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Microbiology Industrial Report on Dairy Industry and Sewage Plant.

Microbiology Industrial Report on Dairy Industry and Sewage Plant.

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Published by Jewan Gurung

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Published by: Jewan Gurung on May 06, 2010
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Mandya, Mysore


Karnataka Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Limited (KMF) is the Apex Body in Karnataka Representing Dairy Farmers Co-operatives. It is the third largest dairy co-operative amongst the dairy cooperatives in the country. In South India it stands first in terms of procurement as well as sales. One of the core functions of the Federations is marketing in milk and milks products. The brand is the household name for pure and fresh milk and milk products.

KMF has 13 milk Unions throughout the state which procure milk from primary Dairy Cooperative Societies (DCS) and distribute milk to the consumers in various towns/cities/rural markets in Karnataka. MANDYA DISTRICT CO-OPERATIVE MILK PRODUCERS SOCIETIES UNION LIMITED Established in 1987 with its headquarters at Gejjalagere, Mandya the Union has got liquid milk plant of 2 lakh litres capacity and a Powder Plant of 10 MTs per day. The District is under Cauvery basin, perennial greens are available to the cattle, the cattle management by the women farmers is highly organized, coupled with existence of good number of crossbreed milch animals with lactation periods. The union has 3 chilling centre s at K.R. Pet and Nagamangala with total chilling capacity of 0.40 lakh litres per day. The Union procures on an average 3.09 Lakh kgs. Per day and sells 1.35 lakh litres per day. There are 116 bulk milk coolers, 10 automatic milk collections in the union. The union also sells milk in parts of Bangalore City.


Milk is nature s ideal food for infants and growing children in our country, except in rare cases of lactose intolerance. The important place milk occupies in our diet has been recognized since Vedic times, and all modern research has only supported and reinforced this view. In fact, milk is now considered not only desirable but essential from the time the child is born. The baby is recommended to be breast-fed until it is weaned and thereafter given cow/buffalo/goat/sheep or similar domesticated mammals milk till he/she reaches 12 years of age. The National Institute of Nutrition has recommended a minimum of 300 gms daily intake of milk for children between 1-3 years of age and 250 gms for those between 10-12 years, if they are vegetarian and 250 gms and 200 gms for the same age groups of non-vegetarian children. In our country, most such adults consume milk only as whiteners for tea and coffee. Some dahi or buttermilk. Milk may be defined as the whole, fresh, clean, lacteal secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy milch animals, excluding that obtained that obtained within 15 days before of 5 days after calving or such periods as may be necessary to render to milk practically colostrums-free and containing the minimum prescribed percentages of milk fat and milk solids-not-fats. In india, the term `milk when qualified refers to cow or buffalo milk or a combination of the two.


SL. NO. 1. 2. SPECIES Cow Buffalo WATER 86.6 84.2 FAT 4.6 6.6 PROTEIN 3.4 3.9 LACTOSE 4.9 5.2

All These Occur Naturally in Milk Fat Protein Carbohydrate Potassium Calcium Vitamin A Zinc Vitamin B-6 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Selenium Iodine Magnesium Vitamin B-12 Niaoin Riboflavin Thiamin Chloride Sodium Iron Folic acid Vitamin C Phosphorus 15.5gm 18gm 25gm 881gm 693mg 135µg 2.3mg 0.35mg 1.9mg 11.7µg 6mg 88mg 6.5mg 2.3µg 5.1mg 1.1mg 0.2mg 587mg 323mg 0.3µg 35µg 6mg 558mg

Food and Nutritive Value of Milk:
Milk is and almost ideal food. It has high nutritive value. It supplies body-building proteins, boneforming minerals and health-giving vitamins and furnishes energy-giving lactose and milk fat. Besides supplying certain essential fatty acids, it contains the above nutrients in an easily digestible and assimilable form. All the properties make milk important food for pregnant mothers, growing children, adolescents, adults, invalids, convalescents and patients alike.

Milk proteins are complete proteins of high quality, i.e they contain all the essential amino-acids in fairly large quantities.


Practically all the mineral elements found in milk are essential for nutrition. Milk is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorus, both of which together with vitamin D, are essential for bone formation.

