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Introduction by H.E. Minister for Municipal Affairs and Agriculture

The State of Qatar is witnessing rapid


development and the road construction
sector is most closely connected with this
development. It is highly important when
designing roads to take into consideration
the latest international standards and
specifications which in turn conform to
environmental requirements and the future
need to link the road network with the
development programme.
Therefore, the initiative of the Civil
Engineering Department in the Ministry of
Municipal Affairs and Agricultural to update the Qatar Highway Design Manual,
which was published for the first time in
1989, is the best evidence of its desire to
keep up with the progress that this country
is
witnessing and emphasises the
determination of this Ministry that its
achievements are proof of its work.

We ask God to guide our steps to the


righteous path.
'

.J.:!J~I '.!*ut.,)-t ~
ALI BIN SAEED AL KHAYAREEN

;ir.IJjll, ~.a4l1 ~h;.HJ1 Jo:!j,


MINISTER OF MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS AND AGRICULTURE

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Introduction by H.E. the Undersecretary of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs
and Agriculture

The Road Network represents the arteries


for traffic movement in the modern state.
Street~ are not just for pedestrian and
traffic movement but contain electricity
and telephone cables, and sewerage
networks.

Therefore, the information that should be


available for the road designer should not
be confined to population density, the
nature of land and its topography only.
The designer has to coordinate with
service
authorities and study the
development progress of the area, its
environment and the effects of road
construction and the movement of traffic.

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The publication of the Qatar Highway


Design Manual, in a new issue by the Civil
Engineering Department, is undoubtedly a
step in the right path, and is the fastest
way to reach our objective.

God is behind our purpose and will guide


us on the right path.

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ALI BIN 5AAD AL KUWARI

:UIJ jJI 9 ~~1 ~9;4il1 dJ 1j9 ~9

UNDERSECRETARY OF THE MINISTRY OF MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS


AND AGRICULTURE

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Introduction by the Director of Civil Engineering Department

This is the second issue of the Qatar


Highway Design Manual we present to
engineers working in the roads and
construction sector in the State of Qatar.

The first issue was published in December


1989 and we have been eager that this
issue should contain more details of the
methods and ideas which have developed
during this period regarding the design and
construction of roads, especially those
adopted in the USA, UK and other
countries in the last few years.
Whilst it is the intention of this Manual to
be used in the road construction sector,
never the less, it should not be considered
the only source; it is only a guide to
highway engineers. The engineer needs to
research, review and be assisted by other
scientific sources. The Manual does not
cover the area of traffic engineering and
related matters such as planning and
transportation studies and issues of general
policy, We will welcome any observations,
suggestion or additions for future issues.

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The Civil Engineering Department while


working earnestly to benefit from new
engineering developments to keep up with
the times, requests all those specialising in
road design in the State of Qatar to
implement the specifications and standards
contained in this Manual.
May god gives us the fortune to carry out ~ L.J ~J :ULoYI ~I~Y ..lJ1 ~J
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the trust we bear and to do what benefits
the Country.

~I.:i Jl jo13U .:H ~

ALI BIN NASSER AL THANI


d.! i.i.oll ;Lu.i..i..dJ1 djl.i!~.io
DIRECTOR OF CIVIL EN<5INEER.IN<5 DEPARTMENT

DOCUMENT HISTORY

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

DOCUMENT HISTORY

The purpose of the Document History is to record changes to the Qatar Highway Design Manual. In the
event of a revision to the manual, CEO will issue the amended pages and re-issue the Document
History.
The Document History pages should contain a description of the change, the issue reference and the
date of issue as noted below. The updated Document History should replace the superseded history
and the revised pages of the manuai should be placed in the appropriate position in the manual.

Description

Issue

Date

Qatar Highway Design Manual

Original Issue

December 1989

Qatar Highway Design Manual

2nd Edition (Rev 0)

January 1997

January 1997

Page DH/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Qatar Highway Design Manual draws on technical input and experience from a number of
recognised international sources and applies these to the road system requirements for Qatar. Within
the text there are references to publications where the engineer may seek further information on a
specific topic. The main reference sources are acknowledged below:

Qatar Construction Specification


Qatar Traffic Manual
Design Manual for Road and Bridgeworks British Government Highway Agency
Policy on Geometric Design of Highways . American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials.
Road Design Manual National Association of Australian State Road Authorities.
Designing for Deliveries Freight Transport Association .

Section 6 Copyright Acknowledgement


Section 6 of this manual contains text and diagrams which are based on material contained within the British Government's
Highways Agency publication the "Design Manual for Road and Bridges - Volume 6 Section 2.
Crown copyright material has been adapted with the permission of the controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office and the
Highways Agency who do not accept any responsibility for the accuracy or comprehensiveness of the contents this Manual.

January 1997

Page AK/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

CONTENTS
CONTENTS

Page No.

,.

GLOSSARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

G/1

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR..............................................


