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D R A F T
UNESCO Institute for Statistics First edition: December 2007
UNESCO Institute for Statistics P.O. Box 6128 Succursale Centre-Ville Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 Canada Tel: (1 514) 343-6880 Fax: (1 514) 343-5740 Email: email@example.com http://www.uis.unesco.org © UNESCO-UIS 2008 Ref: UIS/TD/08-01 ISBN: 978-92-9189-052-1 DRAFT
Table of Contents
Page Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................4 Acronyms ......................................................................................................................5 Executive summary.......................................................................................................7 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4. 5. Introduction ..........................................................................................................9 Rationale...........................................................................................................9 Policy context of the framework revision ......................................................... 11 Purpose and key objectives of the framework revision .................................... 13 Theoretical and conceptual model .................................................................... 14 Review of existing cultural statistics frameworks ............................................. 14 Summary of major findings across selected existing frameworks .................... 15 Breadth of the cultural sector in selected frameworks ..................................... 16 Depth of the sector.......................................................................................... 18 Framework revision: New model’s approach ................................................... 22 Definition issues.............................................................................................. 23 The culture cycle or cultural production chain.................................................. 23 Breadth of the cultural sector........................................................................... 27 Clarifying core cultural domains ...................................................................... 28 The framework structure.................................................................................... 34 Identifying cultural occupations and activities: from the economic to the social model.......................................................................................... 34 The shift to direct measurement ...................................................................... 35 The social model ............................................................................................. 38 Dataset specification ....................................................................................... 42 Culture goods and services: Using the Central Product Classification (CPC) .. 43 Cultural industries: Using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) .............................................................................................................. 43 Cultural employment: Using the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)........................................................................................ 45 Data collection issues ..................................................................................... 47 Management and policymaking.......................................................................49 Basic proposals for the measurement of the economic and social contribution of culture...................................................................................... 49
Bibliography........................................................................................................ 53 Appendices Appendix I: Glossary............................................................................................ 57 Appendix II: List of consultees.............................................................................. 59 Appendix III: Culture defined using international classifications ........................... 60
The revised 2009 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics is based upon an initial draft produced for the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) by Paul Owens of Burns Owen Partnership, Calvin Taylor of the University of Leeds and Andy Pratt of the London School of Economics. The actual text of the framework has profited from discussion with many scholars, statisticians and other experts. In particular, we have learnt much from discussions with the UNESCO Culture Sector, which has ensured that the statistics remain policy-relevant.
ANZSCO BOP CPC DCMS FCS ICTs IIFB ILO ISCED ISCO ISIC LEG MDGs NSO OECD SIC UIS UNCTAD UNPFII UNSD WIPO Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations Burns Owen Partnership Central Product Classification Department of Culture, Media and Sport, United Kingdom Framework for Cultural Statistics Information Communication Technologies International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity International Labour Organization International Standard Classification of Education International Standard Classification of Occupations International Standard Industrial Classification European Union Leadership Expert Group Millennium Development Goals National statistical office Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Standard Industrial Classification UNESCO Institute for Statistics United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues United Nations Statistics Division World Intellectual Property Organization
Defining culture: Core and periphery Culture is often a reflection of certain shared beliefs or values. It is not possible to measure such beliefs or values in a systematic or comparable fashion. Instead, this Framework for Culture Statistics aims to identify culture through the behaviour and activities resulting from those beliefs and values. The definition of culture is also very closely related to national and social identity, and yet, it is important to compare certain dimensions of culture across cultures and countries. There is a core set of economic (production of goods and services) and social (participation/attendance in cultural ‘performances’) activities that most people and countries regard as forming part of culture. Other economic (e.g. advertising) and social (e.g. sports) activities are not universally accepted as forming part of culture and are therefore peripheral. Therefore, it is not possible, or desirable, to construct a single proscriptive definition of cultural activities. Instead, this framework suggests that statistical authorities select domains or sectors of activities which they consider to be central to their culture. Where countries select the same domain, they should use the definitions set out in this document, making data internationally comparable for that domain. Although the standards used for constructing these definitions are economic, the interpretation of the resulting domain is not limited to economic aspects of culture and extends to all aspects of that domain. Thus, the definition for the measurement of ‘performance’ includes all performances, whether these are amateur or professional and take place in a formal concert hall or in an open space in a rural village. In addition, the framework emphasises three dimensions of cultural activity that should be measured across a range of sectoral activities or functions. Education and archiving and preserving are defined as transversal functions within the cultural production chain, while traditional and local knowledge is considered as a transversal cultural domain. It has been felt that each of these three dimensions is key to measuring the full breadth of cultural activity. Measuring culture: A pragmatic approach This framework aims to provide a basis for producing comparable data on culture worldwide within the constraints presented above in defining cultural activities. It is acknowledged that the capacities of countries for collecting statistics on culture vary, depending on policy priorities, statistical expertise, and human and financial resources. The framework is explicitly designed to allow statistical authorities to produce internationally comparable data within the limits of these constraints. The framework is built upon the most common international statistical standards – the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) and the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), together with the Central Product Classification (CPC) – in order to maximise the potential for using existing surveys to measure cultural
activity. Countries with fewer resources will be able to use the basic fundamental structure of the ISIC and ISCO classifications to measure cultural activities through standard economic statistics, and household surveys such as labour force surveys and censuses. Countries with more resources and in priority domains will be able to collect more elaborate statistics using the Central Product Classification and more finely tuned, or dedicated, statistical instruments. There is a major role to be played by national labour force surveys, especially in collecting data on secondary occupations, as cultural activities are often the result of part-time or amateur production. It can be argued that in many developing countries cultural production or activities are an important supplement to agricultural and basic manual occupations and, thus, represent an important contribution to poverty alleviation. The framework also makes reference to the creative chain/cycle model of cultural activity, which is used here as an aid for understanding the relationships between different cultural activities. Indicators should be interpreted with this model in mind so that statistical authorities can understand which part of the creative process they are measuring, e.g. authoring, production or distribution. Specific indicators have not been defined in the framework. Rather, its purpose is to suggest how statistics derived from economic data, household or visitor surveys, and valuation of cultural assets can be brought together to present a holistic view of culture that will allow some international comparability in certain ‘core’ domains. It is more of a classification instrument than a tool for direct implementation. It is hoped that in the future specific guidelines may be developed for particular types of instruments or indicators, e.g. indicators for use in surveys of cultural participation or recommended indicators for measuring handicraft production.
This framework replaces the 1986 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics (FCS). Since that year, many different approaches to culture have emerged, and social and technological changes have transformed the place of culture in the world. Many cultures exist within the diverse populations of a country. It is this very richness of expression and activity that makes culture so important and so vital to people’s lives throughout the world. Yet cultural biases permeate every statistical instrument and scientific investigation to the point where some scientists think that researchers have an inescapable bias based on their own cultural background. A UNESCO statistical framework for culture has to maximise international comparability, and to identify ‘universal value’ to the extent possible. At the national level, there are also demands for international comparability. Countries want to see their most important cultural values and products recognised on the world stage. UNESCO does not believe that comparing cultural statistics is comparing the incomparable, but does acknowledge that this is a complex matter that can pose real issues. A product that is highly cultural in one country, e.g. clothing or national dress, may have few cultural meanings in another. In most African and Asian countries, clothing is an important part of cultural expression. In many European countries, the cultural aspect of clothing does not go beyond wearing national dress for special occasions. This updated framework aims to be flexible and not proscriptive, while retaining key elements of comparability. It is expected that it will operate in a way that will leave countries free to select which major domains form part of their cultural statistics. Where two countries adopt the same domain, it is assumed that data will be collected through a similar (or ideally the same) definition so as to maximise cross-national comparability. The framework identifies a core set of domains so that a benchmark across a number of national and international cultural standards can be generated. Data in these ‘core’ domains will facilitate the collection of an internationally comparable dataset, but this will not necessarily give a complete picture of culture at a national level. 1.1 Rationale
Since the original FCS was published in 1986 (UNESCO, 1986), public policy has placed a higher priority on culture. There are a number of reasons for this, some of which represent long-term underlying trends; others are more recent and contingent. In the major economic centres of the global economy, increase in wealth and disposable income has led to increased discretionary spending on culture. This means that culture has become an essential part of the cycle of economic reproduction rather than a luxury, or preference product, which is acquired through the allocation of surplus resources. Cultural consumption has grown, the range of products has expanded, and a ‘product’ now mediates most cultural experiences. For example, instead of simply listening to the live performance of a piece of music, a Compact Disc (CD) player is used as mediator. This creates a market for, and need for, the production of CD players and CDs.
These long-term trends have been intensified by two more recent and related phenomena:
The Internet (and related technologies) is now a principal means for the production and distribution of culture (and related processes of education, conservation and critique); and Within wealthier countries, the growth of disposable income has encouraged popular sensitisation to design. This, in turn, has introduced the possibilities of economically sustainable levels of differentiation in product design and presentation.
By comparison with the pre-digital era, new technologies enable the rapid commercial exploitation of even ‘one-off’ cultural production, such as a song. This transformation has led to a shift in the balance of economic power between cultural activities that are digitally reproducible – and potentially commercially tradable – and those that are not, which are generally more difficult to trade (Barrowclough and Kozul-Wright, 2006). As a result, the cultural sector in some developed countries is more economically important (at least in employment terms) than a number of older established industries (e.g. mining, car production, etc.) and it contributes significantly to export earnings. While the economic impact of the cultural sector in the developing world is at present far less evident with regard to employment, export earnings may be disproportionately significant. Accordingly, culture is being reconsidered in its role as a tool of development (Barrowclough and Kozul-Wright, 2006). Existing cultural policy frameworks are based on the status quo balance of power, preferences and resources of the pre-digital era. Therefore, the new forms of cultural production present a significant challenge to such frameworks – particularly in areas such as heritage conservation, intellectual property and diversity – and make them less effective at meeting their objectives. For example, while some forms of musical expression may become commercially stronger, other cultural forms that do not benefit from digital reproduction and distribution may, in effect, require further public investment if the cultural status quo is to be preserved. Equally, these changes may provoke a reassessment of the status quo. New forms of cultural production have also generated a new sphere of cultural policy action that focuses on a distinct sub-group of activities – cultural industries. These are often also referred to as creative industries and have much in common with the older notion of cultural industries, which is usually taken to signify the commercial dimension of the cultural sector. A creative industry can also be taken to include activities that are ‘creative’ but may have little to do with ‘culture’, e.g. advertising (see Section 2.6). However, the notion of a strong and vibrant inter-dependency between all the activities of the cultural sector, public or private, should be adopted instead. For example, practitioners may move between publicly- and privately-funded – or indeed paid and unpaid – work on a weekly basis, making it very difficult to position them in the public or private domain. If the focus is on practice, it is hoped that the framework will capture the fluidity of boundaries and appreciate the mutually reinforcing elements of both.
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These transformations in the creation, production, distribution and consumption of culture mean that the cultural sector has grown in relative and absolute terms, often outstripping traditional areas of the economy. Due to the rapid rate of change, and the innovative and novel character of cultural production, more and better data are required to fully appreciate the extent and depth of such changes. As will be noted below, the cultural sector has not grown uniformly. This has created a number of tensions between commercial and non-commercial activities, traditional and modern, high and low art forms, and between international and indigenous sensibilities. The 1986 FCS was conceived by UNESCO Member States that were largely from the developed world. A revised FCS needs to take into account the possibly differing needs of developing countries. In particular, a revised FCS needs to consider the appropriateness and feasibility of incorporating elements such as intangible cultural heritage, as well as dealing with the issue of cultural diversity. Some cultural activities, such as craft production and the role of education, were either omitted or not given enough emphasis in the 1986 framework. In line with these various considerations, the revised framework has been developed using the following terms of reference: • • revisit the intellectual framework that underpins the FCS in light of recent trends and considerations in cultural policy and practice; review existing classifications/frameworks and indicators used by a range of Member States for measuring culture within their national official statistics systems; identify gaps in terms of relevant variables/indicators; and make proposals for updating the FCS, as well as for developing measures that might be used to capture dimensions of the framework. Policy context of the framework revision
Another important consideration for the development of a new framework is the growing role of culture in public policy. A number of reasons can explain this trend: • Increases in international trade in cultural products. This has major implications for intellectual property rights in the strict sense (their creation, ownership and exploitation) and for the wider question of cultural identity and its ownership (intangible heritage, transmissible folklore, etc.). • The growth and concentration of market power in a few multinational conglomerates that operate across cultural industries. The organisation of cultural production in many markets favours oligopoly; hence, there is enormous ‘first mover advantage’, which lies almost exclusively with the developed world. • The legal and policy institutions of cultural regulation and promotion were developed before the growth of cultural industries. As such, these institutions are ill
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equipped to meet present challenges. A key part in developing appropriate policy responses is having a robust evidential base. Cultural mapping documents that draw on statistical sources to analyse the cultural sector are a vital part of this process. • Cultural policy as ‘cultural industries’ policy, which allows for the development of a sectoral and economic perspective. A consequence of this is that cultural policy needs to take cultural industries into account. • There are complex inter-dependencies between the public and private spheres that go beyond simple dualism. For example, a number of commercial cultural activities will impact upon cultural policy aspirations. Frameworks that are limited to a dualism approach will become increasingly inadequate. Since 1986, a very significant development has been the growing awareness of, and need for, active policy on cultural diversity. Cultural diversity is a multi-faceted policy area with a number of different roots, and with different emphasis and articulation at different territorial levels: intra-state, inter-state or transnational. In this latter context, the drive towards active policy on cultural diversity has a number of inter-connected aspects: • In general terms, there has been a growing demand for cultural products originating in the developing world or, in some cases, a hybridisation of these products with those from the developed world. But developing countries are often poorly positioned to negotiate returns on their cultural exports that are comparable with those received by developed nations; this is partly due to a lack of local institutional capacity but also to the absolute power of an oligopolist industrial sector. • The blurring of boundaries between (largely Western) notions of high and low culture, and between the West and ‘the rest’. • The commercialisation of craft production and its role in strategies of economic development in the developing world. A range of issues are emerging as a result of these changes; perhaps the most debated issue concerns intellectual property rights. As culture is increasingly seen as a commodity, a system of rights (and a definition of what rights individual producers may have) dictates the degree of protection that should be given to individuals for the exploitation of their ideas. As has been well publicised, there are particular problems – mainly argued on behalf of large corporations seeking to protect their assets – associated with copying or theft. At the same time, areas of culture that are untraded may not develop a robust identification of rights, leaving them vulnerable to theft. This problem exists in developing countries and often goes unreported, posing a threat to diversity of cultural expression. For this reason, UNESCO established the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions in 2005.
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Purpose and key objectives of the framework revision
The proposed revised framework aims at establishing a conceptual foundation, common understanding and minimum dataset that will enable international comparison of a full range of activities in the production, circulation and use of culture. To do this, the framework revision encompasses the following guiding principles: • • Capture the full range of cultural expression, irrespective of the particular economic mode of its production; Address the breadth of cultural expression (cultural forms, practices, products and processes), including the manner of their production and consumption (cultural industries, creative industries and the cultural component of intellectual property, or knowledge, industries); Assist countries in developing their own locally sensitive frameworks but with common reference points for the purposes of international comparison and benchmarking; Where possible, acknowledge and cross-reference to other international frameworks that possess overlapping concerns, e.g. the Nice Agreement Classification of Trademarks (WIPO, 1957) and the World Intellectual Property Organisation’s International Patent Classification System (WIPO, 1971). The revised framework, however, should not be constrained by their sectional interest; Relate and make possible adaptations to frameworks already developed by countries, such as Australia, Canada, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and by the European Union (EU). (DCMS, 2001; Siwek, 2002; DCMS, 2003) and others (see Section 2); and Where possible, use categories translatable into international classifications, such as the Central Product Classification (CPC), the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) or the International Standard Classification by Occupations (ISCO).
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Theoretical and conceptual model
Review of existing cultural statistics frameworks
The following review, which was conducted by Burns Owen Partnership (BOP) with Andy Pratt of the London School of Economics and Calvin Taylor of the University of Leeds, covered 14 different cultural statistical frameworks. The coverage was not intended to be exhaustive, but to be indicative of frameworks for culture, creative industries and copyright industries. It takes into consideration: • • • • • the global North and the global South; developed and developing countries; supra-national or regional blocs; intra-state ‘cultural exceptionalism’; and multi-lateral agencies.