These are accessory food factors which are essential for normal growth, health and the reproduction of living organisms. Milk is a good source of vitamin A(provided the cow is fed sufficient green feed and fodder). Vitamin D (provided the cow is exposed to enough sunlight). Thiamine,riboflavin, etc.

Fat (Ghee)
Milk fat (lipid) plays a significant role in the nutritive value, flavor and physical properties of milk and milk products. Besides serving as a rich source of energy, fat contains significant amounts of socalled essential fatty acids (linoleic and arachidonic). The most distinctive role which milk fat plays in dairy products concerns flavor. The rich pleasing flavor of milk lipids is not duplicated by any other type of fat. Milk fat imparts a soft body, smooth texture and rich taste to dairy products. Lastly, milk lipids undoubtedly enhance the consumer acceptability of foods; they also serve the best interests of human nutrition through the incentive of eating what taste good.

The principal function of lactose (carbohydrate) is to supply energy. However, lactose also helps to establish a mildly acidic reaction in the intestine (which checks the growth of proteolyitc bacteria) and facilitates assimilation.

Energy value
The energy-giving milk constituents and their individual contributions are as follows: Milk fat Milk protein Milk sugar 9.3 C/g 4.1 C/g 4.1 C/g

Where 1 C (Food Calorie)= 1000 c(small calorie).

Note: The energy value of milk will vary with its composition. On an average, cow milk furnishes 75/100 g and buffalo milk 100C/100g.


Liquid Milk Processing Plant SSP offers milk processing plant for minimum milk handling capacity 5000 liters per day the maximum milk handling capacity 500,000 liters per day. Wide range of products likes ghee, butter, cream toned milk, double toned milk and skimmed milk can also be manufactured. Milk is first received in a dump tank from the milk tankers. It is then chilled in a chilling unit to this chilled milk is then pasteurized in a milk pasteurizer and cram is separated from milk in the cram separator to get skimmed milk. Milk is standardized depending on the requirement of milk, double toned milk, skimmed milk or full cream milk. The separated cream is further processed to manufacture ghee and butter. The pasteurized skimmed milk, toned milk or double toned milk is sent for packing in pouches in the machine for various capacities like ½ kg, 1 kg pouches. The plant will be in operation for 20 hours in a day.

Product Specification Fat (min) Double Toned Milk Toned Milk Full Cream Milk Skimming Milk 1.5% 3.0% 6.0% Max 0.5% SNF 9.0% 8.5% 8.5% 9.0%

The knowledge gained from experience and process technology available, SSP extends to all kind of consumers milk products, whether they are manufactured by way of traditional processing techniques or by more sophisticated ones such as Evaporating, Spraying Drying and Fluidized Bed Drying.

Milk Products Pasteurized Milk Cultured milk Butter Milk shake powder Baby food Ice cream milk powder Sterilized Milk Chocolate milk Sweetened condensed milk Malted milk Skim milk powder yoghurt Flavored milk Cream Ghee Whole milk powder Whey powder


Different Products OF Nandini Milk


Flavored Milk
Flavored milk is a sweetened dairy drink made with milk, sugar, colorings and artificial or natural flavorings. Flavored milk is often pasteurized using ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment, which gives it a longer shelf-life than plain milk. Pre-mixed flavored milk is sold in the refrigerated dairy case alongside other milk products. Flavored sweetened powders or syrups which are added to plain milk, such Nesquik are also available. Banana strawberry, caramel and lime are the most common flavor that are produced.

Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion ( called whey). Milk that has been left to sour (raw milk alone or pasteurized milk with added lactic acid bacteria) will also naturally produce curds, and sour milk cheese is produced this way. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses or `curds . The rest which contains only whey proteins is the whey. In cow s milk, 80% of the proteins are caseins. Curd products vary by region and include cottage cheese, quark (both curdled by bacteria and sometimes also re nnet) and paneer (curdled with lemon juice). The word can also refer to a non-dairy substance of similar appearance or consistency, though in these cases a modifier or the word curdled is generally used (e.g. bean curd lemon curd or curdled eggs).

Yoghurt or Yogurt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Fermentation of the milk sugar (lactose) produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Soy yoghurt, a dairy alternative is made from soy milk.