The Highway Network
Primary Routes
Secondary Routes
Tertiary Routes
The Route Classification
Qatar Area Zones

RSQ/1

SECTION 1
Clause 1.1
Clause 1.2
Clause 1.3
Clause 1.4
Clause 1.5
Clause 1.6
Clause 1.7
Clause 1.8
Clause 1.9

DESIGN SPEED
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Speed Related Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selection of Design Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Posted Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changeover of Design Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changeover to Existing Roads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selection of Parameter Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relaxations and Departures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1/1
1/1
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/3

SECTION 2
Clause 2.1
Clause 2.2
Clause 2.3
Clause 2.4
Clause 2.5
Clause 2.6

SIGHT DISTANCE
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping Sight Distance. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full Overtaking Sight Distance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Obstructions to Sight Distance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect of Horizontal Curves on Sight Distance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2/1
2/1
2/1
2/2
2/2
2/2

SECTION 3
Clause 3.1
Clause 3.2
Clause 3.3
Clause 3.4
Clause 3.5
Clause 3.6
Clause 3.7
Clause 3.8

HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT
General
Minimum Curvature
Transition Curves
Camber and Superelevation
Widening on Curves
Harmonising the Alignment
Horizontal Clearances
Special Considerations

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

3/1
3/1
3/1
3/2
3/6
3/8
3/10
3/12

SECTION 4
Clause 4.1
Clause 4.2
Clause 4.3
Clause 4.4
Clause 4.5
Clause 4.6
Clause 4.7

VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
General Controls
Maximum and Minimum Grades
Vertical Curves
Harmonising the Vertical Alignment
Phasing Horizontal and Vertical Alignment
Vertical Clearances
Special Considerations

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

4/1
4/1
4/2
4/3
4/5
4/9
4/10

SECTION 5
Clause 5.1
Clause 5.2
Clause 5.3
Clause 5.4
Clause 5.5
Clause 5.6

CROSS SECTIONAL ELEMENTS


Road Reservations
Lane Widths
Lane Capacity
Shoulders
Edge Strips and Shy Distances
Medians

.
.
.
.
.
.

5/1
5/11
5/12
5/12
5/13
5/13

January 1997

Page C/1

. CONTENTS

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Clause 5.7
Clause 5.8
Clause 5.9
Clause 5.10
Clause 5.11
Clause 5.12
Clause 5.13
Clause 5.14
Clause 5.15
Clause 5.16
Clause 5.17
Clause 5.18
Clause 5.19

Verges
Parking Bays and Lanes
Side Slopes
Auxiliary Lanes
Service Roads
Pedestrian Facilities
Utilities
. Use of Kerbs
Safety Fences
Crash Cushions
Fencing
Road Closure
Landscaping

SECTION 6
Clause 6.1

JUNCTIONS
General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1
Junction Spacing
6.1 .2
Traffic Flows
6.1.3
Design Vehicles
6.1.4
Siting of Junctions
Types of Junction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .
6.2.1
T-Junction
6.2.2
Simple Crossroads
6.2.3
Staggered Junction
6.2.4
Skew or YJunction
6.2.5
Roundabout
6.2.6
Grade Separated Interchange
6.2.7
Traffic Signals
Junction Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1
Status of Intersecting Roads
6.3.2
Continuity of Standard
6.3.3
Junction Capacity
Major/Minor Junctions - General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety At Major/Minor Junctions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Major/Minor Junction Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.1
The Simple T-Junction
6.6.2
T-Junction with Ghost Island
6.6.3
T-Junction with Single Lane Dualling
6.6.4
T-Junction on a Dual Carriageway with Median
Opening (Signalized)
6.6.5
T-Junction on a Dual Carriageway with Carriageway
Separation
6.6.6
Crossroads
6.6.7
Staggered Junction
6.6.8
Right and Left Hand Skew Junction
Major/Minor Junction Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.7.1
General
6.7.2
Design Speed
6.7.3
Visibility
6.7.4
Corner Radii
6.7.5
Carriageway Widths
6.7.6
Central Islands - Major Road
6.7.7
Central Island Tapers
6.7.8
Turning Length in Median
6.7.9
Direct Taper Length
6.7.10
Left Turning Lanes
6.7.11
Median Openings
6.7.12
Traffic Islands
6.7.13
Nearside Diverging Tapers and Auxiliary Lanes
6.7.14
Merging Tapers

Clause 6.2

Clause 6.3

Clause 6.4
Clause 6.5
Clause 6.6

Clause 6.7

January 1997

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

5/14
5/15
5/16
5/17
5/17
5/18
5/19
5/19
5/20
5/26
5/27
5/27
5/30

6/1

6/6

6/7

6/9

6/9
6/9

6/14

Page C/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Clause 6.8

Clause 6.9

Clause 6.10

Clause 6.11
Clause 6.12
Clause 6.13

Clause 6.14
Clause 6.15

Clause 6.16

January 1997

6.7.15
Stagger Distances
6.7.16
Skew Junctions
6.7.17
T-Junction with Carriageway Separation
6.7.18
Channelizing Islands
6.7.19
Splitter/Right Turn Islands
6.7.20
Drainage and Crossfall
6.7.21
Traffic Signs and Road Markings
6.7.22
Road Lighting
Roundabouts General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.8.1
General Principles
6.8.2
Types of Roundabout
Safety at Roundabouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.9.1
General
6.9.2
Two Wheeled Vehicles
6.9.3
Large Goods Vehicles
Roundabout Elements ..:
,
"
6.10.1
Definitions
6.10.2
Entries
6.10.3
Entry Width
6.10.4
Flare Design at Entry
6.10.5
Entry Angle
6.10.6
Entry Radius
6.10.7
Entry Kerbing
6.10.8
Entry Deflection
6.10.9
Achieving Entry Deflection
6.10.10
Visibility
6.10.11
Circulatory Carriageway
6.10.12
Inscribed Circle Diameter (ICD)
6.10.13
Exits
6.10.14
Crossfall and Longitudinal Gradient
6.10.15
Segregated Right Turning Lanes
6.10.16
Road Markings
U-Turns - General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety At U-Turns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
UTurn Elements. .. . .. .. .. . . . . . ... .... ... . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .
6.13.1
.General
6.13.2
Direct Taper Length
6.13.3
Width of Physical Islands in the Median
6.13.4
Left Turn Lane
6.13.5
Median Openings
6.13.6
Storage/Queuing length
6.13.7
Merging Length
6.13.8
Pavement Construction
6.13.9
Road Lighting
6.13.10
Traffic Signs and Road Markings
6.13.11
Drainage and Crossfall
Urban Road Service Road Diverge/Merge
,.
Special Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.15.1
Residential Areas
6.15.2
Older Residential Areas
6.15.3
Other Road Users
Signalized Junctions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.16.1
Introduction
6.16.2
Basic Requirements
6.16.3
Typical Layout Features

