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.

:
Liver Function tests
-1
Kidney Function tests
-2
Diabetic Profile tests
- 3
-4 Lipid Profile tests
Pancreatic Profile tests
- 5
Cardiac Enzymes
-6
Electrolytes
-7
:

.
:
-1 Microlab 200 , Spinreact , Photometer 4010 , Photometer 5010
-2 Hitachi 912
.

:

End point method
-1

Kinetic method
-2

Tow point method
-3
.
-1 )(Liver Function Tests
:
-1
.
-2

AST
) (SGOT ALT
) (SGPT GGT
LDH
-3
) (ALP )
. (Bilirubin
40

: :
)( Total serum protein :

.
.

.
8 - 6 100 ) 80 - 60 / (.
)( Serum Albumin :
.
5.5 - 3.5 100 / ) 55 - 35 / ( .
:

. . . :
- . - . - . . - . .)( Serum Globulin :
:

.
3.6 - 2 100 / ) 36 - 20 / (.
:
- : -
- . :
- : -
- )( Fibrinogen:

.

.
0.6 - 0.2 100 / ) 6 - 2 / ( .
:
- : - -
:
- : -
- : ) (
:

) = (A/G ratio
41


=
) - + (
2 1

.
) ( A/G
.
: :
) (ALT/GPT ) (AST/GOT ) (.GT
.
:


)( ) (AST/GOT ) (ALT/GPT
.
) (GPT 45 / .
) (GOT 41 / .
.
) (GPT ) (GOT
) (GOT
.
" " 6 .
)( . ): ( .GT

) (ALP
30
:
25
50 .
-:
)( : :
)( )(ALP

" "
.
) (PH . 7
71 - 24
/ ) 30( 350
/.
42

:
. . . : -
)( Bilirubin :


) ID
( - BIL unconjugated )
"" " "

( ) ( D - BIL Conjugaetd .
) ( T- BIL
) 1.2 0.1 /. ( 19 - 3.5 /
) 0.25 /. ( 7 /.
Bilirubin Metabolism

:
intrahepatic gall bladder stones
.
tumor of the head of pancrease
43


:
hemolysis
anaemia
failure to uptake
failure to conjugate
Gilbert`s Syndrome
-:
" " .
" "
"
"
" " " "
.

) ( Ammonia
:
:

:


.
110 - 10 100 / ) 65 - 15 /(
) (Liver Bypass
) Portacaval
( Shunt ) (
.
) (Starvation

44

-3 Kidney Function Tests



:
) (1 ) : (Urea

. ) (NH3
.


.
40 - 20 100 / ) 7 - 3.5 / (
) Blood Urea Nitrogen ( BUN 25 - 8 100 /
) 8.9 - 0.9 / (
40 - 20 100 / 15 - 5
100 / 20 - 5 100 / .
:
- - - -
-
-
:
:



Hepatic Coma

Hemodialysis
.
Cachexia Malnutrition Starvation
:

.
:

.
) (2 Creatinine :

Anhydrous Creatine Phosphocreatine

24 .
1.5 - 0.5 100 ) 123 - 60 / (
1.5 24 /
45

1.0 24 /
.
:
. . 0.5 100 / .
) (3 :Creatinine Clearance Test
24
24 .
140 - 90 /
125 - 80 /

) Creatinine Clearance (c :

Uc Tv
24 60 Sc

= C


Uc
Tv 24
Sc
24
60
:
- Water Depletion - : 24 0
3
-:
0
24 0
)( 0
-: 24 1 ) ( 49 : 1
) (0
) (4 ) ( ) ( Uric Acid
Purine
Adinine .Guanine

.
7 - 3 100 .
6 - 2 .
% 80
.
46

700 - 300 24 /
) ( ) (
24
.
:
- Gout Eclampsia & Pre- Eclampsia - Leukaemia - Glycogen Storage Disease - Type 1 - Alcoholism : -
Allpurinol Probenicid .
:


-3 Diabetes Profile:
(Glucose):

120 70
10 8
150 120 100
)
(Physiological Hyperglycemia

.
) 18 12(
70 60 100
" " ) Physiological
.(Hypoglycemia


. .
:
* : .
* - . - .


.

) (
.
.

47

*

.
*
.
*
.

) (
) (. %20-15 . . . ) (
. . . . ) (


.
)(

.
.
) (
.

