
aircraft structure.
During normal flight operations cabin pressurisation is controlled.
When the system has a major malfunction or if something causes

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structural damage to the aircraft in flight it is possible to have an


explosive or rapid decompression.
Explosive Decompression. Explosive decompression happens
instantly because of an explosion or rupture in the fuselage. It is very
dangerous because the change in cabin pressure happens faster
than the lungs can decompress. Therefore, it is possible that lung
damage may occur. Normally, the time required to release air from
the lungs where no restrictions exist, such as masks, etc., is
0.2 seconds. Most authorities consider any decompression that
occurs in less than 0.5 seconds as explosive and potentially
dangerous.
Rapid Decompression. Rapid decompression happens quickly but
is a situation where the change in cabin pressure is slower and the
lungs can decompress faster than the cabin. While still very serious,
there is less likelihood of lung damage.

9.6.2 Basic Response Procedures in a Decompression


As cabin crew your immediate response to decompression is to put
on the nearest oxygen mask and secure yourself in the nearest seat
or jump seat. Flight crew will make an abrupt emergency descent to
a safe breathing altitude and where oxygen masks are no longer
needed. As soon as cabin crew are aware of a decompression they
must attend to their own oxygen needs first in order to later assist
passengers and prepare for an emergency landing. Should
decompression occur, immediately put on an oxygen mask, keep it
on and remain seated until otherwise advised by the captain.
Passengers will be putting on their masks at the same time (extra
oxygen masks are located throughout the cabin, should they be an
insufficient amount.). As soon as you are on oxygen your body will
recover rapidly which is why it is important to put on the oxygen mask
as quickly as possible. If you lack oxygen, you will not be able to help
anyone else on board the aircraft, which is why it is so important for
the cabin crew to put on their own oxygen masks before attempting
to help anyone else.
Once you have the oxygen mask on you breathe normally. At his
point and while wearing an oxygen mask you can demonstrate or
command to other passengers to put their oxygen masks on or
fasten their seat belts.
Once the airplane reaches a breathable altitude, the captain may
advise that it is safe for you to move about the cabin to assess the
condition of the airplane and passengers. Your airline will instruct you
on these post decompression procedures. Keep in mind, with an

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explosive decompression you may not have access to


communication systems and the noise and conditions in the cabin
may prevent or limit any crew communication or preparation before
landing. This type of situation will most likely warrant an emergency
landing. The severity of the decompression and the damage to the
aircraft will dictate how much time you will have to prepare. In these
situations, it is important to get as much information from the captain
as possible and follow through accordingly.
Additional information:
http://www.house.gov/transportation/aviation/06-05-03/
06-05-03memo.html
http://avstop.com/AC/FlightTraingHandbook/
PressurizedAirplanes.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabin_pressurization

9.7 Hypoxia and How to Recognise it


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Recognise decompression in
the cabin and the
manifestations of hypoxia.

It is always an emergency if a pressurised aircraft suffers a


pressurisation failure above 3000 meters. If this occurs the pilot must
immediately place the plane in an emergency descent and activate
emergency oxygen.
It is important for the cabin crew not only to understand what
decompression is, but the potential damage it can cause to the
aircraft and its ability to land safetly, as well as the effect on the
people on board. This lesson will examine how to identify
decompression and the effects of hypoxia on the crew and
passengers.

9.7.1 Hypoxia
Hypoxia occurs when there is lack of adequate oxygen to the body
tissues. This can cause loss of consciousness and ultimately death
in a short amount of time if not corrected with a supplemental supply
of oxygen. The danger in hypoxia is its subtle onset unless
conditions in the area indicate there has been a rapid
decompression. In order to prevent hypoxia you must be alert to the
symptoms not only in yourself, but also in other crew and
passengers. Symptoms do not occur in any order and some, though
not all the symptoms may be present. The remedy is oxygen and
usually recovery is rapid once the oxygen is administered.

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Other symptoms may include:


y An increased breathing rate,
y Headache, fatigue,
y Lightheaded or dizzy sensations,
y Tingling or warm sensations,
y Sweating,
y Impaired judgment,
y A general lack of feeling well,
y Cyanosis or discoloration of nail beds,
y Poor coordination.

9.7.2 Rapid/Explosive Decompression


Characteristics that indicate a Rapid/Explosive Decompression:
explosive noise or loud bang or rumble, flying dust debris and loose
objects, a rapid drop in temperature, or immediate dense fog in the
cabin (At this point oxygen masks should drop or be exposed above
or near passenger seats).
Body Changes: Rapid loss of air through your nose and mouth, pain
in the ears and sinuses and abdomen, difficulty speaking and
breathing with a feeling of chest expansion, severe dazed sensation
with loss of muscle coordination, discoloration of nail beds (blue).
Slow Decompression
Characteristics: Because this type of decompression occurs slowly
there may be no noticeable signs in the cabin until the masks drop.
Other indicators may be an audible hiss or whistling sound. If
noticed, notify the captain immediately.
Body changes may occur slowly and because the effects of a slow
decompression occur over time they may not be as noticeable until
something is quite wrong. Often the cabin crew notices the effects of
a slow decompression first because they are working and moving
about the cabin, expending more energy. Signs to pay attention to
are headache, fatigue, ear discomfort, impaired judgment or vision,
discoloration of nail beds.

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9.7.3 The Effect of Decompression on the Flight Crew:


TUC or Time of Useful Consciousness
Time of useful consciousness (TUC) is defined as the amount of
time an individual is able to perform flying duties efficiently in an
environment of inadequate oxygen supply. It is the period of time
from the interruption of the oxygen supply or exposure to an oxygenpoor environment, to the time when useful function is lost. The
individual is no longer capable of taking proper corrective and
protective action. It is not the time to total unconsciousness. The
TUC has also been called Effective Performance Time (EPT). There
are many individual variations, and there will be variations in the
same person. At higher altitudes, the TUC becomes very short. The
danger of hypoxia at high altitude is evident, and the emphasis is on
prevention rather than cure.
Keep in mind that the cabin crew who have been working and are
under physical demands may have less time before realising the
impact of decompression. For example, if decompression occurred
at a cruise altitude of 10,668 meters an average person may have
60 seconds or less before severe symptoms of hypoxia would set in
and ability to respond or take protective action.
A rapid decompression can reduce the TUC by up to 50 percent
caused by the forced exhalation of the lungs during decompression
and the extremely rapid rate of ascent.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_of_Useful_Consciousness)
Furthermore, as the airplane pressurises and decompresses during
normal controlled flight operations, some passengers will experience
discomfort as trapped gasses within their bodies respond to the
changing cabin pressure. The most common problems occur with
gas trapped in the gastrointestinal tract, the middle ear and the
paranasal sinuses. Note that in a pressurised aircraft, these effects
are not due directly to climb and descent, but to changes in the
pressure maintained inside the aircraft.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabin_pressurization)
As well as the more acute health effects experienced during flight by
some people, the cabin pressure altitude of 2400 meters typical in
most airliners contributes to the fatigue experienced in long flights.
The in-development Boeing 787 airliner will feature pressuration to
the equivalent of 1830 meters, which Boeing claims will substantially
increase passenger comfort.
Additional information:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_of_Useful_Consciousness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabin_pressurization

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Progress Check
1. Explain what decompression is and what the cabin crews
response should be.
2. What are the symptoms associated with hypoxia? Explain the
consequences of it on people.
3. ___________________________ is the amount of time an
individual is able to perform flying duties efficiently in an
environment of inadequate oxygen supply.
4. Why is it important for the cabin crew to be familiar with
decompression?

Answer Key
1. Decompression is defined as the inability of the airplane's
pressurization system to maintain its designed pressure
differential. This can be caused by a major malfunction in the
pressurization system or structural damage to the airplane.
Decompressions fall into three categories and are defined by
how rapidly the actual loss of pressurization occurs. These are
slow, explosive and rapid decompression.
Should decompression occur, immediately put on an oxygen
mask, keep it on and remain seated until otherwise advised by
the captain. The passengers should also put on the oxygen
masks immediately.
2. Hypoxia occurs when there is lack of adequate oxygen to the
body tissues. This can cause loss of consciousness and
ultimately death in a short amount of time if not corrected with a
supplemental supply of oxygen. The danger in hypoxia is its
subtle onset unless conditions in the area indicate there has
been a rapid decompression.
3. TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness)
4. To understand why it occurs and to recognise what impact it can
have on the safety of the passengers, crew and the aircraft and
how to respond.

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Lesson Summary
Now you are able to describe decompression and explain the
appropriate responses in such a situation. You can also describe the
two types of decompression rapid/explosive and slow
decompression. Being able to recognise cabin decompression and
responding to it quickly and using the correct procedures can save
lives.
This lesson also explained what decompression is, and the potential
damage it can cause to the aircraft and its ability to land safetly, as
well as the effect on the people on board. We examined the how to
idenitfy decompression and the effects of hypoxia on the crew and
passengers, which is of particular importance as it affects the welfare
of passengers and crew with very serious consequences if
decompression goes unchecked.

MODULE SUMMARY
You are now able to identify the emergency and safety procedures in
case of an in-flight emergency and explain the steps of each
procedure. You can also identify emergency evacuation equipment
and explain how to use it. You have also been introduced to the main
cause of fires on board an aircraft and can explain how to fight the
fires in the event that they occur.
This module also described the various categories of turbulence the
appropriate responses to each one. As cabin crew it is important to
understand what causes turbulence since it is one of the major
causes of injuries during flights, in particular when passengers are
not wearing seat belts.
As cabin crew you must be aware of the common symptoms of
hypoxia so you can respond quickly and effectively. Hypoxia is
caused by lack of oxygen. You can now identify the various types of
decompression and its consequences on the aircraft and those on
board as well as the proper procedures in the event of either rapid or

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slow decompression. Decompression can cause hypoxia, which has


serious consequences if oxygen is not administered immediately
after onset.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
In the next module you will be introduced to how the cabin crew
handles medical emergencies and how they receive training in order
to be prepared to handle such emergencies.

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10.0 Medical Emergencies and Medical Training


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
At the end of this Module you
should be able to:

Identify and describe


equipment on board for use
in a medical emergency.

List the basic steps to


responding to a medical
situation/emergency.

List the steps to take to


ensure personal protection
when responding to a
medical situation/emergency.

One of the most crucial aspects of being a cabin crew is having the
skills that prepare you for emergencies on board the aircraft. The
cabin crews primary goal is to keep the passengers safe, so that
learning the proper standards for handling medical emergencies on
board is an essential part of the job. This module examines the
various aspects of preparing for a medical emergency, including
identifying and understanding the emergency medical equipment on
board the aircraft. During initial training for cabin crew, you will be
trained on emergency procedures. Once you are familiar with the
equipment available on board, then you will be ready to learn about
the steps and procedures to follow in the event of a medical
emergency.

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10.1 Emergency equipment on board (First Aid


Kit, Emergency Medical Kit, Automatic
Defibrillator, Personal Protection)
LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify and describe the


equipment on board for use
in a medical emergency.

All airlines provide medical equipment for use in the event of an


onboard medical emergency. As part of the cabin crew training you
will learn the specifics about the available emergency equipment on
board the aircraft. You will also learn how to respond in a
medical emergency.
As is the case with all of the emergency equipment that is discussed
in this course, the location of the equipment and the number of items
of each type will vary by aircraft type and size. In your training, you
will be required to learn and know from memory the equipment,
number of kits on board and their locations. This is important so you
can respond quickly with the right tools should a medical or other
emergency situation present itself.

10.1.1 First Aid and Medical Equipment


Basic contents of a First Aid Kit
First Aid Kit Sealed boxes that contain medical supplies for the
treatment of injuries or minor illnesses. For example, using
disinfectant and a bandage, the First Aid Kit can be used for
addressing minor cuts or scrapes.

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FIRST AID KIT Basic Contents


adhesive surgical tape

emollient eye drops

anti-diarrhea medication

examination gloves

antiemetic

first aid handbook

antiseptic wound cleaner or swabs

gastronintestinal antacid

applicators

hand cleanser or cleansing


towelettes

bandages and adhesive dressings


in assorted sizes

insect repellent

biohazard disposal bag,

pad with shield or tape for


eyes

disposable gloves

safety pins

disposable resuscitation aid

scissors

sterile dressing compress

tweezers

sterile gauze dressing,

simple analgesic
dressing for burns.

Portable Oxygen Bottles Portable Oxygen Bottles are heavy


gauged metal containers with compressed oxygen. They feature
outlets and masks to administer oxygen to an individual for in-flight
medical emergencies such as difficulty breathing or an apparent
heart attack. The oxygen bottles are different from the oxygen
masks that drop or become available to all passengers and crew
during decompression which provide adequate air for breathing.
The Oxygen Bottles must never be used if there is any smoke or fire
nearby.
Emergency Medical Kit (EMK) Sealed container or box, which
contains advanced medical supplies for the treatment of illness or
injury. These can only be opened and used by medically trained
personnel. If you have the assistance of a doctor or a medically
trained person on board, you may bring them this kit. It offers
medical equipment that can monitor vital signs and contains drugs
and other items that can be administered only by qualified persons.
As cabin crew you will not receive training on how to use the
contents of the kit. If you have previous medical background or
credentials you may be authorised to use it. The list of contents is
listed on the outside of the kit so the doctor can easily determine
what you have available. Your airline training will provide specifics
about its use and who is authorised to use it.

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Automatic External Defibrillator (AED) An advanced device now


required to be on board most commercial aircraft. It is used to
monitor the heartbeat of an unconscious individual and will
automatically administer electric shock to the heart if necessary. The
cabin crew receives extensive training on the appropriate use of this
equipment in conjunction with CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation).
Biohazard Kits or Precautions Kit Most airlines should provide
these on board the aircraft along with protective gloves, eye shields
and gowns for administering first aid. In addition to protective items,
supplies and containers are provided to clean up and properly
identify medical waste (blood, needles, etc.). It is very important to
use the Biohazard Kits for your personal safety, as well as the other
crew and passengers.
Resuscitation Mask or Face Shield A protective device used
when administering rescue breathing. It protects the individuals
involved from contamination. While Resuscitation Masks will be
provided by your airline in emergency kits, as cabin crew you may
find it helpful to carry one in your personal luggage to have readily
available should you be in a situation off the aircraft where your
medical training may be called upon. You will learn how to use this
mask in your training when you are taught rescue breathing and
CPR.

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Progress check
1. Explain the difference between a First Aid Kit and an Emergency
Medical Kit.
2. Match the following with the correct description:
Resuscitation Mask

a. Protective kits that are used to


clean up and properly identify
medical waste (blood, needles,
etc.)

Portable Oxygen
Bottles

b. An advanced device used to


monitor the heartbeat of an
unconscious individual and will
automatically administer electric
shock to the heart if necessary

AED

c. Heavy gauged metal containers


with compressed oxygen that
feature outlets and masks to
administer oxygen to an individual
for in-flight medical emergencies

Bio Hasard Kits

d. A protective device used when


administering rescue breathing

Answer Key
1. First Aid Kit contains sealed boxes with medical supplies for the
treatment of injuries or minor illnesses. For example, using
disinfectant and a bandage, the First Aid Kit can be used for
addressing minor cuts or scrapes
EMK Emergency Medical Kit is a sealed container or box that
contains advanced medical supplies for the treatment of illness
or injury. Can only be opened and used by medically trained
personnel
2. Resuscitation Mask (d), Portable Oxygen Bottles (c), AED (b),
Bio Hasard Kits (a)

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Lesson Summary
After completing this lesson, you are now able to identify and
describe the equipment on board for use in a medical emergency,
such as the First Aid Kit, Oxygen Bottles Emergency, Medical Kit
(EMK), Automatic External Defibrillator (AED), Biohazard Kits, and
(Resuscitation Mask). As a result, in the event of a medical
emergency on board you will be able to immediately identity the
proper medical equipment to use. You are also able to identify what
equipment is available to personally protect yourself, as well as
others, when administering first aid. In the next lesson you will be
introduced to various procedures to respond to a medical
emergency, including the steps to ensure personal protection when
assisting a passenger.

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10.2 Basic First Aid and Personal protection


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

List the basic steps to


responding to a medical
situation/emergency.
List the steps to take to
ensure personal protection
when responding to a
medical situation/emergency.

Key Learning Point


First aid is the immediate
and temporary care given to
the victim of an accident or
sudden illness until
advanced, professional
medical assistance can be
obtained.

As we have learned, air travel can put stress on a persons body,


which can sometimes cause someone to have medical problems
during flight. As cabin crew you will be called upon in these
situations to offer assistance to anyone who becomes ill or injured on
your flight. You can take comfort knowing that airlines have
procedures, assistance and systems in place to handle such
situations. Cabin crew are not considered trained medical
professionals but you will have basic knowledge, skills, and tools to
assist someone in need.
Airline crews are not medical advisors and there is no doctor-patient
relationship between the airline and the passenger. However,
during your cabin crew training, you will spend a number of days
learning about first aid, CPR, and the equipment and systems in
place to handle any number of in-flight medical emergencies. In order
to prepare you adequately, you will receive training on how to use
items provided by the airline to protect you from exposure to blood or
body fluid and how to collect items used in treatment and ensure they
are disposed of properly. Your initial training will be quite extensive
and each year you will have an opportunity to refresh those skills in
recurrent training. Some courses will be based on the International
Red Cross First Aid Courses, adjusted to fit the airline industry.
Some airlines create their own courses based on international
standards. The purpose of this training is to ensure that you are
comfortable using the first aid kits and medical equipment on board
and that you have basic knowledge to respond appropriately to
medical emergencies. This lesson will help you become familiar with
the basic steps in assisting someone in a medical emergency. The
emphasis is on how to use the resources available. This lesson will
only describe the skills you will be expected to have in order to
respond to a medical emergency.

10.2.1 Check-Call-Care: First Aid Primer


What do you do if a passenger or crew becomes ill or injured during
a flight?
Cabin crew are expected to respond to situations when someone
becomes ill or is injured during a flight. These can range from simple
problems such as an earache during descent or nausea if the flight is
experiencing turbulence. On the other hand, it can also involve a
woman going into labor or even a passenger who is having a seizure
or a heart attack.

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In 2000, statistics showed that the most common medical


emergencies handled in-flight were:
y Vasovagal (fainting)
y Gastrointestinal
y Cardiac
y Respiratory
y Neurological
Some incidents are serious enough where the aircraft must be
diverted so that the person involved can get to a medical facility as
soon as possible. Even in these situations, you will be expected to
provide care and comfort until the person can be transported to a
medical facility.
Responding to a medical emergency on board a flight can be
stressful, therefore it is important not to panic and rely on your
training and available resources. Each airline has special
procedures and assistance in place to ensure the safety of not only
the sick or injured party but also the crew and the rest of the
passengers. Among the duties of the cabin crew in responding to an
medical emergency the cabin crew will be required to fill out a report
documenting the nature of the medical emergency and what first aid
care was provided.