Yoghurt is made by introducing specific bacteria strains into milk, which is subsequently fermented under controlled temperatures and environmental conditions (inside a bioreactor), especially in industrial production. The bacteria ingest natural milk sugars and release lactic acid as a waste product. The increased acidity causes milk proteins to tangle into a solid mass (curd) in a process called denaturation. The increased acidity (pH=4-5) also prevents the proliferation of potentially pathogenic bacteria. In the U.S. to be named yoghurt, the product must contain the bacteria strains Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Often these two are co-cultured with other lactic acid bacteria for taste or health effects (see probiotics). 8

These include L. acidophilus, L. casei and Bifidobacterium species. In most countries, a product may be called yoghurt only if live bacteria are present in the final product. In the U.S. non-pasteurized yoghurt can be marketed as live or containing live active culture . A small amount of live yoghurt can be used to inoculate a new batch of yoghurt, as the bacteria, as the bacteria reproduce and multiply during fermentation. Pasteurized products, which have no living bacteria, are called fermented milk (drink).

Ghee is the clear butter fat without the lactose and other milk solutes.it isa a class of clarified butter. Ghee is made by simmering unsalted butter in a large pot until all water has boiled off and protein has settled to the bottom. The clarified butter is then spooned off to avoid disturbing the milk solids on the bottom of the pan. Unlike butter, ghee can be stored for extended period without refrigeration provided it is kept in an air tight container.

Butter Milk
Butter milk is a fermented dairy product produced from cow s milk with a characteristically sour taste, The product from cream. Today, this is called traditional buttermilk. Buttermilk also refers to cultured buttermilk, a product where lactic acid bacteria have been added to milk. Whether traditional or cultured, the tartness of buttermilk is due to the presence of acid in the milk. The increased acidity is primarily due to lactic acid. A byproduct naturally produced by lactic acid bacteria while fermenting lactose. The primary sugar found in milk precipitates causing the curdling or clabbering of milk. This process makes buttermilk thicker than plain milk. While both traditional and cultured buttermilk contains lactic acid. Traditional buttermilk tends to be thinner whereas cultured buttermilk is much thicker.

Production process
The fermentation that takes place in traditional buttermilk is accomplished by wild strains of lactic acid bacteria acquired from the environment. Traditionally before cream was skimmed from whole milk, it was left to sit for a period of time to allow the cream and milk to separate. During this time the milk would naturally by fermented by the lactic acid bacteria in the milk. One reason this was done was to facilitate the butter churning process since cream with a lower pH will congeal more readily that fresh cream. The acidic environment helped prevent potentially harmful microorganisms from growing, thus the soured liquid helped increase the shelf-life of the product. 9

Commercially available cultured buttermilk is pasteurized and homogenized milk which has been inoculated with a culture of lactic acid bacteria to simulate the naturally occurring bacteria found in the old-fashioned product. Some dairies add colored flecks of butter to cultured buttermilk to simulate the residual pieces of butter that can be left over from the churning process of traditional buttermilk. Today, traditional buttermilk is rarely found. Adding specific strains of bacteria to pasteurized milk has allowed for more consistend production.

Production of Milk in Dairy Industry

The efficient production of milk under good hygienic conditions is the key to successful dairying. The principal constrains in small holder systems are inadequate feeding, low genetic potential in animals and high levels of bacterial contamination leading to spoilage before reaching the market. The first step is to produce good quality milk from healthy animals. Advice and assistance must be given on clean milk production as this is essential for successful collection and marketing. The containers used must be suitable for the effective cleaning and sanitizing. The emphasis in this page is mainly on production of clean milk through hygienic practices at milking. These include; udder inspection. Cleaning and stimulation of flow, effective milking by hand (or machine for larger herds) into properly sanitized containers for home consumption or sale and organized transport of surpluses of point of sale or processing, collection and transport must be of short duration to minimize spoilage.


Collection of Milk in Dairy Industry

Most of the milk in developing countries is produced by small holders with less than 5 animals. Their production units are widely dispersed in rural areas while most markets are in urban areas. The logistical challenge of linking these producers with the markets is compounded by the highly perishable nature of milk and its potential to transmit zoonotic diseases. Because of the highly perishable nature of milk, the need for good hygienic practices and streamlined collection and transport is critical. Collection systems vary according to the prevailing conditions and the first step might be a simple collection point with shade provided to minimize temperature rise. Experience has shown that organization of producers groups can facilitate improved milk collection and transportation because the transport by individual producers, of small quantities is not viable. Agreement must be reached on procedures for paying individual producers and ensuring that the quality of the bulk milk is not jeopardized by consignments that have deteriorated or have been adulterated. Information regarding milk producer organization can be also found in Milk Producers Organization Page. Other key factors of successful milk collection include hygienic milk handling, preventing spoilage and milk quality control.