Wherever possible, classification frameworks were selected that were developed by national statistical agencies or by national culture ministries, departments or agencies, i.e. they are not simply mapping studies but frameworks that have in some way been commissioned, adopted and supported by government. The frameworks reviewed collectively span the decade between 1995 and 2005, and relate to the following territories: Australia, 2000/01 (Culture) Canada,1 2004 (Culture) China, 2005 (Culture) Colombia, 2004 (Creative Industries) – to be adopted by the countries that are parties to the Andrés Bello Agreement • European Union Leadership Expert Group (LEG), 1999 (Culture) • Finland, 1999 (Culture) • Hong Kong, Chine 2003 (Creative Industries) • New Zealand, 1995 (Culture) • Quebec, 2004 (Culture) • Singapore, 2002 (Creative Industries) • Taiwan, Chine 2004 (Creative and Cultural Industries) • United Kingdom, 2004 (Culture) • WIPO, 2002 (Copyright Industries) • Zurich, 2005 (Creative Industries) – close in approach to other national European frameworks, such as the one for Austria. • • • •
Includes all Canadian provinces and territories.
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Summary of major findings across selected existing frameworks
To varying degrees, the frameworks reviewed are each a product of the following competing/contrasting factors: • Political demands – the frameworks are closely linked to the needs and internal policies of individual countries. • The ‘art of the possible’ – technical considerations regarding classifications and data availability have a pragmatic influence over definitions and frameworks. • Aspirational – the frameworks highlight what each country/regional bloc considers to be important in the field of culture; sometimes regardless of whether or not it is possible to incorporate this into present statistical classification and data collection systems. In the earlier frameworks reviewed (e.g. New Zealand), pragmatic demands are more to the fore and the cultural frameworks were based predominantly on what statistics and codes were available. Later frameworks (e.g. in Canada and potentially the United Kingdom) and definitions use weightings to apply to existing Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. Some of the frameworks go further than this (e.g. Australia and Quebec) to produce their own statistical nomenclature for culture, separate from the ISIC. However, not all of the surveys in these countries currently use the new classifications and the data collected remain limited. In this general context, it should be noted that: • With regard to emphasis and focus of the frameworks, European countries are more concerned with consumption and the ownership of organisations engaged in cultural industries. Other countries seek to measure cultural creation and consumption as a means to support the sustainability of their indigenous cultures; while countries in the developing world are relatively more interested in how they can measure and harness crafts and the unregulated trade in cultural activities for economic development. • The collection of statistics lags significantly behind the development and establishment of frameworks for defining and classifying culture in statistical terms. • The lack of data collected using the country classification frameworks is related to a number of serious challenges to data collection in the cultural field. These challenges are both structural and operational, and also related to the nature of the policymaking process itself in each country, including the role that evidence plays, the effectiveness of communication and the willingness of other agencies and organisations to use the classifications that have been developed for culture. • Frameworks with reliable cultural data collection tend to be the ones where national statistical agencies are heavily involved (i.e. Australia, Canada and Finland). Correspondingly, frameworks produced solely by culture departments/agencies seem less successful in actually populating frameworks with data.
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In general, the cultural data that do exist relate to governance concerns either of countries (whose concern is with the management of cultural assets or the promotion of cultural heritage and the arts) or of corporations (whose concerns are sales). The data that exist are seldom fit for the purposes set out earlier in this document. Some countries have sought to either adapt existing data sources to be more appropriate for meeting set objectives or to collect new data. Both exercises are costly and time consuming. This is the challenge and the opportunity that a cultural framework and database must address. 2.3 Breadth of the cultural sector in selected frameworks
Analysis shows that there is a considerable range of activities that are taken to be cultural/creative across the 14 frameworks. Frameworks either categorise activities solely according to a list of individual industries, generally defined in terms of their market (e.g. film) or also aggregate these activities into a smaller number of cultural domains (e.g. audio-visual). As these higher level groupings may consist of different constituent activities, even if they have the same name (see below), it is important to start first with an analysis at the level of individual cultural activities (e.g. broadcasting or crafts) to avoid confusion. Once this is taken as a starting point, it is possible to identify relative agreement across a significant sub-set of the 25+ separate cultural/creative activities contained within the country classifications. This has been represented graphically in Figure 1 below,2 with the activities for which there is greater commonality listed at the top and those that are specific to only one or two countries/blocs/multi-lateral organisations listed at the bottom. Leaving aside the ‘tail’ (i.e. activities that are included in only one or two of the country classifications), the key areas of variation relate to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Interactive Media; Software; Printing; Celebratory Cultural Events: festivals, fairs and feasts; Intangible and Natural Cultural Heritage; and wider Leisure Activities: gambling, sport, tourism.
In part, this is a reflection of whether the classification frameworks analysed relate to cultural industries or the related concepts of creative and intellectual property industries. The first three activities highlighted above (interactive media, software and printing) are typically absent from cultural frameworks, while celebratory events (intangible and natural heritage and – to a lesser extent – also libraries and archives) are excluded from most creative industries classifications, with Colombia/Andrés Bello Agreement countries being an important exception. Finally, only a few countries include wider leisure activities in culture – the United Kingdom and the Anglophone countries in the Southern hemisphere (Australia and New Zealand), as well as China.
Figure 1 does not include all the activities covered under the WIPO Copyright Industries Framework. Activities are shown here to illustrate overlaps with cultural and creative industries.
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Figure 1. Review of the ‘breadth’ of cultural and creative activities across the 14 frameworks
Activities Publishing/literature Performing arts Music Film Broadcasting (TV and radio) Fine arts Advertising Design (inc fashion) Museums, built/landscape environment Architecture Photography Libraries and archives Interactive media (web, games, mobile etc.) Software Crafts Printing Gambling and visitor attractions Community and government activities Sports and recreation Intangible cultural heritage Festivals, fairs, feasts Tourism Natural environment Toys and games Other information services (inc trade unions) Mass cultural services Innovative lifestyle Establishment in more than 1 field of culture Cultural Statistical Frameworks for Countries/Territories/Blocs/Multi-lateral organisations CA UK EU FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc CA UK EU FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc CA UK EU FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc CA UK EU FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc CA UK EU FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc CA UK EU CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc CA UK FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc CA UK FI CL HK SG TW WIPO Qc CA UK EU FI CL SG TW CN Qc CA UK FI CL HK SG TW WIPO Qc CA UK EU FI CL HK SG WIPO Qc CA UK EU FI CL SG Qc UK EU CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc UK FI CL HK SG TW CN WIPO Qc UK FI CL HK SG TW Qc UK EU HK SG WIPO UK FI TW FI CN Qc UK CN FI CL Qc UK FI CL SG UK CN CL CL WIPO CA CN TW Qc
NZ HK New Zealand Hong Kong, SAR China CA SG Qc Canada Singapore Quebec UK TW Zu United Kingdom Taiwan, China Zurich EU CN European Union China
AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU AU
NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ NZ
Zu Zu Zu Zu Zu Zu Zu Zu Zu Zu Zu
NZ NZ NZ NZ
Total 14 14 14 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 11 10 10 9 9 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 1 1 1 1
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organisation
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Aggregation into domains As implied above, there is much greater agreement over which activities make up the breadth of the cultural sector than there is over how these activities should be aggregated into higher level groupings or domains. For instance: • the European Union (EU) Leadership Expert Group (LEG) culture framework uses eight domains: Cultural Heritage, Archives, Libraries, Books and Press, Visual Arts, Architecture, Performing Arts, Audio and Audio-visual/Multimedia; • the Singapore creative industries classification uses three sub-sectors: Arts and Culture, Design, Media; and • the United Kingdom framework uses seven domains: Audio-visual, Books and Press, Visual Arts, Performance, Heritage, Sport, Tourism. In addition to varying numbers of sub-sector groupings with different category headings, the constituent activities are often aggregated into different groupings depending on the country or framework context. For example, ‘Photography’ is part of the ‘Arts and Culture’ grouping in the Singapore framework, but part of a smaller ‘Visual Arts’ domain in the EU LEG framework and part of the ‘Audio-visual’ domain in the United Kingdom. Section 3 outlines a proposal for dealing with the issues raised in this analysis of existing classification frameworks. 2.4 Depth of the sector
Understanding how countries establish the depth of the cultural sector is more complex than dealing with its breadth. In part, this is because the breadth is not always explicitly stated, whether this concerns the rationale or the list of activities that are included or excluded. However, once again, by analysing the individual activities that are included within the technical SIC definition of the sector, it is possible to establish what the implicit notion of the depth of the sector is in instances where no explicit mention is made. Understanding the depth of the sector is also complicated by the fact that there are different models for this kind of analysis across frameworks. Figure 2 maps the different stages (or functions) that were identified in the review of the ‘depth’ of cultural and creative activities across the 14 frameworks, and colour codes the frameworks according to which of the three models they are based on: Model A: The production of culture is the result of a series of interlinked processes or stages that together form the cultural production, value and supply chains or cycles (AU, CA, CL, EU, FI, HK, NZ, UK). The model is agnostic as to how these activities are funded or what the economic business model is that predominates in these activities. The production cycle or chain approach often also emphasises the importance of education and critique processes for both the supply and consumption of culture. Model B: This is an essentially hierarchical model, organised according to a core + periphery or core + related axiom that prescribes activities as either part of culture or in some way outside of it (but related to it). The defining characteristics that govern the inclusion-exclusion logic of this model are intellectual property or symbolic value:
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Intellectual property: Based on copyright industries (SG3), the core in this case includes activities that focus exclusively on the exploitation of intellectual property and other functions that are either partial copyright activities or in some ways linked to the first tier of core activities.
ii) Symbolic value: Functions are essentially defined by an assessment of how cultural they are, to again produce a core and related set of cultural activities. In this model (e.g. China), the core consists of activities that are most concerned with the creation of symbolic value, while related activities are concerned with the distribution and manufacturing of cultural products and services. Model C: Activities in this model are defined and classified not by their function (e.g. creation or retail), but by their funding and governance arrangements: private sector, state/public sector or civil society, not-for-profit (e.g. Zurich). The production chain/cycle model is the most commonly used across the frameworks (see Figure 2). The major issue for a production chain/cycle model is establishing a principle that determines how far back up the supply chain activities should be included. For example, the Australian framework stops at what is referred to as ‘one step’ removed. Effectively this means gauging what the end use of the product or service will be. If it is primarily for cultural purposes, as with a TV set, then the manufacture of TV sets is included in cultural industries. But, if the end use is not clear because the good or service can be put to a number of uses of which culture is only one (as with the components of a TV set), then it is not included in the culture cycle. Data collection As Figure 3 below illustrates, there is very little actual data collection related to the cultural statistical frameworks under review. While Australia, New Zealand, Finland and Canada have received funding to conduct unique culture surveys, Australia and Finland are the only countries that obtain regular funding for this purpose. • The European countries (with the exception of the United Kingdom) are, in general, more concerned with consumption and with the ownership of organisations engaged in cultural industries than other countries. This is related to the positioning of culture within government policies and public funding regimes. • A number of countries and regions (New Zealand, Colombia, Taiwan and Quebec) seek to measure cultural creation and consumption as a means to support their indigenous cultures. Countries in the developing world (e.g. Colombia) are relatively more interested in how they can measure and harness crafts and the unregulated trade in cultural activities for economic development.
Although this is not covered in the review of country classifications, it should be noted that the notion of copyright industries used by Singapore largely stems from work undertaken in the United States by Economists Incorporated, which produced the first of a series of reports on the United States Copyright Industries for the International Intellectual Property Alliance 1990.
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Figure 2. Review of the ‘depth’ of cultural and creative activities across the 14 frameworks
Countries Framework etc. CA model Creative chain Depth of cultural sector 1 Creation (creative/artistic ideas) 2 Production (one-production, means to support one-off production) 3 Manufacturing (means of mass reproduction) 4 Distribution (distribution, wholesale, retail, exhibition) 5 Support services (agents, managers, promoters) 6 Education (art schools, colleges)
Creation (creation of ideas, IP)
Production (mass reproduction)
Dissemination/distribution (incl. retail, exhibition, Internet distribution)
Training (of cultural creators/workers)
Cycle of production and consumption
Creators (undertaking specific cultural activities to produce cultural goods or services)
Organisations (involved in cultural production and distribution)
Products (goods/services produced as a result of cultural activities - at retail/wholesale)
Consumers (business and organisations consuming cultural products)
Supply chain (but not consistently or explicitly applied)
One-off production, mass reproduction, some manufacturing inputs
Education (arts education)
Creation (content origination, authoring)
Making (one-off production, tools, infrastructure, mass reproduction)
Dissemination (distribution, wholesale, retail)
EU LEG FI CL HK
Production chain Production chain (but implicit) Value chain Value chain
Creation Creation Creation Content origination & creation
Trade/sales Trade/sales Consumption
Education Preservation Preservation
Production Distribution Production input (incl. manufacturing Reproduction and distribution (incl. / infrastructure) exhibition)
Production chain (but implicit)
Content origination & creation
Production (one-off and mass reproduction, tools & infrastructure)
Cultural education services
Core copyright industries (IP owners/exploiters)
Partial copyright industries (industries where IP is only part of the business model, e.g. Architecture, Advertising)
Distributive copyright industries (distribution, wholesale, retail)
Interdependent copyright industries (manufacture, distribution and retail of the means of playback/reception, e.g. DVD players, TVs, game consoles)
Non-dedicated support industries (general, i.e. non-dedicated wholesale, retail, distribution, e.g. of copyright products in supermarkets, over the web)
Core copyright industries (IP owners/exploiters)
Partial copyright industries (industries where IP is only part of the business model, e.g. Architecture, Advertising)
Distributive copyright industries (distribution, wholesale, retail)
Core cultural industries (defined by how 'cultural' the end use is )
Periphery cultural industries
Related cultural services (wholesale, retail, Education (cultural studies) manufacturing)
Narrow-broad (based on governance/funding model)
Economy/private sector (cultural industries e.g. film, publishing, design)
State/public sector (performing arts, Civil society/intermediary sector (e.g notmuseums & galleries) for -profit arts organisations, foundations)
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Figure 3. Review of statistical indicators collected according to cultural and creative industries frameworks
Indicators Labour market Employment Occupation (incl self-employment) Employment status (PT/FT) Income Age of employees Gender of employees Education of employees Ethnicity of employees Hours worked Unpaid work Economic performance Number of businesses Size of business Turnover GDP GVA Capital expenditure Trade / Export Value of sales Products (classification) Sponsorship revenues Public support Government expenditure Participation and consumption Attendance numbers by activity Participation numbers by activity Consumption (unit sales) Volunteer numbers Household expenditure Possession of cultural storage formats/methods for receiving/playback (books, TV etc.) Cultural time use and frequency Genre (e.g music, TV) Intangible cultural assets Language: no of speakers Cultural statistical frameworks for countries/territories/blocs/multi-lateral organisations AU CA CL CN EU FI HK NZ SG TW UK WIPO Zu Qc
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Framework revision: New model's approach
The challenge in developing a new framework for cultural statistics is to develop an approach that goes beyond some of the oppositions and dichotomies that are characteristic of debates in cultural policy, specifically about how to measure culture. The approach used here aims to address tension created by three regularly occurring cultural policy dichotomies: i) Scope of culture (culture-economy). The approach is based on an understanding of how cultural meaning is created and transmitted. This focus on the production and distribution of culture necessarily entails understanding how it is embedded within social and economic processes. Culture is not removed or separate from society and the economy. A cultural economy approach, however, does not mean that cultural value is commensurate with market value. Similarly, many of the formative elements of culture, or those within a pre-market stage, or those that will never be marketed, can be tracked through indicators on time use, social capital, living standards, etc. But equally, many of the processes by which culture is produced and transmitted do involve an economic transaction and these can be tracked.