CONTENTS

6/33

6/35

6/38

6/60
6/60
6/60

6/63
6/65

6/68

Page C/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


SECTION 7
Clause 7.1
Clause 7.2

INTERCHANGES
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Interchange. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1
General
7.2.2
Full Interchange
7.2.3
Compact Interchange

Clause 7.3

Selection of Junction Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


7.3.1
General
7.3.2
Traffic Flows and Design Year
7.3.3
Junction Spacing within the Network
7.3.4
Initial Information Requirements and Decisions
7.3.5
Types of Interchange for Preliminary Design
7.3.6
Preliminary Designs
Design Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4.1
Definitions
7.4.2
Design Speed
7.4.3
Lane Provision and Capacity
7.4.4
Hard Shoulders and Edge Strips
7.4.5
Merges and Diverges at Interchanges
7.4.6
Slip Roads
7.4.7
Link Roads
7.4.8
Loop Roads
7.4.9
Weaving Sections
Other Design Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1
Clearance and Headroom
7.5.2
Superelevation
7.5.3
Safety Fencing
7.5.4
Signing
7.5.5
Lighting
7.5.6
Utilities
7.5.7
Emergency Vehicles
7.5.8
Maintenance Provisions
7.5.9
Environmental Issues

Clause 7.4

Clause 7.5

. SECTION 8
Clause 8.1

Clause 8.2

Clause 8.3

Clause 8.4

Clause 8.5

January 1997

DRAINAGE
Introduction. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1
Functions of Highway Drainage
8.1 .2
Minor and Major Systems
Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1
Hydrological Data
8.2.2
Design Return Period
8.2.3
Design Method
Urban Drainage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.3.1
Introduction
8.3.2
Urban Catchment
8.3.3
Positive Drainage
8.3.4
Drainage of the Carriageway
8.3.5
Drainage of Medians, Footways and Verges
8.3.6
Emergency Flood Area (EFA)
8.3.7
Maintenance Strategy
Rural Drainage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1
Introduction
8.4.2
Rural Catchment
8.4.3
Drainage of the Carriageway
8.4.4
Drainage of Medians and Verges
8.4.5
Natural Surface Drainage
Junction Drainage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.5.1
Introduction
8.5.2
Drainage at Junctions

CONTENTS

7/1
7/1

7/6

7/8

..
7/16

8/1

8/2

8/14

8/18

8/22

Page C/4

CONTENTS

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Clause 8.6

Subsurface Drainage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6.1
Introduction
8.6.2
Subsurface Drainage Methods

SECTION 9
Clause 9.1

PAVEMENT
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1
General
9.1.2
Typical Pavement Structures
9.1.3
Road Deterioration
9.1.4
Variability in Materials and Road Performance
Traffic Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1
Introduction
9.2.2
Design Life
9.2.3
Traffic Forecasting
9.2.4
Traffic Counts
9.2.5
Standard Axles
9.2.6
Determination of Cumulative Standard Axles
9.2.7
Design Traffic Classes
Pavement Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1
Qatar Construction Specification (QCS)
9.3.2
SUbgrade
9.3.3
Granular Material for Sub-base and Roadbase
9.3.4
Roadbase - Asphalt Concrete
9.3.5
Cement Bound Material
9.3.6
Wearing Course
9.3.7
Concrete for Rigid Pavements
9.3.8
Precast Paving Blocks
Design Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1
General
9.4.2
Asptialt Concrete Roadbase
9.4.3
Asphalt and Granular Roadbase
9.4.4
FleXible-Composite Roadbase
9.4.5
Reinforced Jointed Concrete Slabs
9.4.6
Precast Block Paving
Special Pavement Sections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5.1
Staged Construction (Single Layer Construction)
Pavement Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.6.1
Introduction
9.6.2
Routine Monitoring
9.6.3
Detailed Survey
9.6.4
Detailed Investigation
9.6.5
Interpretation and Design of Remedial Works
References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basis of the Design Method for Asphalt Roadbase . . . . . . . . . . . .
9A.1
Design Methods
9A.2
Design Strategy
9A.3
Applicable Methods
9A.4
Specific Method for Qatar
9A.5
Weak Subgrades
9A.6
References

Clause 9.2

Clause 9.3

Clause 9.4

Clause 9.5
Clause 9.6

Clause 9.7
Annex 9A

SECTION 10
Clause 10.1

Clause 10.2

January 1997

ROADWAY LIGHTING
Introduction
10.1.1
Reasons for Lighting
10.1.2
Justification
10.1 .3
Scope
10.1.4
Complementary Standards
Performance Requirements
10.2.1
Summary of Road Classifications in Qatar
10.2.2
Lighting Performance Recommendations
10.2.3
Limitation of Glare and "Light Pollution"