Preserving Quality of Milk in Dairy Industry

Milk as it emerges from a healthy udder contains very few bacteria and in addition the natural inhibitory systems in milk prevent significant rises in counts for the first 3 or 4 hours at ambient temperatures. Cooling within this period to 4 °C, maintains the original quality of milk and this is the method of choice for ensuring good quality milk for processing and consumption. This approach is not always feasible in developing countries and a number of options have to be considered to lower temperature and/or retard growth of spoilage organisms. Partial immersion of milk containers in streams may be an option in some mountainous areas. Evaporative cooling by placing a moist cloth over the metal milk container may also help to reduce temperature. Solar powered cooling systems and charcoal coolers, using evaporation from porous charcoal in an outer ring surrounding the milk container, have met with limited success.

Processing of Milk in Dairy Industry
Primary objective of processing milk is to extend shelf life and eliminate the risk of pathogens. Heat treatment is the most common processing technique and pasteurization destroys the most heat resistant pathogen, M. tuberculosis. Other techniques such as fermentation, cheese making, concentration and dehydration, usually incorporate a heat treatment step. The choice of process is influenced by local cultures and traditions and scale of operation. In South East Asia, milk sweets and curds account for a significant percentage of milk usage while cheese making is the preferred method in Latin America. In dairy exporting countries, large scale drying and cheese making operations predominate. Most of the milk processed in developing countries is handled in small scale processing units and the AGA programme provides advice and assistance in small scale processing technologies for liquid milk and traditional milk products from a range of animal species in the different regions.


Packaging of milk in plastic bags.

An alternative, low cost milking-pasteursing-packaging system called the Village Milk System , has been successfully introduced in a number of countries, in pouch processing eliminates the risk of post pasteurization contamination and gives long shelf life. Adding value is another very important aspect of milk processing. It contributes to increasing farmer s income and food security in rural community and marketing.




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Butter Production: An Important Unit of Nandini
Butter is essentially the fat of the milk. It is usually made from sweet cream and is salted. However, it can also be made from acidulated of bacteriological soured cream and salt less (sweet) butters are also available. Well into the 19th century butter was still made from cream that had been allowed to stand and sour naturally. The cream was then skimmed from the top of the milk and poured into a wooden tub. Butter making was done by hand in butter churns. The natural souring process is, however, a very sensitive one and infection by foreign micro-organisms often spoiled the result. Today s commercial butter making is a product of the knowledge and experience gained over the years in such matters as hygiene, bacterial acidifying and heat treatment, as well as the rapid technical development that has led to the advanced machinery now used. The commercial cream separator was introduced at the end of the 19th century; the continuous churn had been commercialized by the middle of the 20th century. The butter making process involves quite a number of stages. The continuous butter maker has become the most common type of equipment used. The cream can be either supplied by a fluid milk dairy or separated from whole milk by the butter manufacturer. The cream should be sweet (pH>6.6, TA=0.10-0.12%), not rancid and not oxidized.

If the cream is separated by the butter manufacturer, the whole milk is preheated to the required temperature in a milk pasteurizer before being passed through a separator. The cream is cooled and led to a storage tank where the fat content is analyzed and adjusted to the desired value, if necessary. The skim milk from the separator is pasteurized and cooled before being pumped to storage. It is usually destined for concentration and drying. From the intermediate storage tanks, the cream goes to pasteurization at a temperature of 95°C or more. The high temperature is needed to destroy enzymes and micro-organisms that would impair the keeping quality of the butter. If ripening is desired for the production of cultured butter, mixed cultures of S. cremoris, S lactis diacetyl lactis, Leuconostocs, are used and the cream is ripened to pH 5.5 at 21°C and then pH 4.6 at 13°C. Most flavor development occurs between pH 5.5-4.6, the colder the temperature during ripening the more the flavor development relative to acid production. Ripened butter is usually not washed or salted. In the aging tank, the cream is subjected to a program of controlled cooling designed to give the fat the required crystalline structure. The program is chosen to accord with factors such as the composition of the butter fat, expressed, for example, in terms of the iodine value which is a measure of the unsaturated fat content. The treatment can even be modified to obtain butter with good consistency despite a low iodine value, i.e, when the unsaturated proportion of the fat is low. As a rule, ageing takes 12-15 hours. From the aging tank, the cream is pumped to the churn or continuous butter maker via a plate heat exchanger which brings it to the requisite temperature in 15