-1 ) : (Random Blood Glucose R.B.S

.
-2 ) ( F.B.S) : (Fasting Blood Glucose
8 6
110 70 100
120 130
3 .
-3 ) : (Post Prandial Sugar P.P.S
48

) 75 (

.
140 .
-4 ) : (Glucose Tolerance Test G.T.T
Glucose Tolerance Test
100 126 .

.
8 6
75 ) 1 ( 3
.
-:
) (
0

- 1 mg/dl 120
- 2 140mg/dl
- 3
)( ) (

-1 120mg/dl
-2 180mg/dl
) (
-3

-4
)
( ) (
-5 ) ( Glycosylated Hemoglobin HbA1C
)( ) (Haem
)( A1c
%10 - 5
) .(HbA1c
)
(HbA1c
120
%8 - 5
.
49

HBA1C )
( .6.5
-6 ) :(Fructosamine
20 - 15
.
) (Glycosylated Proteins
.
:

6 8
) (

.
.

:
100 ) 6.1 (

140 ) 7.8 (

126 ) 7 )


:
126 200 .

) ( 200 .
100 126 "
" .

.

40 50
.
.

8
.

.
.
50


-4 :

: Total Lipids



)
( )
(

.


) (Cholesterol
)(Triglyceride
) (Phospholipids
) (Acids Fatty
.
1000 - 450 100 /

.
) (1 " :"CHO



"" ) . (Bile Acids
) (Lipoproteins

.

)( .

:
- - - .
:
- - - -:
20 - 1
30 - 21
40 - 31
50 - 41
51

230 - 120
240 - 120
260 - 140
290 - 150

100 /
100 /
100 /
100 /


60 - 51


300 - 160 100 /

)( " : "TG
% 90 )) (Chylomicron
( % 10
) (Very Low Density Lipoprotein - VLDL
.

30 - 1
40 - 31
50 - 41
60 - 51


140 - 10 100 /
150 - 10 100 /
160 - 10 100 /
170 - 10 100 /

:
-
- - - :
- ) LDL (
:
) .(Fatty Liver
: Lipoproteins Analysis

.


:
) (Chylomicrons )(VLDL ) (LDL- Low Density Lipoproteins ) (HDL - High Density Lipoproteins -:
)( ) (HDL - High Density Lipoproteins
HDL ) ( - lipoprotein
% 45 - % 25
HDL
HDL
.
HDL
HDL
HDL .
HDL .
HDL 40 100 / ) 0.83 2.5 /(
)( )(LDL- Low Density Lipoproteins
52

) ( - Lipoproteins
% 75 - 50 LDL

LDL HDL .
LDL 180 100 / ) 3.88 - 0.5 /(
LDL :
) LDL Cholesterol (mg/dl) = Total Cholesterol - HDL Cholesterol (Triglyceride /5
Triglyceride mg/dl 400
LDL :
)LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) = Total Cholesterol - HDL Cholesterol (Triglyceride/22
:
Triglyceride
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Total Cholesterol



35
55 - 35
55

HDL-Chol mg/100ml
45
65 - 45
65
190 - 150 150 190

LDL-Chol mg/100ml
190 - 150 150 190

LDL - Chol

3.8
3.1

5.9 - 3.8
4.6 - 3.1

-4 Pancreatic Profile
) ( Amylase

300 - 100 /

.
:

4 - 3 40 - 20


53

5.9
4.6


- ) - ( :
- - -

)(Lipase
:
.
) (
.

4 2 .
60 3 : / .
-6 ): (Cardiac Functions
)( Creatine phosphokinase


ATP .

MM )
(Skeletal Muscles MB )
(Myocardium BB . (Brain).
85 10 /
. )CK CK-
(MB ) (CK-MB
.

) (CK-BB
.
85 10 : / .
__________________________________________________ _________________
)(Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH

4 .
) ( .
:
.
.
.
.
.
54


190 85 : / .

)(Troponin

.
: 0.10
Serum Myoglobin

) 4-1)


Asparate aminotransferase AST Serum Glutamic Oxaloavetic Transaminase - SGOT
48-24 72


Lactate dehydrogenase - LDH
4 - 3 14 - 10
, ,
-7
) (+Sodium Na



.
) Cation (
.
145-135/


.
:

.
%0.9 .

.
.
:
.
.
.
55

.
.
.
.
.
.
+Potassium K

.
5-3.5/

:
.

.
.
.

.
:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Chloride - CL


.
105 -95/.

.
) (
.
: ) (
.

++Calcium Ca


.
56

10.3 -8.5 ) 2.6-2.1 /(.