8/25

911

9/2

9/6

9/8

9/15
9/15

9118
9/19

10/1

10/1

Page CIS

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Clause 10.3

Clause 10.4
Clause 10.5

Clause 10.6

APPENDIX A
Clause A1
CiauseA2

Clause A3

CiauseA4
CiauseA5

APPENDIXB
Clause B1
Clause B2
Clause B3

Clause B4

Clause B5

January 1997

Recommended Practice
.
10.3.1
Decisions Prior to Design
10.3.2
Standard Lighting Geometries for Different Road Profiles
10.3.3
Lighting Columns as Hazards
10.3.4
Typical Lighting Layouts at Junctions
Specification of Equipment
.
Electrical Distribution
.
10.5.1
Supply
10.5.2
Feeder Piliars
10.5.3
Cables
10.5.4
Ducts
10.5.5
Earthing Systems
10.5.6
Safety Standards
Maintenance and Operation
.
10.6.1
Design Implications
10.6.2
Quality of Equipment
10.6.3
Inventory and Fault Reports
10.6.4
Cleaning and Lamp Replacement
10.6.5
Frequency of Inspections
10.6.6
Hours of Operation

SURVEYS
Introduction
.
Survey in Qatar
.
A2.1
Centre for GiS - Mapping and Positioning Services
A2.2
Land Information Centre - General Survey Section (GSS)
A2.3
Planning Department
A2.4
CEO Survey Unit
Survey Work Procedures
.
A3.1
Topographical Surveys
A3;2
Services Surveys
A3.3
As-built Surveys
Approved Survey Companies
.
Specification for Topographical Survey
.
A5.1
Features to be Observed
A5.2
Preparation of Survey Data
A5.3
Specifications
A5.4
Checking and Verification
GUIDANCE NOTES TO PREPARE A BRIEF FOR GEOTECHNICAL
SITE INVESTIGATIONS
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initial Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation of the Brief. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B3.1
Geotechnical Investigation Works
B3.2
Field Tests
B3.3
Laboratory Tests
Engineering Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B4.1
Methods of Investigation
B4.1.1
Trial Pits
B4.1.2
Boreholes
B4.1.3
Samples
B4.2
Testing
B4.2.1
In Situ Testing
B4.2.2
Laboratory Testing
B4.3
Earthworks
B4.4
Retaining Structures
B4.5
Geo-synthetics
Sample Pro Forma for Quantifying Geotechnical Site Investigations

CONTENTS
10/2

10/7
10/7

10/8

Al1
AI1

Al5

Al6
Al6

B/1
B/1
B/2

B/7

B/14

Page C/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED

AADT(Average Annual Daily Traffic) - Total


yearly two-way traffic volume divided by the
number of days in the year.
Acceleration Lane - A speed change lane to
enable a vehicle entering a roadway to increase
its speed to merge with through traffic.
Access Road - Road providing access to a
local area or individual properties from a
distributor road.

ADT (XX) (Average Daily Traffic) - The current


or projected average two-way.daily traffic for the
year 19xx or 20xx used to define the traffic for
that year in the Gregorian Caiender.
At-grade Intersection - An intersection where
all carriageways join or cross at the same level.
Auxiliary Lane - The portion of the carriageway
adjoining the travelled way for weaving, truck
climbing, speed change, or for other purposes
supplementary to through traffic movement.
Axle Load - The total load transmitted by all
wheels on a single axle extending across the
full width of the vehicle. Tandem axles 1mar
less apart shall be considered as a single axle.
Backslope - In cuts, the slope from the bottom
of the ditch to the top of the cut.

GLOSSARY

Berm - (1) A raised and elongated area of earth


intended to direct a flow of water, screen
headlight glare. (2) Embankment widening to
provide lateral support for the roadway.
Braking Distance - The distance required to
stop the vehicle from the instant brake
application begins.
Braking Reaction Distance - The distance
traversed by the vehicle from the instant the
driver sights an object necessitating a stop, to
the instant the brakes are applied.
Bridge - Structure supporting road or
pedestrian walkway over an area to be crossed.
Broken Back Curve - An arrangement of
curves in which a short tangent separates two
curves in the same direction.

January 1997

Buffer Zone (Buffer Strip) - Land adjacent to


a highway acquired by the highway authority for
the purpose of preventing development that
would be adversely affected by traffic noise, or
for erecting noise barriers.
Business District - That portion of a
municipality or an area within the influence of a
municipality in which the dominant land use is
offices, banks, hotels and government bUildings
California Bearing Ratio (CBR) - The ratio of
the force required to penetrate a soil mass with
a circular piston of 5cm diameter to the force
required to penetrate a mass of high quality
crushed stone with the same piston. The rate of
penetration in both cases is 1.27mm per
minute. Refer BS 1377.
Camber - (1) A slight arch designed or built into
a structure to compensate for the naturar
deflection after loading. (2) Siope on a single
carriageway road from the centre to the edges
to aid drainage.
Capillary Break Layer - The layer of specified
or selected material placed on the subgrade to
break the capillary rise of water and salts.
Capping Layer - Layer replacing existing
material under the pavement.
Carriageway - The part of a highway, including
shoulders, for vehicular use.
Single
carriageway or dual carriageway.
Catchment - Area feeding rainfall to a specific
point.
Centreline - (1) For a two-lane highway the
centerline is the middle of the travelled way,
and for a divided highway the centreline may be
the centre of the median. For a divided
highway with independent roadways, each
roadway has its own centreline. (2) The defined
and surveyed line shown on the plans from
which the highway construction is controlled.
Cloverleaf Interchange
A four-leg
interchange with loops for left turns, and other
connections for right turns. A full cloverleaf has
ramps for two turning movements in each
quadrant.