the churning process the cream is violently agitated to break down the fat globules, causing the fat to coagulate into butter grains, while the fat content of the remaining liquid, the buttermilk, decrease. Thus the cream is split into two fractions: butter grains and buttermilk. In traditional churning, the machine stops when the grains have reached a certain size, whereupon the buttermilk is drained off. With the continuous butter maker the draining of the buttermilk is also continuous. After draining, the butter is worked to a continuous fat phase containing a finely dispersed water phase. It used to be common practice to wash the butter after churning to remove any residual buttermilk and milk solids but this is rarely done today. Salt is used to improve the flavor and the shelf-life, as it acts as a preservative. In the butter is to be salted, salt (1-3%) is spread over its surface, in the case of batch production. In the continuous buttermaker, a salt slurry is added to the butter. The salt is all dissolved in the aqueous phase, so the effective salt concentration is approximately 10% in the water. After salting, the butter must be worked vigorously to ensure even distribution of the salt. The working of the butter also influences the characteristics by which the product is judged; aroma, taste, keeping quality, appearance and colour. Working is required to obtain a homogenous blend of butter granules, water and salt. During working, fat moves from globular to free fat. Water droplets decrease in size during working and should not be visible in properly worked butter. Overworked butter will be too brittle or greasy depending on whether the fat is hard or soft. Some water may be added to standardize the moisture content. Precise control of composition is essential for maximum yield.




YELAHANKA TERTIARY TREATMENT PLANT A 10 MLD Tertiary & Treatment plant with recycling facilities at an estimated cost of Rs.400 Crores. With funding support from KUIDFC/HUDCO under Megacity scheme and through Indo-French protocol has been commissioned in may 2003. Recycled water is proposed to be supplied to ITC, Wheel and Axel Plant and the proposed International Air-Port at Devanahalli. YELAHANKA WASTE WATER RECYCLING PLANT Bangalore City gets its portable water from Cauvery River source, located more than 100 kms from the city. With exorbitantly high energy costs, involved in pumping of water, recycling and reuse of waste water becomes absolutely imperative. In addition, the extremely finite source of raw water prompted BWSSB to undertake a major step towards recycling of waster water on a scale, not seen in the country hitherto. Of the two Tertiary Treatment Plants (TTPs), planned and executed by BWSSB, the 10 million-liter per day (MLD) capacity plant at Yelankha, is ready for commissioning.

TERTIARY TREATMENT PROCESS The Yelahanka Treatment Plant, designed and constructed at a total cost of Rs. 24 crores, partially funded under the Indo-French Protocol has three stages, viz., primary treatment, secondary treatment and tertiary treatment. The waste water collected from areas in Yelahanka is initially screened and grits and grease are removed in the primary stage. In the secondary stage, through biological treatments, bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Suspended Solids are reduced in three linear phases, viz., primary settling, activated sludge and through secondary clarifiers respectively. A large chunk of biodegradable matter in waste water is absorbed and broken down by bacteria in activated sludge process. To enhance the removal of suspended solids, aluminum sulphate is used to coagulate secondary treated water on the filter media. Finally, to remove the fine suspended solids, tertiary filtration has been adopted for the first time in the country on a large scale. Filtration is the most important treatment of the plant, in the final phase for removal of suspended solids. The filter layer, comprising sand and gravel has been designed in such a way that maximum efficiency is achieved in the filtration process. A very unique feature in this tertiary treatment plant is that chlorination of the treated effluent is carried out by saturation of treated water with chlorine followed by injection of the saturated solution in to the effluent. A minimum chlorine contact time of 45 minutes is ensured. Finally, the chlorinated recycled water is pumped through a pipeline to the end users.