ii) Governance mode (public-private). The approach is agnostic as to the funding and governance arrangements (private sector, public sector or civil society) for cultural production and transmission. Instead, the emphasis is on the relationships, connections and exchanges that cut across these lines in cultural practice. iii) Degree of institutionalisation (formal-informal). The approach recognises that cultural production and distribution take place in both the formal and informal economy. Informal cultural production is a characteristic of the developed world and the developing world. However, if cultural production takes place within the informal economy, it cannot be measured using formal economic statistics, though it may be estimated. The approach here aims to do justice to the entire process of cultural creation, expression and meaning and is designed so that practitioners will not be excluded on the basis of Western high-low art criteria or manual-intellectual division. In the developed world, increasing specialisation of the division of labour has led to a finer distinction of tasks between ‘making’ culture and its ‘use’. In the developing world, these distinctions are less pronounced, as craft producers may conceive, make and exhibit/sell their artefacts, thus conflating or erasing the division of labour that is increasing in the developed world. As such, craft producers may occupy several steps in the cultural production cycle (see Section 2.8). However, the increasing division of labour in the developed world does not mean that the Western romantic notion of the artist as lone creator/visionary apart from society will prevail. This notion holds, for example, that a singer or performer is the art and that the mise-en-scène, the performance space, the training or the management somehow play a lesser part. The truth is that with the exception of a few craft producers, neither performer nor technician can exist alone. This is perhaps more readily grasped in the developing world, where a greater importance is given to folkloric expression and traditional and local knowledge, and culture is often a more collective and shared endeavour. - 22 -
The logic behind the framework revision comprises three components: • sectoral breadth (including activities considered as cultural) and depth (including performers, artists, and support workers and products without which performers and artists could not operate); the opportunity to move to a system of direct metrics; and the ability to make international comparative assessments. At the same time, it is important not to impose a ‘one size fits all’ framework. It needs to be both sensitive to local specificity and variety and suitable for comparison. Definition issues
Researchers, experts and policymakers from around the world have not been able to reach a consensus on a single agreed definition of culture. Yet, identifying sectoral breadth is necessary for measuring the cultural sector and defining which categories belong to it and which do not. All this requires a debate about what constitutes the cultural sector. There are three main aspects to such a debate: • Symbolic: Culture is in some way about symbolic value; sometimes this may be contrasted with economic value. Debates about the culturalisation of economic life, or the economisation of cultural life create an unhelpful polarisation. While most products have a cultural dimension, some products are more likely to have a cultural end use than others. It is these products that are defined as cultural products and that are produced within the cultural sector. • Creative: Many countries have used the term ‘creative’ to describe these industries, but many companies within a creative industry may not be creative. The definition and measurement of creativity is in itself subject to much debate. The term ‘cultural industry’ can be given a more operational definition in terms of sectors, products and activities. In common usage, confusion remains between the two terms: cultural and creative. • Domain: The cultural domain is comprised of a number of industries (commonly collectively termed cultural industries). For the purposes of the framework, a domain can include all cultural activity under the appropriate heading, including informal and social activities. For example, cinema statistics can include attendance at commercial cinemas and commercial film production, but they can also include home movie production and viewing. 2.7 The culture cycle or cultural production chain
The effect of developing a sectoral approach is that culture can be viewed as the product of a cognate set of productive and distributive activities. These activities may or may not be institutionalised, and they may or may not be governed by the state. The broad conception of an industrial sector that includes non-formal, amateur and activities unrelated to the market is termed a ‘domain’ here in order to indicate that the concept covers much more than economic, market-related activity.
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Figure 4. Analytical model of the ‘cultural production chain’ or ‘culture cycle’
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The development of a perspective based on sectors or domains allows the processes of the production and distribution of culture to be mapped across a supply chain or production cycle. As the analysis of country and regional classifications in Section 2.3 demonstrates, the concept of the cultural production chain or culture cycle is already used by a number of UNESCO Member States. However, in some of these contexts, it is a latent concept and/or it is not consistently applied. While this may not be a new approach, it does mark a significant departure from the common historical concern of cultural policy with consumption and state-funded activities, which normally (but not always) includes heritage, fine arts and tourism. In contrast, the culture cycle or production chain approach is an aid for conceptualising how cultural production actually takes place and goes beyond a simple grouping of domains. The challenge for a robust and sustainable cultural statistical framework is to cover the contributory processes that enable culture to not only be created but distributed, received, used, critiqued, understood and preserved, together with the education and training that underpin these activities. A number of approaches have been developed that allow a fuller extension of the universe of activities that are required for the production and distribution of culture. These tend to resolve into a seven-phase supply chain or production cycle, though clearly different cultural forms have different production cycles and therefore will not all require equal inputs at each and every stage. Also, as Figure 4 shows, the last two functions of the supply chain or production cycle can actually occur across each of the other four functions. 1. Creation: the origination and authoring of ideas and content (e.g. sculptors, writers, design companies). 2. Production: the making of both one-off production (e.g. crafts, fine arts) and mass reproducible cultural forms (e.g. TV), as well as the specialist tools, infrastructure and processes used in their realisation (e.g. the manufacture of musical instruments, the printing of newspapers). 3. Dissemination: bringing generally mass reproduced cultural products to consumers and exhibitors (e.g. the wholesale, retail and rental of recorded music and computer games, film distribution). 4. Exhibition/reception: the provision of live and/or unmediated cultural experiences to audiences by granting or selling restricted access to consume/ participate in often time-based cultural activities (e.g. festival organisation and production, opera houses, theatres, museums). 5. Consumption/participation: the activities of audiences and participants in consuming cultural products and taking part in cultural activities and experiences (e.g. book reading, dancing, participating in carnivals, listening to radio, visiting galleries). 6. Archiving/preserving: the conservation, collection and management of particular sites and repositories of cultural forms (material and immaterial) for the purposes of preserving for posterity, exhibition and re-use (e.g. the preservation of historic sites and buildings, sound archives, picture libraries). - 25 -
7. Education/training: specialist pedagogic and other learning activities that support the development, understanding and reception of culture, including processes of critique (e.g. art and dance schools, literary criticism). Both the term culture ‘cycle’ and ‘chain’ are helpful as they suggest the inter-connections across these activities, including the feedback processes by which demand-side activities (consumption) inspire the creation of new cultural products and artefacts. These feedback processes should be borne in mind when viewing the linear model of the production chain presented in Figure 4. The model is an abstract analytical aid for thinking about cultural production; it should be seen in part as a sensitising model. In practice – depending upon the degree of institutionalisation or governance – some of the phases may be conflated and limited data may be available. For instance, the individual crafts person who collects raw materials (informal resource input) and uses tradition (informal training) in making an artefact and sells the product at the roadside (informal distribution and retail) personifies the whole cycle. However, within the same society, a dancer may be one part of a complex division of labour in a touring theatre troupe. Understanding which part of the process is being measured is an important element in designing the consequent public policies for intervention in cultural production. The culture cycle, then, seeks to highlight how what is traded has its origins in the social realm; it is fundamentally about including all activities and not cherry picking either the ostensibly public or private, the commercial or the ‘not for profit’. For instance, in even the most commercial of cultural activities, such as publishing, some writers may receive public funds, particularly at an early stage in their careers (creation); state-supported libraries are often key to disseminating the products of the industry, and the state may also provide free or subsidised education for creative writing and for analysing and understanding language and literature. Moreover, the culture cycle or production chain approach is similarly agnostic as to the motivation behind cultural production – be it for profit or for the purposes of the transmission of inherited cultural values. Since cultural activities, and actors, move continuously between market and non-market activities, one must acknowledge the part played by non-market activities in culture as well as the difficulties in measuring them. Finally, the culture cycle or production chain approach marks a departure from many ways of thinking and defining culture as it is not concerned with making judgements on how cultural particular aspects of the production chain are. Rather, what is important is understanding and being able to track the totality of activities and necessary resources that are required to transform ideas into cultural goods and services that, in turn, reach consumers, participants or users. The point is that in cultural economy terms (which includes the informal economy), the artefact (whether painting, craft object, performance, etc.) is meaningless without a value system and a production system that gives it value/meaning. So, having a particular site recognised as being of outstanding cultural heritage is of only limited use to a developing country, unless that country is also able to mobilise the assets of tourism, transport, preservation and hotels to capture the value of paying guests.
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The cultural cycle also has a spatial dimension. Some activities may be clustered in one place, region or country, while others may be articulated across the world. The exact nature of this articulation is only known through empirical enquiry, and this has important implications for both the regulation of the cultural sector and where the benefits (economic and cultural) accrue. An equally important spatial component of culture is dislocation, whereby people become separated from their original cultural milieu through migration. Globalisation has increased the potential for such dislocation, as well as the problems of cultural assimilation, disagreement and the sense of the exotic or foreign that may result. The empirical data (quantitative and qualitative) that can be used to animate the cycle (as derived, in part, from the cultural statistical framework) are not readily available in all nations. For those nations that have invested in information gathering, the model has revealed that the scale of the contribution of culture, above and beyond its intrinsic worth, has been substantial. True worth though – and information upon which policy may be developed – will only be gauged when comparative information is available nation to nation, region to region. Any particular cultural policy does not need to take in the whole culture cycle. But policymaking must work with the knowledge that a smaller/limited intervention may have wider repercussions within the whole cycle. The logic of the culture cycle also allows one to see how some activities can be considered to be functions of other culturally productive industries. In particular, a significant component of cultural heritage activities also have a function as the archiving and preserving components of the fine arts, crafts, design, architecture, publishing and audio-visual industries, while also serving in turn as creative inspirations for new production. For example, historic houses preserve (and exhibit) architecture; museums and galleries conserve (and exhibit) paintings, sculpture, jewellery and a wide array of other artefacts whose value resides principally in their design attributes (e.g. everything from furniture to cars); and archives preserve books, films, radio recordings, etc. In a similar vein, the category of ‘Art and Antiques’ is principally part of the dissemination function for a range of visual and applied arts industries, while many printing activities are part of the ‘producing’ function required to reproduce the products of the publishing industry. This analysis necessarily leads to a discussion of the breadth of the cultural sector. 2.8 Breadth of the cultural sector
The review of classification frameworks from around the world (see Section 2.2) shows that there is a growing consensus around the idea that culture is the product of a group of identifiable constituent activities. However, it also shows that this can be partly obscured by: i) a lack of agreement in identifying which activities share enough characteristics and commonalities to be grouped together at a higher level as domains; and
ii) little shared understanding as to what functions should be included in the analysis of the cultural sector. - 27 -
In part, divergence related to the former (i) is a genuine reflection of local differences in culture. But it is also related to the lack of a fully developed underlying model or logic for the analysis, and this is the main root cause of the latter (ii). However, in revising the framework for cultural statistics, applying a consistent and logical approach is not the only requirement. Consideration also has to be given to more pragmatic issues related to: • implementation – the ability to implement the definition of activities and categories within statistical classification systems, whether this is the Central Product Classification (CPC) or the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) and so on; and politics – ensuring that the framework will be used (and therefore be useful) will require backing and ratification from countries, many of whom have cultural institutions that represent powerful interests and that have to be able to ‘see themselves’ within the framework.
Clarifying core cultural domains
The underlying understanding of culture for revising the Framework for Cultural Statistics draws on UNESCO uses of the term, which include: i) The different manifestations of human intellectual and artistic creativity, past and present. These arts and cultural expressions, together with the individuals and institutions responsible for their transmission and renewal, constitute what is commonly regarded as the cultural sector, a demarcated policy domain concerned mainly with both artists and art forms broadly defined; and The broad understanding of culture as the all pervasive set of values, beliefs, attitudes and practices shared by a group. This anthropological view of culture spreads beyond the cultural sector and touches upon many other areas of human activity.
The definition of culture is very closely related to the ways in which societies, groups and communities define their identity. UNESCO views culture and cultures in dynamic and interactive terms, eschewing the socalled culturalist vision of culture as a homogeneous, integral and coherent unit. Cultures can no longer be examined as if they were islands in an archipelago. The contemporary globalisation of economic, political and social life has resulted in even more cultural penetration and overlapping, the coexistence in a given social space of several cultural traditions. The current effort of updating the Framework for Cultural Statistics responds in a way to this new context intensified by globalisation. However, for the purpose of the framework which follows a pragmatic approach, a narrower definition of culture must be used.
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The purpose of this framework is to measure cultural activities, goods and services that are generated by industrial and non industrial processes. Cultural activities, as defined by David Throsby, “…involve some form of creativity in their production; they are concerned with the generation and communication of symbolic means; their output potentially embodies at least some form of intellectual property”. (Throsby, 2001) Cultural goods and services encompass artistic, aesthetic, symbolic and spiritual values. The definition of cultural domains follows a hierarchical model that comprises core and related cultural domains. The core domains include cultural activities, goods and services that are involved in the different phases of the cultural production chain model. The related domains are linked to the broader definition of culture, encompassing social and recreational activities. They represent categories that have a cultural character, but which have a main component that is not cultural. Within each domain, an additional sub-category of expanded products and activities is established. This makes it possible to take into account the “tools of cultural products and activities”. Core products (goods and services) are those directly associated with cultural content, while expanded cultural products are equipment and materials, as well as ancillary services (even if they are only partly cultural in their content), that facilitate or enable the creation, production and distribution of core cultural products. The reason for making the distinction between core and expanded is to be able to include in these categories elements that are not essentially cultural but that can be used for the production or execution of a cultural good or activity and that are necessary for the existence of these cultural products. The core domains are a common set of culturally productive industries and activities that can be listed under the following headings: Cultural and Natural Heritage; Performance and Celebration; Visual Arts, Crafts and Design; Books and Press; and Audio-visual and Digital Media. These categories are considered to be 100% cultural. These core domains represent the minimum set of cultural activities for which UNESCO would want countries to collect comparative data. This allows for a specification of the breadth of the cultural sector but also gives a sense of its cohesion. In some instances, the analysis of country classifications reveals that there are activities which, while falling within the core domains, do not benefit from the same degree of consensus regarding whether they should be part of the cultural sector or not. These are: • Sport and recreation, gambling, toys and games, and tourism fall outside the core set of cultural activities based on the definition given above and the review of current national classifications.
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• Interactive media and software are important emerging fields of activity. While many interactive media products and services have a cultural end use (computer and video games, interactive web and mobile content), the same cannot be said for the software industry. 'Interactive Media' should be part of the core 'Audio-visual' domain. In practice, this will depend on the classification system used and its ability to discretely separate interactive media activities from mainstream software and telecommunications activities. The Central Product Classification used in Section 3 allows for some, but not all, interactive media activities to be accurately identified. When activities cannot be discretely identified in the CPC, or when other broader classifications are being used that do not allow accurate identification of interactive media activities, these activities are excluded. • Printing is not normally included in cultural classifications or definitions of creative industries. Using a production chain model, printing would be included only as part of the production function of the publishing industry rather than as a cultural activity in its own right. In this way, not all printing is included but only that which has a predominantly cultural end use. The difficulty is to implement this distinction within statistical classifications. Generally, printing activities related to the publishing industry are included within the core 'Books and Press' domain as a production function of publishing, with other printing activities, e.g. the printing of business supply catalogues or ‘quick’ printing, excluded. • Museums, archives and libraries – Although a large part of museums, archives and libraries’ activities could be considered to be a production function of the other domains as outlined in Section 2.8, ultimately they are more properly part of the 'Cultural Heritage' domain. First, these activities encompass areas that lie outside the other cultural domains (e.g. museums of science and engineering, archives that are repositories of factual records and information on citizen’s rights). Second, a significant function of these activities is to curate and exhibit collections of cultural products and forms so that they may inform and stimulate new forms of cultural production. This has more typically taken place through influence, allusion and indirect quotation in, for example, the way visual artists may draw on traditional elements to do their contemporary work; however, as many elements of culture become reproducible, this increasingly also includes the direct incorporation of fragments of the earlier cultural form, as in the use of archive footage in documentary films or the practice of sampling within popular music. Third, the activities are carried out by a set of common institutions and practices that are distinct from the other domains and, more pragmatically, these institutions often have considerable political influence regarding cultural policy and need to be able to ‘see themselves’ within any revised framework. A two-stage model for describing the breadth of cultural domains is represented graphically in Figure 5.
