MATHS FORMULA SHEET

ALGEBRA
a ( b + c) = ab + ac

a
c
a
b
a
c b
± =
±


( )
2 2 2
2 b ab a b a + ± = ±
( )( )
2 2
b a b a b a ÷ = ÷ +

Binomial Expansion:

(a+b)
n
=a
n
+
n
C
1
a
n-1
b+
n
C
2
a
n-2
b
2
+ … +
n
C
r
a
n-r
b
r
+
…+b
n
Index Laws:

DEF: a
n
= a x a x a … n factors

a
n
x a
m
= a
n+m
a
n
÷ a
m
= a
n-m

(a
n
)
m
= a
nm

(ab)
n
= a
n
b
n

n
n
n
b
a
b
a
= |
.
|

\
|

Meanings: a
0
=1


p
a a
p
=
1


Logarithm Laws:

DEF: N x a N
a
x
log = · =

p
a a
a a a
a a a
N N p
M
N
M N
NM M N
log log
) ( log log log
) ( log log log
=
= ÷
= +


log
a
1 = 0
log
a
a

= 1

a
N
N
b
b
a
log
log
log =

LINEAR FUNCTIONS

y= mx + c gradient = m, c = y-intercept

y – y
1
= m(x – x
1
) gradient = m, Point= (x
1
,y
1
)
Gradient:
1 2
1 2
x x
y y
m
÷
÷
=
Parallel Lines: m
1
= m
2

Perpendicular Lines: m
1
. m
2
= -1

Distance:
2
1 2
2
1 2
) ( ) ( x x y y d ÷ + ÷ =
Mid-Point:
|
.
|

\
| + +
÷
2
,
2
2 1 2 1
y y x x
M

QUADRATICS:
General Form
y = ax
2
+ bx + c
x = 0 c = y-intercept
a
ac b b
x y
2
4
0
2
÷ ± ÷
= =
Axis of symmetry:
a
b
x
2
÷
=

Completed square form

y= a(x – h)
2
+ k
Turning Point; (h,k)


TRIGONOMETRY:

180 – θ θ
π – θ
S A

T C -ө
180+ θ 360-θ
π + θ 2π -θ


Radian / Degrees: π radians = 180
0


Graphing periodic functions:

y = a sin[b(x + c)] + d
y = a cos[b(x + c)] + d

Amplitude = a
Period =
b
t 2

Phase Shift = c +ve ← ; -ve →
Vertical Shift = d



Identities

u
u
u
cos
sin
tan =
u
u
cos
1
sec =

1 cos sin
2 2
= + u u
u
u
sin
1
cos = ec

u u u cos sin 2 ) 2 sin( =
u
u
tan
1
cot =
n
n
a
a
1
=
÷
M
a
r
k

R
i
l
e
y



s
2
7
5
7
7
2
9


Right-Triangles









All triangles ABC:

Sine rule:
) sin( ) sin( ) sin( C
c
B
b
A
a
= =

Cosine Rule:



) sin(
2
1
C ab Area =

FINANCE:

Compound Interest: FV=PV(1 + r)
n

Future Value Annuity: Present Value Annuity:

i
i
p FV
n
1 ) 1 ( ÷ +
=
i
i
p PV
n ÷
+ ÷
=
) 1 ( 1


CALCULUS:
DIFFERENTIATION
Definition:
h
x f h x f
dx
dy
h
) ( ) (
lim
0
÷ +
=
÷


Rules:
0 constant = =
dx
dy
y
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( x g B x f A
dx
dy
x Bg x Af y ' ± ' = ± =
Power
1

÷
= =
n n
nx
dx
dy
x y
| | | | ) ( ) ( ) (
1
x f x f n
dx
dy
x f y
n n
' = =
÷

Exponential
x x
e
dx
dy
e y = =
) (
) ( ) (
x f e
dx
dy
e y
x f x f
' = =


Logarithm
x dx
dy
x y
x
1
log = =
) (
) (
) ( log
x f
x f
dx
dy
x f y
x
'
= =
Sine
) cos(
dx
) sin( x
dy
x y = =
) ( )] ( cos[
dx
)] ( sin[ x f x f
dy
x f y ' × = =
Cosine
) sin( ) cos( x
dx
dy
x y ÷ = =
) ( )] ( sin[ )] ( cos[ x f x f
dx
dy
x f y ' × ÷ = =
Product Rule
v u v u
dx
dy
uv y ' + ' = =
Quotient Rule
2

v
v u v u
dx
dy
v
u
y
' ÷ '
= =

INTEGRATION

í
= = dx x f y x f
dx
dy
If ) ( then ) (
Power
1
1
1
÷ = +
+
=
í
+
n C
n
x
dx x
n
n

C
n
b ax
a
dx b ax
n
n
+
+
+
= +
+
í
) 1 (
) ( 1
) (
1

Exponential
í
+ = C e dx e
x x

C e
a
dx e
b ax b ax
+ =
+ +
í
1


C x dx
x
e
+ =
í
| | log
1

C b ax
a
dx
b ax
e
+ + =
+
í
| | log
1 1


Trigonometric
í
+ ÷ = C x dx x ) cos( ) sin(
í
+ + ÷ = + C b ax
a
dx b ax ) cos(
1
) sin(
í
+ = C x dx x ) sin( ) cos(
í
+ + = + C b ax
a
dx b ax ) sin(
1
) cos(
hypotneuse
opposite
A = sin
adjacent
opposite
A = tan
hypotenuse
adjacent
A . cos =
2 2 2
b a h
Pythagoras
+ =
) cos( 2
2 2 2
A bc c b a ÷ + =
bc
a c b
A
2
) cos(
2 2 2
÷ +
=

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