Check-Call-Care
The three steps to remember when providing first aid are Check,
Call, and Care. The following are basic procedures to help ensure
the best care for the passenger and the maximum protection for the
cabin crew:

CHECK
y Assess the situation and the victim
y Pay attention to details and ask yourself these questions:
a) What is the nature of the illness or injury?
b) Is the victim unconscious, bleeding?
c) Does the victim have difficulty breathing? (It is very
important to maintain an open airway and check that the
passenger is breathing and has a pulse.)
d) Does the victim have chest pain?
e) Is the scene safe for you to proceed?

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Note: Always check for Medical Alert Emblems, ID bracelet or


necklace. (This will provide you with very important medical
information).
y Gather as much information from the passenger as possible. If
the passenger is unconscious try and obtain information from
traveling companions or those seated nearby.

CALL for assistance


y Ask another cabin crew to notify the captain and to identify any
trained medical personnel on board.
y If medical personnel are available provide the medical kits that
best suit the person in need.
y Keep the captain informed as to the status of the victim. The
flight may need to divert to an alternate airport depending on
ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival) from the scheduled airport and
the severity of the situation.

Provide CARE to someone who is hurt or ill


After you have called for help and assessed the situation you should:
1. Identify yourself and get permission to assist the victim.
2. Try to make the passenger as comfortable as possible, while
tending to his or her needs as best as you can.
3. Explain the actions you are taking step by step.
4. Reassure the victim and always assume they can hear what you
are saying even if they are unconscious.
5. Calm distraught travel companions or relatives.
6. Keep on-lookers and other passengers from congregating near
the scene.
7. Do not leave the victim unattended.
8. Do not discuss the situation with other passengers.
9. Do not diagnose treat the symptoms you observe within the
scope of your training.
10. Complete all required documentation as required by your airline.
http://www.redcross.org/preparedness/cdc_english/factsExpect.html

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There are systems in place to assist the cabin crew in the event of a
medical emergency that requires the immediate attention of a
physician, and there is no doctor aboard the flight that can help.
These include:
y Air-to-ground communication between the cockpit and
ground physicians. Air to ground medical communication is a
service where airlines have expert physicians readily available
24 hours a day, 7 days a week to provide the captain and cabin
crew with medical advice when medical emergencies occur.
Some airlines have their own physicians and others obtain this
service through a specialist provider. (See
http://www.medaire.com/comm_air.asp for further
documentation).
y Telemedicine An evolving area of diagnosis using seat-back
phones and ECG (Electrocardiogram), which are located in
certain aircraft. These strips provide information of vital signs,
images of the patient, and two-way voice communication. The
phone transmission is slow and with the evolution of Internet
services on aircraft this may lead to more effective transmission
in the event of a medical emergencies. (Referenced from IATA
Medical Manual pg. 60 61).

10.2.3 Protect Yourself!


The risk of getting a disease while giving first aid is extremely low.
However, to reduce the risk even further:
y Avoid direct contact with blood and other body fluids.
y Use protective equipment, such as disposable gloves and
breathing barriers.
y Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water immediately
after giving care.
Your first aid training will also educate you on the specifics of how to
protect yourself with the equipment that is provided. Most airlines will
provide equipment to protect yourself and to collect items in
appropriately marked containers that have been exposed to blood or
body fluid or used for injection. These are sometimes referred to a
bio hasard kit or precautions kit which include items used to protect
yourself when administering first aid including:
y Resuscitation mask (microshields) for giving rescue breathing
(Some airlines provide or recommend that you have your own
mask in your personal luggage so it is nearby for you in the

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event of an emergency it is also helpful should you encounter a


medical situation off the aircraft, in a hotel or in an airport).
y Disposable gloves
y Face masks or shields
y Goggles
y Gowns to protect your clothing
y Bio hasard bags to dispose of items that have become soiled
with body fluid or blood.
y Sharps containers to dispose of needles used for injection
(many aircraft lavatories have specially marked containers for
passengers who inject themselves with medication during flight).

Progress Check
1. Cabin crew are not trained as medical professionals but are
provided with basic medical knowledge and tools. TRUE or
FALSE
2. Define first aid?
3. A passenger approaches you and says that the woman next to
him does not look well. Her color is very pale and she is
sweating excessively. What are some of the questions that you
would ask to assess the situation and the sick passenger?
4. Select the items available on board airplanes used to protect
cabin crew when administering first aid.
a) Bandages
b) Goggles
c) Ressuscitation mask
d) Sharps container
e) All of the above
5. The three steps to remember when providing first aid are _____,
_____ and _____.

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Answer Key
1. True
2. First aid is the immediate and temporary care given to the victim
of an accident or sudden illness until advanced, professional
medical assistance can be obtained
3. y Introduce yourself and offer assistance - ask for her name
and if she has concerns about how she is feeling
y Ask if the passenger is traveling with someone.
y Does she have a medical condition of which you should be
aware?
y Is she taking medication or has she taken any medication
recently?
y Ask about her symptoms.
y Is the scene safe for you to proceed?
y What is the nature of the illness or injury?
y Is the victim unconscious, bleeding?
y Does the victim have difficulty breathing?
y Does the victim have chest pain?
4. b, c, and d
5. Check, Call, Care

Lesson Summary
After completing this lesson you are now able to list the first aid and
medical emergency equipment that is available on board an aircraft
and what they are used for. You can also list the key steps in
responding to a medical situation or emergency on board a flight.
You also have an understanding of the different types of medical
assistance that is available on board an aircraft. This lesson further
emphasised the various ways you can protect yourself when
assisting others.
In the next lesson we will take a closer look at the AED (Automatic
External Defibrillator) and CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation).

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10.3 CPR, AED and Heimlich Maneuver


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Define CPR and AED


(automatic external
defibrillator) and explain
under what circumstance
they are used.
Explain the Heimlich
maneuver and when it is
appropriate to use it.

This lesson takes a look at the assessment phase of the medical


emergency, which will determine the steps or first aid that should be
followed. You will be introduced to three life saving techniques or
tools CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation), AED (Automated
External Defibrillator) and the Heimlich maneuver. This lesson will
define and explain rescue breathing and CPR. This lesson also
discusses the benefits of CPR when administered effectively. These
techniques save lives and are part of the knowledge and skills of
well-trained cabin crew.

10.3.1 Assisting Someone Who Has Stopped Breathing


There are many situations that might cause someone to stop
breathing such as sudden illness, allergy or a serious accident.
When someone is not breathing, brain damage and even death can
occur in minutes. As cabin crew you will be trained to assist a
person who has stopped breathing using the following techniques:
Rescue breathing is the act of breathing for a victim who is not
breathing on his or her own, yet has a pulse. It is a means that uses
your lungs to force air into the victim's lungs at regular intervals. The
timing of each breath (about 1.5 to 2 seconds per breath) mimics
normal breathing. However, the process is much more like blowing
up a balloon than real breathing. You inhale deeply, form a tight
seal with your mouth over the victims mouth, and exhale to push air
out of your mouth into theirs. You will exhale with just enough force
to see the chest rise slightly. Because you also pinch the victim's
nostrils closed, the air has nowhere to go except down into the lungs,
which expand as they fill with air. When a Resuscitation Mask is
available, you should use that to perform rescue breathing. The
Resuscitation Mask that is placed over the victims nose and mouth
creating a tight seal and you administer breaths to the victim through
a small tube. While the Resuscitation Mask also offers protection, it
also makes it much easier to accomplish rescue breathing.
Mouth-to-mouth breathing is hard work. Normally, when you
inhale, the chest muscles drive the process. In artificial respiration,
you're working against the victim's relaxed chest muscles. When the
chest muscles are relaxed, the chest cavity is small, keeping the
lungs in a deflated state. As a rescuer, you have to exhale forcefully
into the victim's mouth for 1 to 2 seconds to overcome this
resistance. As the lungs fill with air, the victim's chest is pushed up at
the same time; you can actually see it rise. When you remove your

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mouth from the victim's and break the air seal, their chest falls and
once again deflates the lungs. As in normal breathing, this results in
air being exhaled from the victim's mouth.
Reference for rescue breathing:
http://science.howstuffworks.com/cpr4.htm

10.3.2 CPR
CPR is an emergency first-aid procedure used to deliver oxygencarrying blood to the heart and brain in a person whose breathing
and heartbeat have stopped. This is extremely important in order to
prevent brain damage while more advanced medical help is on the
way.
CPR is most often needed following a heart attack that has caused a
person's heart to stop beating; a condition called cardiac arrest.
Cardiac arrest simply means the heart and lungs are not working
the heart is not breathing and there is no breathing. People may also
go into cardiac arrest and require CPR after serious injury, after
nearly drowning, a stroke or a drug overdose. In order to be effective,
CPR must begin within minutes after the victim's breathing and
heartbeat have stopped.
(http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar095225&st=C
PR)
It is important to understand that CPR extends the window of
opportunity until treatment by paramedics or other medical
professionals is available.

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CPR Basics
CPR is a first aid technique that is used to keep victims of cardiac
arrest alive and to prevent brain damage until advanced medical help
is on the scene.
CPR has two goals:
1. Keep air flowing in and out of the lungs.
2. Keep blood flowing throughout the body.
http://science.howstuffworks.com/cpr2.htm
When administering CPR you:
1. Use a Resuscitation Mask (if available) to protect yourself.
2. Blow into the victim's mouth to push oxygenated air into the
lungs. This allows oxygen to diffuse through the lining of the
lungs into the bloodstream.
3. Compress the victim's chest to artificially re-create blood
circulation.
The benefits of CPR are:
y Effective bystander CPR, provided immediately after cardiac
arrest, can double a victims chance of survival.
y CPR helps maintain vital blood flow to the heart and brain and
increases the amount of time that an electric shock from a
defibrillator can be effective.

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y Death from sudden cardiac arrest is not inevitable. If more


people knew CPR, more lives could be saved.
y Brain damage starts to occur four to six minutes after someone
experiences cardiac arrest if no CPR and defibrillation occurs
during that time.
y If bystander CPR is not provided, a sudden cardiac arrest
victims chances of survival fall 7 percent to 10 percent for every
minute of delay until defibrillation. Few attempts at resuscitation
are successful if CPR and defibrillation are not provided within
minutes of collapse.
y When sudden cardiac arrest occurs, the victim collapses,
becomes unresponsive to gentle shaking, stops normal
breathing and after two rescue breaths, still isnt breathing
normally, coughing or moving.
http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=303435
2
Does air exhaled from someone else's mouth really provide enough
oxygen to save an unconscious person?
Normally, the air you inhale contains about 20 percent oxygen by
volume, and your lungs remove about 5 percent of the oxygen in
each breath. The air you blow into a victim's mouth thus contains
about 15 to 16 percent oxygen, which is more than enough to supply
their needs. http://science.howstuffworks.com/cpr4.htm
ABC of CPR
The assessment of the passenger in need of First Aid or emergency
medical care is a crucial first step because it determines the type of
care he or she will be given. In order to best help the passenger, it is
important to properly assess his or her condition so that appropriate
care is given. (http://science.howstuffworks.com/cpr4.htm)
The ABCs of CPR is an emergency response technique used by the
responder on an unconscious victim to recognize and treat failure of
the respiratory and circulatory systems. Confirm that someone is
unconscious by calling to them, tapping them or gently shake to get
them to respond, if there is no response, follow with the ABCs. .
A Airway open and clear the airway.
B Breathing look for the chest to rise, listen for breath sounds
and feel for breath on your cheek, if the victim is not breathing give
two breaths.
C Circulation after assessing breathing and giving breaths, check
to see if the victim has a pulse and continue to assess if they can

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breath on their own. (While checking for a pulse you can watch for
the chest to rise and fall, listen for breath sounds or feel their breath
on your cheek. If the victim is not breathing and does not have a
pulse, CPR is administered).
Use this table as a guideline for assessing when Rescue Breathing
or CPR should be administered:
If the victim . . .

You should

Is breathing and has a pulse

Do not administer CPR, and


stay with the victim until
medical assistance arrives

Is not breathing and has a


pulse

Begin rescue breathing

Is not breathing and does not


have a pulse

Begin CPR

Tip: Before you apply to an airline or search for a cabin crew


position, take a basic First Aid Course with CPR for adults and
children. This will be a noteworthy addition to your resume and will
make taking the First Aid and Medical Emergency portion of the
training program with the airline easier.

10.3.3 AED (Automated External Defibrillator)


An AED is a device about the size of a laptop computer that analyzes
the heart's rhythm for any abnormalities and, if necessary, directs the
rescuer to deliver an electrical shock to the victim. This shock, called
defibrillation, may help the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm of
its own.
An AED is easy to operate. It uses voice prompts to instruct the
rescuer. Once the machine is turned on, the rescuer will be prompted
to apply two electrodes provided with the AED to the victim's chest.
Once applied, the AED will begin to monitor the victim's heart rhythm.
If a "shockable" rhythm is detected, the machine will charge itself and
instruct the rescuer to stand clear of the victim and to press the
shock button.
Although the AED is relatively easy to use, training is necessary in
order to understand how the defibrillation works in context of what is
known as the cardiac chain of survival. Training in CPR and AED
skills will enable the rescuer to use all the steps in the cardiac chain

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of survival, thereby significantly increasing the victim's chance of


survival. Most airlines carry the AED on board their aircraft.
http://www.redcross.org/services/hss/courses/aed.html

10.3.4 Heimlich Maneuver

http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/firstaid/heimlichAd.shtml
The Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrusts is a first aid procedure
used when a person has an obstructed airway or is choking and
cannot breathe.
Choking occurs when a foreign object or piece of food becomes
lodged in the throat or windpipe. Choking cuts off the supply of
oxygen to the brain and first aid must be administered as quickly as
possible.
The universal sign for choking is hands clutched to the throat.
Someone may or may not give that signal, so be observant for other
signs, such as:
y Inability to talk.
y Difficulty breathing or noisy breathing.
y Inability to cough forcefully.
y Skin, lips and nails turning blue or dusky.
y Eventual loss of consciousness.

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Common causes of choking


y Trying to swallow large pieces of poorly chewed food.
y Drinking alcohol before or during meals. Alcohol dulls the nerves
that aid in swallowing.
y Wearing dentures - dentures make it difficult to sense whether
food is fully chewed before it is swallowed.
y Eating while talking excitedly or laughing.
y Eating too fast.
y Walking, playing, or running with food or objects in the mouth.
Additional references:
http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4605
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/choking.html

10.3.5 Sample Cabin Crew Medical Training Syllabus


y Principles of first aid.
y First aid for wounds and bleeding.
y Personal protection and safety when administering first aid.
y First aid for fractures, dislocations and sprains.
y Knowledge of first aid equipment and materials.
First aid for burns.
y Assessing and managing the scene .
y First aid for head and spinal injuries.
y Artificial respiration (rescue breathing) for adults, children and
infants.
y First aid for respiratory problems.
y First aid for conscious and unconscious choking victims
adults, children and infants.
y First aid for other medical conditions (diabetes, convulsions,
abdominal distress).
y First aid for shock, unconsciousness and fainting.
First aid for altitude related conditions (motion sickness,
hyperventilation, earache).
y Cardiovascular emergencies.

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y Emergency childbirth and first aid for miscarriage.


y Cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for adults, children and
infants.
y Handling of deaths on board.
y Medical incident reporting.
Using CPR effectively on a person immediately after he or she has
experienced a cardiac arrest can double the victims chance of
survival.

Progress Check
1. Match the following terms with their definitions:
1. CPR

a. A device about the size of a laptop computer that analyses the


heart's rhythm for any abnormalities and, if necessary, directs the
rescuer to deliver an electrical shock to the victim.

2. AED

b. The act of breathing for a person who is not breathing on his or her
own but has a pulse.

3. Heimlich Maneuver

c. An emergency first-aid procedure used to deliver oxygen-carrying


blood to the heart and brain in a person whose breathing and
heartbeat have stopped.

4. Rescue Breathing

d. A first aid procedure used when a person has an obstructed airway


or is choking and cannot breathe.
2. If the person is not breathing and has a pulse you should
administer ______________.
3. The ABC of first aid is ______, ________, and _______.
4. Effective use of ____ techniques can double a persons chance
of survival after a heart attack.
5. List possible signs that someone is choking.

Answer Key
1. 1c, 2a, 3d, 4b
2. rescue breathing

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3. airway, breathing, circulation


4. CPR
5. y Inability to talk
y Difficulty breathing or noisy breathing
y Inability to cough forcefully
y Skin, lips and nails turning blue or dusky
y Eventual loss of consciousness

Lesson Summary
After completing this lesson you are now able to identify the ABC of
first aid, as well as the procedure for administering CPR effectively.
These lessons are extremely important to learn as cabin crews
because if used effectively these procedures are sometimes the only
methods available on board an aircraft to save a passengers life.

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MODULE SUMMARY
As cabin crew it is your responsibility to ensure the passengers on
board are safe and secure. It is crucial that you are able to respond
as quickly and effectively as possible to an in-flight medical
emergency. Although cabin crews are not trained medical
professionals, there are important First Aid procedures to follow that
can save a persons life. This module examined several of these
procedures, which include CPR and the Heimlich maneuver. This
module also discussed the proper way to assess the needs of a
passenger to ensure they receive the proper medical attention.
Following guidelines and procedures also ensures that protect your
self while administering First Aid. Furthermore, this module examined
the various types of medical emergency equipment on board a flight
that you or a trained medical professional may use to help someone
in need.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
The next module covers another topic that is critical to the safety and
well being of those aboard an aircraft. You will be introduced to how
to recognize dangerous goods and how to respond to them if they
pose a threat to the passengers and crew.

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11.0 Introduction to Dangerous Goods


MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
At the end of this Module you
should be able to:

Recognise what constitutes


dangerous and hazardous
materials and identify the
appropriate response or
procedure to deal with it.

As a cabin crew, it is of the utmost importance to ensure that your


safety and the safety of the passengers are secure at all times. This
module will give you the necessary tools to protect yourself and
others from danger while on the aircraft and throughout the flight. It
is extremely vital that you become familiar with dangerous goods in
order to understand their potential threat. You will also be expected
to differentiate between which goods can be brought on board or
checked and which goods are absolutely prohibited.
The cabin crew must always take the necessary precautions to
ensure that the lives of those on board are never put in harms way.
It is therefore essential to be aware of dangerous goods in order to
prevent them from being brought onto the aircraft. This module will
provide you with the knowledge you require to recognise harmful
materials and protect passengers from being exposed to them.
Lastly, this module lists the appropriate measures that must be taken
in the event that dangerous goods are brought on board. As cabin
crew, it is your duty to follow certain procedures in such high-risk
situations. These procedures will be outlined in this module. In
addition, all cabin crew is trained on these procedures in order to
ensure you are prepared to deal with the situation, if it does arise.

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11.1 Dangerous Goods


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

List and describe


characteristics of dangerous
goods.