TREATMENT OF SLUDGE The sludge treatment comprising thickeners, which thicken primary and biological sludge, continuously operate after dewatering. The dewatered sludge undergoes lime dosing before final disposal. Quality of influent Wastewater and Tertiary Treated Waste water characteristics: Parameter Raw Wastewater BOD5 COD 380 mg/l 800 mg/l <5mg/l <2 NTU 6.8- 7.5 7-8 <25 MPN / 100ml 2.2-23 MPN / 100 ml. Treated wastewater <5mg/l

Suspended 480 mg/l solids Turbidity pH Fecal coliform Colifrom index PROCESS CONTROL AND SUPERVISION

The entire plant is well equipped with a well-proven PLC (Programmable Logic Control) hardware and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) software. There are two SCADA workstations linked to the PLCs through LAN (Local Area Network). The SCADA software covers various process instrumentations, controls, graphics, communication, even and interval timer, programmable counters, alarm management, report generation, dynamic trending date base interface etc. The large screen active mimic display allows online process monitoring, which is a State-of-the-Art technology. SUPPLY OF TREATED WATER TO THE PROPOSED NEW INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT: A 300 mm dia Ductile Iron pipe line has laid to the proposed New International Airport at Devanahalli to meet the non-potable water requirement of the Airport. The pipeline also caters to the requirements of some of the industries en-route. Total cost of the Sewage Treatment Plant is around Rs.24 crores and the pipeline cost is of the order of Rs.8.5 crores


Trickling filter system is a simple, film flow aerobic sewage treatment system; the sewage is distributed over a porous bed coated with bacterial growth that mineralizes the dissolved organic nutrients. The trickling filter has a bed of crushed stone and gravel of about 8-12 feet deep. The mechanism is described as a pile of rocks over which sewage water slowly percolates (trickles). The sewage water is intermittently sprayed over the surface of the bed by revolving sprinklers. The spraying saturates the liquid with oxygen. Intermittent spraying maintains a flow of a layer of water followed by a layer of air. This keeps up the aerobic condition of the bed. The filtering bed becomes coated with film of aerobic, oxidative microorganisms known as Zoogloea ramlgera and similar slime forming bacteria. The slime matrix thus generated accommodates a heterogenous microbial community, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and rotifers. The most frequently found bacteria are Begglatoa alba, Sphearotilus natans, Achromobacter spp. Flavobacterium spp. Pseudomonas spp and Zooglea spp. This microbial community absorbs and mineralizes the organic substances is the sewage reducing the BOD of the effluent. This will be carried out as the water slowly moves down the bed. A clear effluent is collected at the bottom of the bed. The main drawback of this sewage treatment system is that a nutrient overload produces excess microbial slime, which reduces aeration and percolation rates. This necessitates the periodic renewal of the filter bed. Also, cold winter temperatures strongly reduce the effectiveness of such outdoor treatment facilities.


Tickling Filter

This is a very widely used aerobic liquid waste treatment system. After primary setting, the sewage containing dissolved organic compounds is introduced into a aeration tank. Air injection or mechanical stirring provides the aeration. The rapid development of microorganisms is also stimulated by reintroduction of most of the settled sludge from a previous run, and the process derives its name from this inoculation with activated sludge. This activated sludge contaings large number of actively metabolizing bacteria, yeasts, mold and protozoa. These microorganisms effectively oxidize the organic compounds in the sewage. The aeration period required is 4-8 hours.

Then the fluid is passed to a settling tank. The settled activated sludge is pumped into the digestion chamber where anaerobic decomposition takes place. Organic compounds are converted into soluble substances and gases such a methane and carbon dioxide and remaining acids are used as manure.