Page G/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Commercial Area - That portion of a
municipality or an area within the influence of a
municipality in which the dominant land use is
shops and commercial business.
Crash Barrier - See Safety Fence
Crest Vertical Curve - A vertical curve having
a convex shape in profile.
Crossfall - (1) A pavement superelevated
toward the right or left shoulder on appreciable
curves. (2) On divided highways on straights
or flat curves, each one-way pavement may
have a unidirectional slope across the entire
width of pavement, usuaily downward toward
the outer edge.
Culvert - A closed conduit, other than a bridge,
which conveys water carried in a natural
channel or waterway from one side of a
highway to the other side. Culverts may be
prefabricated pipes of concrete, steel, or vitrified
clay, or they may be cast-in-place structures of
reinforced concrete, such a box culverts or arch
culverts.
Curve Widening - The widening of the highway
traveiled way on sharp curves to compensate
. for the fact that the rear wheels of a vehicle do
not foilow exactly in the tracks of the front
wheels.
Deceleration Lane - A speed-change lane that
enables a vehicle to slow to a safe exit speed
when making an exit turn.
Desert Road - A graded track to access a farm
or small group of properties.
Design Hour Volume (DHV) - Th.e future twoway hourly traffic volume for use in design,
usuaily the 30th highest hourly volume of the
design year (30 HV).
Design Lane - The lane on which the greatest
ilumber of equivalent 8-tonne, standard axle
loads is expected. Normaily, this will be either
lane of a two-lane highway (single carriageway)
or the outside lane of a multilane highway (dual
carriageway).
Design Life - The number of years of intended
service life of a facility before the first major
rehabilitation.
Design Speed - A speed selected for purposes
of design and correlation of the geometric
features of a highway and a measure of the
quality of service offered by the highway. It is

January 1997

GLOSSARY
the highest continuous speed where individual
vehicles can travel with safety upon a highway
when weather conditions are favourable, traffic
density is low and the geometric design
features of the highway are the governing
conditions for safe speed.

Design Vehicles - Selected motor vehicles with


the weight, dimensions, and operating
characteristics used to establish highway design
controls for accommodating vehicles of
designated classes.
Design Year - The future year used to estimate
the probable traffic volume for which a highway
is designed. A time 10 to 20 years from the
start of construction is usually used.
Diamond Interchange - A four-leg interchange
with a single one-way ramp in each quadrant.
Ail left turns are made directly on the minor
roadway.
Distributor Road - A type of road serving two
distinct functions. It provides a traffic service
between primaries, arterial-coilectors, other
local roads, a town, viilage, industrial or
commercial deveiopment, or a recreational
area. it also provides direct vehicular access to
privately owned properties. Land service is the
first consideration, but traffic service may have
more than incidental significance.

Ditch - A trench dug in the earth for drainage


purposes.
Diverging - The dividing of a single stream of
traffic into separate streams.
Dual Carriageway - A highway with separated
carrlageways for traffic in opposite directions.
Eighty-fifth Percentile Speed - The speed at
or below which 85 percent of the vehicles are
being operated.
Elevated Highway - A highway on fiil or
structure above the level of the adjacent
ground.
Embankment - A raised earth structure on
which the road is placed.
Emergency Vehicle - A vehicle belonging to
the armed forces, civil defence, police, fire
service or ambulance service, or other
designated vehicle used for answering
emergency calls for assistance.

Page G/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Emergency Flood Area (EFA) - Area set aside
to store flood water during heavy rainfall.
ESA (Equivalent Standard Axle) - The effect
on pavement performance of any combination
of axle loads of varying magnitude, equated to
the number of reference single-axle loads
required to produce an equivalent number of
repetitions of an 8-tonne single axle.
Exit - The point where traffic leaves to travel to
an intersecting road.
Fencing Item placed next to the road to define
the edge of reservation or restrict animal
access.

GLOSSARY
Gutter - A paved and generally shallow
waterway provided for carrying surface
drainage.
Headwall - A vertical or inclined wall at the end
of a culvert to prevent earth from spilling into
the channel.
Hierarchy Classification - The grouping of
individual highways in a highway system,
according to their purpose or function, the type
of traffic they serve, and their maintenance
requirements. The main functional classes are
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary, though
subclasses are also used.
Highway - see Road.

Foreslope - The slope from the edge of the


surfaced shoulder to the top of the subgrade, or
the bottom of the ditch in cuts.

Horizontal Alignment - Horizontal geometry of


the highway.

Formation - Graded surface above sUbgrade or


capping layer on which the pavement structure
is laid.

Horizontal Curve - A circular curve or transition


by means of which a highway can change
direction to the right er left.

Formation Drain - Porous or perforated pipe,


or graded aggregate installed under a roadway
or shoulder to provide subsurface drainage.

Independent Alignments - Each carriageway


of a dual carriageway is designed and located
to take full advantage of the terrain. The
median need not be of uniform width, and the
two carriageways need not be at the same
level.

Footpath - That portion of a street or highway


between the kerb line or edge of the roadway,
and the adjacent edge of reservation
constructed specifically for pedestrians
(sometimes referred to as sidewalk).
Full Overtaking Sight Distance (FOSD) - The
minimum sight distance that must be available
to enable a driver of one vehicle to pass
another vehicle safely without interfering with
the speed of an oncoming vehicle travelling at
the design speed.
Gantry - Signal or sign support above a
carriageway.
Ghost Island - Painted or hatched marking on
the road surface to gUide traffic.
Gradient - The profile of the centre of the
carriageway, or its rate of ascent or descent.
Grade - To shape or reshape earth by means of
cutting or filling.
Grade Separation - A structure that provides
for highway traffic to pass over or under another
highway.
Gully - Collection and distribution point for
surface water along a gutter.