Explain why important to


recognise dangerous goods.

When passengers prepare for a trip, they often pack many household
items in their luggage. What they are not aware of, however, is that
certain items can be classified as dangerous goods and can pose a
threat to the safety of the aircraft. People do not realise that a simple
everyday item such as hairspray can be viewed as a dangerous good
with the potential to cause harm, in certain circumstances. Items
such as these require certain restrictions in order to remain safe.
After this lesson, you will have a better understanding of how you can
recognise dangerous goods and the effects they can have when
brought onto an aircraft. It is extremely critical that as cabin crew,
you familiarise yourself with this information, as the safety and well
being of all those on board should always be your highest priority.

11.1.1 What are Dangerous Goods?

Did you know?


Dangerous goods are
sometimes referred to as
hazardous materials or
HAZMAT.

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Dangerous goods are classified according to different categories


according to certain criteria that determine whether they can be
brought onto an aircraft. As cabin crew, you will often come into
contact with items brought onto the aircraft that seem to be ordinary
yet may cause harm to passengers. Although dangerous goods will
not necessarily cause harm under ordinary circumstances, they all
can pose certain risks to health, safety, property and/or the
environment. Even if the threat is only extremely minimal, it is still
your duty and obligation as crew to make sure this threat does not
become a reality.
Dangerous goods can refer to everyday household items that may
not seem to be threatening while we use them in our homes. It is
hard to imagine that the items we use everyday could put us in any
serious danger. However, being 9000 meters above the ground
places us in a completely different environment than the one we are
used to. The vibration, pressure and temperature changes that occur
while in flight can have a strong effect on certain items, and therefore
flying increases the risk while traveling with these items. Common
household items such as laundry starch, paints or cleaners could
cause fire or corrosion and damage to the structure of the aircraft if
they were to leak. One must also keep in mind that while different
items are considered dangerous goods on their own, in situations
where two different dangerous goods are placed next to each other
they can cause a serious chemical reaction. This is one of the
reasons why certain items that do not seem dangerous are restricted

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in transport. The threat lies in the items that are undeclared by


passengers and brought on board or are packed in checked luggage.
Examples of dangerous items that passengers have tried or
succeeded in bringing on board include culinary blowtorches,
fireworks and petrol.

11.1.2 Regulations and Standards


ICAO regulates dangerous goods being brought onto the aircraft in
order to prevent passengers and crews from being placed at
additional risk. Transport and handling standards exist in order to
ensure your safety as well as the safety of all those who board the
aircraft. The standards also ensure that safe transportation is
maintained and that crews are prepared to respond appropriately if a
dangerous goods incident occurs on the aircraft.
As cabin crew you will receive specific and detailed training on this
topic so that you understand what dangerous goods are, as well as
recognize and handle undeclared dangerous goods that may be
brought into the cabin and respond appropriately in the event of a
dangerous goods incident or accident. There are different levels or
types of training based on a persons position and their role in the
safe transport or shipping of dangerous goods. The ICAO Technical
Instructions require that cabin crew, passenger handling personnel
and security screening personnel become familiar with the
philosophy of regulations, limitations of dangerous goods, marking
and labeling requirements, recognition of undeclared dangerous
goods, provisions applicable to passengers and crew, emergency
procedures and reporting of incidents or accidents involving
dangerous goods.
Each airline will have its own written policies and requirements based
on the ICAO Technical Instructions and in some cases the policies
may be more restrictive. You are responsible to know and adhere to
the airlines requirements as well as the reporting and response
procedures outlined in training and company manuals. Your
responsibilities as cabin crew in this area are key to the essential
safety of the aircraft, passengers and crew.

11.1.3 Classifications of Dangerous Goods


It may at first seem difficult to decide what consists as a dangerous
good and what does not. However, dangerous goods are classified
according to criteria determined by the United Nations Committee of
Experts and in general are divided into classes based on the specific
chemical or characteristics that pose the risk. The classification
determines the acceptability of the item for air transport.

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It is important to know the various classifications of dangerous goods


in order to know what is permitted on board and what may pose a
more serious threat. There are three main classifications of
dangerous goods:
1. Dangerous goods which are absolutely prohibited from being on
board any aircraft include Compressed gases, explosives
(fireworks, flares), poisons, insecticides
2. Dangerous goods which are prohibited under normal
circumstances but may be carried on board with specific
approvals include small oxygen cylinders for medical use, heat
producing articles such as diving lamps
3. Dangerous goods which are restricted from being brought in the
cabin of the aircraft but can be carried in cargo include
ammunition (cartridges for weapons excluding explosives) in
limited quantities

11.1.4 Why Dangerous Goods At All?


At this point, you may be asking yourself a very valid question if
there is such a risk with dangerous goods, why are they permitted at
all? It seems that anything that may pose even the slightest threat
should be banned from being brought on board an aircraft. However,
traveling by air is often the only available method to transport a large
variety of items.
Commercial demand necessitates that dangerous goods be
transported by an airplane, as this is the fastest and most efficient
way to transfer items to remote places. Some dangerous goods are
also needed for the operation of the aircraft itself, such as aircraft
fuel, batteries, fire extinguishers and life rafts.
Travelers often also require bringing dangerous goods onto an
airplane, as many of the personal and household items we use every
day, such as hairspray can be classified as dangerous goods.
There are certain items which people wish to bring on their trips and,
because the threat can be contained, they are permitted to do so.
However, items that fall into this category have strict restrictions on
the quantity that is allowed to be brought onto the aircraft.
There are several examples of dangerous household items which are
permitted to be brought onto an aircraft in certain quantities:
y Medicine that contains alcohol
y Toiletries that contain alcohols such as hairspray, perfume and
cologne

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y Alcoholic beverages (when in retail packaging)


y Electronic devices that contain lithium or lithium ion batteries like
those in watches, cameras, and cellular phones
Items such as perfumes and alcoholic beverages are classified under
dangerous goods but are used for cabin service during flight. In
these cases, the aircraft operator is exempt from the provision limits
when carrying these items.
The FAA lists all personal items considered dangerous goods or
hazardous. They outline which of these items are permitted aboard
an aircraft. Visit the following website for a complete list:
http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ash/
ash_programs/hazmat/aircarrier_info/
Even though these guidelines are published by the US government,
they reflect general practice in many countries. Once again, it is
advisable that you check with your each airline for their specific
guidelines and regulations.

Progress Check
1. What are dangerous goods?
2. Potential risks of dangerous goods _______ when they are
transported in cargo or in the cabin of an aircraft.
3. _______ regulates the transport of dangerous goods by air.
4. Explain why as a cabin crew member it is important for you to
recognise dangerous goods and how they should be transported.

Answer Key
1. Dangerous goods are articles or substances which are capable
of posing a risk to health, safety, property or to the environment
during operation or transportation
2. increase
3. ICAO
4. To prevent items from being brought into the cabin that could
impact the safety of passengers and the flight.

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Lesson Summary
Dangerous goods can pose a risk to health, safety property and the
environment. Through training, you will become familiar with the
various procedures and guidelines that must be followed when
dealing with dangerous goods. It is important to know these
guidelines extremely well in order to ensure that everyone on board
is prevented from being harmed in any way.
There are many dangerous goods which, although may pose a
threat, are permitted to be brought on the aircraft as long as they
meet the imposed airline standards. In order to ensure everyones
safety, you will need to know which items are permitted, as well as
their acceptable quantities. Knowledge of dangerous goods will
enable you to perform the most important task of being a crew
protecting the lives and overall well-being of all those on the aircraft.

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11.2 Hasard Class Definitions - Identification


and Recognition
LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify the standardised


labels and markings for
dangerous goods.

Now that you are familiar with dangerous goods and their potential
threat, it is essential that you learn the hasard class definitions. This
lesson will teach you the various classes of dangerous goods.
Dangerous goods not only can harm your health, but they can also
affect the operation of the aircraft. By having the tools to identify the
markings of these materials, you can help ensure the aircraft will
operate smoothly. By learning this information and being able to
recognise hasardous labels you will be able to prevent dangerous
goods from being brought onto the aircraft, which could cause
serious harm to both you and other passengers.

11.2.1 Dangerous Goods or Hasard Class Definitions


Dangerous goods are divided into 9 classes, each reflecting the type
of risk involved. It is important to note, however, that the number
associated with each class does not signify it being more or less
dangerous than another class. For example, Class 1 is not more
dangerous than Class 2. However, cabin crew must learn about all
classes of dangerous goods because they can be harmful and pose
a risk to safety.
Divisions are expressed with two digit numbers, the first number
being the class number and the second being the variation within that
class. For example, explosives are Class 1 and ammunition falls into
that class and is defined as Division1.4.
Each class is paired with a standardised label called a hasard label
and these labels are key to alerting you of the risk of the items
contents. By memorizing which label belongs to which class, you will
be able to understand the danger of a specific item and protect
yourself and others from being harmed by its contents. Nevertheless,
as cabin crew is it also critical to be able to recognise which items fall
in which category as many items brought on board by passengers
may not have these labels on them, yet they still pose a potential
threat.
Each class and division has a corresponding hasard label. Hasard
Labels are in the shape of a diamond and must have a minimum
dimension of 100 x 100 mm. Most labels will have the text of the
hazard on them and those that do not can be identified by the shape,
color and symbol. The 9 classes of dangerous goods and their
corresponding labels are as follows:

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Three letter cargo codes are assigned to each class or division so


that it is easy to communicate that dangerous goods are present on
flight documents, cargo manifests and notifications to the captain.
The following chart specifies the class, type and division of
dangerous goods.
CLASS

TYPE

DIVISION

Class 1

Explosives

TNT, dynamite

Class 2

Gases

hydrogen, nitrogen,
chlorine

Class 3

Flammable Liquids

diethyl ether, petrol,


kerosene

Class 4

Flammable Solids

magnesium, white
phosphorus, sodium

Class 5

Oxidizing
Substances and
Organic Peroxides

hydrogen peroxide,
benzoyl peroxides

Class 6

Toxic and
Infectious
Substances

hydrofluoric acid,
pesticides, virus
cultures

Class 7

Radioactive
Material

uranium, plutonium

Class 8

Corrosive
Substances

sulfuric acid,
potassium hydroxide

Class 9

Miscellaneous
Dangerous
Substances

asbestos, dry ice

Key Learning Point


Dangerous goods are
divided into 9 classes
reflecting the type of risk
involved. Most of the
classes also have divisions
within the class. Specific
criteria determine whether or
not an item belongs to a
class or division.
Standardised labels called
hazard labels correspond to
each class that alert one to
the risk with the contents.

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General categories and labels may also be found at


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dangerous_goods
http://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/hazmat/placards
http://www.roadsafeeurope.com/

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Progress Check
1. Dangerous goods are divided into 7 classes. TRUE or FALSE
2. Each of these classes is further divided into smaller divisions.
TRUE or FALSE
3. The minimum dimension of a hasard label is 100 x 100 mm.
TRUE or FALSE
4. List the classes of dangerous goods and their names.

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Answer Key
1. False
2. False
3. True
4.
Class 1

Explosives

Class 2

Gases

Class 3

Flammable Liquids

Class 4

Flammable Solids

Class 5

Oxidizing Substances and Organic


Peroxides

Class 6

Toxic and Infectious Substances

Class 7

Radioactive Material

Class 8

Corrosive Substances

Class 9

Miscellaneous Dangerous
Substances

Lesson Summary
Dangerous goods can be recognised and identified by looking at their
labels. There are 9 classes of dangerous goods and many have subdivisions within each class. Each class has its own corresponding
label(s) and by having a strong knowledge of these labels, you will be
able to know the risks of each specific item which you may encounter
as a crew.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
The next module deals with another issue that also directly affects
the safety of passengers and crew, aviation security.

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11.3 Precautionary Measures - Enforcement and


Reporting
LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Explain standardised
procedures followed in case
of suspect items and
materials on board an
aircraft.
Explain the enforcement and
reporting of dangerous
goods.

You now have a solid understanding of dangerous goods and their


potential to cause harm if brought onto an aircraft. Your knowledge
of classifications and labels of dangerous goods will help you
recognise harmful substances. However, recognising a dangerous
substance is not enough to prevent it from endangering the lives of
other crews and passengers. You must also know how to properly
respond to dangerous goods being brought on board, in order to fully
prevent a dangerous goods accident or incident from occurring
during flight.
This lesson will provide you with various signals that you must look
for as cabin crew, which will help you to identify if a passenger is
bringing a dangerous good onto the aircraft. You will learn ways in
which you should respond to passengers who you may suspect are
carrying dangerous materials while they are boarding the flight. You
will also learn the proper routines that you must follow in the event of
a dangerous goods incident.
Being a cabin crewmember means that it is your job to care for the
welfare of all of those who join you on each and every flight. By
preparing yourself to efficiently and effectively respond to
occurrences involving dangerous goods, you will be able to stop a
disastrous situation from taking place before it ever begins.

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Taking Precautions
There are general protocols to follow when dealing with a dangerous
goods accident or incident in the passenger cabin during flight.
Incidents involving dangerous goods must be reported to the
authorities of the State of the operator (airline) and of the State in
which the incident occurred. This is done so that appropriate
measures can be taken to prevent a reoccurrence of the incident or
accident. However, these types of accidents or incidents can be
entirely prevented from ever happening, if you are cautious in your
inspection and always on the lookout for suspicious items.
Preventative Action
Passengers may knowingly, or unknowingly, bring dangerous goods
on board an aircraft. Your challenge as crew is to be aware of
suspicious items or packages that are deemed a dangerous goods
item or could pose a threat to in-flight safety. Although you may be
aware of dangerous items which are clearly labeled and marked, you
must also be alert of items which are not so obvious. It is the items
that are unmarked that often pose the greatest threat, as they are not
necessarily visible to the unsuspecting eye.
Signs that packages and carry-on items that a passenger brings on
board are a potential problem include the following:
y Package is leaking
y Package has a strong odor
y You can hear strange sounds such as liquid sloshing
y The parts are clanging
It is important that you act swiftly if your instinct tells you that
something is not right. In these situations you must approach the
customer and ask appropriate and non-confrontational questions that
will allow you to gather more information about the contents. You
should try to ensure that passengers do not feel they are being
attacked or accused and understand that you are first and foremost
trying to look out for their interests. If you have any doubts or
concerns after speaking with the passengers in question, you must
notify your senior cabin crew and the captain. Safety is about
prevention and appropriate questions in advance can alleviate a
problem and potential threat for all later on. How you ask the
question is also very important. See below for some examples:

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Inappropriate

Appropriate

Excuse me, your carry-on


bag seems to be leaking
something, it must be
removed from the aircraft.

Sir, I notice your luggage appears


to have a stain on it that indicates it
is leaking, do you have any idea
what might be causing that?

Dont you know that you


cant bring camping
equipment on board the
aircraft?

I notice that you are carrying


camping gear, do you have any
items that might be considered
hasardous?

Responses to Dangerous Goods Incidents


Although you must do your best from preventing a dangerous goods
incident or accident from occurring, you must still know how to
respond if and when an incident does occur. You can find general
response parameters in the ICAO emergency response guide.
During your training, the airline will teach you appropriate responses
based on these parameters and those that are part of their
procedures and manuals.
Here are the necessary responses that you must follow in case of a
dangerous goods incident while in-flight:
Initial Action
y Notify Pilot in Command.
y Identify the Item and avoid direct contact with the package or
the item IN CASE OF FIRE.
y Use standard procedures (refer to Module 9).
y Be mindful of the cause of the fire and the location of the
nearest extinguisher.
In Case Of Spills Or Leakage
y Obtain emergency response kit or other personal protective
items (rubber gloves, smoke hood, goggles and in some cases
a visor).
y Move passengers away from area and distribute wet towels or
cloths if fumes or smoke make breathing difficult.
y If possible, place dangerous goods item in polyethylene bags or
appropriate containers from response kit.

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y Stow the bags or containers away from passengers and crew or


from where they could cause harm or damage.
y Treat the affected area (seat cushions, covers) as dangerous
goods and handle accordingly.
y Cover spills or leaks on the floor.
Your personal health and safety are extremely important. Therefore it
is critical that you follow all the necessary steps to prevent the risk of
personal harm or injury.

Steps to take if you come in contact with dangerous goods


Wash the affected area with water.
Remove contaminated clothing.
Refrain from eating or smoking and make sure to keep hands
away from eyes, mouth and nose.
Seek medical assistance for appropriate follow-up care in order to
make sure that you are protected from the long term effects of
contact with the dangerous good.

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Progress Check
1. Incidents involving dangerous goods must be reported to the
authorities of the State of the operator and of the State in which
the incident occurred. TRUE or FALSE
2. Your chief obligation as cabin crew is that the flight departs on
time. TRUE or FALSE
3. What are some suspicious elements to determine the presence
of dangerous goods?
4. In case of spills or leakage, what are some general responses to
follow?
5. What are the two initial actions to take when you or others come
in contact with dangerous goods?

Answer Key
1. True
2. False
3. Leaking, strong odor, strange sounds such as liquid sloshing or
parts clanging.
4. i.

Obtain emergency response kit or other personal protective


items (rubber gloves, smoke hood, goggles, visor)

ii.

Move passengers away from area and distribute wet towels


or cloths if fumes or smoke make breathing difficult

iii. If possible, place dangerous goods item in polyethylene bags


or appropriate containers from response kit
iv. Stow the bags or containers away from passengers and crew
or from where they could cause harm or damage
v.

Treat the affected area (seat cushions, covers) as dangerous


goods and handle accordingly

vi. Cover spills or leaks on the floor

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5. i.
ii.

Notify Pilot in Command


Identify the item and avoid direct contact with the package or
the item

Lesson Summary
If a dangerous goods incident takes place while in-flight, you must
take initial action and follow the guidelines in the event of a fire or
spillage or leakage. You must take all the necessary precautions to
ensure that no harm comes to you or anyone on board the aircraft.
Above all other responsibilities in your role, your chief obligation as a
cabin crew is the safety of the passengers and aircraft.

MODULE SUMMARY
In this Module, you became familiar with dangerous goods and their
potential threat to passengers and crew aboard an aircraft. You can
now differentiate between which goods that are permitted to be
brought on board or checked and which goods are absolutely
prohibited.
This module provided you with the knowledge you require in order to
recognise dangerous goods and protect passengers from being
exposed to them.
You are now able to list the appropriate measures that must be taken
in the event that dangerous goods are brought on board. You can
also list the actions and procedures to take in the event of fire, spills
and leakage of dangerous goods.
In the next module you will learn about another critical topic in the
safety of passengers and air travel, aviation security.