TERTIARY TREATMENT (Chemical treatment)
Tertiary treatment, defined as any practice beyond a secondary one is designed to remove non biodegradable organic pollutants and mineral nutrients. The removal of toxic is biodegradable organic pollutants, such as chlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other synthetic pollutions is necessary to reduce the toxicity of the sewage effluent to acceptable levels. Activated carbon filters are normally used in the removal of these materials from secondary treated industrial effluents. Reverse osmosis is one way of eliminating organic and inorganic, but there are problems with this procedure because of microbial fouling of the gases. Break point chlorination an alternative procedure for removing ammonia. The addition hypochlorous acid (HOCL) in a 1:1 molar ratio results is the formation of monochloramine (NH2Cl) and further addition of HOCL to an approximate ratio of 2:1 results is nearly complete oxidation of ammonia to molecular nitrogen. As chlorination of the sewage effluent is commonly practiced for disinfection purposes, chlorination to this `break point can be accomplished in the same process. The removal of ammonium nitrogen also lowers the BOD of the effluent because ammonia undergoes nitrification in waters receiving the sewage effluent, which consumes oxygen dissolved in the receiving water. After this process water is placed back into circulation and made available to consumer.


The Bangalore Water Supply And Sewerage Board (BWSSB) is committed to providing drinking water of unquestionable quality in sufficient quantity and to treat the sewage generated to the required parameters. As the leader in providing water and sanitation services, BWSSB is recognized as an effective instrument of change through adopting state-of-the-art technologies for improving the quality of its services to the general public. Bangalore is one of the few cities in India, where;
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Filtered water is supplied to the city for over 100 years. Major source of water ,River Cauvery is situated at a distance of 100 Kms Water is pumped against a head of 510 mtrs from the source in 3 stages Equitable water distribution is maintained. Cent percent metering of water connections is achieved.

Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka is a major industrial and commercial centre.It is the fastest growing cosmopolitan city in India. Bangalore is home for most fast growing industries and has a large number of multinationals companies.It is called the Silicon Valley of India. There are many trees well laid parks, gardens and the overall greenery makes it the Garden City. Salubrious Climate of the city throughout the year has attracted many retired people, giving it the title-"Pensioners Paradise".

Why Save Water
As Bangalore's population and area grows, more and more people are sharing the same water resources. As a result, conserving water is becoming increasingly important. Saving water is one of the most effective ways to make the best use of our existing water resources and help protect the environment. It also saves money. Across Bangalore, daily we use enough water around our homes enough to cater every one's requirement in few more new layouts. With a little effort, we can all ease the load on our existing water supplies and resources while saving money at the same time. Saving water is also important for reducing the pressure on our sewerage treatment systems and waterways. Every day BWSSB treats up to approximately 418 million litres of wastewater or sewage (This include 60 MLD +10 MLD tertiary treatment capacity). That is the wastewater that comes from sinks, showers, toilets, and backyard drains is almost equal to three stages of Cauvery projects. This wastewater is treated at one of 6 sewerage treatment plants. Treated wastewater is then discharged to waterways, or recycled for re-use as bio-solids. 23

How To Save Water In House
Tips to Conserve water in Bathroom Don't run water when washing the dishes ,Brushing your teeth, washing your hands or face or shaving or brushing. Close taps tightly Replace damaged/leakage pipes,Taps valves to avoid overflow and wastage A leaking toilet can waste upto 16,000 litres of water per year

Tips to Conserve water in Kitchen Wash Vegetables in a bowl of water, washing the cleanest ones first. use this water for your plants.

Tips to Conserve water while Washing Wash vechicles with a bucket and sponge instead of hose, which uses 400 liter of water. By using a bucket upto 300 liters can be saved. While buying a new washing machine, choose one that is water efficient. you could save a substantial amount of water, as well as money,over the life of the machine. Most washing machines have a load adjustment button or dial, so try to set this to match the amount of washing you're doing. If your machine doesn't have a load adjustment function, try to wait until you have enough washing for a full load. Tips to Conserve In Garden Choose plants that are native to area you live or drought resistant plants for landscaping and gardens Water lawns and gardens during the coolest part of the day

Collect rainwater in large tubs of cans and use it to water plants. Avoid using pesticides,herbicides and fungicides in the garden for they seep into the garden and pollute ground water.


Other Few Common Tips
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Fix leaking taps,Pipes etc., immediately and check regulary for leaks Never put Water down the drain when there may be another use for it for watering a plant or garden or cleaning Do not let your overhead tank overflow. Regulate the time. Never flush garbage down a toilet. It will ultimately end up in our water streams and river. Reuse water whenever possible. Use water responsibly. Do not fix pumps directly to the line. Do not branch off pipe before the meter point.