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Figure 5. Proposed domains and activities for a revised framework for cultural statistics
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As can be seen in Figure 5, in order to avoid double-counting, each activity can only be classified once within the framework, even though there are instances where activities logically span more than one domain. For instance, music would fall under both 'Audiovisual' and 'Performance and Celebration', as it consists of live music (Performance) and recorded music (Audio-visual). But, as much of the domain cannot be discretely separated within statistical classifications from other performing arts activities, pragmatically it makes sense for music to be a part of the 'Performance and Celebration' domain. The different core cultural domains are defined as follows: • Cultural and Natural Heritage
Cultural heritage represents artefacts, monuments, group of buildings and sites that have historic, artistic, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological, scientific and social significance. Cultural landscape represents combined works of nature and by humans, and they express a long and intimate relationship between people and their natural environment (UNESCO, 2007). Natural heritage consists of national features, geological and physiographical formations and delineated areas that constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants and natural sites of value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty. It includes nature parks and reserves, zoos and aquaria and botanical gardens (UNESCO, 1972). Activities related to cultural and natural heritage encompass the management of sites and collections that have historic, aesthetic, scientific, environmental and social significance. Preservation and archiving activities undertaken in museums and libraries are also part of this category. • Intangible Heritage
Intangible heritage cannot be considered as a discrete domain of cultural activity or production, as it includes “practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage”. (UNESCO, 2003) It is, thus, considered as a transversal category spanning any and all of the domains proposed. Several non-exhaustive domains in which intangible heritage is manifested are: (a) oral traditions and expressions, including language; b) performing arts; (c) social practices, rituals and festive events; (d) knowledge and practices concerning nature and the universe; and (e) traditional craftsmanship. Intangible heritage (practices, expressions, knowledge or associated tangible manifestations) can only be defined as such when invested by one or another community with the value of heritage. In other terms, there is nothing intrinsic in the expression or practice itself that would allow outsiders (governments, statisticians, researchers) to define it as intangible heritage. Rather, as in the case of cultural and natural heritage, the identification of intangible heritage rests with
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the conception of ‘outstanding universal value’, the operational definition of which is under development by the UNESCO World Heritage Centre. • Performance and Celebration
This core cultural domain includes live performances, i.e. music performances and music composition. This covers other types of professional or amateur performing arts activities, such as theatre, dance, opera, puppetry, etc. Celebratory cultural events (e.g. festivals, feasts, fairs) are incorporated into contemporary definitions of the performing arts. • Visual Arts, Crafts and Design
The core domain of visual arts includes fine arts as well as crafts, which covers handicrafts that can be made in many different materials such as clay, leather, wood, basketry, handmade textile products, etc. Domains such as design, architecture and advertising are often part of cultural domains for their creative input in the production of non-cultural goods (European Commission, 2006). These three categories fall under 'Visual Arts'. Design is categorised as a core cultural domain. Since the primary purpose of architecture and advertising is not cultural, these categories are included in the expanded cultural domains. • Books and Press
This core category represents all publishing in different formats: book, newspaper and magazine publishing, as well online newspapers. • Audio-visual and Digital Media
The core elements of this domain are radio and television, films and videos. Photography is also included in this category for the prevalence of new media, digital photography and the relations with other audio-visual activities, such as photography in motion picture. While the use of domain groupings clearly complicates the framework – as is highlighted by the example of music – higher level groupings are needed as often statistical classifications do not actually allow for the finer disaggregation required to identify individual cultural activities. Larger groupings also have the added advantage of improving the robustness of the data that can be obtained from sampled business surveys.
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The framework structure
The previous section established the theoretical and analytical background for the framework. In this section the structure is outlined. The model includes all activities, services and goods produced by cultural industries, whether these are factory-based or cottage-based, and are described as craft or artisanal production (see Figure 5). It also includes all elements of participation in cultural activity, whether this is through formal employment or attendance at formal or informal cultural events, or through cultural activities at home. The model covers the entire cultural creative chain. 3.1 Identifying cultural occupations and activities: From the economic to the social model
Figure 6 delineates the culture sector as considered in the framework (grey shaded area). It indicates the different groups of cultural occupations (formal and informal). Noncultural industries will only be included when assessing cultural employment if these include cultural workers. A designer working in the automobile industry is an example of someone in a cultural occupation working in a non-cultural sector. Figure 6. The cultural sector
The underlying approach here is based on an economic view. This is for both policy and pragmatic reasons. First, countries attach major importance to obtaining maximum economic benefits from their cultural products. Second, the economic representation of cultural exchange, while posing many problems, is the easiest to measure. However, this economic model has been adapted to a number of other areas: social participation, traditional and local knowledge, education, and heritage. Someone who is a cultural worker or who is engaged in cultural activities is also a social actor interacting with the community as both audience and inspiration for new creation.
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The social elements of culture need to be captured by statistics to ensure that culture is not reduced to an economic phenomenon. The social dimension of culture helps to strengthen identity and social cohesion. It introduces key aspects of culture, such as education and traditional knowledge. Education is a means of socialisation by which culture is imparted and develops creativity that can challenge existing cultural norms. The framework, thus, identifies education as a major transversal function of the cultural cycle and a major concern and responsibility for UNESCO. It is generally accepted that culture is always evolving and never static, and in this education plays a large role. With globalisation, traditional knowledge is both increasingly valued and under threat. Within the framework, traditional knowledge is another transversal theme which has a place in all sectors and links into UNESCO’s strategy on the intangible heritage. This helps to emphasise that, while traditional knowledge is difficult to measure, it is a rich resource for artistic inspiration and cultural identity. From an economic viewpoint, heritage is an asset. The value of assets can be enhanced or devalued, depending on how they are maintained. Economic studies have analysed the economic value of cultural heritage in relation to the public’s preferences (Navrud, 2002). They calculate a value of use, which is based on how much someone is willing to pay to preserve a cultural heritage or to go to a site. They also cover the non-use value of a cultural heritage, examining how much someone is willing to pay for the preservation of a heritage for future generations. However, such contingent value or travel cost techniques are difficult to aggregate into provincial or regional values because of substitution effects. Besides being an economic asset, cultural heritage is a social good. It incorporates aesthetic, historical, social, spiritual and educational values. Tangible heritage sites are often the locations for celebrations in which intangible heritage performances take place. In developed countries, attendance at cultural assets, such as monuments and museums, is often recorded. However, distinguishing cultural tourism data from regular tourism statistics requires further development, which is best undertaken within the ambit of the World Tourism Organization. Sample surveys of both tourists and local people at heritage sites are an important statistical tool. In developing countries, surveys of attendees at cultural heritage sites can be particularly cost-effective and play a large part in a cultural statistics framework, though they may present problems such as distinguishing performers from the audience. 3.2 The shift to direct measurement
Up until now, the established models of cultural policymaking have seen the economic dimension of a given culture as an indirect consequence of public investment in that culture. This resulted in the development of a number of models that use inferential approaches (e.g. multiplier models) to assess the impact of culture (Scanlon and Longley, 1984; Myerscough, 1988). For example, the Conveno Andrés Bello (CAB), an international inter-governmental organisation working in Latin America (mainly MERCOSUR countries), and Spain are currently developing a methodological manual for the implementation of cultural satellite accounts which will assess the economic contribution of cultural industries and activities to GDP. This approach makes the valuation and integration of non-market cultural products and activities a particular challenge. - 35 -
The model chosen for the present framework relates mainly to the position of culture within processes of economic development and reproduction. This has reduced the necessity for over-dependence upon indirect, inferential and relatively challengeable methodologies. The shift from using indirect or multiplier models to measure cultural outputs to using direct measures of process and output provides the opportunity to develop an approach for measuring the impact of culture that can be compared internationally and with other sectors. Direct measures are more robust and reliable if a common framework for collection is used (Pratt, 2001). Some data can be extracted using standard taxonomies (especially those of the International Standard Industrial Classification or the Central Product Classification). Direct measures may include enterprise-based measures, such as turnover, investment, output, exports and employment, as well as parallel information on public sector funding that most closely approximates to such measures. Further, direct measures relating to consumption and participation can also be gained via general household surveys or bespoke surveys of individuals. The starting point is the Mode 1 model of Girard (1982) which, despite its limitations, captures the principle well. This model can be adapted to develop and to construct a practical and pragmatic means to collect data (rather than an ideal). On the basis of the EU LEG group (EU, 2000) work and a survey of (the logic of) a number of extant ‘mapping exercises’, a Mode 2 grid was established that has the re-stated logic and serves to indicate which data could be collected (see Figure 7). A further extension would be to trial such a schema. The proposal is directly implementable but also suggests the potential for future development and data collection by highlighting what cannot presently be measured. Critically, it is expected that this model could make international benchmarking possible. Figure 7. Mode 2 simplified revised framework
CORE Cultural and Natural Heritage Performance and Celebration Visual Arts, Crafts and Design Books and Press Audio-visual and digital media EXTENDED Sport and Leisure Tourism Creation Producing Dissemination Exhibition/ reception Consumption Archiving/ preserving Education/ understanding
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Each country will position indicators within the matrix. Each country is then free to choose the content of the cultural sector is part of its national framework. The revised Mode 2 framework suggested in this report can be used to underpin a number of different approaches to cultural statistics. Figure 8 sets out some initial elements for a broad-based indicator structure across the core domains, as well as the two transversal functions of 'Education' and 'Archiving and Preserving'. Items in bold are those for which UNESCO already has available data or is actively pursuing international data collection, including data from other international agencies. Figure 8. Data and indicators using the new revised framework
A. Cultural and Natural Heritage Production & Consumption - Employment - Expenditure - Consumer spending - Enrolment - Attendance (visitors and locals) - Conservation (employment, $ earnings) B. Performance and Celebration - Employment - Value - Number of performances - Enrolment - Performances in/by schools - Documentation centres C. Visual Arts Crafts and Design - Employment - Value D. Books and Press - Employment - Value - No. of titles; books, press - Number of school textbooks E. Audio-visual Film, Video, New Media - Employment - Value - No. of titles - ICTs in education
Archiving & Preserving
- Galleries (no of items, employment, $)
- Volumes, transactions in libraries
- Film archives (volumes)
For the purpose of illustration, two further sets of indicators are suggested here: • • to illustrate how the framework can provide a statistical basis for estimating the economic contribution of culture; and to illustrate how it can be used to assess the social contribution of culture through participation.
In both cases, and in line with the earlier discussion, the purpose of the indicators is direct measurement. The indicators suggested above can be used at the aggregated sector level or at the level of subsequent disaggregation into domains or different phases of the production chain/cycle; either at the aggregated level or within individual domains of cultural activity (subject to the sample size of the particular data source used). They can also be spatially disaggregated to the level permitted by measures of statistical reliability (see Section 2.8). The list of illustrative indicators is deliberately restricted. The review of country frameworks already shows the degree to which countries infrequently collect data on culture, despite the existence of statistical frameworks. Therefore, the focus is concentrated on outlining a pragmatic set of indicators to be used for assessing both baseline contribution and change over time. In each case, contribution is disaggregated into a number of subsidiary contributing activities. Indicators and measures are then proposed, together with an indicator of where the data required for these purposes might be sourced. The sets of indicators - 37 -
suggested can be used in whole, or in part, as the basis for a full statistical framework or as part of a framework devised for a different set of purposes. In each case, the suggested indicators could be cross-tabulated with other data sets. For example, data on employment can be cross-tabulated with census data to produce more detailed information on, say, the gender and ethnicity of the cultural workforce. 3.3 The social model
Traditional and local knowledge Traditional and local knowledge can be found in all societies. It is sometimes the intellectual property of a certain cultural milieu, or group of people, and there is increasing recognition of ownership of such intellectual rights by the appropriate community. The ownership of such intellectual property and knowledge make traditional knowledge in many senses a cultural product. UNESCO has recognised that traditional knowledge may be enshrined in a physical product or as an aspect of intangible heritage requiring guardianship, protection and enhancement in the same way as material or tangible heritage. In the context of this statistical framework, traditional and local knowledge, as a service or product, can be found in almost any of the domains, products or sectors covered by the framework. It is, thus, a transversal dimension of the framework (see Figure 9). The creative process for traditional knowledge may differ from the standard model of the creative process, as the three stages of creation, production and dissemination may be executed at the same time. The production or creation of traditional knowledge is often in the hands of elders, shamans or simply ‘wise people’. A count of the numbers of such people might be attempted if their role/identity is clearly defined. The occupation of the production of traditional knowledge, or its transmission in an appropriate form/media (storytelling), is often not well defined. It may be considered a secondary occupation, as for example the production of craft/artisan goods in a predominantly agricultural household. Secondary occupations can be recognised in labour force and other household surveys through more intense questioning on different tasks undertaken in the day. It is not, however, recommended that countries indulge in a full-scale time use survey unless they have a considerable amount of human and financial resources.4 Some products of traditional and local knowledge are extremely difficult to measure in quantity or quality as they are intangible. UNESCO is building a list of themes of the intangible heritage which are of universal cultural value to mankind. This gives some prospect that in the future a database of ‘intangible heritage’ will develop including a closer definition of some aspects of traditional knowledge at the international level.
A time use survey may, of course, find further justification from the amount of information obtained on other topics such as: household organization, family relations, craft/artisan production, religious observance, etc.
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Figure 9. Transversal dimension of traditional and local knowledge
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A proxy for the level of production of traditional knowledge can be obtained, at least at country level, through key institutions. Many countries now have national institutions that are responsible for cataloguing and documenting traditional knowledge, for example collecting numbers of traditional medicines. It is possible to count at international level both the number of such institutions and the number of products they have documented. Ideally the creation of such institutions should lead to the patenting of traditional knowledge, in which ownership of the patent is vested in the community from which it first originated, as well as to measures for safeguarding such knowledge (e.g. management and conservation of plants used in traditional medicine). If traditional knowledge is transmitted through music, storytelling, dance or other forms of performance, other measures are possible. For example, surveys at an appropriate scale (local, regional, national) might document numbers of participants/performers.5 Surveys might also document content and mode of transmission. The intangible aspects of traditional and local knowledge present major barriers to measurement. Nevertheless, several potential indicators can be proposed: number of persons involved in the creation or transmission of traditional knowledge, collected through labour force or household surveys involving questions about secondary occupations; number of institutions responsible for collecting or documenting traditional knowledge, as well as the number of elements/products documented; number of patents or other form of registration of traditional knowledge (closely related to previous indicators); number of participants/performers in events at which traditional knowledge is transmitted (traditional story tellers, dancers etc.; number of participants speaking traditional languages; number of persons practising/using traditional medicine; and production of crafts. Traditional and local knowledge is often associated with indigenous knowledge. Uganda described indigenous knowledge as "traditional and local knowledge existing within and developed around the specific conditions of a community indigenous to a particular geographical area". (Uganda, 2006) The work undertaken by the Working Group on Indicators of the International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity (IIFB) will likely contribute to the identification of indicators pertinent for indigenous peoples. This group, which was set up by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, is supported by the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII). The UNPFII had identified the need to develop indicators relevant to indigenous peoples and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These indicators relate to indigenous rights, 'enabling environments'6, cultural practices and the use of traditional languages.
In some cases, audience and performers may be the same people at different times in a performance. i.e. conditions (policies, infrastructure, etc.) in which indigenous practices can flourish.