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12.0 Aviation Security


MODULE OVERVIEW
As discussed in previous modules the primary responsibility for the
cabin crew is the safety, welfare and comfort of passengers. The
safety of the crew and passengers is based on two main factors:

Module Learning
Objectives
At the end of this Module you
should be able to:

Identify the current threats to


todays aviation industry.

y The Technical and Mechanical Factor: the airworthiness of


the aircraft or to what degree the airplane is ready to fly
y The Human Factor: the ability of the crew and passengers to
follow procedures during take-off, during the flight and while
landing.
It is also critical to respond appropriately and efficiently during an
emergency. Security in air travel involves protecting against threats
to passengers, crew and aircraft, which are most often caused by
hijackings or hostage taking, bombs, or even abusive/threatening
passengers.
As cabin crew you are the front line response to any of these threats
and it is essential that you be prepared to reduce the threat and
ensure safety of all people on board. This module introduces you to
the current threats in todays aviation environment providing only an
overview of these threats in order to raise your awareness of these
issues. Keep in mind that each airline requires extensive training on
how to respond to threats during the basic cabin crew training.

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12.1 Threats to the Industry - Bomb Threats,


Hostage/Hijacking, Threatening or Abusive
Passengers
LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives

The aviation industry has been and continues to be an attractive


target for many reasons. This industry receives a lot of media and
political attention and has large commercial value and prestige. For
these reasons, events involving hijackings, breaches of security and
criminal acts on aircraft have been increasing.

Upon completion of this lesson


you should be able to:

Identify and describe the


major threats to the aviation
industry.

12.1.1 Who Poses a Threat?


Many different types of people can inflict such acts but terrorists with
political or criminal motives have mostly organized recent threats
against the aviation industry. You are probably asking yourself,
What kind of person would attempt such dreadful acts against
people and property? This is a difficult question to answer, but it is
important to understand what motivates these individuals or groups
ot perpetrate these criminal acts. Below is a partial list of what drives
individuals or groups to commit these acts of terror and sabotage:
y Gaining publicity for a cause.
y Release of prisoners or other terrorists.
y To change government policy.
y To undermine and discredit those who oppose them.
y To frighten the public and disrupt normal life and business.

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y To obtain money by threat or blackmail.


As was evident with the attacks on the World Trade Center in New
York on September 11, 2001 threats involving the aviation industry
also include:
y Attacks that cause casualty on a large scale.
y Attacks against a symbolic target.
y Willingness for suicide or dying for the cause.
y Greater use of employees and gaining access to inside industry
information.

12.1.2 Major Threats to the Aviation Industry


Various types of threats to the aviation industry include hijacking,
facility attacks and sabotage. These can be defined as follows:
Hijacking (Unlawful Seizure) - Hijackings occur when individuals or
groups smuggle weapons or arms on board and take control of the
flight deck. These hijackers are organized and use intimidation and
fear to control passengers and crew.
Flight 847, TWA, June 1985.
The Hijacking of 727 where passengers and crew were held hostage
for 14 days. Uli Derickson, the purser is noted for her heroic actions
and courage during the ordeal. Websites referenced below. Also a
made for TV movie called The Flight. She continued her airline
career after the incident and passed away in February 2005. This is a
great example of how the clear thinking and courage of a member of
the cabin crew saved lives.
http://www.airodyssey.net/articles/hijack.html
Attempted Seizure or hijacking this refers to a failed attempt to
hijack an airplane.
Example of an attempted seizure: Flight 019 National Airlines,
July 2000.
An armed individual walked past a security checkpoint at New Yorks
JFK Airport and on to National Airlines flight 019 to Las Vegas.
Passengers were boarding as the armed man ran onto the airplane.
He immediately encountered the cabin crew ordered her to close the
airplane door. He moved through the first class cabin and into the
cockpit with his gun drawn and he then ordered the captain to fly
South.

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Passengers who had noticed the gunman started to leave the aircraft
and the cabin crew in the rear of the plane deployed the slides
allowing those in the rear of the aircraft to escape. Police arrived
within minutes of being notified, surrounded the plane and began
negotiations with the gunman. The captain and first officer were
released and the gunman surrendered peacefully. He was charged
with air piracy. One hundred and twenty-four passengers and seven
members of the crew were on the plane at the time of the incident
and they were all able to escape.
http://www.tsa.gov/interweb/assetlibrary/Criminal_Acts_Against_Civil
_Aviation_2000.pdf
Facility Attack (airports, cargo facilities, off-airport aviation related
facilities, crew hotels).
Example of a facility attack: On December 24, 1985, the
revolutionary group GAR claimed responsibility for the bombing of a
Lisbon ticket office for the Spanish National Airlines as a protest for
the death of a young Basque who was killed in policy custody.
www.tkb.org/Incident.jsp?incID=4448
Attempted Facility Attack this refers to a failed attempt to attack a
facility or aircraft.
Acts of Sabotage - Sabotage is accomplished with the use of
explosive or flammable devices or a combination of both. Bombs
and materials used for sabotage can be quite sophisticated but in
some cases quite simple. Although there are strict security
measures in place in most airports and aircraft, it is necessary to be
aware of the fact that some individuals use themselves as the vessel
to carry and detonate an explosive device. It is no longer only an
item that is left unattended. These suicide bombers are prepared to
be a victim of the explosive device. They can carry the device on
their person or store it in their checked luggage. These acts of
sabotage are also used in facility attacks and not only on aircraft.
Attempted Sabotage This refers to a failed attempt at sabotage of
a facility or aircraft.
Nezar Hindawi was found guilty of attempting to blow up an El Al
aircraft. He planted plastic explosives within his girlfriends luggage
(without her knowledge) and said he would join her on a later flight.
The plot was stopped when a security official searched her bag
suspicious because it was too heavy for its size.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/24/newsid_2
478000/2478505.stm

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Progress Check
1. List and define the six major threats to the aviation industry.
2. Identify the types of people or groups who are a threat to the
aviation industry. Select all that apply.
a) Terrorists
b) Mentally disturbed
c) Refugees
d) Disgruntled employees
e) All of the above.
3. List and explain five motives behind hijacking airplanes.

Answer Key
1. y

Hijacking

Attempted Seizure

Facility Attack

Attempted Facility Attack

Acts of Sabotage

Attempted Sabotage

2. e
3. y

Gaining publicity for a cause

Release of prisoners or other terrorists

To change government policy

To undermine and discredit those who oppose them

To frighten the public and disrupt normal life and business

To obtain money by threat or blackmail

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Lesson Summary
There have been many threats to the aviation industry. Media and
government attention are some of the reasons why the aviation
industry is considered high profile.
These acts of violence and destruction on the aviation industry are
usually committed by terrorists, criminals, mentally disturbed
individuals, refugees taking desperate measures to draw attention to
their plight, and even disgruntled employees who are either
emotionally disturbed or have criminal intentions.
Some reasons for these attacks include: gaining publicity for a cause,
to change government policy, or to frighten the public and disrupt
normal life and business.

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12.2 Recognising and Responding to


Suspicious Activities, Disruptive
Passengers and Other Threats
LESSON OVERVIEW
Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

As we have seen in Module 8: Managing Passenger Interactions,


one or more of the passengers might become disruptive during any
given flight, posing a threat to the safety and security of passengers
and aircraft. These incidents have to be taken seriously and as cabin
crew you will be expected to respond in a timely and calm manner.
This lesson explains what might cause a passenger to become
disruptive and to what degree this behaviour causes a security risk.
This lesson also explains what the response of the cabin crew should
be when confronted by a disruptive passenger.

List behaviors that might


indicate a potential threat to
passengers and crew.

List the possible responses


of the cabin crew when
facing a disruptive
passenger.

There are several security agencies that share your responsibilities.


This lesson also provides you with a list of these agencies, their
goals and the situations that they will be called on for help.

List the agencies that


support aviation security and
provide assistance in time of
threat.

12.2.1 Disruptive Passengers

List the goals of these


security agencies.

Disruptive passengers are those who prevent cabin crew from


performing their duties and therefore are a threat to aviation security.
When a passengers behaviour is disruptive it is a safety issue that
has to be taken seriously, therefore any suspicious behavior or
activity observed by the cabin crew should be investigated and dealt
with appropriately. This lesson will describe the appropriate steps to
be taken when a passenger exhibits behavior that is threatening,
abusive or has the potential to threaten the safety of the flight.
These incidents are hard to deal with but they are part of the job. As
cabin crew you need to be prepared to take the necessary steps to
handle disruptive passengers in a calm and efficient manner. It is
best to be vigilant of potential incidents by disruptive passengers and
to be proactive, helping to diffuse disruptive and potentially violent
behaviour. Excessive alcohol consumption and nicotine withdrawal
symptom of smokers tend to be a contributor to many disruptive
passenger incidents.
Keep it on the ground and off the aircraft!
Be aware of how passengers are behaving as they board the aircraft.
If passengers are acting suspicious or behaving in a threatening
manner during the boarding process the cabin crew should take
steps to investigate and determine whether or not a passenger needs

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to be removed from the flight prior to take-off, or prevented from


boarding in the first place.
Situations that occur in flight are a bit more challenging to handle but
the approach should be to deal with the passenger in a way that will
avoid escalation of the behavior into one that is more threatening or
violent. What starts out as a small incident can escalate rapidly if not
handled appropriately by the cabin crew. Airlines provide clear
guidelines and procedures to follow with specific types of behaviors
or incidents. Look out for the following situations that indicate a
disruptive passenger include:
y Verbal harassment of crew or other passengers.
y Threatening to cause harm.
y Touching crew or other passengers inappropriately or
aggressively.
y Unresponsiveness to cabin crew or captains instructions.
y Violating published and stated rules (smoking in lavatories,
unauthorized use of portable electronic devices).
y Attempting to gain access to the flight deck.
y Interfering with exits or emergency equipment.
y Excessive alcohol consumption.

12.2.2 Response to Disruptive Passengers

280

Level

Description

Specific Examples

Response

Level 1

Passenger exhibits
disruptive behaviour
and complies with cabin
crew request. No
further action is
required.

A passenger has
started an argument
with another
passenger across the
aisle. Their language
and tone is
inappropriate, you
offer another seat so
they are not near
each other.

Your first response is


to address the
behavior and diffuse
the situation and
prevent escalation
into something more
serious. Indicate to
the passenger the
need to stop and
comply with crew
instructions.

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Level 2

Passenger is
unresponsive to you
and continues to be
disruptive and does not
follow instructions.

It has been
determined that a
passenger has been
smoking for a second
time in the lavatory.
The senior cabin
crew had instructed
the passenger
previously, that
smoking was not
allowed at any time
on the flight and that
the passenger must
comply.

It is recommended
that a written warning
be given to the
passenger stating the
implications of
continuing the
behavior or
disruptions.

Level 3

A level 3 incident can


be described as any
one or combination of
the following:

The passenger
shoves a crew
member who
approaches and
punches another
passenger trying to
calm him down.

Certain situations
may call for
immediate restraint
and diversion.

Continuing
Interference with Crew
Duties after two
previous warning.
Cabin crew or
passenger is injured or
subject to a serious
threat of injury.

The Captain has


ultimate authority on
any security issue
and the response
required.

Restraint device
must be used to control
the passenger to
maintain the safety of
the aircraft, crew and
passengers.
Diversion or
unscheduled landing is
made.
If you witness or are involved in an incident as cabin crew you will
most likely be expected to complete a company document or provide
a written statement. Proper documentation helps the airline and other
authorities to understand the incident and the situation. This
information is very helpful in the event that the perpetrators are
brought to trial.

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It is also important to keep in mind that any incident could also be a


diversion for another larger incident or an attempt to distract the
crew. Cabin crew should be careful in maintaining the security of the
flight deck door preventing unauthorized access to the flight deck and
as a result continue to follow all procedures regarding access and
entry to the flight deck, even in routine situations.
Many airline cabin crew, training programs now also offer selfdefense training for cabin crew to protect themselves if attacked.
Cabin crew will also receive training on the appropriate use of
restraint devices in the event that an out of control passenger needs
to be restrained. Restraint devices are kept in a secure location on
the aircraft and should be used only with the approval and
consultation of the Captain.
All disruptive passenger incidents must be reported and appropriately
documented according to company policy. If you witness or are
involved in an incident as cabin crew you will most likely be expected
to complete a company document or provide a written statement.
Proper documentation helps the airline and other authorities to
understand the incident and the situation. This information is very
helpful in the event that the perpetrators are brought to trial.
Below is an example of an incident report for a disruptive passenger:

Sample flight disturbance report to be filled out in case of an incident


with a disruptive passenger.

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The following is an excerpt from the Tokyo Convention, Article 6,


which refers to the Captains authority to protect the safety of aircraft,
passengers and crew.
Tokyo Convention - Article 6 (excerpt)
1. The aircraft commander may, when he has reasonable grounds to
believe that a person has committed, or is about to commit, an
offence or act on board the aircraft contemplated in Article 1
paragraph 1:
Impose upon such person reasonable measures including restraints
which are necessary; (a) to protect the safety of the aircraft, or of
persons or property therein; or (b) to maintain good order and
discipline on board; or (c) to enable him to deliver such person to
competent authorities or to disembark him in accordance with the
provisions of this Chapter.
2. The aircraft commander may require or authorise the assistance of
other cabin crew and may request or authorize, but not require, the
assistance of passengers to restrain any person whom he is entitled
to restrain. Any crew member or passenger may also take
reasonable preventive measures without such authorization when he
has reasonable grounds to believe that such action is immediately
necessary to protect the safety of the aircraft or of persons or
property therein.
There are several agencies that support aviation security and provide
assistance in time of threat or security incident. It is important to
know who they are and in what situations they will be called in to help
so that you are prepared when a threatening situation occurs. These
agencies may be called upon to intervene or provide assistance with
incidents involving disruptive passengers, threats against passengers
or crew, actual injury or death on board. Which agency or agencies
involved with depend on the given situation and where the incident is
taking place, that is, if it is on the ground, during boarding or in flight.
Following are the agencies that may get involved when responding to
security threats:

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y Airport Police or other specialised police agencies (SWAT


Teams or Special Weapons and Tactics Team, Intelligence
Agencies).
y Military.
y Specialist hostage release agencies.
y Airport authority and airport management.
y Airport aviation security units.
y Fire and rescue services.
y Medical and hospital services.
y Crisis management teams.
These agencies share the following common goals and strategies:
1. The safety of the passengers, crew, ground personnel and public
are the most important.
2. To get the aircraft on the ground, and keep it there, in the event
of an incident during a flight.
3. To detain and prosecute the perpetrators and to protect property.

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The agencies are called in for the following security related threats.
1. Violence against a person or aircraft
2. Unlawful use of a weapon, device or substance
3. Bomb Threats
4. Hijacking
5. Causing damage or destruction to an aircraft, or airport and
navigation facilities

Progress Check
1. List the eight potential threatening behaviors towards cabin crew
and passengers.
2. Members of cabin crew have ultimate authority on any security
issue and the response required. TRUE or FALSE
3. Restraint devices are present and kept in a secure location on
the aircraft. TRUE or FALSE

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4. For each scenario below, write in the level of response and


explain what your best response would be.
Scenario

Level

Response

Passenger appears to be
under the influence of
alcohol and during the flight
is stumbling in the aisles
and making irrational
statements
During flight a passenger
runs up the aisle towards an
aircraft exit and attempts to
open the door in-flight.
Passenger has been
advised a second time to
refrain from smoking while
standing in the aisle.
You see a woman leave the
lavatory carrying cigarettes
and matches. As you enter
the lavatory you notice the
smell of cigarette smoke
and suspect that it was she.
5. List at least five of the eight agencies that support aviation
security and provide assistance in time of threat.
6. List the three goals of these security agencies.
7. List three security situations that law enforcement and
government agencies will respond to.

Answer Key
1. y

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Verbal harassment of crew or other passengers

Threatening to cause harm

Touching crew or other passengers inappropriately

Unresponsiveness to cabin crew or captains instructions

Violating published and stated rules (smoking in lavatories,


unauthorized use of portable electronic devices)

Attempting to gain access to the flight deck

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Interfering with exits or emergency equipment

Excessive alcohol consumption

2. False
3. True
4.
Scenario

Level

Response

Passenger appears to be
under the influence of
alcohol and during the flight
is stumbling in the aisles
and making irrational
statements

Have passenger return to his/her


seat, offer water or something to
drink. Encourage him/her to sleep
or rest. Notify other cabin crew to
and the purser to insure that alcohol
is not served to the passenger for
the remainder of the flight.

During flight a passenger


runs up the aisle towards an
aircraft exit and attempts to
open the door in-flight.

Gain assistance from other cabin


crew or passengers to restrain
individual, notify captain.

Passenger has been


advised a second time to
refrain from smoking while
standing in the aisle.

Provide written warning; advise


purser and captain and implications
of continued non-compliance.
Continue to monitor the passenger
during the flight.

You see a woman leave the


lavatory carrying cigarettes
and matches. As you enter
the lavatory you notice the
smell of cigarette smoke
and suspect that it was she.

Check the smoke detector for


tampering, verify that the cigarette
or matches were not thrown into the
trash or are smoldering anywhere in
the area.
Approach the passenger and calmly
ask if she had been smoking in the
lavatory. Advise of the restriction
for smoking on the flight, in the
lavatory or for tampering with the
detection equipment and that all
passengers must comply with this
rule.
Notify purser of actions and monitor
passenger during flight.

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5. y

Specialised police agencies with jurisdiction

Military

Specialist hostage release agencies

Airport authority and airport management

Airport aviation security units

Fire and rescue services

Medical and hospital services

Crisis management teams

6. y

The safety of the passengers, crew, ground personnel and


general public are the most important.

To get the aircraft on the ground, and keep it there.

To detain and prosecute the perpetrators and to protect


property.

7. y

Violence against a person or aircraft

Unlawful use of a weapon, device or substance

Bomb Threats

Hijacking

Causing damage or destruction to an aircraft, or airport and


navigation facilities

Lesson Summary
The most important skill to have in terms of security is awareness.
You are now able to recognise and respond to the more common
threats to passengers and crew. And keep in mind that you are not
alone. There are several agencies that support aviation security that
share your responsibilities. Keep in mind the situations that they can
help you with when a threat occurs.

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12.3 Cabin Crews Role in Aviation Security


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Explain the role and


responsibilities of the cabin
crew in maintaining strict
security measures as
required in the aviation
industry.

A great deal of time and money is spent on trying to prevent acts of


terrorism and sabotage. In an attempt to do so, all employees in the
aviation industry must complete training to recognize a potential
threat and respond appropriately to minimize harm to people and
damage to property.
It is essential that all employees in the aviation industry be aware that
they can be used, without their knowledge, to gain access and
information to airports and aircraft. For this reason, everyone is
personally responsible for strictly following all security measures to a
high level.
The Role of the Cabin Crew in Security
The cabin crew plays a very active and visible role in maintaining
strict security measures. You not only have the responsibility of
identifying a potential threat from any of the passengers but you also
must maintaining confidentially regarding the information that you
learn about aircrafts and your airline during your certification training.
Information, documents and training techniques should be kept
confidential and not shared with anyone outside your company or
who is not authorised to know this information.
Many of the most basic tasks you perform to protect yourself and
your passengers will also help you in regards to maintaining the
appropriate security as a member of the cabin crew. Some of these
are:
y Do not leave your luggage unattended.
y Keep security badges, IDs, passports and any keys or codes in
your possession at all times.
y Challenge or ask someone to present identification if they are in
areas of the airport that require security clearance and they are
not displaying an ID badge. This also pertains to anyone who
has access to the aircraft. Verify that the ID picture matches the
person and that it has not expired.
y Take proper care of securing property like company manuals
and uniforms so they do not wind up in the hands of someone
with the intent to do harm.