January 1997

Industrial Area - That portion within a


municipality in which the dominant land use is
light or heavy industry.
Inside Lane - the first lane of a dual
carriageway, commonly referred to as the slow
lane or nearside lane.
Interchange - A system of interconnecting
roads in conjunction with one or more grade
separations, providing for the movement of
traffic between two or more roads on different
levels.
Intersection - The connection of two or more
roads is called a intersection.
Intervisibility - The requirement of a vehicle
driver to see approaching vehicles and also for
his vehicle to be seen by approaching vehicles.
Junction - Treatment of the intersection of two
roads.
Kerb - A structure with a vertical, horizontal or
sloping face placed along the edge of a
pavement or shoulder forming part of a gutter,
and strengthening or protecting the edge..

Page G/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

GLOSSARY

Lane - A portion of the travelled way providing


for a single line of traffic in one direction.

Overpass - A grade separation where the


highway passes over an intersecting highway.

Left Lane - On a two-lane, two-way road, the


traffic lane that is to the left of the centreline and
normally used by traffic moving in the opposite
direction; or on a multiiane road, the extreme
left traffic lane of those avaiiable for traffic
travelling in the same direction, ie: adjacent to
the median.

Parking Lanes - Additional width outside the


travelled way of a highway or street that is
designated for the temporary storage of
vehicles.

Left-Turn Lane - A traffic lane within the normal


surfaced width of a roadway or an auxiliary lane
adjacent to or within a median, reserved for leftturning vehicles at an intersection.
Median - The portion of a divided highway
separating the travelled ways of traffic travelling
in opposite directions.
Median Barrier - A longitudinal system used to
prevent an errant vehicle from crossing the
median of a dual carriageway.
Median Opening - A gap in a median provided
for crossing and turning traffic.
Merging - The converging of separate streams
of traffic into a single stream.
Moisture Content - The percentage, by weight,
of water contained in soil or other material,
usually based on the dry weight.
Motorway - A multiiane, dual carriageway
designed to move large volumes of traffic at
high speeds under free-flow conditions.
Motorways have full control of access with
interchanges incorporating grade separation
and junctions.

Pavement - Structure on which vehicles travel.


Pedestrian Crossing - Any portion of a road at
an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated
for pedestrian crossing by signs, lights and by
lines or other markings on the road surface.
Perception Time - The time required by a
driver to perceive that he must change speed or
stop.
Primary Road Principle road within the
network.

Ramp - A short carriageway, usually one way,


to accomplish transfer movements within an
interchange from the arterial highway or
motorway to the minor road.
Commonly
referred to as a slip road.
Reaction Time - The time required for a driver
to apply foot pressure to the brake after he
perceived that he must stop.
Refuge Island - An island in a wide intersection
to provide refuge for pedestrians.

Network - A group of roads of varied hierarchy


in a defined area.
Noise Barrier - A barrier of earth, stone,
concrete, or wood placed adjacent to the
highway to reduce the noise level on abutting
property.

Rest Area - A roadside area with parking


facilities separated from the carriageway
providing motorists with opportunities to stop
and rest for short periods.

One-way Highway - A highway or roadway


having one or more lanes on which all vehicular
traffic must go in the same direction.

Reverse Curve - A curve consisting of two arcs


of the same or different radii curving in opposite
directions and having a common tangent or
transition curve at their point of junction.
Right-Turn Lane - An auxiliary lane or
designated lane provided at intersections for
right-turn movements.

Outside Lane - The lane nearest the median on


a dual carriageway, commonly referred to as
the fast lane or off-side lane.

January 1997

fit

Profile - A longitudinal section of a highway,


drainage course, etc.

Residential Area - That portion of a


municipality, or an area within the influence of a
municipality in which the dominant land use is
residential development, but where small
business areas may be included.

Outer Separator - A separator between a


service road and the carriageway of a highway
or major street.

Page G/4

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Ring Road - An arterial highway for carrying


traffic around an urban area or portion thereof.
Road (Highway) - A general term denoting a
public way for purposes of vehicular travel
including the entire area within the reservation.
Roadbase - The layer of specified or selected
material placed on a sub-base or formation.

Road Hump (sleeping policeman) - Raised


portion of the carriageway designed to slow
passing vehicles.
Road Markings - A traffic control device
consisting of lines, patterns, works, symbols, or
colours on the pavement, or adjacent to the
road.

Shy Distance - The portion of carriageway


contiguous with the travelled way which
separates the face of the kerb from the travelled
way.

Road Sign - A traffic control device mounted on


a support above the level of the roadway that
conveys a specific message by means of words
or symbols.

Sight Distance - The length of roadway ahead,


visible to the driver.

Rumble Strip - A rough textured surface,


constructed for the purpose of causing the lyres
of a motor vehicle driven over it to vibrate
audibly as a warning to the driver.
Safety Fence - A protective cable, beam or wall
device placed along the carriageway edge for
the purpose of redirecting vehicles that have left
the roadway at a point of hazard.

'.

Separator - An area or a device located


longitudinally between two carriageways so as
to separate traffic flowing In the same or
opposite directions, and so designed as to
discourage or prevent passage by vehicles from
the traffic lanes on one side of the separator to
those on the other.
Shoulder - The portion of carriageway
contiguous with the travelled way for
accommodation of stopped vehicles for
emergency use, and for lateral support of base
and surface courses.

Road Stud - Reflective or nonreflective stud on


the road surface to define road markings and
traffic positioning.

,a

GLOSSARY

Standard Axle - Single axle load of 8,167 kg.


Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) - The distance
required by a driver of a vehicle, travelling at a
given speed, to bring his vehicle to a stop after
an object on the roadway becomes visible. It
includes the distance travelled during the
perception and reaction times, as well as the
vehicle braking distance.
Storm Drain (sewer) - A system of catch
basins and underground conduits collecting,
concentrating, and conveying water to a
disposal point.
Street - See Road.

Sag Vertical Curve - A vertical curve having a


concave shape in profiie.
Screening - The use of trees, shrubs, fences,
or other materials to obscure an objectionable
view or to reduce an objectionable sound.
Secondary Road - A highway of less national
significance than a Primary road, but a highway
that is intended to move large volumes of traffic
at high speeds.
Military installations and
seaports not served by a Primary road are
reached via Secondary roads.
Traffic
movement is the primary consideration, but this
type of road may also provide some land
service function.

Sub-base - The layer or layers of specified or


selected material of designed thickness placed
on the subgrade to support the roadbase.
Subgrade - (1) The top 300mm layer of
embankments or excavated areas on which the
pavement structure including shoulders is
constructed. (2) The top of a capping layer
upon which the pavement structure and
shoulders are constructed.
Superelevation - The elevating of the outside
edge of a curve to partially offset the centrifugal
force generated when a vehicle rounds the
curve.
Superelevation Runoff (application) - The
transition distance between normal crown and
fully superelevated roadway.

January 1997

Page GIS

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Tack Coat - An application of bituminous
materiai to an existing surface to provide bond
with a superimposed course.
Time of Concentration - The time required for
storm runoff to flow from the most remote point
of a drainage catchment area to the point under
consideration. It is usually associated with the
design storm.
Toe of Slope - The intersection of an
embankment side slope with the original ground
surface.
Topsoil (Rodah soil) - Surface soil, usually
containing organic matter.

GLOSSARY
Underpass - A grade separation where the
highway passes under an intersecting highway.
Can be a pedestrian or animal underpass which
crosses under the main highway.

Verge' The portion of the highway reservation


that is next to the road and is unpaved.
Vertical Curve - A curve on the longitudinal
profile of a road to provide a change of gradient.
Visibility - The distance at which an object can
be just perceived by the eye.
Visibility Splay The area required for driver
visibility to the left and right on the approach
to a junction from the minor arm.

Traffic Barriers - Roadside barriers, median


barrie.rs, crash cushions, and bridge parapets
intended to guide or protect traffic from roadside
hazards, including collision with other vehicles.

Wearing Course The top layer of a pavement


which resists skidding, traffic abrasion and the
disintegrating effects of climate.

Traffic Island - An island provided in the road


to separate or direct streams of traffic; includes
both divisional and channelizing islands.

Weaving - The crossing of traffic streams


moving in the same general direction
accomplished by merging and diverging.

Traffic Lane - That portion of the travelled way


for the movement of a single line of vehicles.

Weaving Sections - Highway segments where


the pattern of traffic entering and leaving at
contiguous points of access resuits in vehicle
paths crossing each other.

Traffic Signal Lights used to direct and stop


and start traffic.

"

Transition - A section of variable pavement


width required when changing from one width of
travelled way to a greater or lesser width.
Transition Curve (Spiral) - A cLirve of variable
radius intended to effect a smooth transition
from straight to curved alignment.

Travelled Way
- The portion of the
carriageway for the movement of vehicles,
exclusive of shoulders, hard strips, shy
distances and auxiliary lanes.
Turning Lanes - Auxiliary lanes provided at at-grade intersections for right and left turning
movements.
Turning Track Width - The radial distance
between the turning paths of the outside of the
outer front tyre and the outside of the rear tyre
that is nearest the center of the turn.
Typical Cross Section - A transverse section
of a proposed highway showing the lateral
dimensions and functional and structural
elements of the highway.

January 1997

Page G/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR


The Highway Network
Roads within the State of Qatar each fulfil
certain functions within the overall network. A
hierarchy exists which defines their various
roles. Table 1 shows the status of road types
within the hierarchy.
Primary Routes
These are 'routes of strategic significance
whose purpose is to act as the principal
distribution routes between the City of Doha, the
main regional centres and the national border.
They are generally dual carriageway roads, built
to high geometric standards.

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR


Secondary and Tertiary Route Numbers follow
a branching system based on the Primary
Route Numbers.
Qatar Area Zones
For ease of communication and coordination
between Government bodies Qatar has been
divided into reference Zones.
Activities such as planning, street names, Road
Network Plans and Hierarchy Plans are
generally referenced against the area zones.
These zones are illustrated in Figure 3 and
Figure 4.

The present system of Primary Routes is


illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Secondary Routes
Secondary Routes serves as area distributors
by linking Primary Routes either to each other
or by feeding traffic into the Tertiary Route
network. They are generally dual Carriageway
but in rural areas may be single carriageway.
The major Secondary Routes are also shown in
Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Tertiary Routes
District distributors, local distributors and access
roads are classified as Tertiary Routes. District
distributors are urban dual carriageway roads
providing high capacity routes between districts.
Local distributor roads link access roads to
either the Secondary Route network or, in urban
areas, the district distributors. Both local
distributors
and
access
roads
are
characteristically low design speed, single
carriageway roads.
The Route Classification
The Route numbering system is centred on the
city of Doha. As shown in Figure 2, the origin of
the Primary Route network is the D-Ring Road,
this being designated Route No.1. The Primary
Routes Nos. 1 to 7 extend radially outwards
from the D-Ring Road. With the exception of
Route No. 59, linking Route No.5 to the national
border, all Primary Routes have single digit
numbers.