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Cultural participation Cultural participation measures have been piloted mainly in the European Union (EU). The LEG Group (2000) attempted to produce a regional model, but there has yet to be a comprehensive Europe-wide survey. A useful definition of the European conception of cultural participation is provided by Bennett, where cultural participation includes the arts and also everyday life activities that are related to enjoyment. It refers to "the ways in which ethnically-marked differences in cultural tastes, values and behaviours inform not just artistic and media preferences but are embedded in the daily rhythms of different ways of life; and of the ways in which these connect with other relevant social characteristics – those of class and gender, for example". (Bennett, 2001) Cultural participation, thus, includes cultural practices that may involve consumption and activities that are undertaken within the community, reflecting quality of life, traditions and beliefs. It covers attending formal and payable events, such as going to a movie or to a concert, as well as informal cultural action, such as community cultural activities and amateur artistic productions or everyday activities like reading a book. Cultural participation is usually measured with regard to community, social group, ethnicity, age and gender. An analysis based on ethnic group, social group and gender would also be relevant for measuring the diversity of cultural expressions as it would indicate the diversity of groups participating in different cultural activities. Moreover, cultural participation covers both active and passive behaviour. It includes the person who is listening to a concert and the amateur who practices music. The purpose of cultural participation surveys should be to assess overall participation levels, even though it may be very difficult to distinguish active from passive behaviour. For example, in some festivals individuals may at one time be performers (active, creating and inspiring others) and at other times be audience (passive or seeking inspiration). Cultural participation does not concern activities carried out for employment, however, which are defined by occupation (ILO, 1988); for example, cultural participation does include visitors to a museum but not the guide. In 2006, the UIS commissioned a report to set the EU model in the context of cultural activities in developing countries. The report (UIS, 2006) defines cultural practices according to three categories: i) Home-based: which refers to the number of hours spent watching TV, listening to the radio or music, reading, etc.
ii) Going out: this includes going to the cinema, opera, theatre and visiting museums, monuments and archaeological sites. iii) Identity building: this encompasses amateur cultural associations, popular culture, ethnic cultures, youth culture. practices, cultural
It is expected that developing countries will find it difficult to find resources for frequent surveys on cultural participation. This framework proposes that participation surveys concentrate on overall levels of participation and on recording the domain under which cultural activities take place. By using such surveys in a systematic way – for example to survey participation in activities such as music, dance and reading – it will be possible to examine social issues, as well as link amateur or informal cultural production with more formal activity. This link is vital for examining the key concern of commercialisation of the cultural sector and its impact on society as a whole. - 41 -
The conceptualisation of cultural production and distribution as a sectoral activity makes it possible for the framework to contain a specified minimum dataset. This would comprise the minimum data cells that model the core activities of the cultural sector as specified across its supply chain or production cycle. It would be a minimum dataset that regions could agree to but that would also allow for wider locally-agreed extension (within the boundaries of the UNESCO universe of cells). This would make unique mapping possible and allow for overlap between different studies and the production of a developmental ‘road map’ toward more comprehensive mapping. Moreover, the creation of such a dataset will make international benchmarking feasible. While some groups of countries are likely to have a priority interest in some – but not all – measures, our objective is to create a common framework that will facilitate maximum possible comparison and usage. Section 3.5 focuses on data collection and instruments for identifying the cultural sector. Many national statistical offices (NSOs) will not be in a position to carry out such detailed data collection. Each NSO will adapt its data collection based on its own capacities, and NSOs will determine how far the model can be implemented. Comparability at different levels will depend on policy development in the country and the degree to which culture is a priority. Use of this framework at every level will still allow a country to compare itself with others. The different components of the cultural sector have been defined as: Cultural goods and services: The output produced by cultural industries and activities will be categorised using the Central Product Classification (CPC). Cultural organizations will be categorised using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). However, cultural goods can also be produced on a non-commercial basis, for example through governmental institutions, by voluntary institutions, amateurs or ad hoc groupings of artists and creators. Creators, producers, distributors: People involved in creative or productive cultural activities on their own, in groups or in organizations are categorised through occupations data using the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). Consumers of cultural goods and services and participants in cultural activities are measured using expenditure data or household surveys (see Section 3.10).
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Culture goods and services: Using the Central Product Classification (CPC)
This section will mainly cover the first four phases of the production cycle: creation, production, dissemination and exhibition/reception. The participation phase reflects social behaviour, which is captured by different statistical tools (see Section 3.10). In proposing how this Mode 2 framework could be implemented, the UN’s Central Product Classification (CPC) has been used. Despite the fact that this statistical classification system is not in common use, its great level of detail allows a bridging between different international classifications, increasing comparability and identifying some sectors more precisely. It is particularly pertinent for services data. CPC codes provide only a current ‘best fit’ and there are many cells within the Mode 2 framework that cannot be populated using the CPC (or other current international statistical classifications). In particular, it is very difficult to identify education and training activities related to culture, whereas these have better coverage within the ISIC Rev 4 (8541 and 8542 covering ‘Sports and Recreation Education’ and ‘Cultural Education’ respectively), ISCO 08 and UNESCO’s own International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) classification (UIS, 1997). There are instances where CPC codes cover both cultural and non-cultural activities. In most instances, these CPC classes have not been included. Thus, while this measure may underestimate the scope of the cultural sector, it is a more robust measure. Separate tables for each domain are provided in Appendix III and referenced according to the letters and numbers used in Figure 5. 3.6 Cultural industries: Using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC)
A complementary classification that can be used to implement the framework is the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). One of the main advantages of using ISIC is that, in contrast to CPC, it is widely used by countries. ISIC, with only four digits, is less detailed than CPC; consequently, some cultural activities are often hidden in a broader category or grouped in a single code. The use of this classification alone to measure the economic contribution of culture within a country will necessitate defining multipliers in order to identify which portion of a broader industry can be attributed to cultural activities. The draft ISIC 4 as available in 2007 (UNSD, 2007) has been used in this report. An information and communication category has been created in this version to reflect the current structure of this industry. It provides better coverage of broadcast and motion picture activities, but it is still not possible to identify cultural activities using the Internet, such as e-books, music downloads, etc. Each cultural activity has been designated by an ISIC 4 code. In several cases, the ISIC code includes cultural activities that can be classified in all functions, such as creation, producing, etc.
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However, since ISIC is an industrial classification, it does not allow specification of nonindustrial cultural activities. There are two major drawbacks of using ISIC codes to measure cultural activities: Craft is not covered by ISIC; and Intangible heritage and traditional knowledge (see Section 3.3) are not clearly identified. The following two ISIC codes can be considered to be spread across all cultural categories: i) 9000 (Creative Arts and Entertainment Activities): This code may be considered to cover all forms of creative activity associated with all the domains of the classification. While an authors’ co-operative or writers circle might not be considered as part of 581x 'Publishing', a similar approach could identify a business or co-operative of painters, a string quartet or indeed a major rock band, which surely have huge earnings as a business.
ii) 92911 (Cultural Education): This code has been included in every domain, because education can be seen as a cultural activity within all domains, whether as sectorspecific training or as businesses and institutions which use educational means to promote the cultural activity of the domain concerned. It includes formal and nonformal education in cultural activities, such as in fine arts, architecture, music, dance, etc. Another code that should to be mentioned is 3320 (Musical Instruments), which represents the manufacture of musical instruments. Based on the creative chain model, making such instruments is considered a cultural activity since they form part of the production element of artistic expression. It has been suggested that CPC contains the most appropriate existing classification to capture cultural activity and that ISIC, though more frequently used than CPC, provides too coarse a classification. Thus, this framework proposes that CPC codes be used to identify which aspects of a sector are appropriately placed in which domain of cultural activity. However, where possible, both classifications should be used together in order to obtain a clearer picture of the economic aspects of culture in terms of variables such as employment, turnover and productivity. Even the less obviously economic parts of the framework can, to some degree, be studied in this way using these codes. For example, data on employment at historic sites and economic valuations of such sites as capital investment, staff employment or visitor revenue can be gathered together under domain 'A. Cultural Heritage'. Data on participation in cultural events, including ticket sales and revenue, can be gathered under domain 'B. Performing Arts'. Separate tables for each core domain are provided in Appendix III and referenced according to the letters and numbers used in Figure 5.
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Cultural employment: Using the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)
The following definitions of cultural occupations were primarily based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO)7 and on Canadian definitions. Whereas the Australian definitions encompass leisure activities, the proposed definitions for the framework focus solely on core cultural occupations related to creativity and art within the core UNESCO domains defined in Figure 5. Core cultural occupations include occupations involved in creative and artistic production, heritage collection and preservation. These occupations involve tasks and duties that are carried out: to generate, develop, preserve or reflect cultural or spiritual meaning; to create, produce and disseminate cultural goods and services, which generally contain intellectual property rights; and for the purpose of artistic expression (e.g. visual, music, writing, dance or dramatic arts). The broader definition that encompasses related domains as defined in Figure 5 and which are usually associated with leisure activities, such as sports and travels, would include activities that involve sports or physical recreation skills and that provide enjoyment, relaxation, diversion or recreation. Measurement of cultural employment In order to define cultural employment, it is necessary to include both the occupations in cultural industries and cultural occupations in non-cultural industries, such as design activities (see Figure 6). The contribution of cottage8 industries in cultural employment is quite significant. Cultural occupations are quite often a secondary occupation in developing countries. Agricultural labourers or other workers may have a second occupation in craft and, as such, are often not declared or captured in censuses and labour force surveys. These hidden or ‘embedded’ cultural occupations may not include a large enough number of practitioners to be accurately measured in sample surveys. In many cases, they involve selfemployed or informal workers in small companies of less than ten people which are frequently not captured in business surveys. It is often considered that cultural and creative jobs are over-represented in small businesses, and in this respect, even European statistics may well underestimate cultural employment. In addition, volunteer and non-paid activities often play an important role in cultural employment. Methodological research is required for better assessment of these activities.
ANZSCO: Alternative View: Culture and Leisure Occupations. An industry where the creation of products and services is home-based rather than factorybased.
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Identification of cultural occupations within ISCO 08 The ISCO classification is based on two concepts: job and skill. Job is defined in the forthcoming ISCO 08 as a “set of tasks and duties carried out, or meant to be carried out, by one person for a particular employer, including self-employment”. Skill is defined as “the ability to carry out the tasks and duties of a given job”. (ILO, 2007) It is difficult to define a separate category many different types of occupations that ISCO 08 will incorporate new codes for proposal by the Organisation for Economic the UIS. for all cultural occupations since they cover require quite different skills. Nevertheless, cultural occupations, derived from a joint Co-operation and Development (OECD) and
The following codes for key cultural occupations are used in ISCO 08 and the UIS 2009 Framework for Cultural Statistics: • • • • • • 262: Librarians, archivists and curators 264: Authors, journalists and linguists (new code) 265: Creative and performing artists 344: Artistic and cultural associate professionals 3521: Broadcasting and sound and vision recording technicians 73: Handicraft and printing workers (new category, which includes all handicraft workers using clay, metal, glass, wood, textiles, etc.)
However, some unresolved issues remain in assessing cultural occupations. Cultural occupations are spread across all ISCO categories and the classification is sometimes not detailed enough to distinguish them. In addition, the occupations may not include a large enough number of practitioners to allow a separate category within ISCO. For example, it is difficult to distinguish cultural occupations within these main categories: Heritage and conservation The occupations related to heritage and conservation, such as archaeologists or curators and conservators, are not identified within ISCO. They are included in 2632 (Sociologists, anthropologists and related professionals). Professionals working in this field usually have scientific knowledge and a high skills level that can be associated with Major Group 2 Professionals in ISCO. Managers, senior officials and legislators With regard to managers, senior officials and legislators, only code 1113 (Traditional chiefs and heads of village) can be related to cultural occupations. However, it is important to consider where occupations, such as director of an art company, could be included. Education Teachers identified for culture are in the 'Other teachers' category, such as 2354 (Other music teachers) and 2355 (Other arts teachers). Generally, however, arts and humanities teachers at all levels of education (i.e. higher education, vocational
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education and secondary education) are not included in this category since they can be included in the formal and non-formal education and vocational education category. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) The cultural occupations related to ICTs are mainly related to audio-visual occupations and the new media, i.e. multimedia designer. This category needs to be considered for managers of broadcast and multimedia activities, including computer graphics. Appendix III proposes a list of codes that can serve as a basis for defining cultural occupations. 3.8 Data collection issues
Given the lack of data collected by even the countries that have taken time and resources to develop statistical frameworks for the cultural industries, it is perhaps worth summarising some of the main difficulties associated with this task. Structural challenges The most insurmountable of these difficulties is that policy and management tend to focus upon activities as defined in terms of their markets (e.g. film, television, music), while the most commonly used statistical classifications (country-specific versions of the ISIC) work predominantly on a classificatory principle of industrial output9 (e.g. the manufacture of printed items and reproduction by computer media). Thus, attempting to use these classifications to describe industries defined by market is problematic. With regard to culture, the relevant classes are scattered across the classifications, and these then have to be artificially re-aggregated. This is a specialist and time-consuming task. Statistical systems of industrial classification also struggle to keep pace with the rate of industrial change. They provide the most detailed coverage for traditional areas of the economy, such as primary and extractive industries, and manufacturing. Consequently, the service sector in general is poorly served and the classifications are particularly weak for areas in which there is rapid technological and market change; both of which generate difficulties for implementing a revised cultural statistical framework that takes into account the increasing influence of new digital ICTs. Operational challenges Cultural activities can generally be accurately identified within statistical industrial classification systems only at the greatest level of disaggregation (four- or five-digit classes). This creates difficulties as data from sources provided by national statistical offices for many variables (e.g. exports) are often only available for industry sectors at a higher level of aggregation, typically in the two- or three-digit class.
Although the primary logic is classification by output, this is not consistent. In some cases it is process or the raw material used that forms the taxonomic principle.
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The fine grain level of industrial disaggregation required to accurately identify cultural activities has further implications. It makes detailed sub-national analysis – which is particularly important for the cultural sector due to agglomeration tendencies – problematic, as the combination of four-digit analysis within a local or regional area unit decreases reliability for many business surveys undertaken by national statistical offices (due to sample size issues). Many cross-economy business surveys also have insufficient coverage of micro-enterprises and sole traders, which are disproportionately represented in the cultural sector. There are some ‘work-arounds’ that can be used in the instances where cultural activity is combined with other activities in individual classes. In particular, estimations can be used to distinguish the cultural component from the non-cultural component within these classes, and these weightings or co-efficients can then be used in analysis of data from business surveys. But, there has to be some empirical basis on which the weightings are derived, and this implies that there is ready access to a data source containing a census of all businesses. Once again – presupposing that such a business register exists – analysing this to produce the co-efficients is a time- and resource-intensive task. Finally, producing data on the social aspects of culture, to a standard that is in line with other data produced by national statistical offices, also presents a number of operational challenges. There may be opportunities to use aspects from existing cross-departmental surveys, such as household or time use surveys. However, the data that can be gained from these sources may not be sufficient to be able to support the cultural/social policymaking process. This is due to the limitations of the areas covered within these generalist surveys. However, it may also be due to problems of robustness when survey results are disaggregated to identify particular sub-populations (e.g. by age, gender, racial, ethnic groups, etc.) and especially where measurement of change is required. The problem of robustness can also affect even dedicated surveys of cultural participation, such as the Eurobarometer Survey, which, because it is only on a limited sample of approximately 1,000 respondents per country, can only really provide contextual information at the country level rather than the more detailed and reliable data required to support policy. Obviously, the alternative to using data gleaned from existing national statistical sources and/or more focused international sources of data is to launch a bespoke, national survey of cultural participation – but this is very costly. It should be noted that, in part, these difficulties are not so much universal but relate more to the level of sophistication of the cultural policymaking process itself, and particularly the degree to which evidence is used to underpin decision-making (see Section 3.9).
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Management and policymaking
Any data set is collated with a set of uses and users in mind; discussion of these needs may finetune the schema. The potential uses are for: • • • • auditing: identifying, classifying, valuing; mapping transactions: economic, social, cultural and spatial; sensitising managers: scale, organisation and operations of sectoral activities; policymaking: governance (public, private and third sector); strategy and interaction within public policy.
Creating and collecting evidence is not cultural policymaking per se. However, it is central to modern public policymaking and also to the accountability of public institutions. In this context, the primary data input will be made from national censuses of population, business censuses and any participation/usage data, as well as funding allocation data. The role of the framework will be to create space for dialogue between the functions of evidence-based policy, the providers of data and the cultural sector in its diverse forms. This, therefore, needs to be understood as the inauguration of a developmental process involving periodic updating, testing and necessary revision. It can be assumed that the framework will be a starting point for the development of more comprehensive statistical data. The document may form a basis for negotiations between cultural policymakers, practitioners and census agencies. The outputs will be relevant to both the global North and the global South. A first step would be to review national level data. However, since much cultural employment is urban (and usually concentrated in primary cities), further spatial breakdowns will be desirable. 3.10 Basic proposals for the measurement of the economic and social contribution of culture
The purpose of the framework is not to provide an exhaustive list of indicators which requires further development. This section provides a short list of basic indicators and identifies different source of economic and social data which have proved to be useful for the assessment of the economic and social contributions of culture. Economic data Different survey instruments can be used to assess the contribution of culture to the economy (see Figure 10), i.e. determining the percentage of GDP attributed to culture using annual economic surveys, national accounts or business surveys. Household expenditure surveys can determine the spending of households on culture, while public spending is assessed using government expenditure data.