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y Be alert to comments and conversations of others around you in


an airport or on the aircraft or as you travel that may suggest a
threat.
y Be alert for unusual carry-on items - unusual equipment, heavy
equipment, liquids or other dangerous goods items.
y Know and follow your airlines security procedures and
guidelines in responding to threats in the cabin.
y During preflight checks look for any items that are suspicious or
out of place (items left behind at the seats or in the lavatory, or
emergency equipment that has been moved or tampered with).

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Progress Check
1. What are the two reasons for all employees in the aviation
industry to complete security training?
2. Information, documents and training techniques can be shared
with anyone you know. TRUE or FALSE
3. List the 8 tasks you can do to protect yourself and your
passengers and help you fulfill your role and responsibilities as a
member of the cabin crew.

Answer Key
1. y
y

Recognise a potential threat.


Respond appropriately to minimise harm to people and
damage to property.

2. False
3. y

Do not leave your luggage unattended.

Keep security badges, IDs, passports and any keys or codes


in your possession at all times.

Challenge or ask someone to present identification if they


are in areas of the airport that require security clearance and
they are not displaying an ID badge. This also pertains to
anyone who has access to the aircraft. (Verify that the ID
picture matches the person and that it has not expired).

Take proper care of securing property like company manuals


and uniforms so they do not wind up in the hands of
someone with a goal to do harm.

Be alert to comments and conversations of others around


you in an airport or on the aircraft or as you travel that may
suggest a threat.

Be alert for unusual carry on items - unusual equipment,


heavy equipment, liquids or other dangerous goods items.

Know and follow your airlines security procedures and


guidelines in responding to threats in the cabin.

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During preflight checks look for any items that are suspicious
or out of place (items left behind at the seats or in the
lavatory, or emergency equipment that has been moved or
tampered with.)

Lesson Summary
The information and training that you receive places you in a high
risk situation since you have special knowledge about the aircraft and
about particular flights. As a member of the cabin crew, it is
important to be extra careful when discussing work outside the office.
Once you recognize a threat you must respond appropriately and
calmly. Follow the responsibilities listed in this lesson to keep you
and your passengers safe.

MODULE SUMMARY
There are many threats in todays aviation environment. The
important thing to remember is that your primary responsibility is the
safety, welfare and comfort of passengers. You must be aware of
what is happening around you to be able to recognise these threats
and respond appropriately so that you can fulfill your primary
responsibility: ensure the safety, welfare and comfort of passengers.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.
In the next module you will become familiar with another aspect of
your duties as a cabin crew, that is, food and beverage service.

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13.0 Introduction to Airline Catering and Food


Service
MODULE OVERVIEW

Module Learning
Objectives
At the end of this Module you will
become familiar with:

Airline catering and the food


service provided on flights.

The cabin crew has an important role in an airlines image and


creating the customer experience. Service delivery during a flight
must meet the standards of quality and delivery as designed by
airline management.
This module gives you a basic understanding of how airlines provide
food services on board as well as understanding the role of airline
catering companies. It will also give you general knowledge about
food hygiene and sanitation, specifically how food borne illnesses
spread and how to prevent them from doing so. Finally, you should
become familiar with the different tasks you will be asked to perform
as a cabin crew and the different levels of service that exist on
various types of flights.

13.1 Airline Catering


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Explain the functions that


airline catering companies
provide and how they fulfill
their functions.

Explain why airlines use food


caterers.

Describe the conditions in


which catering companies
work.

Identify the key catering


companies and the
organisation that most of
them belong to.

As cabin crew you will be expected to provide passengers with inflight food and beverage services. It is important that you understand
who actually prepares the food, for example, currently most airlines
are relying on catering companies to provide the meals for in-flight
food services. In this lesson you will be introduced to airlines caterers
and the conditions in which catering companies work.

13.1.1 Food Service in the Airline Industry


Today, in-flight services vary widely from multi-level services on
international and charter flights to low cost carriers who offer a
beverage and small packaged snack. Some airlines have a mix of
these levels of service depending on the market, the length of flight
and the time of day. Specialty charter flights and private jets
generally offer a very enhanced service geared toward the customer
and their desires.
Catering and food service has some unique changes in the post 9/11
cost cutting environment. The added weight associated with food
service (hundreds of pounds of food, trolleys, refrigeration
equipment, etc.) requires more fuel, making it very expensive as
todays fuel prices rise. As a result, instead of eliminating food
services completely, some airlines have switched to charging for
meals, beverages and snacks. The purchase option is generally

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offered in economy class. This approach is a means to stay


competitive with the increasing cost of doing business and yet still
offers customers food service for purchase. Airlines and airline
catering companies try to find unique, healthy, tasteful food options
that will entice the passenger to buy. They hope to avoid having the
customers become upset about having to purchase their meal.
The costs of maintaining good food hygiene, hiring kitchen and chef
staff and other food service equipment are high as well. Therefore,
most airlines contract their catering to specialists whose business is
airline catering. Large airline catering companies have access to
huge catering kitchens all over the world that provide their food and
equipment needs. By contracting this service out to other
companies, airlines can avoid the costs and administrative hassles
that might come up if they had to provide the service themselves.
However there are many airlines that operate their own catering
kitchens and handle all catering operations themselves.

13.1.2 Caterers
A catering kitchen is generally located near an airport and may serve
many airlines domestic airlines with minimal service, charter
airlines with specialized service or major international carriers. This
makes an airline catering kitchen a busy place that is generally open
24 hours a day, 7 days a week. An average kitchen may have 150
200 employees preparing up to 7,000 meals a day.
Airlines have food service or catering managers that oversee and
work directly with the catering companies by establishing the menus,
and overseeing the preparation. They oversee to make sure that the
standards of quality and hygiene are met. They also ensure the
packing and delivery standards and the final product meets general
expectations. Catering contracts are very detailed and provide
quality assurance checks for the food, equipment and delivery along
with strict guidelines for cost control and billing.
Creating a tasteful and visually appealing airline meal has its
challenges. A meal that is prepared and served on the ground does
not always resemble one that is served in the air at 30,000 feet.
Cabin pressure, humidity and temperature all have an effect on food.
Food preparation is more challenging in the air because food can
often become too hot and must be monitored by cabin crew closely
to avoid overcooking. A new simulated aircraft cabin has been
designed to assist in meal development and testing in catering
kitchens on the ground, otherwise airlines have to test meals by
actually taking them up in flight.

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Airlines usually have a system in place with their caterer for bank
meals this is a supply of trays and meals that can be boarded at
the last minute due to changes in the passenger load from the
original final count. (Final meal counts may be taken and meals
prepared up to 24 hours before a flight). While catering companies
are to provide enough supplies for a flight, in the case of massive
operational delays, reroutes or cancellations it may be impossible for
the caterer to have enough meals readily available. Smaller airports
or catering kitchens may not have adequate supplies or staff for
major last minute changes. You may encounter the occasional
situation where your flight may depart without enough meals for
everyone on board, and this usually applies to shorter domestic
flights. As cabin crew you will have the challenge of handling these
difficult situations. Your airline will often provide something tangible
for you to offer to the customer as an apology such as mileage
credits, travel credits or perhaps vouchers for a meal within an
airport. You can also be creative and use surplus meals from other
classes of service on the flight.
Interesting websites
ITCA Information on members, new developments in this sector,
research and fact information www.ifcanet.com
http://www.doco.com/Englisch/airline_catering_eng.htm
http://www.gategourmet.com/797.asp
http://www.airlinemeals.net/ (Great visuals and information)

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Progress Check
1. The two largest airline catering companies are _____________
and ______________.
2. Where are you most likely to find an airline catering kitchen?
3. Sometimes airlines ask customers to pay for their meals,
beverages or snacks. TRUE or FALSE
4. Catering companies can provide up to 7,000 meals a day.
TRUE or FALSE
5. Explain why it is a challenge to prepare food for flights.

Answer Key
1. LSG Skychefs, Gate Gourmet
2. Near an airport
3. True
4. True
5. A meal that is prepared and served on the ground does not
always resemble one that is served in the air at 9,000 meters.
Cabin pressure, humidity and temperature all have an effect on
food. Food preparation is more challenging in the air because
food can often become too hot and must be monitored by cabin
crew closely to avoid overcooking.

Lesson Summary
Currently most airlines are relying on catering companies to provide
the meals for in-flight food services. The companies take care of
many aspects of this particular service by organizing themselves
efficiently. Many of them belong to the In-flight Catering Association.

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13.3 Galleys and Equipment Familiarisation


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify basic galley


equipment technology.

Conduct a pre flight galley


check.

Understand the steps


involved when receiving
catering services.

Follow proper security


procedures.

Understand the acronyms


and definitions for meal
codes.

As cabin crew you will be providing some level of beverage and/or


food service to the passengers. It is important that you become
familiar with the galley and all of the galley equipment since you will
be expected to operate the equipment. During the cabin crew
certification training course you will learn how to operate the
equipment. In this module you will learn about galley equipment and
the necessary check procedures for the equipment and supplies.

13.2.1 The Galley


The aircraft galley is home to a variety of equipment, including the
equipment necessary for food services. Duties and procedures will
require verification that equipment is in good order and that the
trolleys, food and supplies are properly sealed and accounted for
once they have been catered.
Basic Galley Equipment Terminology
Aircraft Catering Order (ACO): Document outlining specific details of equipment, number and type of meals
and supplies for a flight.
Beverage Trolley: Cart with drawers which store soda, juice, water, liquor and ice for beverage service.
Crew Meals: On long flights or according to standards provided by your airline, crew meals may be boarded.

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Coordination of the timing for service provided to the Flight Deck should be discussed in advance. It is
recommended that the captain and first officer do not eat the same type of meal to avoid the remote
possibility of incapacitation from a food borne illness. The appropriate timing and coordination for cabin crew
to consume meals should also be discussed during the briefing so that service in the cabin is not interrupted
and so that passengers are not left unattended. Cabin crew should not consume meals or beverages in front
of passengers.
Delivery Sheet: Document provided by the driver or delivery person of the catering company to the senior
cabin crew. This should match the specifications of the catering order. Discrepancies should be noted so the
airline is not charged for goods and services that were not provided.
Dry Stores Kit: Sealable container that contains dry supplies and extras that may be needed during the
flight. These are created according to airline specification and will vary according to the service offered. It
includes cocktail napkins, salt and pepper packets, sugar packets, coffee and tea bags, spare cutlery and
cocktail stirrers, etc.
Latch: Locking mechanism used to restrain galley equipment.
Liquor Kit: Sealable container used to store liquor bottles, wine and beer.
Meal Trolley: Cart in which meals are stored - meal tray set-ups refers to tray with appropriate table/service
settings. These types of trolleys may be interchangeable with beverage trolleys simply by adding drawers
and the necessary equipment or may be large enough to offer both from the same trolley.
Special Meals: Meals that a passenger orders at the time of reservation to accommodate food that meets
their needs. These passengers are identified on the passenger information list with meal codes next to their
name. The meals are also specially marked with codes and the catering paperwork should reflect these
special meals with names and seat locations. To standardize this practice, IATA has created codes that are
used universally.
Storage Compartment: Non removable compartment which can accommodate supplies, containers or
drawers.
Waste Trolley: Removable cart containing one or more lined inserts used to collect waste.
Waste Containers: Non-removable compartment with liner used to collect waste.

13.2.2 Pre-Flight Galley Check


One of the duty positions on the cabin crew is responsibility for the
galley. Depending on the size of the aircraft there may be multiple
galleys with different levels or types of services in each. Therefore,
there may be more than one cabin crew assigned to this task. The
person assigned to this area is generally in charge of conducting a
pre-flight galley check. They often receive the catering as it is
boarded on to the aircraft and make sure that it is delivered within the
security requirements and that the catering order matches the
delivery sheet. This means making sure that the correct equipment,
food and supplies are all delivered.

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During pre-flight checks the cabin crew verifies that:


y Ovens operate and are free of flammable debris. Left over food
casseroles, casserole covers some cabin crew (against
policy), stow items in an oven this might start a fire if it is
turned on by mistake without checking.
y Coffee machines are in working order - clean and pots are clean
and secure.
y Verify correct positioning of circuit breakers in the galley. Circuit
breakers should not be reset without conferring with the flight
deck in advance.
y All storage compartments closed, latched and secure with
primary and secondary latches in place. (Certain stowage areas
will have two latches, generally for trolleys. Ensure these are
tight and remain in place when pressure is applied).
y Floors clean and dry.
y Waste compartments or trash compactors empty and
functioning.
y Any non-functioning galley equipment should be documented
and tagged as inoperative so that it is not inadvertently used
compromising safety of the user or of the aircraft. For example,
if a brake does not work on a trolley it cannot be properly
secured in the aisle or if an oven is not functioning properly it
should not be used to avoid possible fire or further electrical
issues.

13.2.3 Delivery and Loading of Catering Services


It is important that there is good communication between the caterer
and the cabin crew during delivery of supplies to the aircraft. The
senior cabin crew acts as the coordinator and supervises the
delivery. It is important that the cabin crew understand the type of
service being offered during the flight and what is being delivered to
ensure the aircraft catering order and actual delivery match.
The cabin crew assigned should be present to validate the following:
y Equipment and items are placed in the proper location. (This
will vary by flight, aircraft type and other factors, your crew
training will instruct you on these specifics).
y Food is protected against heat, dust and insects during loading.

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y The time interval between when the food was removed from
refrigeration and the time loaded on the aircraft is within an
acceptable limit.
y In the event of a delay, appropriate measures have been taken
to prevent food spoilage.
y Needed items have been boarded if you have a passenger
count of 100 and only 80 meals there is a problem and by
identifying it immediately the senior cabin crew can take action
to correct the issue. Take special care to note if special meals
have been delivered and marked appropriately.
y Issues or concerns should be documented and brought to the
attention of the senior cabin crew.

13.2.4 Security Procedures


Aviation security requirements also outline specifics to ensure that
catering security procedures are enforced and monitored. This is to
prevent smuggling of items into catering equipment or tampering with
food that could ultimately impact the safety of the flight, passengers
and crew. Catering Security Regulations require:
y Access control to the catering unit.
y Proper identification and background checks of staff with access
to the catering facility and the aircraft.
y Security supervision during food preparation to ensure food is
not tampered with or items hidden within setups and trolleys.
y Security check of all catering supplies.
y Security supervision and check of catering vehicles prior to
loading.
y Supervised sealing and locking of individual trolleys and
containers or security supervision of loading and sealing the
catering truck once all items have been loaded.
Specially designated airline personnel are required to be on board to
receive the catering on to the aircraft. Most kits and catering
supplies will arrive with a plastic or wire-locking device that contains
a series of numbers. Cabin crew will verify seal numbers and
inventory all contents. Your airline will provide specific training in
regard to these practices and how they are incorporated into your
duties.

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13.2.5 Types and Codes for Special Meals


Passengers may request a special meal for their flight. This is
generally when they make the reservation. While some passengers
request special meals as an unspecific preference, others request
special meals to follow strict dietary requirements or religious
practices. Cabin crew should be familiar with the terms and
characteristics for special meals to be able to identify them and
respond to passenger requests. Meal codes and definitions have
been standardised thru IATA recommended practice. As cabin crew
you should be familiar with the codes and the general characteristics
of each meal.
Meal Codes and Definitions
Code/Description

Characteristics

BBML

Usually commercially prepared


foods are boarded. These can
include strained fruits, vegetables,
meats and desserts. Some airlines
provide a standard baby food pack;
other airlines have the caterer
board the jars of baby food.

INFANT/BABY FOOD

BLML
BLAND/SOFT MEAL
For stomach/intestinal problems.
If a soft texture or low fibre/
residue diet is desired, specify
under SPML code.

Low fat food items low in dietary


fibre/residue. Omission of foods or
beverages causing gastric
discomfort. Omit highly seasoned
foods not well tolerated.

Guidelines

Avoid fried foods: use moist heat,


dry heat or boiling cooking
methods. Omit black pepper, chilli
powder, and highly seasoned
foods.
Omit gassy vegetables: those
from the onion and cabbage family.
Omit caffeine containing
beverages and decaffeinated
coffee. Eliminate alcohol.

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CHML
CHILD MEAL
Childrens meals are generally
available for children aged 2
years and older.

Children over the age of 5 can


generally eat a regular passenger
meal, however, some airlines allow
for specific hot entrees to be
ordered, i.e. hamburger, or a cold
entre, i.e. peanut butter and jelly
sandwich.

Meals should consist of soft, easy


to chew foods with the inclusion of
some finger foods (carrot sticks,
hand fruit, cheese, crackers, etc.).
Foods should be easily identified.
Several food items in individual
wrappings will allow the child to
save items to snack on at a later
time, if desired. These items can
include individual canned fruit cups
or applesauce, crackers, cheeses,
juice.
Milk should be provided.
Avoid nuts, seeds, hard candy,
highly seasoned foods, rich sauces
and whole grapes.

DBML
DIABETIC MEAL

Increased complex carbohydrates;


high fibre; low fat; calories approx.
20002400 in 24-hour period.

Do not fry foods.


Use lean meats.

Alternate Names

Use low fat dairy products.

Sugar-free;

Use high fibre foods whenever


possible: fresh fruits and
vegetables and wholegrain breads
and cereals.

Hyperglycaemic;
Hypoglycaemic;

Canned fruits must be water


packed or in their own juices. Use
unsweetened fruit juices.

Carbohydrate restricted/low
carbohydrate;
No sugar added

Use polyunsaturated fats.


Omit any items with high fructose,
sorbitol, mannitol, sugar or zylitol.
Specialised, commercially
produced diabetic products and
sugar substitutes are acceptable.
FPML

No additives;

FRUIT PLATTER MEAL

Fruit to be supplied subject to local


availability.

Prepared fresh fruit or tinned


unsweetened fruit.

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Orange segments, ruby red


grapefruit, melon, fig and
strawberry.

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GFML
GLUTEN-FREE MEAL
Alternate Names
Gliadin-free; Non-Tropical Sprue;
Ceoliac disease; Wheat-free;
Gluten-restricted.

Eliminate all foods prepared with


wheat, rye, barley and oats. All
labels must be examined for
contents. Individuals sensitive to
the above foods can suffer gastrointestinal problems if they consume
any foods containing these grains.
Do not give any food to a
passenger where the ingredients
cannot be verified by the
manufacturers label.