What BWSSB has done to conserve water?
Two major Tertiary Treatment Plants such as Yelahanka 10 MLD plant and Vrishabhavathi valley 60 MLD plant have been completed and commissioned to make available an total 70 MLD of Tertiary treated water for industries and non-domestic purpose at a very affordable rates. It will help to conserve 70 MLD of fresh portable water. BWSSB has started an project to reduce Leakage in the distribution system to a remarkable level, adopting international technologies in a pilot area, at a cost of Rs. 48 crores with JBIC funding assistance.The Project will be extended to entire Bangalore in the comming years at a total cost of Rs.400 crores.The water thus saved will be almost equal to a new Cauvery Project.This enables 7 day water supply and improve revenue flow by 20% - 30%.

The advent of urbanization and industrialization have led to rapid growth of the city, needing enormous growth of the city, needing enormous attention to the sewerage system to keep the environment free from pollution, Sanitation plays an important role. Similarly it is imperative that the sewerage system and the treatment of sewage to be completely safe, free from all pollutants and disease causing bacteria.


At present there are six sewage treatment plants1) Vrishabhavathi valley on Mysore Road 2) Koramangala Chellaghatta valley . 3) Hebbal STP. 4) Yelahanka water treatment plant at yelahanka 5) At Madivala 6) At Kempambudhi Lake

The Original treatment capacity of Vrishabhavathi plant 123 MLD until now the plant was treating the sewage to secondary standards only. This plant comprises two clarifiers, four digesters and twenty sludge drain beds. A laboratory is also attached to this treatment plant to test the effluents. The plant is expanded to 180 MLD capacity and is also upgraded to treat the sewage to secondary standards. The treatment process is trickling filter.

The existing capacity of the Koramangala and Chellaghatta valley sewage treatment plant is 163 MLD. The plant has been upgraded to treat the sewage to the secondary standards by activated sludge process. The plant consists of three primary clarifiers, three secondary clarifiers and four numbers of digestors and forty numbers of sludge drying beds. A lab is also attached. It is normally anticipated that 80% of water supplied is likely to flow back in the form of sewage into the sewerage system.


Million Litres per day
Sl No 1. 2. 3. Particulars Water supply Sewerage flow @ 80% of the water supply Treatment capacity of the primary sewage plant Existing Level 860 438 408 Standard Level 679 543 543

Bangalore is located on the water shed of two principal river basins, Arkavathi to the west and South Pennar to the East. The local topography is characterized by a series of well defined valleys which radiate from a ridge of High Ground to the north of the city and fall in a gradual manner towards wide belt of flat land extending beyond the limits of the metropolitan area to the South. The Three principal valleys are known as Vrishabhavathi, Koramangala and Chellaghatta and three valleys run generally in a north to the south direction and divide the greater part of the metropolitan area which lies to the south of the ridge into three separate and distinct drainage zones. A fourth valley system referred to as the Hebbal series forms drainage zone to the north of the ridge and runs in north easterly direction. Five minor valleys, the Kathriguppa and Tavarekere to the south, the Arkavathi and Kethamaranahally to the north west and Marathhally to the east, lie outside the tributary area of the major valleys and they drain independently to the fringe areas which form the remainder of the metropolitan area. The configuration of valleys in well graded side slope of their tributary areaS have provided Bangalore with a natural system of drainage without recourse to pumping. Both sewerage and storm water flow by gravity beyond the city. The system of sewers for the conveyance of domestic and industrial waste water through underground drainage system was introduced in the year 1922. The system introduced initially was confined to heavily populated area in the heart of the city and although a gradual extention took place then onwards it was not until 1950 that a major programme of sewer construction was commenced. With the formation of the Board (BWSSB) in 1964, the programme to provide Sewerage system in the unsewered areas was taken up in a phased manner and the treatment of sewage before it is led into the natural valleys was also tackled. 27

At present, Bangalore city has a well designed and regularly maintained underground sewerage system. Stoneware pipes are used upto 300 mm dia. sizes and RCC hume pipes varying in Dia. from 300 mm to 2100 mm for sub-mains/mains/outfall sewers. In order to facilitate easy cleaning in sewer lines whenever blockage occurs in sewer line , adequate number of manholes are provided at regular intervels. Manholes with cast iron frames and covers are provided in heavy traffic roads, on small lanes and cross roads with less traffic with RCC frames and covers for the manholes.



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