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Figure 10. Examples of indicators for measuring the economic contribution of culture
Estimating economic contribution Contribution Indicator Volume of economic activity by value Unit of measure Gross Value-Added or Gross Domestic Product Source Annual economic surveys System of national accounts Annual economic surveys Annual business surveys Labour force surveys Census surveys Annual business surveys Household surveys Earnings surveys Business registration data and annual business surveys Business registration data and annual business surveys Annual economic surveys Annual economic surveys Annual business surveys Annual business surveys Household surveys Business registration and census data
Component of economic activity accounted for by the cultural sector
Share of total economic activity by value Volume of employment
% of total GVA/GDP Number of employees (headcount or full-time equivalent) % of total employment Number of selfemployment jobs Value in constant USD Number of businesses by size (employment and/or business revenue) % of stock of businesses by size (employment and/or business revenue) Export value % of export value Value in constant USD % of GVA/GDP Value in constant USD Number of selfemployment jobs Number of new business registrations per 10,000 head of population % of expenditure in culture
Employment in the cultural sector
Share of total employment Volume of selfemployment Average earnings (in sector occupations) Stock of businesses
Component of business base accounted for by the cultural sector
Share of stock of businesses
Foreign trade accounted for by the cultural sector
Volume of trade by value Share of total foreign trade Volume of investment
Investment by enterprises in the cultural sector
Level of investment Volume of public investment Volume of selfemployment
Enterprise associated with the cultural sector
Business start-up rate
Household expenditure culture sector
Volume of culture expenditure
Household expenditure surveys
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The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) has developed guidelines to determine the contribution of the copyright industries to the economy (WIPO, 2003). The identification of goods and services that generate intellectual property rights is a key component of the contribution of culture to the economy. Nevertheless, the WIPO definition of the cultural sector differs from that used in this framework because it does not cover areas where no intellectual property rights are involved, such as with cultural practices. Finance data for culture is another area that will require further methodological development to obtain international comparable data. Three sources of finance for culture are identified: i) public (mainly from government or public institutions); ii) private (from the market); and iii) non-profit organisations, donations, etc. Current data do not provide a clear picture of these three different sources of financing for culture. The Task Force on Cultural Expenditure and Finance recognised the impossibility of obtaining comparable and harmonised data on public finance for culture in European countries (European Commission, 2001). The different structures of public finance (centralised or not) and methodologies used among different countries made the comparison extremely difficult. Social data Figure 11 proposes some indicators to assess some aspects of the social dimension of culture. They mainly refer to measurement of cultural participation using household surveys or time use surveys. Figure 11. Examples of indicators for measuring social contribution to culture
Estimating social contribution (participation) Contribution Consumption of cultural goods and services (both digital and non-digital) Indicator Volumes and value of attendance/consumption Unit of measure Number of visits, uses, receptions Spending on entrance fees and travel costs Frequency of attendance/consumption Share of population directly accessing cultural products and services Duration of access Participation in cultural creation (not on a professional basis) Volume of participation in activities Frequency of participation in activities Share of population participating in cultural creation Duration of participation Number of visits, uses and receptions per annum % of population (disaggregate as appropriate for age, gender, ethnicity, etc.) Hours per month Number of participation activities Number of participation activities per annum % of population (disaggregate for age, gender, ethnicity, etc.) Hours per month Household surveys Household surveys Source Household surveys and surveys at sites/events Household surveys and surveys at sites/events Household surveys and surveys at sites/events Time use surveys
Time use surveys
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Other dimensions of culture Other dimensions of culture work are still required in order to fit some areas of culture into the framework, particularly for some social elements of culture and their impact on society. The relationship between culture and the environment which, to some extent, is included in the 'Cultural and Natural Heritage' domain needs further consideration, especially with regard to sustainability. The relationship between social capital and culture might be debated. The relationship between culture and well-being has been a major discussion point, leading to relationships between culture and health. Topics such as health and environment in the largest sense extend well beyond culture, and the debate here may be more about linkages between culture and other statistical domains. For example, this could include the potential impact on general health of practising a cultural activity, such as playing a musical instrument (Michalos, 2003 and 2005).
Box 1. Film policy Film policy is probably the one area where most efforts have been exerted internationally to develop indicators for measuring cultural diversity. The new Cultural Test for British Films, brought in by the United Kingdom’s Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) in December 2005, is an interesting example of one such recent attempt. The aim of the test is to better identify ‘culturally British films’ that are eligible for the new British film tax relief. It aims to offer better targeted support and remove uncertainty for applicants. The test awards points to various elements that contribute to the overall cultural value of a film. This includes the use of British ‘cultural hubs’ (e.g. locations, special effects, post-production facilities, etc.), practitioners and content. Every section is given a certain number of points. For example, within the cultural hubs section, 10 points are awarded if the studio and visual effects used in the film are based in the United Kingdom. A maximum of 13 points is given in relation to the nationality of the creative practitioners (e.g. producers, directors, writers, actors). Within the content section, only 1 point is given if the film is based on a British subject matter or underlying material, or the dialogue is in English. A film qualifies for tax relief if it scores more than 16 points out of 32. As the weighting indicates, many of the key measures used in the cultural test are economic indicators related to the de facto industrial policy for film in the United Kingdom. This is clearly very different from the position in France, where the cultural test is much more dependent on the use of the French language.
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Australian Bureau of Statistics (2001). Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications. Adelaide. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2002). ABS Culture, Sport and Recreation Statistics: Current Activities and Future Strategy. Adelaide. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006). Discussion paper: Arts and Cultural Heritage in Australia Key issues for an information development Plan. Adelaide. Barrowclough, D. and Z. Kozul-Wright (Eds.) (2006). Creative Industries and Developing Countries: Voice, Choice and Economic Growth. London. Bennett, Tony (2001). Differing Diversity: Cultural Policy and Cultural Diversity. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing. Centre for Cultural Policy Research (2003). Baseline Study on Hong Kong’s Creative Industries. Central Policy Unit, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government: University of Hong Kong. Centro de Estudios Regionales Cafeteros Y Empresaiales (2005). Guide for Drawing up Regional Mapping of Creative Industries. Bogota. Christensen, L. et al (2001). Refuge for Integration: A Study of How the Ethnic Minorities in Denmark Use the Libraries. Moellegade: Aarhus Public Libraries, pp.1-23. http://www.aakb.dk/graphics/pub/refuge.pdf. Council for Cultural Affairs (2004). Cultural Policy White Paper. Taiwan Council for Cultural Affairs. Culture, Tourism and the Center for Education Statistics (2004). Canadian Framework for Cultural Statistics. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Culture, Tourism and the Center for Education Statistics (2004). Economic Contribution of Culture in Canada. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Culture, Tourism and the Center for Education Statistics (2004). Economic Contribution of the Culture Sector in Canada – A Provincial Perspective. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Cunningham, S. (2003). The Evolving Creative Industries. Transcript of a seminar, 9 May 2003. Brisbane: QUT. DCMS (2001). Creative Industries Mapping Document. London: Department of Culture, Media and Sport. DCMS (2003). Regional Data Framework for the Creative Industries: Final Technical Report for the Department of Culture, Media and Sport and the Regional Cultural Consortia. London: Department of Culture, Media and Sport. Economic Review Committee, Services Subcommittee Workgroup on the Creative Industries (2002). Creative Industries Development Strategy: Propelling Singapore’s Creative Economy. Ståle Navrud and Richard C. Ready (2002). Valuing Cultural Heritage: Applying Environmental Valuation Techniques to Historic Buildings, Monuments and Artefacts. London: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. European Commission (2006). The economy of culture in Europe. Luxembourg. European Commission (2001). Report by the Task Force on Cultural Expenditure and Finance. Luxembourg. European Commission, Eurostat (2002). European’s Participation in Cultural Activity: A Eurobarometer Survey, Executive Summary. Eurostat, OECD, UN and WTO (2001). Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework. www.world-tourism.org.
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Girard, A. (1982). Creative Industries: A Challenge for the Future of Culture. Paris: UNESCO. Girard, A. (1982a). "Cultural industries: A handicap or a new opportunity for cultural development?" In UNESCO, Cultural Industries: A Challenge for the Future of Culture, pp. 24-39. Paris: UNESCO. Gupta, A. and J. Ferguson (Eds.) (1999). Culture, Power, Place: Explorations in Critical Anthropology. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. Held, T., C. Kruse, M. Sondermann and A. Weckerle (2005). Zurich’s Creative Industries Synthesis Report. Zurich: Office for Economy and Labour of the Canton of Zurich and City of Zurich Economic Development. Hui, D. (2005). "Learning from Mapping Exercises: from Baseline Study to Creativity Index", st paper presented to the conference "Asia Pacific Creative Communities: A Strategy for the 21 Century", UNESCO Senior Expert Symposium on Cultural Industries, Jodhpur, India, 22-26 February 2005. International Labour Organisation (ILO) (1988). International Standard Classification of Occupations. Geneva: ILO. ILO (1989). Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, (No. 169). Geneva: ILO. Keaney, E. (2006). From Access to Participation: Cultural Policy and Civil Renewal. London: IPPR. LEG Eurostat (2000). "Cultural statistics in the EU", Eurostat Working Paper; Population and Social Conditions Series, 3/2000/E/No1. Final report of the LEG. Luxembourg. Manninen, A. (2002). Cultural Consumption and Practices: A National and Cross-National Perspective. City of Helsinki, Department of Urban Facts. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Culture Statistics, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Montreal, 21-23 October 2002. Michalos, A. (2003). Essays on the Quality of Life, Social Indicators Research Series, Vol. 19. Kluwer, Dordrecht. Michalos, A. (ed.) (2005). Citation Classics from Social Indicators Research: The most cited articles, Social Indicators Research Series, Vol. 26. Springer, Dordrecht. Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Statistics New Zealand (1996). Household Spending on Culture. Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Statistics New Zealand (1995). New Zealand Framework for Cultural Statistics 1995. Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Statistics New Zealand (2003). A Measure of Culture: Cultural Experiences and Cultural Spending in New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Statistics New Zealand (2005). Employment in the Cultural Sector 2005. Ministry of Education (1998). Cultural Industry Committee Final Report. Helsinki: Ministry of Education. Myerscough, J. (1988). The Economic Importance of the Arts in Britain. London: Policy Studies Institute. Observatoire de la culture et des communications du Québec (2003). Québec Culture and Communications Activity Classification System 2004. Quebec City: Institut de la statistique du Québec. OECD (1993). The System of National Accounts, 1993 – Glossary. Paris: OECD. Pratt, A. C. and N’deck Ndiaye (2004). The Music Industry in Senegal: The Potential for Economic Development, report for UNCTAD. London.
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Pratt, A. C. (2001). "Understanding the cultural industries: Is more less?" Culturelink 35, pp. 51-68. Scanlon, R. and R. Longley (1984). "The arts as an industry: the economic importance to the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Region" in W. Hendon, D. Shaw and N. Grant (Eds.) The Economics of Cultural Industries, pp. 93-100. Association for Cultural Economics, United States of America: University of Arkon. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) (2007). "Article 8(j): Traditional knowledge and the convention on biological diversity". Montreal. http://www.cbd.int/programmes/socio-eco/traditional/default.shtml Siwek S. (2002). Copyright Industries in the U.S. Economy: The 2002 Report. Washington, D.C.: The International Intellectual Property Alliance. Statistics Canada (1997). Canada’s Culture, Heritage and Identity: A Statistical Perspective. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Statistics Finland (2005). Cultural Statistics [Online] (http://www.stat.fi/til /klt_en.html). Statistics Finland (2005). Leisure Survey [Online] (http://www.stat.fi/til /klt_en.html). Statistics Finland (2006). Mass Media [Online] (http://www.stat.fi/til /klt_en.html). Statistics Finland (2006). Mass Media Market 2000 – 2004 [Online] (http://www.stat.fi/til/klt_en.html). Statistics Finland (2006). Time Use Survey [Online] (http://www.stat.fi/til /klt_en.html). Statistics New Zealand (2003). Cultural Experience Survey [Online] (http://stats.gov.nz/NR/exeres). Statistics New Zealand (2000). Government Spending on Culture – article [Online] (http://stats.gov.nz/products-and-services/Articles/spemd-on-cult-90-99). Thorhauge, J. (2003). “Danish Strategies in Public Library Services to Ethnic Minorities”, paper th prepared for the World Library and Information Congress: 69 IFLA General Conference and Council, Berlin, 1-9 August 2003. Throsby, D. (2001). Economics and culture. Cambridge University Press. UNCTAD/WIPO (2001). Developing Countries Becoming a Global Player: Opportunities in the Music Industry. Cuban Music Industry Development and Marketing Plan. Geneva: UNCTAD/ WIPO. UNESCO (1972). Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO (1986). The UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO (2003). Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO (2005). Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO (2007). http://whc.unesco.org/en/culturallandscape/ UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2006). Guidelines for Measuring Cultural Participation. Montreal: UNESCO Institute of Statistics. United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) (2005). International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities, ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/4/Rev.4. New York: UNSD. Wallis, R. (2001). Best Practice Cases in the Music Industry and their Relevance for Government Policies in Developing Countries, report for WIPO-UNCTAD. Williams, R. (1977). Marxism and literature. London: Oxford University Press.
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Appendix I: Glossary
Cultural goods are defined as consumer goods that convey ideas, symbols and ways of life, i.e. books, magazines, multimedia products, software, recordings, films, videos, audio-visual programmes, crafts and fashion. Cultural services are aimed at satisfying cultural interests or needs. Cultural services do not represent cultural material goods in themselves but facilitate their production and distribution. For example, cultural services include licensing activities and other copyright-related services, audio-visual distribution activities, promotion of performing arts and cultural events, as well as cultural information services and the preservation of books, recordings and artefacts (in libraries, documentation centres, museums), etc. Cultural activities embody or convey cultural expressions, irrespective of the commercial value they may have. Cultural activities may be an end in themselves or they may contribute to the production of cultural goods and services. Culture chain or cycle refers to the production of culture as a result of a series of interlinked processes or stages that together form the cultural production chain or cycle, value chain or supply chain. Cultural industries produce and distribute cultural goods or services as defined above. Cultural diversity refers to the many ways in which the different cultures of groups and societies find expression. These cultural expressions are passed on within and among groups and societies, and from generation to generation. Cultural diversity, however, is evident not only in the varied ways in which cultural heritage is expressed, augmented and transmitted but also in the different modes of artistic creation, production, dissemination, distribution and enjoyment, whatever the means and technologies that are used. Cultural participation is participation in the arts and everyday life activities that may be associated with a particular culture. It refers to “the ways in which ethnically-marked differences in cultural tastes, values and behaviours inform not just artistic and media preferences but are embedded in the daily rhythms of different ways of life; and of the ways in which these connect with other relevant social characteristics – those of class and gender, for example”. (Bennett, 2001) Informal sector is broadly characterised as comprising production units that operate on a small scale and at a low level of organization, with little or no division between labour and capital as factors of production, and with the primary objective of generating income and employment for the persons concerned. Operationally, the sector is defined on a country-specific basis as the set of unincorporated enterprises owned by households which produce at least some products for the market but which either have less than a specified number of employees and/or are not registered under national legislation referring, for example, to tax or social security obligations or regulatory acts. (OECD, 1993) Intangible heritage is defined as “the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts and cultural spaces
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associated therewith – that communities, groups and, in some cases, individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity”. (UNESCO, 2003) Indigenous and tribal peoples include: “tribal peoples in independent countries whose social, cultural and economic conditions distinguish them from other sections of the national community, and whose status is regulated wholly or partially by their own customs or traditions or by special laws or regulations; and peoples in independent countries who are regarded as indigenous on account of their descent from the populations which inhabited the country, or a geographical region to which the country belongs, at the time of conquest or colonisation or the establishment of present state boundaries and who, irrespective of their legal status, retain some or all of their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions." (ILO, 1989) Traditional knowledge “refers to the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities around the world. Developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to the local culture and environment, traditional knowledge is transmitted orally from generation to generation. It tends to be collectively owned and takes the form of stories, songs, folklore, proverbs, cultural values, beliefs, rituals, community laws, local language and agricultural practices, including the development of plant species and animal breeds. Traditional knowledge is mainly of a practical nature, particularly in such fields as agriculture, fisheries, health, horticulture, forestry and environmental management in general”. (SCBD, 2007)
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Appendix II: List of consultees
Meetings and networks at which the framework was presented for comment: Asia Cultural Co-operation Forum, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, 2006 China International Cultural Industries Forum, Shenzhen, China, 2007 Convenio Andrés Bello, Bogota, Colombia, 2007 Friederich Nauman Stiftung, 4th Conference on Creative Industries, Berlin, Germany 2007 IFACCA Researchers Network, Singapore, 2007 7th Northumbria Conference on Library Performance Statistics, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2007 OECD Expert Meeting on Cultural Statistics, Paris, France, 2006 UNESCO Expert Group on Measuring Cultural Diversity, Montreal, Canada, 2007 UNESCO Conceptual Workshop for the World Report on Cultural Diversity, Paris, 2007 Round table: The interactions between public and private financing of the arts and culture, Erasmus University and Boekman Foundation, Amsterdam, 2007 Individuals and Organisations who submitted formal written comments: Australian Bureau of Statistics Policy Research Group, the Cultural Trade and Investment Branch and Arts Policy Branch, Department of Canadian, Heritage, Canada
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Appendix III: Culture defined using international classifications
1. Culture goods and services: Using the Central Product Classification (CPC) A. Cultural and Natural Heritage
1. Core: Museums/Built Heritage, Libraries, Archives, Natural Heritage
Function Creation Producing Dissemination Exhibition/reception 84510 96411 96421 96422 Archiving/preserving 83214 96412 84520 Education/training 92911 Library services Museum services except for historical sites and buildings Botanical and zoological garden services Nature reserve services including wildlife preservation services Historical restoration architectural services Preservation services of historical sites and buildings Archive services Cultural education services (museum education services) 84510 96411 96421 96422 83211*, 83212*, 83219* 96412 84520 92900* CPC 2 Description CPC 1
* All codes under CPC 1 marked with an asterisk (*) signal that only some of the activities under the CPC 1 code fall under the CPC 2 code.