Products containing starches


made from arrowroot, corn, potato
or rice starch, corn, potato, rice or
soybean flour, gluten free bread
mix are allowed.
Corn tortillas, rice cakes allowed.
Cereals: wheat, rye, barley, oats,
and products containing any one of
these cereals are strictly forbidden.
Desserts: must be made with
allowed ingredients. Check labels.
Milk and milk products are not
allowed.
Fats/salad dressings: check labels
on commercial products made with
milk as they may contain gluten
stabilisers.
Meats: avoid breaded meats.
Check prepared meats, sausages,
cold-cut for fillers. Avoid products
with HVP or TVP (hydrolysed or
texturised vegetable protein).
Sauces/Soups: check
commercially prepared product
labels. Check soup base/sauce
labels. Sauces/soups should not
be thickened with any form of
wheat starches.
Vegetables allowed: avoid breaded
vegetables or those with sauces.
Fruits allowed. Check label if using
fruit filling.

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GFML

Miscellaneous: avoid most


condiments; always check labels.
May contain stabilisers or
hydrogenated vegetable protein.

GLUTEN-FREE MEAL
(contd)

Note 1: Special gluten-free


products will not be suitable for
wheat free diet if wheat is listed as
an ingredient.
Note 2: An increasing number of
gluten-free passengers may also
have lactose intolerance.
HFML
HIGH FIBRE MEAL
Alternate Names
High Residue; High Roughage.
HNML
HINDU MEAL

Includes foods containing a


combination of water-soluble and
water-insoluble fibre (fruits,
vegetables, high fibre cereal
products, legumes/pulses, nuts).
No beef, veal or pork should be
used; lamb, domestic fowl, fish and
milk products are allowed; prefer
spicy foods; curry.
Note: If a vegetarian Hindu meal is
requested, an AVML (Asiatic/Indian
Vegetarian Meal) can be used as a
substitute.

KSML
KOSHER MEAL

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All foods should be prepared and


served according to Jewish Dietary
Laws. Many caterers purchase
prepared food products from
approved sources.

Emphasise high fibre wholegrain


breads and cereals, raw fruits and
vegetables, legumes/pulses, and
nuts.

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LCML
LOW CALORIE MEAL
Alternate Names

Increased complex
carbohydrates/high fibre; low in fat;
calories approximately 1200 in
24-hour period.

Calorie-restricted, weight
Loss/Reduction.

Use lean meats; do not fry foods.


Use low-fat dairy products.
Use high fibre foods whenever
possible: fresh fruits and
vegetables and wholegrain breads
and cereals.
Canned fruits must be water
packed or in their own juice. Use
unsweetened fruit juices.
Avoid added fats, oils and sugar in
food preparation.
Use polyunsaturated fats.
Use specialised, commercially
produced low-calorie products and
sugar substitutes.
Avoid gravy, sauces, and rich
desserts.

LFML
LOW CHOLESTEROL, LOW
FAT MEAL
Alternate Names
Fat-free; Fat restricted; Gall
bladder diet; Low saturated fat.

Increased complex
carbohydrates/high fibre; low fat;
low dietary cholesterol;
polyunsaturated fats.

Use lean meats and skinless


chicken; do not fry foods.
Use poaching, steaming, broiling,
roasting cooking methods.
Omit rich dairy products, desserts,
pastries, and bakery.
Avoid processed meats and
cheeses.
Use high fibre foods whenever
possible: fresh fruits and
vegetables and wholegrain breads
and cereals.
Avoid added fats and oils in food
preparation; use vegetable or olive
oil to spray to prevent sticking.
When fat must be used, use mono
or polyunsaturated oils, i.e. olive,
peanut, canola, safflower,
sunflower or soybean.
Use low fat dairy products.

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Omit gravies, sauces.


Omit high cholesterol foods: egg
yolk, offal (kidneys, liver,
sweetbreads, tripe, heart, etc.)
prawns, shrimp, squid, fish roe,
caviar, lobster, crab, etc.
Use polyunsaturated margarine.

LPML
LOW PROTEIN MEAL
Alternate Names
Protein restricted.

Low protein; restrict foods


containing high biological value
protein (meat, fish, eggs and dairy
products); avoid highly salted foods;
do not use salt in food preparation.

Meat/protein portions need to be


weighed carefully because protein
is limited in each meal.
Servings of breads/starches, lentils,
nuts and vegetables are limited
somewhat due to their protein
content.
Fruits, fats/salad dressings and
condiments i.e. sugar, honey, jam,
syrup can be used liberally.
Avoid using salt in food preparation.
Avoid highly salted foods: smoked,
salted, cured, or canned meats,
soups, gravies, bouillon cubes,
sauces, processed cheeses, items
in brine (strong saline solution/
marinade used to flavour and
preserve, i.e. pickled meats/
vegetables/sauerkraut) and salted
nuts.

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Limit Soya products.


Note: Vegetarian meals cannot be
substituted for low protein meals.

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LSML
LOW SODIUM, NO SALT ADDED
MEAL
Alternate Names
Low salt; No added salt; Restricted
sodium.

No salt is used in food


preparation; highly salted
foods are omitted; minimum
sodium content.

Use only low sodium breakfast


cereals.
Use salt-free margarine.
Omit salt substitutes, MSG, stocks,
bouillon cubes, commercial soups,
sauce mixes.
Omit cured, smoked, salted or
canned meats or fish.
Omit items in brine (saline
solution/marinade used to flavour and
preserve, i.e. pickled
meats/vegetables/sauerkraut).
Omit processed cheeses; use low
sodium cheeses in moderation.
Avoid bakery products using self
rising flour or baking soda.
Avoid most condiments, i.e. ketchup,
mustard, BBQ sauce, soy sauce,
Worcestershire Sauce, seasoned salt.
Avoid canned vegetables; use fresh
whenever possible.
Liberal use of pepper, herbs, spices,
vinegar, lemon and lime juice, saltfree seasoning mixes.
Avoid olives, anchovies, gravies,
sauces and dressings.
Minimise use of bread.
Note: Avoid use of garlic/onion/celery
salts; however garlic/onion/celery
powders are allowed.

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MOML
MOSLEM MEAL

NLML
NON-LACTOSE MEAL
Alternate Names
Lactose-free, Dairy-free, Milk-free.

No pork or pig by-products


allowed; no gelatine; no
alcohol allowed; check
flavouring extract labels for
alcohol content; Halal
produced meat/poultry must
be obtained from approved
sources only, if this is not
possible a Moslem meal
can be substituted with a
VLML (Lacto-ovo) or SFML
(Sea food) meal; white
meat fish allowed only from
species with scales, this is
regarded as Halal; milk is
allowed.

Use of fresh vegetables/meats/poultry


recommended.
Milk/beverages: omit all milk, yoghurt,
cheese, ice cream, sherbet,
puddings; read all labels.
Breads/starches: omit all prepared
mixes, such as muffins, biscuits,
some breakfast cereals (check
labels). Avoid any bread containing
milk, cream, butter, cheese, etc.
Desserts: check all labels of
commercial products.
Meats/fish/eggs: avoid any items
creamed or breaded. Check labels for
any non fat milk solid fillers. Avoid
omelette, crepes, and scrambled
eggs, which may contain milk, cream,
and butter.
Fats: check all margarine, peanut
butter or salad dressing labels for milk
product or fillers.
Fruits and vegetables: allowed are all
fresh, canned and frozen that are not

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processed with lactose. No breaded


or creamed vegetables (check
labels).
Miscellaneous: avoid commercial
soups (check labels), avoid
chocolate, toffee, butterscotch,
caramels, some instant coffees, and
sugar substitutes. Soy beverages can
be supplied as a substitute for milk.
Coffee creamers must be made from
non-dairy ingredients, check label for
sodium caseinate.

ORML
ORIENTAL MEAL
PRML
LOW PURINE MEAL
Alternate Names
Purine-restricted (meal with low uric
acid content).

Meat, poultry, fish based


spicy oriental-style main
course.
Minimum content of purine;
fats are moderately
restricted; liberal use of
fruits and vegetables.

Omit offal (kidneys, liver,


sweetbreads, tripe, heart, etc.),
anchovies, sardines, meat extracts,
gravies, shrimp, mackerel, fish roe
and eel.
Omit whole milk; use skim or low-fat
milk.
Omit dried legumes/pulses and
lentils.
Omit meat bouillon, broth,
consomm, soups made with meat
stock base.
Omit bakers and brewers yeast.
Use of minimum quantities of
poached poultry or lean fresh water
fish allowed.

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SFML
SEAFOOD MEAL
SPML
SPECIAL MEAL

VLML VGML AVML RVML


VEGETARIAN MEALS
Passengers may request vegetarian
meals for religious, health, economic
or political reasons; environmental
considerations; humanitarian issues.
The many different types of
vegetarian meals have been
consolidated into several categories.
These are:
(lacto-ovo) (non-dairy) (Asian)
(raw) Western Vegan Asiatic/Indian
Raw fruits/ vegetarian vegetables
Strict/pure Lacto-ovo vegetarian No
meat/fish, No animal products, No
dairy/egg
Note: Any other special vegetarian
meal requests should be noted under
SPML code with requirements clearly
specified.

Fish and/or seafood


prepared according to local
specifications.
Special Meal
requirements not covered
by specific code (to be
followed by details). SPML
should be used for any
special meal request for
which there is not a specific
code; allergy/medical
requirements must include
specific details of
ingredients to be
included/avoided; some
airlines may choose to use
this code for ordering very
limited special service
requirements.
Vegetarians are classified
into several main groups.
Lacto-ovo vegetarians: eat
no meat or meat products
of any type; no fish, fowl or
products with lard or
gelatine. Dairy products
and eggs are permitted.
Cheese should be of the
vegetarian type without
rennet whenever possible.
Vegan or pure vegetarians:
eat no meat or meat
products of any type; no
fish, fowl or products with
lard or gelatine. Dairy
products, eggs and honey
are not permitted.
Asiatic/Indian vegetarian
meals are spicy vegetarian
combinations, which may
include limited use of dairy
products.

Vegetarian diets are restricted in


certain nutrients. To ensure adequate
nutrition, high protein foods and foods
rich in iron and calcium need to be
included.
Protein foods include: milk, cheese,
yoghurt, eggs, lentils, beans, and
tofu.
Sources of iron include: dried peas,
beans, lentils, spinach, wholegrain
products, dried apricots, egg yolks.
Calcium rich foods include: mustard
greens, kale, broccoli, navy beans,
tofu, dried figs, almonds, sesame
seeds (ground or in paste), almonds,
brazil nuts, pistachio nuts.
Note: Many of the protein and
calcium-rich foods listed above
cannot be used in a VGML.

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Raw Vegetables:
combination of raw fruits
and/or vegetables. Some
vegetarians also
incorporate restrictions on
other foods and beverages
such as alcohol, caffeinated
beverages, highly
processed foods and foods
that are grown or
processed non-organically
or with certain additives or
preservatives.

Progress Check
1. Fill in the empty boxes:
CODE

FULL NAME

CHARACTERISTICS

LSML

Increased complex
carbohydrates/high fibre;
low fat; low dietary

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cholesterol; polyunsaturated
fats.

Vegetarian Meals

KSML

Hindu Meal

Children over the age of 5


can generally eat a regular
passenger meal, however,
some airlines allow for
specific hot entrees to be
ordered, i.e. hamburger, or a
cold entre, i.e. peanut
butter and jelly sandwich.

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2. Explain what these words mean:


WASTE TROLLEY

LIQUOR KIT

DELIVERY SHEET

CREW MEALS

Answer Key
1.
LSML

Low sodium meal

LFML

Low cholesterol, low fat meal

VLML VGML AVML RVML

Vegetarian meals

No salt is used in food


preparation; highly salted
foods are omitted;
minimum sodium content.

Vegetarians are classified


into several main groups.
Lacto-ovo vegetarians,
Vegan, Raw vegetable and
Asiatic/Indian.

KSML

Kosher meal

All foods should be


prepared and served
according to Jewish
Dietary Laws. Many
caterers purchase
prepared food products
from approved sources.

HNML

Hindu meal

No beef, veal or pork

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should be used; lamb,


domestic fowl, fish and milk
products are allowed;
prefer spicy foods; curry.
CHML

Child meal

Children over the age of 5


can generally eat a regular
passenger meal, however,
some airlines allow for
specific hot entrees to be
ordered, i.e. hamburger, or
a cold entre, i.e. peanut
butter and jelly sandwich.

2. Waste Trolley: Removable cart containing one or more lined


inserts used to collect waste.
Liquor Kit: Sealable container used to store liquor bottles, wine
and beer.
Delivery Sheet: Document provided by the driver or delivery
person of the catering company given to the airline.
Crew Meals: On long flights or according to standards provided
by your airline, crew meals may be boarded.

Lesson Summary
You are now able to:
y Identify basic galley equipment technology.
y Conduct a pre flight galley check.
y Understand the steps involved when receiving catering services.
y Follow proper security procedures.
y Understand the acronyms and definitions for meal codes.

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13.3 Service Types and Levels


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Describe different types of


services offered by airlines.

Differentiate between a OneStep Meal Service and a


Multi-Step Meal Service.

Explain the importance of


following service delivery
standards and procedures as
outlined in your cabin crew
training and service delivery
manuals.

There are many different levels of service available. Although many


commercial airlines provide only beverage service, there are still
many occasions that a flight will have several levels of service. This
is usually dependent on the duration of the flight and the class of
travel. This section describes the different levels of service available
during different types of flights.

13.3.1 Service Levels


The actual service that is provided to todays airline customer varies
widely. Service levels vary by type of airline, type of aircraft, market,
length of flight, and competition of markets. Your cabin crew training
provides you with all the skills and information related to the types
and levels of service provided by your airline. It is important to follow
these standards to maintain the image of the airline and to offer a
consistent and quality product. Prior to each flight, your senior cabin

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crew will review service levels and expectations for the flight to
ensure the service flows smoothly and everyone is working together.
Low cost carriers generally offer one class of service. The tangible
service will most likely be a beverage service with select beverages,
soft drinks and cocktails, wine or beer for a nominal fee. In some
cases, beverage service may be the only service offered because of
flight time, type of aircraft or time of day the flight operates. This
service can be offered from a trolley or individual orders may be
taken, prepared in the galley and then delivered to the passenger via
a tray. A small packaged snack (nut mix, chips or snack bar
appropriate to time of day) may be offered with the beverage,
although some commercial airlines may even charge for these in
economy class.
International flights or transcontinental flights offer a meal service
and generally all commercial airlines offer meal services in first and
executive class. Charter and other private aircraft often offer a very
enhanced service or a service that is geared toward the exclusive
customer and what they desire. On domestic flights, some airlines
may not offer a meal or may charge the passenger for any meal
offering they may have.

13.3.2 Types of Meal Service


On flights in which meals are offered, there are different ways the
meal may be presented. Here again the involvement and level of
detail will vary based on the airline, the market (where the flight is
traveling to and from), the time of day, and other factors.
One-Step Meal Service
In economy class, the meal (often called casseroles) is heated in
the oven and then placed on preset trays in a meal trolley, some
meal choices may also be cold or chilled offerings and already pre
set on the tray. The meal is then presented in its entirety to the
customer and includes a salad/appetizer, hot entre, bread and
dessert. A beverage trolley or beverage service accompanies this
type of presentation.

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Multi-Step Meal Service


This type of service is offered in first, business and executive
classes, and on international flights. It is also offered on many
charter and private airlines. The service is broken down into
presentations and courses. In some cases some of the following
steps may be combined or eliminated based on time of flight or time
of day:
y Beverage/cocktail service
y Orders are taken for course preferences
y Table/tray setting with linen, silverware, water and wine glass,
salt and pepper
y Appetiser presentation (with wine and bread)
y Entre presentation (refills of wine, seconds of bread, water and
other beverages)
y Cheese, wine and port presentation
y Dessert coffee and liqueurs presentation
Variations on this type of service include combining the cheese and
dessert trolleys and a less involved service for breakfast service.
Flights of longer duration may even offer two meal services
depending on flight length, market and time of day. The second
service is usually lighter and more of an express or combined multi
step presentation.
Some longer international or transcontinental flights may also offer
an express meal or mid-flight service.
Many business and frequent travelers appreciate an express meal
which allows them to eat at a time they prefer so they can work or
sleep as needed without having to sit through an involved multicourse meal presentation.
Mid-flight presentations are also common wherein small selections of
fruit, finger sandwiches, cookies, and chocolates may be offered or
set up for passengers to serve themselves during the flight.
Airlines provide very specific training regarding their in-flight service
and presentation standards. Manuals or service guides with pictures
are often provided to aid the cabin crew in setup, plating and
presentation. To maintain the airlines image and offer a consistent
and quality product, It is important that cabin crew adhere to the
standards and delivery methods as outlined in their cabin crew

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training and in their service delivery manuals. This also helps


everyone keep to one standard and ensure meeting the passengers
expectation.

Progress Check
1. Describe the service available on low cost carriers.
2. Describe the service you would receive on an international flight.
3. List the steps involved when servicing a transcontinental flight.

Answer Key
1. Beverage service with a possible snack option
2. Full meal including appetiser, desert and wine
3. y

Beverage/cocktail service

Orders are taken for course preferences

Table/tray setting with linen, silverware, water and wine


glass, salt and pepper

Appetiser presentation (with wine and bread)

Entre presentation (refills of wine, seconds of bread, water


and other beverages)

Cheese, wine and port presentation

Dessert coffee and liqueurs presentation

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Lesson Summary
You are now able to:
y Differentiate between services offered on low cost carriers and
international or transcontinental flights.
y Differentiate between a One-Step Meal Service and a Multi-Step
Meal Service.
y Explain the importance of following service delivery standards
and procedures as outlined in your cabin crew training and
service delivery manuals.

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13.4 Food and Service Hygiene


LESSON OVERVIEW

Lesson Learning
Objectives
Upon completion of this lesson
you should be able to:

Identify the three main


factors that contribute to food
borne illnesses.

Identify the most common


types of food borne
illnesses.

Identify the steps that cabin


crew can take to avoid
spreading or contracting food
borne illnesses.

Describe the procedures you


should follow if a passenger
or crew member becomes ill
because of suspected food
borne illness.