%45
50% )(

)( %5 .
:
:
"" .
150 50 24 /.
++Magnesium - Mg


.
3.5 1.8 100 / ) 1.75 0.9 /
:
:
)(Iron

.

.
:
. ) (
. .
:
57

. . .
) (
.
. / 175 - 75 :

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
.No

Test Name

Sample

Unite

.1
.2
.3

Glucose
Cholesterol
HDL-Cholesterol

Serum
Serum
Serum

mg/dl
mg/dl
mg/dl

110 70
200 125
65 35

.4
.5
.6

LDL-cholesterol
Triglycerides
Creatinine

Serum
Serum
Serum

mg/dl
mg/dl
mg/dl

Up to 130
160 60
1.5 0.5

.7

Creatinine Clearance

Serum + 24 Hr urine

ml/min

143 75

.8

Creatinine in Urine

Hr urine 24

mg/24

.9
.10

Urea
BUN

Serum
Serum

mg/dl
mg/dl

M : 800 2000
F : 600 1800
45 15
24 7

.11

Uric Acid

Serum

mg/dl

.12

Micro albuminuria

Random urine sample

mg/dl

M:27
F:26
Less than 20

.13
.14
.15
.16

Total protein
Albumin
Globulin
Bilirubin - total

Serum
Serum
Serum
Serum

gm/dl
gm/dl
gm/dl
mg/dl

8.0 6.2
5 3.5
3.8 2
1.2 0.2

.17
.18

Bilirubin - Direct
SGPT (ALT)

Serum
Serum

mg/dl
U/I

Up to 0.3
Up to 45

.19
.20

SGOT (AST)
GGT

Serum
Serum

U/I
U/I

.21

Alkaline Phosphatase

Serum

U/I

Up to 40
M : 12 45
F : 8 33
35 15

.22
.23
.24

Sodium ( Na )
Potassium ( K )
Magnesium ( Mg )

Serum
Serum
Serum

mEq/I
mEq/I
mg/dl

150 135
5.3 3.5
2.70 1.70

.25

Troponin I (cTnI)

Serum

ng/ml

Up to 0.1

.26
.27

LDH
CPK

Serum
Serum

U/I
U/I

.28

CK-MP

Serum

U/I

.29

Calcium(total)

Serum

mg/dl

Serum

mg/dl
mg/dl

.30
.31

58

Ionized Calcium (Ca++)


Phosphorous

Serum

Ref.Range

400 230
M : up to 195
F : up to 170
Up to 25
Adults : 8 10.5
New Born : 7 11.5
5.2 4.6
Adults : 1.7 - 4.5
Child : 4 - 6

.32

Glycated Hemoglobin
(HBA1C)

Edta blood

.No

Test Name

Sample

Unite

.33

VMA

.34
.35

Total Protein in urine


any biological fluid*
(CSF,Ascitic fluid)
Chloride

.36
.37

Stone analysis
hr urine calcium 24

.38

hr uric acid in urine 24

.39

Bence Jones protein

.40

Ammonia

h urine + 10 ml 24
HCL
h urine 24
random urine*
Biological fluid*
Serum
CSF
ml urine 5
stone
5ml of urine and
estimated urine
volume /24 hrs
5ml of urine and
estimated urine
volume /24 hrs
Fresh morning urine
Sample
EDTA plasma (frozen)

.41

Copper

.42

Ref.Range : 4.2 -6.2


Good Control : 6.7 7.3
Fair Control : 7.3 9.1

Ref.Range

mg/24hr 9.8 1.9


mg/24 hr
mg/dl*

mg/24hr

Urine :40 100


Random urine : 1 14*
CSF 15 45*
Serum : 96 110
CSF : 118 130
Urine : 171 260
See report
240 100

mg/24hr

750 250

mEq/L

Negative
mg/dl

85 10

Serum

ug/dl

150 70

Zinc

Serum

ug/dl

.43
.44

Magnesium (Mg)
Zinc in urine

mg/dl

.45
.46
.47
.48

Protein Electrophoresis
Amylase
Amylase (Urine)
Amylase pancreatic

Serum
5ml of urine and
estimated urine
volume /24 hrs
Serum
Serum
ml urine 10
Serum

Adults : 40 150
Child : < 4m : 65 137
Child : > 4m 9Y see report
y (M) : 78 98 13 10
78 118 : (F)
y (M) : 65 118 19 14
46 150 : (F)
2.5 1.9
800 300

.49

Lipase

Serum

mg/24 hrs

U/I
U/I
U/I

See report
Up to 80
Up to 380
Up to 90

U/I

Up to 60

59