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B. Performance and Celebration
1. Core: Performing Arts, Music , Celebratory Cultural Events (festivals, fairs, feasts, etc.)
Function Creation Producing CPC 2 96310 96111 96112 96113 96230 96290 96220 96210 95997 89122 92911 Description Services of performing artists Sound recording services Live recording services Sound recording originals Performing arts facility operation services Other performing arts and live entertainment services Performing arts event production and presentation services Performing arts event promotion and organization services Cultural and recreational associations (other than sports or games) Reproduction services of recorded media, on a fee or contract basis Cultural education services CPC 1 96310 96111*, 96130* 96111*, 96130* 96230 96290 96220 96210 95999*
Music is problematic in that it logically spans the 'Audio-visual' domain as well as 'Performance and Celebration'. Activities related to recorded music are mostly included in this category. However, activities such as the distributive activities of wholesale and retail are included within the 'Audio-visual' domain when these codes combine audio, video and broadcast activities.
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Function Creation Producing CPC 2 38991 38310 38320 38330 38340 38350 38360 1 47321 Exhibition/reception Dissemination Archiving/preserving Education/training
Description Festive, carnival or other entertainment articles, including conjuring tricks and novelty jokes Pianos and other keyboard stringed musical instruments Other string musical instruments Wind musical instruments (including pipe organs, accordions and brass-wind instruments) Musical instruments, the sound of which is produced, or must be amplified, electrically Other musical instruments (including percussion instruments, musical boxes and fairground organs); decoy calls; whistles, call horns and other mouth-blown sound signalling instruments Parts and accessories of musical instruments; metronomes, tuning forks and pitch pipes Sound recording or reproducing apparatus Music, printed or in manuscript Musical audio disks, tapes or other physical media Cultural education services
CPC 1 38991 38310 38320 38330 38340 38350 38360 47321, 47322 32260 47520* 92900*
32520 47610 92911
It should include sound recording apparatus for music recording only.
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C. Visual Arts, Crafts1 and Design
1. Core: Fine Arts, Crafts, Design
Function Creation CPC 2 83911 83919 83920 81229 38220 38240 38961 38962 38210 Dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
Description Interior design services Other specialty design services Design originals Research and experimental development services in other humanities Cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones, and reconstructed precious or semiprecious stones (except industrial diamonds) Jewellery, other articles of precious metal/metal clad with precious metal; articles of natural or cultured pearls or precious or semi-precious stones Paintings, drawings and pastels; original engravings, prints and lithographs; original sculptures and statuary, in any material Postage or revenue stamps, stamp-postmarks, first-day covers, postal stationery (stamped paper) and the like; collections and collectors' pieces of zoological, botanical, mineralogical, anatomical, historical, ethnographic or numismatic interest; antiques Pearls, natural or cultured and unworked
CPC 1 83410 83490 81210*, 81290* 38220 38240 38960 38960 38210
Cultural education services (for visual arts, design and craft)
The CPC does not offer any real solutions to the essential difficulty of measuring craft activity within statistical classifications. That is, products are generally defined by their form or type (e.g. ‘statuettes and other ceramic articles’, ‘carpets and other textile floor coverings’) and not by the method of their production, i.e. artisanal or industrialised. Thus, our approach is to use codes where the materials used and/or product types indicate that the activities are least likely to involve mass production and comparatively more likely to be crafts-based.
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2. Expanded: Architecture, Advertising, Material
Function Creation CPC 2 83211 83212 83213 83231 83232 83611 83613 83619 35120 83620 83631 83633 83639 83632 Description Architectural advisory services Architectural services for residential building projects Architectural services for non-residential building projects Landscape architectural advisory services Landscape architectural services Planning, creating and placement services of advertising Advertising design and concept development Other advertising services Artists', students' or signboard painters' colours, modifying tints, amusement colours and the like Purchase or sale of advertising space or time, on commission Sale of advertising space in print media (except on commission) Sale of Internet advertising space (except on commission) Sale of other advertising space or time (except on commission) Sale of TV/radio advertising time (except on commission) CPC 1 83211* 83211*, 83212*, 83219* 83211*, 83212*, 83219* 83222 83222 83610 83610 83690 35120 83620 83631 83633 83639 83632
Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
Note: The code 32550 ('Plans and drawings for architectural, engineering, industrial, commercial, topographical or similar purposes, being originals drawn by hand; hand-written texts; photographic reproductions and carbon copies of the foregoing related to plans and drawing of architecture') is not included because it does not make the distinction between cultural and non-cultural products.
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D. Books and Press
1. Core: Book Publishing, Press and Magazine Publishing
Function Creation CPC 2 1 96320 96330 81229 89110 84410 32300 32410 32420 32490 32510 32210 32220 32291 32292 32299 81221 81229 84311 84312 47691 47692 62551 62451 62351 62251 62151 61251 61151 Description Services of authors, composers, sculptors and other artists, except performing artists Original works of authors, composers and other artists except performing artists, painters and sculptors Research and experimental development services in other humanities Publishing, on a fee or contract basis News agency services to newspapers and periodicals Newspapers, journals and periodicals, appearing at least four times a week General interest newspapers and periodicals, other than daily, in print Business, professional or academic newspapers and periodicals, other than daily, in print Other newspapers and periodicals, other than daily, in print Maps, similar charts and wall maps other than in book-form Educational textbooks, in print General reference books, in print Professional, technical and scholarly books, in print Children's books, in print Other books n.e.c., in print Research and experimental development services in languages and literature Research and experimental development services in other humanities On-line books On-line newspapers and periodicals Audio books on disk, tape or other physical media Text-based disks, tapes or other physical media Retail trade services on a fee or contract basis, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery Other non-store retail trade services, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery Mail order retail trade services, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery Specialized store retail trade services, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery Non-specialized store retail trade services, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery Wholesale trade services on a fee or contract basis, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery Wholesale trade services, except on fee or contract basis, of books, newspapers, magazines and stationery CPC 1 96230 81210*, 81290* 89110 84410 32300 32400 32400 32400 32250 32210*, 32230* 32210*, 32220*, 32230*, 32240 32210*, 32230* 32210*, 32230* 32210*, 32230* 81240* 81210*, 81290* 84300* 84300* 47520* 47520* 62551 62451 62351 62251 62151 61251 61151
Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
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Function Creation Producing
CPC 2 32800 44914 89121
Description Composed type, prepared printing plates or cylinders, impressed lithographic stones or other impressed media for use in printing Bookbinding machinery; machinery for type-setting and the like; printing machinery and machines for uses ancillary to printing (except office type sheet fed offset printing machinery) Printing services and services related to printing, on a fee or contract basis
CPC 1 32700 44914* 89121
Dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
This is a problematic code as, while it clearly covers authors, it also covers many other types of (individual) cultural creation activities. Empirical investigation would be required on a country-by-country basis to establish how to more accurately allocate activities within this class across the domains. The inability to distinguish between printing of items with a cultural end use, e.g. books and newspapers, within the generalised CPC 'Printing' category 89121 means that this has been omitted from this table.
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E. Audio-visual and Digital Media
1. Core: Broadcasting, Film and Video, Photography, Interactive Media
Function Creation CPC 2 96121 96122 83814 83813 83811 96139 96137 96136 96135 96134 96133 96132 96131 96123 84631 84622 84621 84612 84611 84420 83820 83819 73320 47699 47620 47610 38950 38942 38941 32540 Description Motion picture, videotape and television programme production services Radio programme production services Specialty photography services Action photography services Portrait photography services Other post-production services Sound editing and design services Captioning, titling and subtitling services Animation services Visual effects services Colour correction and digital restoration services Transfers and duplication of masters services Audio-visual editing services Motion picture, videotape, television and radio programme originals Broadcasting (programming and scheduling) services Television channel programmes Radio channel programmes Television broadcast originals Radio broadcast originals News agency services to audio-visual media Photography processing services Other photographic services Licensing services for the right to use entertainment, literary or acoustic originals Other non-musical audio disks and tapes Films and other video content on disks, tape or other physical media Musical audio disks, tapes or other physical media Motion picture film, exposed and developed, whether or not incorporating sound track or consisting only of sound track Photographic plates and film, exposed and developed, other than cinematographic film Photographic plates, film, paper, paperboard and textiles, exposed but not developed Printed pictures, designs and photographs CPC 1 96121*, 96130*, 96149* 96122, 96130*, 96149*
96142* 96112*, 96142* 96142* 96121* 96142* 96142* 96112*, 96142* 96112*, 96142* 96160 -
47520* 47520* 47520*
38942 38941 32540
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96140 84634 84633 84632 84332 84331 84322 84321 73220 62542 62442 62342 62242 62142 61242 61142
Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
96151 96152 83815 92911
Motion picture, videotape, television and radio programme distribution services Home programme distribution services, pay-per-view Home programme distribution services, discretionary programming package Home programme distribution services, basic programming package Streaming video content Films and other video downloads Streaming audio content Musical audio downloads Leasing or rental services concerning videotapes and disks Retail trade services of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes Other non-store retail trade services, radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes Mail order retail trade services, of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes Specialized store retail trade services, of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes Non-specialized store retail trade services, of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes Wholesale trade services, on a fee contract basis of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes Wholesale trade services, except on a fee contract basis of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes Motion picture projection services Videotape projection services Restoration and retouching services of photography Cultural education services (broadcast and film)
96141 84170* 84170* 84170* 84300* 84300* 62542 62442 62342 62242 62142 61242 61142
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Function Creation Producing CPC 2 48342 48341 48323 48322 47530 47590 38580 47530 47540 47550 47590 47311 47312 47212 47211 47220 46520 47323 47313 47214 47215 47213 Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training Description Chemical preparations for photographic uses Photographic plates and film and instant print film, sensitized, unexposed Cinematographic projectors, slide projectors and other image projectors, except microform readers Photographic (including cinematographic) cameras Magnetic media, not recorded, except cards with a magnetic stripe Other recording media, including matrices and masters for the production of disks Video games of a kind used with a television receiver Magnetic media, not recorded, except cards with a magnetic stripe Optical media, not recorded Solid-state non-volatile storage devices Other recording media, including matrices and masters for the production of disks Radio broadcast receivers (except of a kind used in motor vehicles), whether or not combined with sound recording or reproducing apparatus or a clock Radio broadcast receivers not capable of operating without an external source of power, of a kind used in motor vehicles Television cameras Transmission apparatus for radio-telephony, radio-telegraphy, radio-broadcasting or television Electrical apparatus for line telephony or line telegraphy; video phones Photographic flashbulbs, flashcubes and the like Video recording or reproducing apparatus Television receivers, whether or not combined with radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus Video camera recorders Digital cameras Television cameras CPC 1
47510* 47510* 38580 47510* 47510* 47510* 47510* 47311, 47332 47312
47323* 47313* 47323* 47323* 47212
Notes: As with other classifications, the CPC has a good coverage of audio-visual activities. However, there are still a number of issues in using the classification to fully and accurately capture audio-visual activities:
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73320 ‘Licensing services for the right to use entertainment, literary or acoustic originals’ clearly covers both audio-visual activities and those that fall within other cultural domains. Empirical investigation would be required on a country-by-country basis to establish how to more accurately allocate activities within this class across the different domains. Distributive activities related to photography (wholesale and retail) are insufficiently disaggregated within the CPC as they are combined with ‘Optical and precision equipment’, these codes were thus omitted from the framework. Retail trade services of radio and television equipment and recorded audio and video disks and tapes cover both core and expanded domains. Empirical investigation would be required on a country-by-country basis to establish how to more accurately allocate activities within this class across both domains.
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F. Tourism, Sport and Leisure
1. Core: Sport and Recreation, Physical Well-being, Visitor Attractions
Function Creation CPC 2 96510 96610 97230 85511 85512 85513 85514 85519 85521 85522 85523 85524 85531 85539 85540 85550 85561 85562 96512 96990 96620 96590 63111 63112 63113 63114 63120 63130 63220 63290 91136 Description Sports and recreational sports event promotion services Services of athletes Physical well-being services Reservation services for air transportation Reservation services for rail transportation Reservation services for bus transportation Reservation services for vehicle rental Other transportation arrangement and reservation services, n.e.c. Reservation services for accommodation Time-share exchange services Reservation services for cruises Reservation services for package tours Reservation services for convention centers, congress centers and exhibit halls Reservation services for event tickets, entertainment and recreational services and other reservation services Tour operator services Tourist guide services Tourism promotion services Visitor information services Services of sports clubs Other recreation and amusement services n.e.c. Support services related to sports and recreation Other sports and recreational sports services Room or unit accommodation services for visitors, with daily housekeeping services Room or unit accommodation services for visitors, without daily housekeeping services Room or unit accommodation services for visitors, in time-share properties Accommodation services for visitors, in rooms for multiple occupancy Camp site services Recreational vacation camp services Room or unit accommodation services for workers in workers hostels or camps All other room or unit accommodation services Administrative services related to tourism affairs CPC 1 96510 96610 97230 67811*, 67813* 67811*, 67813* 67811*, 67813* 67811*, 67813* 67811*, 67813* 67811*, 67813* 67813* 67811*, 67813* 67811*, 67813* 67813* 96230*, 96411*, 96421*, 96422*, 96520*, 96910* 67812 67820 67813* 67813* 96510 96990 96620 96590 63110 63191*, 63192* 63191*, 63192* 63193, 63199* 63195 63191*, 63194 63199* 63199* 91136
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96520 96910 85539 64131 64132 64133 64134
Sports and recreational sports facility operation services Amusement park and similar attraction services Reservation services for event tickets, entertainment and recreational services and other reservation services Sightseeing services by rail Sightseeing services by land, except rail Sightseeing services by water Sightseeing services by air Sports and recreation education services
96520 96910 96230*, 96411*, 96421*, 96422*, 96520*, 96910* 64212 64319 65219 66120* – 96620*
Notes: Tourism is qualitatively different from the other cultural domains as it cannot readily be classified as a sector in the traditional sense, i.e. as measured by either particular market or industrial outputs. Rather, tourism is better understood as a demand-driven, consumer-defined activity, and as such, it is intimately linked with all of the other domains within the cultural sector as each contain activities that are regularly undertaken by tourists. For this reason, there is also a now well-established international methodology for measuring the economic impact of tourism, based on constructing satellite accounts (e.g. see Eurostat, OECD, UN and WTO, 2001). Therefore, within this domain, core tourism activities were considered (e.g. tourist guides and tour operators) as well as those activities outside of the cultural sector in which tourists are likely to account for the bulk of activities (e.g. accommodation).