In this lesson you will be introduced to proper food and service


hygiene. As cabin crew you will be expected to follow the airlines
established service procedures and food hygiene requirements. This
is done because how you handle food has a direct impact on the
health and welfare of the crew and passengers. You will need to
have a clear understanding of what the factors are in causing food
borne illnesses and how to avoid them. You will also need to respond
properly in the rare event that a passenger or crew becomes ill as a
result of having eaten contaminated or spoiled food.
Basic Food Hygiene
As cabin crew you must take the responsibility of the cleanliness and
sanitation of your food service very seriously. Although millions of
passengers and crew travel by air, the actual incidence of food borne
illness is very small because of the diligence of airlines, caterers and
suppliers in following strict guidelines for food storage, preparation
and delivery. Cabin crew are an important link in the chain of
maintaining those standards and ensuring the food served in-flight
has been prepared and handled with the utmost care. Although rare,
food poisoning can make a person seriously ill. In addition to the
direct impact on peoples health and welfare, illnesses caused by
food poisoning are costly and may result in fines, lawsuits and
damaged reputations.
Consuming contaminated food or beverages causes food-borne
illnesses or diseases. The food can be contaminated by organisms
(bacteria, viruses, or parasites), toxins, or chemicals.
Different types of food borne disease will cause different symptoms.
However, since the organism or toxin enters a persons body through
the intestinal tract, the first symptoms are usually nausea, vomiting,
abdominal cramps or diarrhea. Additional symptoms may appear
and a persons condition may worsen depending on the type of
illness or contamination. People in higher risk health categories may
also experience more sever reactions and complications. For
instance, infants, pregnant women, immune compromised persons,
elderly persons or those on medication may experience more sever
symptoms.
The incubation period before symptoms appear may range from
hours to days depending on the type of organism or microbe that has
been ingested. In many cases, someone experiencing food borne

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illness may be ill from something other than the food or beverage
served on the flight. As with any medical situation on board, cabin
crew will gather and report as much information as possible about
what might be causing the passengers symptoms. That questioning
and documentation should include the food that has recently been
consumed.
In general the most common foods that are likely to carry food borne
illness are undercooked meat, raw eggs and non-pasteurized milk.
Vegetables and fruits can also be sources of illness because of
improper washing with contaminated water or fertilization with
manure from infected animals.
Cabin crew should be cautious as they consume food when traveling.
It is important that you recognise food that may not have been
prepared or handled properly and avoid consuming it to avoid
becoming seriously ill on a trip or layover.
There are 3 main factors that contribute to food borne illness (FBI).
They are:
1. Time and temperature abuse:

Improper hot or cold holding.

Improper cooking temperature.

Improper cooling methods.

Improper reheating.

2. Cross contamination:

Hands are the number one cause of cross contamination


leading to FBI.

Food surfaces not being washed and sanitized between


use.

Raw food stored above cooked food.

Contaminated cleaning cloths, misused side towels or


sponges.

3. Poor personal hygiene

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Failure to wash hands before contact with food.

Working while ill.

Coughing or sneezing on food.

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Scratching, touching sores, cuts or other contaminated


areas and then touching food.

There are several steps that cabin crew can take to prevent food
borne illness. These are:
y Following the prescribed guidelines of your airlines uniform and
grooming standards to keep both your body and uniform clean
at all times.
y Keeping the galley clean. Even if a single cabin crew is
assigned to galley responsibility it is everybodys job to make
sure it is sanitary and tidy. This includes keeping galley
countertops, stowage drawers and working utensils clean.
y Keep soiled items (cups, trays) separate from clean items at all
times.
y Do not sneeze or cough over working surfaces, utensils or food.
y Wash hands frequently and before the initiation of meal and
beverage services.
y Do not handle food or contact surfaces if you have a cut or
wound that is not completely protected buy a waterproof
bandage that is firmly secured (bandages can be found in first
aid kits). Seek medical assistance or advice if in doubt.
y Avoid hand contact with food; use the utensils that are provided.
y Do not touch rims of glasses or place fingers on the surface of
plates when serving. For example, wine glasses should be held
by the stem.
y Do not touch your hair or face during food preparation and
service.
y Ensure appropriate refrigeration by following prescribed
procedures. For example, if refrigeration trolleys are available
make sure they are turned on or if dry ice is used to keep food
cold do not remove it from units or trolleys until the appropriate
time to begin food service preparation.
y If a passenger becomes ill during the flight and food poisoning is
suspected offer care and follow company procedures for
documentation with appropriate medical and in-flight report
forms.
y If a foreign object or insect is found in a meal, document it and
watch for insect presence in the aircraft or galley. In addition,
report it to the senior cabin crew.

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Airlines have specific procedures in the event that a passenger of


crew becomes ill during flight with suspected food poisoning. There
are some procedures that are common to all airlines.
y The senior cabin crew and captain should be notified and a
medical incident form should be completed.
y Follow your airlines training in handling the care for someone
experiencing these symptoms.
y It is also important to always gather as much information as
possible and complete the appropriate documentation for the
incident.
Interesting websites:
http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/fsgprobs.html
http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/illnesses-foodborne#Prevention
World Health Organization:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs237/en/

Progress Check
1. 3 factors that contribute to FBI are:
a) Time and temperature abuse
b) Altitude
c) Cross contamination
d) Personal hygiene
e) All of the above
2. What measures can you take to prevent FBI?
3. Whose responsibility is it to keep the galley clean and why is this
important?

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4. Match the term with the correct definition


1. Botulism

A. A bacteria found in the intestines of


birds, reptiles and mammals. Eating
raw poultry, eggs, meat and unwashed
fruit can spread this FBI.

2. Salmonella

B. A certain type bacteria that lives in the


intestines of mammals. Humans
become ill when they eat food
contaminated by the feces of animals
infected with this organism.

3. E.Coli O157:H7

C. It grows in sealed containers where


there is little or no oxygen.

5. Describe the procedures you should follow if a passenger or crew


member becomes ill because of suspected food borne illness

Answer Key
1. a, c, and d
2. Keeping your body and uniform clean, keeping the galley clean,
avoid hand contact with food, follow all company procedures if
there is a problem, etc.
3. Even if a single cabin crew is assigned to galley responsibility it
is everybodys job to make sure it is sanitary and tidy. Keeping
the galley clean can help prevent spreading of FBIs.
4. 1c, 2a, 3b
5. y

The senior cabin crew and captain should be notified and a


medical incident form should be completed.

Follow your airlines training in handling the care for someone


experiencing these symptoms.

It is also important to always gather as much information as


possible and complete the appropriate documentation for the
incident.

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Lesson Summary
Hygiene is very important in preventing food borne illness. We must
therefore be aware of how these illnesses are caused and what our
role is in preventing them.

MODULE SUMMARY
Now that you have completed this module you should understand
how airlines provide food services on board as well as understand
the various functions of airline catering companies. You should also
have a general understanding of food hygiene and sanitation,
specifically how food borne illnesses spread and how to prevent
them from doing so. Finally, you should be familiar with the different
tasks you will be asked to perform as a cabin crew member and the
different levels of service that exist on various types of flights. After
completing the progress checks you should be familiar with the key
areas of importance and be able to identify a variety of different
concepts related to meal services and servicing.
To prepare for the final exam, complete the progress checks found at
the end of each lesson several times. You know you are ready for
the final exam when you are able to perform the actions listed in the
module and lesson objectives.

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GLOSSARY OF FREQUENTLY USED AIRLINE


TERMS
ABLE BODIED PASSENGER
Person who is physically and mentally able to assist the cabin crew
in the event of an emergency.
ABORT
Emergency procedure when an aircraft is stopped because there is
danger in continuing. To cut short or end a pre planned aircraft
maneuver (i.e. aborted take off or aborted landing).
AED (AUTOMATIC EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATOR)
An AED is a device about the size of a laptop computer that analyses
the heart's rhythm for any abnormalities and, if necessary, directs the
rescuer to deliver an electrical shock to the victim. This shock, called
defibrillation, may help the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm of
its own.
AILERONS
A movable surface at the trailing edge of each airplane wing. They
provide roll control and work opposite each other when one goes
up the other goes down and this provides the aircraft with the
capability to turn either left or right.
AFT
The area of the aircraft that is at the tail section of the aircraft or
toward the tail section of the cabin. I begin serving meals at row 12
and work aft meaning that you start serving meals at row 12 and
continue serving meals moving towards the back or towards the tail
section of the aircraft or cabin.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC)
The official authority in charge of the safe, orderly, and expeditious
flow of air traffic in-flight or operating in the area of a runway.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER
A person working in air traffic control who is responsible for the safe,
orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic, in-flight or operating in the
area of a runway.

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AIR TRANSPORT INDUSTRY


The area of commerce that uses aircraft for the transport of people
and cargo. This applies to flights of government-certified companies
that offer services to the public and for general aviation, which
applies to private aircraft used for business or recreation.
AIRBORN
When an aircraft is free from contact with the ground and is
supporting itself in the air.
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE LOGBOOK
A continuous written record of all maintenance discrepancies and
corrections, documented by the captain, first officer, cabin crew and
maintenance department. This document must remain with the
aircraft at all times.
AIRCRAFT NUMBER (aircraft registration, tail number)
Combination of letters and numbers used to identify an aircraft. It
must be displayed on the aircraft and is generally found on the aft
fuselage or near the tail of the aircraft. All ICAO countries require
that aircraft over a certain weight must be registered with a national
aviation authority.
AIRPORT
Location where aircraft take-off and land, as well as load and unload
passengers and cargo. Many of the larger airports have their own
fire and law enforcement departments, customs and immigration and
medical facilities along with retail and hotel establishments.
AIRPORT CODE
The three letter code given to each airport. Used in all airline
schedules, manuals, and on baggage tags.
AIRSPEED
The speed of an aircraft relative to the speed of the air that it is
moving through. The actual speed of the aircraft traveling through
the air, measured in knots (nautical miles) or kilometers per hour.
AIRWAY
A controlled pathway or corridor of a flight, like a highway in the
sky.

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AIRWORTHY
The conditions for safe flight; an airworthiness certificate is issued by
government authorities to indicate that an aircraft and its systems
meet standards for safe operation.
ALTERNATE AIRPORT
An airport other than the one originally scheduled as the destination
airport. The alternate airport is used in the event that the aircraft
cannot land at the original destination, usually due to weather.
ALTIMETER
An instrument in the cockpit that shows the altitude (height above
sea level) of the aircraft.
ALTITUDE
Measurement of the aircraft in-flight above sea level.
Cabin altitude is the altitude being maintained inside the aircraft
cabin through pressurization. For instance, an airplane may be flying
at altitudes over 10,000 metres but must maintain a cabin altitude
under 2400 metres to provide an environment that allows adequate
oxygen for a person to breathe.
APPROACH PHASE
Final portion of the flight when the aircraft is about to land. Also
referred to as initial approach and final approach. When an aircraft is
on final approach it is in direct line with the runway for landing.
ARMED
To prepare an exit for operation in an emergency. When an armed
exit is opened, a slide or slide raft will automatically deploy and
inflate allowing passengers and crew to use this as a means to exit
the aircraft quickly.
ARRIVALS
Passengers enter this area as they leave the aircraft where they will
encounter immigration, customs and baggage claim.
AUTO PILOT
Part of the automatic flight control system, controls the primary flight
controls as designated by the pilot, i.e., used to maintain a heading
or altitude.

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AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)


Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is an alternate power plant located in the
tail and is used to provide internal power while the aircraft is on the
ground.
AVIATION
The science and practice of flight and airplanes. Aviation is grouped
into three broad classes: Commercial, General and Military.
BAGGAGE CLAIM
A place at the airport terminal where passengers locate and retrieve
their luggage.
BANK
When a pilot turns an aircraft. It is achieved when the wing is raised
or lowered. This is also referred to as roll.
BEVERAGE TROLLEY
Contains cocktail and beverage supplies used for beverage service
delivery, also known as the liquor cart.
BIDDING
The process by which flight attendants select the flight schedule or
vacation they prefer. All flight attendants submit their bids or
preferences, and the bids are awarded to the flight attendants in
order of flight attendant seniority.
BLOCK IN
When blocks are placed at the aircraft wheels upon arrival or parking
of the aircraft.
BLOCK TO BLOCK (BLOCK TIME)
The time from removal of the blocks at flight departure to placement
of the blocks at flight arrival.
BLOCK OUT
When blocks are removed from the aircraft wheels for departure and
movement of the aircraft begins.
BLOCKS, CHOCS
Rubber or wooden stops that are used to keep the aircraft from
rolling when parked.

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BOARDING - (To)BOARD
The process of enplaning (or loading) passengers onto the aircraft.
BOARDING PASS
The ticket given once a customer has checked in. It tells the
customer the seat, gate assignments and departure time. It must be
presented by the passenger in order to board the aircraft. It contains
the following information: customer name, flight number, date, class
of service, seat number, departure and arrival information, and any
special requests (meal, wheelchair assistance, etc.).
BOARDING STAIRS
Steps used to enter or leave an aircraft. The stairs are a moveable
unit that is placed at the aircraft door when an aircraft does not have
access to a jetway at the terminal. Airline personnel also use these
stairs when the aircraft is being maintained in a hangar or at a
remote location.
BRACE POSITION
A protective position minimises the forces of an impact increasing the
chances of survival. Cabin crew, assume a brace position for every
take-off and landing based on the location of their jumpseat and the
direction it faces. Passengers are instructed on appropriate brace
positions during an emergency. The command Bend Over, Stay
Down is an example of a brace command that may be used in an
unplanned or unprepared emergency.
BRIEFING
A pre-flight briefing is a meeting conducted prior to the flight by the
captain and/or senior cabin crew with entire crew giving a general
overview of what is expected during the flight (safety, weather, delay,
etc.). Briefings may also refer to meetings between the crew and
other airline personnel or authorities following an incident or other
situation where information must be gathered or shared.
BULKHEAD
A partition separating the different areas of the aircraft.
BUREAU DE CHANGE
An office or location where money can be changed from one form of
currency to another.
CABIN
The interior of the aircraft where passengers are seated.

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CABIN ATTENDANT/CABIN CREW/FLIGHT ATTENDANT


Staff who care for passengers on board the aircraft and maintain
safety and service during flight.
CABIN LUGGAGE/CABIN BAGGAGE/CARRY ON
Small handheld pieces of luggage that passengers are allowed to
take on board.
CALL LIGHT
A light signaling the cabin crew to respond to a passengers needs,
usually located above the passengers seats, or on the armrest.
CAPTAIN
The pilot and person in charge of the aircraft. The captain sits in the
left hand seat in the cockpit (Left hand seat as you face the cockpit
from inside the aircraft).
CARGO
The shipment of goods in the baggage compartment of the aircraft;
this is often an additional source of revenue for the airline.
CATERING
Food, beverages and galley supplies brought to the aircraft for a
flight. Catering or Commissary also refers to the department
responsible for handling all food, beverages and supplies.
CHARTER FLIGHT
A revenue generating flight that is not operated on a regularly
published schedule. Charter flights are contracted for carriage of a
large group of passengers or freight to meet a partys special needs.
CHECK-CALL-CARE
The three steps to remember when providing first aid. These steps
give the responder an easy and safe approach to providing first aid
for a victim.
CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Switches that automatically interrupt the flow of electrical current to
the aircraft and are located in a panel. The main panel of circuit
breakers is located in the cockpit. Some galleys will also have circuit
breakers.

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CLIMB
The ascent of an aircraft just after take-off until and until the aircraft
levels off at its cruising altitude.
COCKPIT (FLIGHT DECK)
The area of the aircraft where all the controls and navigational
equipment to fly the aircraft are located. It is where the pilot and copilot sit.
COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER (CVR)
Records conversations within the cockpit on an aircraft. Useful
when investigating incidents and accidents.
COMMERCIAL FLIGHT
A regularly scheduled flight carrying passengers and/or cargo.
CONFIGURATION
Interior seating and cabin arrangement of an aircraft.
CONTROL TOWER
An airport building where air traffic controllers can oversee and direct
aircraft movement.
CONTROLS (INSTRUMENTS)
The mechanical and hydraulic devices used by the pilots to fly the
aircraft.
CO-PILOT or FIRST OFFICER
The person assisting the captain during a specific flight. The CoPilot or First Officer sits in the right hand seat in the cockpit. (Right
hand seat as you face the cockpit from inside the aircraft).
CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
An emergency first-aid procedure used to deliver oxygen-carrying
blood to the heart and brain in a person whose breathing and
heartbeat have stopped.
CUSTOMS
Authority in a country responsible for collecting taxes on imported
merchandise or merchandise brought in from outside that country.
This authority is also responsible for processing the flow or people,
animals and goods including personal property and hazardous
materials in and out of their country. They work to prevent smuggling
and prevent forbidden goods from entering or leaving the country.

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CUSTOMER SERVICE AGENT (also referred to as Passenger


Service Agent)
Staff that assists with the passenger and operational related
functions of an airline, at the airport.
CREW MEMBER
A qualified individual assigned by an air carrier to perform specific
duties in an aircraft. Can refer to pilots or cabin crew.
CREW SCHEDULING
The department responsible for projecting and scheduling all trips for
the crew. Often involves two areas of responsibility: Crew Planning,
which organises all advance schedules, including training, vacation
and hotel needs and Crew Scheduling, which handles responsibilities
such as, ensuring appropriate staffing, coverage and assignments to
reserve, or on call flight attendants.
CREW PATTERN
A term that refers to a schedule of assignments in sequence of one
or more duty periods (working days) that begin and end in ones
domicile.
CROSS CONTAMINATION
The transfer of undesirable elements from one surface to another
such as bacteria and virus.
CRUISE
To fly at a constant altitude with a power setting, which provides
optimum speed and fuel economy.
DANGEROUS GOODS ACCIDENT
An occurrence related to the transport of dangerous goods by air that
results in fatal or serious injury to a person or major property
damage.
DANGEROUS GOODS INCIDENT
An occurrence related to the transport of dangerous goods by air that
results in injury to a person, property damage, fire, breakage,
spillage, leakage or fluid or radiation of other evidence that the
integrity of the packaging has not been maintained.

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DEADHEAD
Term used to refer to positioning or relocation of staff or equipment.
A member of the crew may be required to travel to or from a location
as a non-working crew for the purpose of going to or returning from a
flight assignment. The term also refers to movement of empty
equipment to another location - catering equipment and carts are
often "deadheaded" from one location to another to accommodate
inventory or supply needs.
DEBRIEF
A meeting following an event that requires authorities to get
information about what happened, what procedures were used and
what could have been done differently. Depending on the situation it
may also involve advice or counseling. It is mandatory after an
accident or critical incident.
DECOMPRESSION
Loss or reduction of cabin pressure or altitude within the aircraft.
(may be slow or rapid).
DE-ICE
Removing ice from the wings of the plane with pneumatic boots or
chemicals.
DEPARTURE LOUNGE (GATE AREA)
Area where passengers wait before boarding the aircraft
DEPLANE/DISEMBARK
Term used to denote passengers leaving the aircraft.
DESCENT
Downward path of an aircraft.
DISPATCH
The department responsible for providing specific information to the
cockpit crews, such as, flight plans, weather reports and other
important information regarding the flight. These personnel require
special training and licensing.
DITCHING
A forced landing of an aircraft on water.