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2. Expanded: Gambling and Toys
Function Creation Producing CPC 2 96930 38600 38590 49490 49410 38450 38440 38440 38420 38410 29490 29420 29410 29210 28236 28228 96921 96929 53270 62555 62355 62255 62455 62155 61255 61155 73240 38510 38520 38530 38540 38550 Description Coin-operated amusement machine services Roundabouts, swings, shooting galleries and other fairground amusements Other articles for funfair or table games except video games of a kind used with a TV receiver Other vessels for pleasure or sports; rowing boats and canoes Sailboats (except inflatable), with or without auxiliary motor Fishing rods and other line fishing tackle; fish landing nets, butterfly nets and similar nets Other articles and equipment for sports or outdoor games Gymnasium or athletics articles and equipment Water-skis, surf-boards, sailboards and other water-sport equipment Snow-skis and other snow-ski equipment; ice-skates and roller-skates Other sports footwear, except skating boots Tennis shoes, basketball shoes, gym shoes, training shoes and the like Ski-boots, snowboard boots and cross-country ski footwear Saddlery and harness, for any animal, of any material Track suits, ski suits, swimwear and other garments, of textile fabric, not knitted Track suits, ski suits, swimwear and other garments, knitted or crocheted n.e.c. On-line gambling services Other gambling and betting services Outdoor sport and recreation facilities Retail trade services on a fee or contract basis, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) Mail order retail trade services, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) Specialized store retail trade services, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) Other non-store retail trade services, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) Non-specialized store retail trade services, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) Wholesale trade services on a fee or contract basis, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) Wholesale trade services, except on a fee or contract basis, of sports goods (incl. bicycles) Leasing or rental services concerning pleasure and leisure equipment Dolls' carriages; wheeled toys designed to be ridden by children Dolls representing human beings; toys representing animals or non-human creatures Parts and accessories of dolls representing human beings Toy electric trains, and tracks, signals and other accessories therefore; reduced-size ("scale") model assembly kits and other construction sets and constructional toys Puzzles CPC 1 96930 38600 38590 49490 49410 38450 38440 38430 38420 38410 29490 29420 29410 29210 28236 28228 96920 96920 53270 62555 62355 62255 62455 62155 61255 61155 38510 38520 38530 38540 38550
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38560 38570 38580 38590 Archiving/preserving Education/training
Other toys (including toy musical instruments) Playing cards Video games of a kind used with a television receiver Other articles for funfair, table or parlour games (including articles for billiards, pintables, special tables for casino games and automatic bowling alley equipment), except video games of a kind used with a television receiver
38560 38570 38580 38590
2. Using the International Standard Industrial Classification A. Cultural and Natural Heritage
1. Core: Museums/Built Heritage, Libraries, Archives, Natural Heritage
ISIC 4 9101 9102 9103 8542 Description Library and archives activities Museums activities and operation of historical sites and buildings Botanical and zoological gardens and nature reserves activities Cultural education Functions Dissemination, archiving/preserving Exhibition/reception, archiving/preserving Exhibition/reception, archiving/preserving Education/training CPC 2 84510, 84520 96411, 96412 96421, 96422 92911
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B. Performance and Celebration
1. Core: Performing Arts, Music, Celebratory Cultural Events (festivals, fairs, feasts, etc.)
ISIC 4 1,2 9000 3290 5920 4762 8542
1 2 3
Description Creative, arts and entertainment activities Other manufacturing not elsewhere classified Sound recording and music publishing activities Retail sale of music and video recordings in specialized stores Cultural education
Function Creation, exhibition/reception Producing Dissemination Dissemination Education/training
CPC 2 96210, 96220, 96230, 96290, 96310 38991 32520 92911
This code is also part of the category 'Visual Arts for the Fine Arts'. Authors and composers can be classified in this category. The ISIC being less detailed than CPC, many categories are not individually identified. This code corresponds to 'Festive article' in CPC.
ISIC 4 3290 3220 1820
Description Other manufacturing not elsewhere classified Manufacture of musical instruments Reproduction of recorded media
Function Producing Producing Producing, dissemination
CPC 2 38991 38310, 38320, 38360, 38330, 38340, 38350, 38360 89122
The ISIC being less detailed than CPC, many categories are not individually identified. This code corresponds to 'Festive article' in CPC.
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C. Visual Arts, Crafts and Design
1. Core: Fine Arts, Crafts, Design
ISIC 4 1 9000 7410 8542 Description Creative, arts and entertainment activities Specialized design activities Cultural education in visual arts Function Creation, exhibition/reception Creation Education/training CPC 2 96210, 96220, 96230, 96290, 96310 83911, 83919, 83920 92911
Notes: It is difficult to measure craft with the ISIC, which generally covers industrial activities.
This code is also part of the category 'Visual Arts for the Fine Arts'. It includes painters and sculptors.
2. Expanded: Architecture, Advertising, Material
ISIC 4 1 7110 7310 3211
Description Function Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy Creation Advertising Manufacture of jewellery and related articles Creation, dissemination Producing
CPC 2 83211, 83212, 83213, 83214, 83231, 83232 83611, 83613, 83919, 83920 38220, 38240
It is necessary to evaluate the only part related to architectural activities. ISIC codes do not distinguish the different types of architectural activities (landscape, historical restoration, etc.).
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D. Books and Press
1. Core: Book Publishing, Press and Magazine Publishing
ISIC 4 5811 6321 5813 4761 Description Book publishing News agency activities Publishing of newspapers, journals and periodicals Retail sale of books, newspapers and stationary in specialized stores Function Creation, producing Producing, dissemination Producing Dissemination CPC 2 32210, 32220, 32291, 32292, 32299, 32510, 47691, 47692, 84311 84410 32300, 32410, 3240, 32490, 84312 62551
ISIC 4 1811 1812 Description Printing Service activities related to printing Function Producing Producing CPC 2 89121 89121
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E. Audio-visual and Digital Media
1. Core: Broadcasting, Film and Video, Photography, Interactive Media
ISIC 4 5911 5912 5913 5914 6010 6020 4742 7729 1 5819 6321 7420 8542
Description Motion picture, video and television programme production activities Motion picture, video and television programme post-production activities Motion picture, video and television programme distribution activities Motion picture projection activities Radio broadcasting Television programming and broadcasting activities Retail sale of audio and video equipment in specialized stores Renting of video tapes and disks Other publishing activities News agency activities Photographic activities Cultural education on media
Function Producing Producing Dissemination, archiving/preserving Exhibition/reception Producing, dissemination Producing, dissemination Dissemination Dissemination Producing Producing Producing Education/training
CPC 2 38950, 47620, 84331, 5911 38950, 96131, 96132, 96133, 96134, 96135, 96136, 96137, 96139 96140 96151, 59152 84611, 84621, 84631*, 96122 84612, 84622, 84631*, 96121 62142 73220 32540 84420 83811, 83813, 83814, 83815, 83819, 83820, 38941, 38942 92911
Printed pictures, designs and photographs.
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ISIC 4 2680 1 2670 2640 2630 6110
1 1 1 1
Description Manufacture of magnetic and optical media Manufacture of optical instruments and equipment Manufacture of consumer electronics Manufacture of communication equipment Wired telecommunications activities Wireless telecommunications activities Satellite telecommunications activities
Function Producing Producing, dissemination Producing, dissemination Producing, dissemination Dissemination Dissemination Dissemination
CPC 2 47530, 47590 47215, 48322, 48323 47214, 47220, 47311, 47312, 47313, 47321, 47323, 88234* 47211, 47212, 47213, 47323 88234* 84632 84633 84634
6120 1 6130
Only part related to audio, broadcast and cinema activities. * All codes under CPC 2 marked with an asterisk (*) signal that only some of the activities under the CPC 2 code fall under the ISIC 4 code.
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F. Sports, Leisure and Tourism
1. Core: Sport and Recreation, Physical Well-being, Visitor Attractions
ISIC 4 4763 7721 9311 9312 9319 9321 9329 8541 7911 7912 7990 5510 5520 Description Retail sale of sporting equipment in specialized stores Renting and leasing of recreational and sports goods Operation of sports facilities Activities of sports clubs Other sports activities Activities of amusement parks and theme parks Other amusement and recreation activities n.e.c. Sports and recreation education Travel agency activities Tour operator activities Other reservation service and related activities Short term accommodation activities Camping grounds, recreational vehicle parks and trailer parks Function Dissemination Dissemination Producing, dissemination Producing, dissemination Producing, dissemination Producing, dissemination Producing, dissemination Education/training Dissemination Dissemination Dissemination Dissemination Dissemination 73220 96520 96512 96610 96910 96990 92912 85511 85511 63110, 63191, 63192, 63193, 63194, 63195, 63120 CPC 2
2. Expanded: Gambling and Toys
ISIC 4 3240 3012 4764 9200 Description Manufacture of games and toys Building of pleasure and sporting boats Retail sale of games and toys in specialized stores Gambling and betting activities Function Producing Producing Producing Dissemination CPC 2 38510 38410, 38420, 38430, 38440 96921, 96929
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3. Using the International Standard Classification of Occupations The codes used in this section are taken from the draft ISCO 08 (to be published in 2008). A. Cultural and Natural Heritage
1. Core: Museums/Built Heritage, Libraries, Archives, Natural Heritage
Function Creation Producing Dissemination Exhibition/reception 5154 Archiving/preserving 2133 2621 2622 4141 Education/training
1 2 3 4
ISCO 08 1 2632 1120 1431 3443 1346
Description Sociologists, anthropologists and related professionals Managing directors and chief executives Sports, recreation and cultural centre managers Gallery, library and museum technicians Other professional services managers: library manager, museum manager, archives manager Pet groomers and animal care workers: It includes zookeeper Environmental protection professionals Archivists and curators Librarians and related information professionals Library and filing clerks
ISCO 88 2442 1210 1319 part New group 1319 part
2211 part 2431 2432 4141
Include archeologists and conservators. Include managers of cultural enterprises and institutions, and directors of museums. Include managers of art galleries or museums. Include professionals working in protected areas.
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B. Performance and Celebration
1. Core: Performing Arts, Music , Celebratory Cultural Events (festivals, fairs, feasts, etc.)
Function Creation ISCO 08 2659 Description Creative and performing artists not elsewhere classified: Other live performers (music hall artists, ventriloquists, bull fighters, tap dancers etc.); community arts worker, clowns, magicians and related workers Dancers and choreographers Musicians, singers and composers Beauticians and related workers: make-up artists Hairdressers: wig dressers Other professional services managers: Performing arts and festival managers ISCO 88 3474
Exhibition/reception Dissemination Archiving/preserving Education/training
2653 2652 5142 5141 1346
2454 - 3473, part 2453, 3473, part 5141 part 5141 part 1319 part
2353 2354 2355 2310 2320 2330 2340
Other language teachers Other music teachers Other arts teachers University and higher education teachers in music Vocational education teachers in music Secondary education teachers in music Primary school teachers in music
2359, part 2359, part 2359, part 2310, 2320 2320 2331, 3310
ISCO 08 7312
Description Musical instrument makers and tuners
ISCO 88 7312
Music is problematic in that it logically spans the 'Audio-visual' domain as well as 'Performance and Celebration'. Activities related to recorded music are mostly included in this category. However, activities such as the distributive activities of wholesale and retail are included within the 'Audio-visual' domain when these codes combine audio, video and broadcast activities
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C. Visual Arts, Crafts and Design
1. Core: Fine Arts, Crafts, Design
Function Creation ISCO 08 2163 2166 2651 3442 3118 7314 7315 7316 7317 7318 7319 7522 7531 7532 7533 7113 7115 7313 7534 7535 7536 1346 Description Product and garment designers Graphic and multimedia designers Visual artists Interior designers and decorators Draughtspersons Potters and related workers (handicraft workers) Glass makers, cutters, grinders and finishers (handicraft workers) Sign writers, decorative painters, engravers and etchers (handicraft workers) Handicraft workers in wood, basketry and related materials Handicraft workers in textile, leather and related materials Handicraft workers not elsewhere classified Cabinet-makers and related workers (handicraft workers) Tailors, dressmakers, furriers and hatters Textile, leather and related pattern-makers and cutters Sewers, embroiderers and related workers Stonemasons, stone cutters, splitters and carvers (handicraft workers) Carpenters and joiners (handicraft workers) Jewellery and precious-metal workers Upholsterers and related workers (handicraft workers) Pelt dressers, tanners and fellmongers (handicraft workers) Shoemakers and related workers (handicraft workers) Other professional services managers: art gallery manager ISCO 88 3471 3471 part 2452 3471, part 3118 7321 7322 7323, 7324 7331, 7431, 7432 7332 7221, part 7422 7433, 7434 7435 7436 7113, 7122, part 7124 7313 7437 7441 7442 1319 part
Dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
2310 2320 2330 2340 2355
University and higher education teachers in visual arts Vocational education teachers in visual arts Secondary education teachers in visual arts Primary school teachers in visual arts Other arts teachers in visual arts
2310, 2320 2320 2331, 3310 2359, part
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2. Expanded: Architecture, Advertising, Material
Function Creation ISCO 08 2161 2162 2164 2165 7322 7521 1222 2431 Description Building architects Landscape architects Town and traffic planners Cartographers and surveyors Printers: Silk-screen, block and textile printers (handicraft workers) Wood treaters Advertising and public relations managers Advertising and marketing professionals ISCO 88 2141, part 2141, part 2141, part
7346, 8161 7421 1234, 1317 part 2419, part
Producing Dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
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D. Books and Press
1. Core: Book Publishing, Press and Magazine Publishing
Function Creation Producing, dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training ISCO 08 2641 2646 Description Authors and related writers Journalists ISCO 88 2451 2451
Function Creation Producing ISCO 08 7341 7322 7343 Dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training Description Pre-press technicians (includes: compositors, typesetters and related workers, printing engravers and etchers) Printers Print finishing and binding workers ISCO 88 7341, 7342, 7343 7346, 8161 7345, 8162
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E. Audio-visual and Digital Media
1. Core: Broadcasting, Film and Video, Photography, Interactive Media
Function Creation Producing ISCO 08 3441 2654 2655 3449 2656 Description Photographers Film, stage and related directors and producers Film, stage and related actors Artistic associate professionals not elsewhere classified: Includes script-girl/boy, prompter, stage manager Announcers on radio, television and other media ISCO 88 3131, part 2455, part - 1229, part 2455, part 3449 3472
Dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
University and higher education teachers in audio-visual and multimedia Vocational education teachers in audio-visual and multimedia
2310, 2320 2310, 2320
Function Creation Producing Dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training ISCO 08 8132 3521 Description Photographic products machine operators Broadcasting and sound and vision recording technicians ISCO 88 7344, 8224 3131, part 3132
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F. Sports, Leisure and Tourism
1. Core: Sport and Recreation, Physical Well-being, Visitor Attractions
Function Creation Producing Dissemination 3441 1432 4221 5111 5113 Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training 3442 3443 Sports coaches, instructors and officials Fitness and recreation instructors and program leaders 3475, part 3475, part Athletes and sports players Sports, recreation and cultural centre managers Travel agency and related clerks Travel attendants and travel stewards Travel guides 3475 part 1319 part 4221 ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
2. Expanded: Gambling and Toys
Function Creation Producing Dissemination ISCO 08 Description ISCO 88
Bookmakers, croupiers and related gambling workers Pawnbrokers and money-lenders
Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
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Intangible Heritage ISCO is the only classification that could allow some assessment of the number of occupations related to traditional knowledge. The following codes have been identified as pertinent for this domain but further work is required for the identification of these professions such as the integration of some craft professions.
Function Creation Producing ISCO 08 1113 2636 5169 2230 3230 3422 Description Traditional chiefs and heads of village Religious professionals Personal services workers not elsewhere classified: Faith healers Traditional and complementary medicine professionals Traditional and complementary medicine associate professionals Religious associate professionals ISCO 88 1130 2460 3242 3241, 3229 part
Dissemination Exhibition/reception Archiving/preserving Education/training
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