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DIVERSION
When a plane is not allowed to land at its destination and is directed
to land elsewhere, usually because of weather.
DOMICILE (BASE, CREW BASE)
Location where crewmembers trips originate and end. Airlines base
or domicile the crew in cities where they have largest number of
flights arriving and departing. For instance, your domicile may be
Amsterdam and your trips will be scheduled to begin and end at
Amsterdam Schiphol International Airport.
DOWNLINE
Any location other than your domicile.
DUTY
A tariff or tax paid on imported or exported goods.
DUTY FREE
Goods sold at ports or airports that are free of government taxes and
customs duties. Some countries have allowances of how much duty
free merchandise a person may bring back into their country. These
restrictions usually apply to liquor, wine, tobacco, perfume, jewelry
and other gifts and souvenirs.
DUTY FREE CART OR DUTY FREE KIT
A cart or compartment that contains merchandise for sale which is
duty free to passengers during the flight; this service is offered on
international flights.
DUTY TIME
The period of time while you are at work. On duty refers to the
period of time that you are working, off duty refers to the time when
you are not working.
ECONOMY CLASS
The least expensive seats in an aircraft, in the US it is referred to as
Coach Class.
ELEVATORS
Elevators are mounted on hinges on the aft portion of the horizontal
stabilizer. Elevators control the up/down attitude of the aircraft.
Together, with the horizontal stabilizer, the elevators aid in climbing,
descending and level flight.

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EMERGENCY BRIEFING CARD


Card or pamphlet kept in the pocket of an aircraft seat that gives
safety instructions.
EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT CHECK
The act of checking the serviceability and location of emergency
equipment on the aircraft prior to flight departure, this check includes
checking the galleys, lavatories and an aircraft security check.
EMERGENCY LANDING
Sudden or unplanned landing because of an emergency.
ENROUTE
Along the way to a destination.
ESTIMATED FLIGHT TIME
The overall general flight time between two points (the point of
departure and the point of arrival).
ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL (ETA)
The time at which a flight is expected to arrive at the destination.
ESTIMATED TIME OF DEPARTURE (ETD)
The time at which a flight is projected to depart from a particular city.
E-TICKET
Electronic ticket is a digital form of a reservation. A passenger is
issued a receipt from a machine or via email that contains a record
locator or reservation number that confirms a booking or reservation.
This information is available on the computer at the check-in counter
and the passenger presents this confirmation number upon check in
and is issued a boarding pass. It eliminates the need for a paper
ticket. E tickets offer greater flexibility for airlines by eliminating
manual tasks to process and account for paper tickets.
EQUIPMENT
The type of aircraft that an airline flies.
EVACUATION
Emergency deplaning of passengers using all available exits.

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EVACUATION SLIDE (SLIDE)


Inflatable slide or chute that inflates automatically in the event of an
emergency that allows passengers to slide to the ground. It is
usually part of the door of an aircraft.
F
Letter used on a ticket or in a reservation to designate First Class
service or fare.
FERRY FLIGHT
To fly a plane from one point to another without passengers onboard
FLAPS
Flaps provide additional lift when needed and therefore have various
degree settings. Flaps are hydraulically actuated and are used for
take off and landing. Flaps are mounted on hinges on the trailing
edge of the wing. Flaps are retracted in the climb phase and
extended during the descent phase.
FLIGHT CREW
Term referring to pilots.
FLIGHT DATA RECORDER
A device that records aircraft performance parameters. It is an aid to
study air safety issues, material and jet performance and is also used
in aircraft accident analysis.
FLIGHT ENGINEER
Some types of aircraft have 3 pilots in the cockpit. This position sits
behind and to the right of the co-pilot and monitors all the aircraft
systems. Many of todays modern jets do not have this position.
FLIGHT NUMBER
Official number given to a commercial flight.
FLIGHT PATH
The direction of an aircraft in the air.
FLIGHT PLAN
Detailed document completed by the captain prior to every flight. It
includes the planned routing, flying time, altitude and amount of fuel
on board and an alternate airport if the plane is unable to land at the
original destination airport.

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FLIGHT RELEASE
A required verification by a qualified release officer that the flight
meets certain requirements such as: the pilot in command is
qualified, the passengers on board are legal to be on board, the
specific aircraft and timeframe in which the flight is to be operated.
This information must be confirmed before the flight can operate.
FLIGHT SCHEDULE
The timetable showing all flights of an airline, and their scheduled
departure and arrival times.
FORWARD
The area toward the nose or the front of an aircraft.
FURLOUGH
An indefinite layoff from employment to do loss or reduction of
business.
FUSELAGE
The main body of an aircraft but not including the wings and the tail.
GALLEY
The area on the aircraft where food and beverages are stored and
prepared.
GATE
The exit in the departure lounge that leads to the aircraft.
GROUND POWER UNIT (GPU)
A portable unit attached to the plane when on the ground that
provides power to the aircraft when the engines or Auxiliary Power
Unit are not operating.
GROUND SPEED
This is the speed of the aircraft in relation to the ground, which is the
sum of the airplanes actual airspeed plus or minus the wind speed
and current weather conditions.
GROUND TIME
Period of time an aircraft and/or crew spend on the ground between
flights.

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HANGAR
A building where aircraft are sheltered and serviced by maintenance
personnel.
HEADWINDS
Wind blowing directly toward the airplanes nose, decreasing the
ground speed.
HEIMLICH MANEUVER
The Heimlich Maneuver or Abdominal Thrusts is a first aid procedure
used when a person has an obstructed airway or is choking and
cannot breathe.
HOLDING (HOLDING PATTERN)
When an aircraft has to wait in the air for landing clearance and fly in
a holding pattern circling around the airport. This is usually due to
weather or heavy air traffic during arrival at the airport.
HUB (HUB and SPOKE)
This is the base or homeport of an airline. Passengers will fly in from
other airports to this hub to connect with other aircraft to get to their
destinations.
IMMIGRATION
Official point of entry to a country, where the visas and passports of
crew and passengers are checked.
IMMIGRATION AUTHORITY
Agency that monitors persons entering or leaving the country by
validating appropriate documentation to allow entry to the country or
to forbid entry to the country. The immigration authority has the right
to forbid entry into the country because of missing documentation or
because the person is a possible threat. In some countries
Immigration is a separate agency from Customs.
INBOUND
Those passengers or flights coming into an airport.
INBOARD
Means a position closest to the center of the aircraft.
INTERLINE
When a passenger travels and connects to a different airline to reach
a destination.

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INTERMEDIATE STOP (TRANSIT)


Any city where a flight stops between its originating and terminating
points.
INITIAL OPERATING EXPERIENCE (IOE)
A required amount of time a newly hired crewmember must fly with a
check airman or person qualified by the airline to observe
performance of duties during flight.
J
Letter used on a ticket to designate Business Class service or fare.
JET STREAM
A narrow band of very high-speed winds, usually found at altitudes
between 20,000 and 40,000 feet. These winds usually blow from
west to east and can reach speeds as high as 200 miles per hour.
JETWAY (JETTY)
Enclosed tunnel like passageway brought to the aircraft that allows
entry and exit from the aircraft.
JUMPSEAT
Seats for flight and cabin crew that are of specific and regulated
design located in the cockpit and cabin.
LEADING EDGE
Curved front edge of the wing.
LANDING
When an aircraft touches down on the runway after a flight or returns
to the ground.
LANDING CARD
Form completed by passengers and handed to immigration upon
arrival in a country.
LAYOVER
To a passenger this term refers to the time between flights at an
airport. To an airline cabin crew this term refers to the time they are
off duty at a city other than their domicile. In regards to crew, a
layover period is the amount of time that separates two on-duty
periods within a pattern or assignment. The layover station or city
refers to the actual location of where you are off-duty for their rest
period. For example, if a cabin crew arrives in Paris at 1800 and
departs the next day at 2100, the layover period is 27 hours and the
layover station is Paris.

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LEG
Term used to refer to the in-flight portion of a journey to a
destination.
LIQUOR CART, LIQUOR KIT OR WINE CART OR WINE KIT
A cart or compartment that contains liquor and wine that will be used
during the flight for service. Depending on the class of service in
which it is being used, the contents may be complimentary to the
passenger or the Cabin Crew may be required charge for the
selection made by the passenger.
MANIFEST
List of passengers and cargo.
MANUAL (INFLIGHT HANDBOOK, INFLIGHT MANUAL)
A handbook issued by the airline to the cabin crew. It contains all the
regulations and procedures that are to be followed. It covers topics
from emergencies, medical situations and service. The airlines and
regulatory agencies require you to carry certain information
contained in the manual with you at all times while on duty so that
you have a reference. You will also be required to insert revised
pages outlining new or changed procedures as required by your
airline.
MINIMUM CREW REQUIREMENT
Civil aviation regulations specify the minimum number of cabin crew
that must be on board the aircraft if it is operating a scheduled
service. (This rule does not pertain to ferry flights). In general the
requirement is based on the number of passenger seats and
number of aircraft doors.
NARROW-BODY
This is a single-aisle aircraft. In general, this refers to a smaller
aircraft but some single-aisle airplanes such as the 757 are
stretched or long and are configured to accommodate up to 200
people.
NAVIGATIONAL LIGHTS
Coloured lights on the wing tip to indicate the direction of flight. Also
referred to as a position light. The light on the left wing tip is red and
the right wing tip is green. A person can tell which direction an
aircraft is flying by those two lights.

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NO SHOW
Can refer to a passenger who reserves a seat on a flight but does
not check in or travel OR it can refer to a member of the cabin crew
who fails to report for a flight assignment.
NON REVENUE PASSENGER
A person traveling on a free or service charge only ticket. Airline
employees traveling as part of their benefits are referred to as nonrevs or pass riders.
NOSE
Front end of the aircraft.
OFFICIAL AIRLINE GUIDE (OAG)
A publication containing all airline routes, schedules and airport
information.
ON THE LINE
Term used to refer to active cabin crew working a schedule. When
and individual completes training and begins working as cabin crew
they are considered on the line.
OUT AND BACK or TURN
The scheduled pairings of one or more flights that return cabin crew
to his/her home base on the same day.
OUTBOARD
Refers to the position furthest from the center of the aircraft.
OUTBOUND
Refers to a flight or passengers departing from an airport.
OVERHEAD LOCKERS (OVERHEAD BINS)
Compartments installed above the seats in an aircraft that are used
by passengers to place their belongings including carry-on luggage.
PA
Public address system used to make announcements.
PASSENGER (PAX)
Person traveling and is often referred to in shortened form as PAX.
PASSENGER LOAD
Total number of passengers on the aircraft.

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PASSENGER SERVICE UNIT or PSU


Located above the passenger seats, it contains all or part of the
following:
Reading lights, air outlets, oxygen outlet, cabin crew call button,
emergency oxygen mask and No Smoking and Fasten Seat Belt
signs.
PASSPORT
A formal document issued by a government that identifies the holder
as a national or citizen of that country. This document allows the
holder to enter and pass thru other countries at the request of the
issuing country. It allows for legal protection abroad and the right to
enter the persons country of nationality. It contains the holders
photograph, signature, date of birth and nationality. Over time, the
League of Nations, United Nations and ICAO have issued guidelines
of standardization for the layouts and the features of passports.
These are seen in the passports of today.
PER DIEM
Money earned while away from base to cover expenses.
PIC
Pilot in command.
PILOT
A certificated airman qualified to operate the controls of an aircraft in
flight.
PRESSURISATION
The process of pumping air into the fuselage to maintain the
atmospheric conditions inside the aircraft the same as those on the
ground. Pressurization occurs at 2400 meters.
PORT
A term used to refer to the left hand side of the aircraft. (Also
referred to as aircraft left).
POSITIVE SPACE
A confirmed reservation or guaranteed seating, which may or may
not be a revenue passenger. For example, those cabin crew who
are deadheading are considered positive space as they must have
a seat to get to their assignment.

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PUSHBACK
The act of pushing the aircraft backwards away from an airport gate
using ground equipment like a pushback tractor or tug when there is
limited room for the aircraft to turn or move backwards under its own
power.
PURSER
The person who is in charge of the cabin crew. Some airlines refer
to this position as Lead or #1 or Senior Flight Attendant. The purser
is responsible for coordinating the crew and their duties, completion
of paperwork and international customs documents. Often this
position requires additional training or qualification by an airline
including service, conflict resolution and company procedures and
other management skills.
QUARANTINE
When humans or animals are kept away from others to reduce the
spread of disease.
RADAR
Radio signal system used to identify the position and speed of
objects or weather when they cannot be seen.
RAMP (APRON, TARMAC)
The paved area on the field side of the terminal building where
aircraft are parked to load and unload passengers.
RAMP SERVICE AGENT
A person who handles and loads the aircraft with luggage and cargo.
RANGE
Refers to the distance an aircraft can fly carrying maximum weight
without refueling.
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
Any specification that includes, physical characteristics,
configuration, materials, performance, personnel or procedures. The
application of the recommended practice is recognized as desirable
in the interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of international air
navigation but is not necessarily required.
RECURRENT TRAINING
Yearly training which flight crew and cabin crew must attend to
maintain their qualification.

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REPORT TIME (SHOW TIME)


The time the flight crew or cabin crew is required to report for duty at
the airport.
RESERVE
The status of cabin crew who is on-call for the entire month. He or
she may be requested to work a trip when someone is sick, on
vacation, or late for his or her or assigned flight.
REVENUE
Refers to customers who has paid a fare for air transportation.
ROOT
The part of the wing attached to the fuselage.
ROSTER (CREW LIST)
List of the scheduled crew for a flight.
RUDDER ASSEMBLY
Mounted on hinges on the aft portion of the vertical stabilizer; it aids
in compensating the left or right turning tendencies of the aircraft.
Together the rudder and vertical stabilizer control yaw (the fishtail
like action of the aircraft).
RUNWAY
The specially prepared concrete surface used for take-off and
landing, usually aligned so aircraft can take off into the wind.
SCHEDULE FLIGHT TIME
The total projected time of a flight from take-off to landing.
SEAT ASSIGNMENT
Specified seats assigned to passengers at the time they check in
prior to boarding.
SEATBELT EXTENSION
Extension belt used for larger passengers that attaches to a regular
seatbelt.
SECURITY CHECK
A point in the airport where all passengers, crew and airport
personnel will be screened before boarding a flight or gaining access
to the gate area.

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SERVICE FLOW
The direction in which cabin service is performed.
SILENT REVIEW
Time during take off and landing in which cabin crew focus on their
emergency procedures and steps to responding to an incident. It
provides an opportunity to focus on safety and observation and not
be distracted by conversation during this critical phase of flight
SLATS
Work in conjunction with wing flaps to provide lift. Slats are mounted
on hinges on the leading edge of the wing. Slats are retracted in the
climb phase and extended during the descent phase.
SLOT
Refers to the pre-arranged time that a flight is scheduled to take off,
fly and land at the next destination.
SPECIAL MEAL
Meals that meet dietary requirements. Passengers request special
meals for religious reasons, health requirements or personal
preferences and are ordered in advance of a flight. Some types of
special meals include kosher, vegetarian or childrens meals.
SPOILER
Spoilers are like speed brakes. Spoilers are used during the decent
and landing phases at which time they "pop up" increasing and drag
dramatically. Spoilers are located just forward of the trailing edge
topside of each wing.
STANDARD
Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration, material,
performance, personnel or procedure. The application of a standard
is recognised as necessary for the safety or regularity of international
air navigation.
STAND-BY PASSENGER
A passenger who does not have a confirmed reservation, but arrives
at the airport with the hope of being accommodated at departure
time. Non-revenue travelers are also considered stand by.
STARBOARD
A term used to refer to the right side of the airplane. (Also referred to
as aircraft right)

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STOW
To place articles in a safe, secure place for take-off and landing.
TAIL ASSEMBLY or EMMPANAGE
Consists of the vertical stabilizer, the ge rudder, horizontal stabilizer,
and vertical elevator.
TAILCONE
Cone shaped section of the tail of certain aircraft. It can be released
in an emergency to provide an additional means of escape.
(Generally found on DC-9 and MD-80 type aircraft).
TAILWIND
Wind blowing directly at the back of the aircraft and increasing its
ground speed.
TAKEOFF
The act of the aircraft lifting from the runway.
TAXI
The movement of an aircraft on the ground while operating under its
own power.
TAXIWAY
The pavement that connects the ramp and the runway.
TELEPHONY SPELLING ALPHABET
The common name for the NATO phonetic Alphabet, which is a form
of code used in the aviation industry that aids in communication.
Code words are assigned to letters of the English alphabet to spell
out parts of a message or call signs that are critical or might be hard
to recognize with voice communication.
TERMINAL BUILDING
A building at the airport where passengers check-in, depart or arrive
from a flight.
TERMINATING STATION
The city where a flight makes its last stop for the day.
THROUGH PASSENGER
A person continuing on through an intermediate stop to a further
destination.

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TICKET
A coupon or series of coupons issued by an airline that confirms a
passengers reservation and allows them to board the aircraft.
TIP
The edge of the wing that is farthest from the fuselage.
TOP OF CLIMB
The point at which the aircraft has reached its cruise altitude.
TOP OF DESCENT
The point at which the aircraft is preparing to descend.
TRAILING EDGE
The rearmost section of the wing.
TRANSIT PASSENGER
A person continuing on a flight through an intermediate (transit) stop,
and is also referred to as a through-passenger.
TURN TIME
Refers to the amount of time between an arrival and an aircrafts next
flight. Used by staff to reference how much time they have to ready
the airplane for the next flight.
TURN-AROUND (TURNS, OUT AND BACK)
Term used by cabin crew to describe a type of trip that departs and
returns to a domicile in the same day.
TURBULENCE
Random or erratic airflow that causes uneven flight (a bumpy ride)
UNACCOMPANIED MINOR (UM)
A child traveling without an adult.
VERTICAL STABILISER
This is a part of the vertical tail structure of an airplane and provides
directional stability much like a sharks dorsal fin works in the water.
This is on the aft topside part of the fuselage and is the tallest feature
on the aircraft.

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VISA
Document issued by a country giving a person the opportunity to
request entrance to a country during a specified period of time and
for a specified purpose. A visa does not guarantee admission to the
country. Visas are generally attached into a passport or may be
issued as a separate piece of paper.
VIP
Very important person or passenger, who usually requires extra
attention and has special requests regarding their travel.
WAKE TURBULENCE or WASH
The disrupted air or turbulence caused by one aircraft in front of
another.
WEATHER
Differences in air density caused by changes in air temperature,
which in turn cause changes in atmospheric pressure. This creates
air currents and wind.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
A mathematical calculation done prior to the departure of a flight to
assure aircraft stability and flight safety. It takes into account load
factor (passenger, cargo, and fuel) and other conditions of the flight.
WHEELS UP
Refers to actual take-off time of the aircraft as it leaves the runway.
WIDE-BODY AIRCRAFT
A high capacity aircraft that has two aisles, for example, a 747 is a
wide-bodied aircraft.
WIND SHEAR
A change in wind direction or speed that adversely affects the ability
to fly the aircraft, which is often found with thunderstorms.
Y
The letter that designates Economy or Coach Class or service.
YELLOW CARD
International record of ones vaccinations and immunisations against
disease.

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