January 1997

Page RSQ/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR

Route Classification

Class
Ref

Function

Carriageways

General
Corridor
Width

Design

(m)
PRIMARY ROUTE

Rural

P1

A major road linking lowns, or a


bypass

Dual 23 lane

64

Roundabouts, minor T or grade-

separated junctions.

Some U-

turns on rural routes

P2

Urban

A major urban road

SECONDARY ROUTES
S1

Rural

A rural road linking settlements

10 the primary networks.

Dual 23 lane
Single 2-lana

64/40

T-juncUons, with double Uturns


on dual carriageway, staggered
junctions on single carriageway

Significant traffic flow or use by

goods vehicles
S2

A major urban road lor through


trafflc

Dual 23 lane

64/40/32

Rural Local Road

TR1

A rural road linking settlements

Single 2-1ane

40/32

T-junclions

District Distributor

TR2

An urban road linking districts

Dual 23 lane
wide single or
single 2-lane

64/40/32

Roundabouts, slip-onlslip-off or
signalised junctions. No U-turns.
Limited access from existing
New properties to
properties.
provide rear access.
Parallel
parking in bays

Local Distributor

TR3

A road distributing traffic within


a district

Wide single or
single 2-lane
(some existing
routes may be
dual
carriageway)

40/321241

Roundabouts.
Tjunctions or
signalised junctions. Offset Xroads.
Direct access from
properties. Parallel parking bays.

24/20/16

Urban

TERTIARY ROUTES

20

Roundabouts or T-junctions.
Offset X-roads. Direct access
from properties. Parallel parking,
on street.

Access Road

TR4

A road giving direct access to


properties
- residential major access
- residential minor access
- eul-pe-sac serving a maximum
0112 properties

Single 2-lane

Service Road

TRS

A road giving direct access to


properties and collecting minor
roads for entry/exit onto Dual
Carriageway.

Single 1way
or 2way

Scenic Routes

SR1

Roads with special functions as


dignitary routes or recreational
routes

varies

varies

Varies, emphasis on integrated


landscaping and architecture.

Lorry Routes (3)

SR2

Specially designated and


designed for heavy vehicles

varies

varies

Varies, emphasis on pavement


design, appropriate junction radii
etc.

Merge/diverge tapers onto dual


clway. Parallel alignment to major
road way. TJunction access for
Minor roads. Speed reduction,
direct access from properties, onstreet parking, parallel or angle.

SPECIAL ROUTES (2)

Notes

(1) The general road corridors are based on the MMAA's plan "General guidance for road cross-sections and utility dispositions".
(2) These can be either primary, secondary or tertiary routes.
(3) The main Lorry Routes include the Regional Primary Roads and the Rural Distributors.

Table 1 Route Classification and Function

January 1997

Page RSQ/2

..

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR

PRIMARY ROUTES
SECONDARY ROUTES
TERTIARY ROUTES
LOCAL ROUTES

For Hierarchy
Inside Doha
refer to Page

RSC/4

.'
\.

Figure 1

January 1997

Road Hierarchy - State of Qatar

Page RSQ/3

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

KEY
_

PRIMARY ROUTES

SECONDARY ROUTES

TERTIARY ROUTES

LOCAL ROUTES

Figure 2

January 1997

Road Hierarchy - Greater Doha

Page RSQ/4

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR

A
78

76

75

74

___ ZONE BOUNDARY

72

ZONE NUMBER

71

80

86

85
82

84

83

95

94

96

.'

Figure 3

January 1997

QARS Zones - State of Qatar

Page RSQ/5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR

ZONE BOUNDARY

5.

ZONE NUMBER

57

Figure 4

January 1997

OARS Zones - Greater Doha

Page RSQ/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR

ZONE
No.

,t4IJI

Name

ZONE
No.

Name

1.

AI Jasra

31.

2.

AIDiwan

32.

Madina! Khalila (North)

3.

Mohammed Bin Jasim

33.

AI Markhiya

4.

AI Asmakh

34.

Madina! Khalila (South)

5.

AI Najada

35.

Kulaib

6.

AI Ghanim AI Qadaem (North)

36.

AI Muraur I AI Massila

7.

New Markets

37.

Bin Omran / AI Hitmi I AI Jadeed

8.

38.

AI Sadd

9.

39.

AI Mirqab I AI Nasr

10.

Wadi AI Sail (East)

40.

AI Asiri I AI Salata I AI Jadeeda

11.

AI Rumeila (East)

41.

AI Hilal (West)

12.

AI Bidda

42.

AI Hilal (East)

13.

Musheireb

43.

AI Nuaija (West)

14.

Abdul Aziz

44.

AI Nuaija (East)

15.

AI Doha AI Jadeeda

45.

AI Matar AI Qadeem

16.

AI Ghanim AI Qadeem (South

46.

17.

Al Hitmi

47.

18.

AI Salata

48.

19.

Doha Port

49.

20.

Wadi AI Sail (West)

50.

21.

AI Rumeila (West)

51.

22.

Bin Mahmoud (North)

52.

23.

Bin Mahmoud (South)

53.

24.

AI Muntazah

54.

25.

AI MansouraiBin Dirham

55

AI Soudan Sou!hlAI AZiziyaiAI


Ghanim/Al Murrah

26.

Najrna

56.

AI Khulaifat AI Jadeeda

27.

Umm Ghuwailina

57.

28.

AI Khulailat

58.

29.

Ras Abu Abboud

59.

Doha International Airport

AI GharrafaiBani Hajer/AI Zaghwa

AI Rayyan AI Jadeed/Muai!her North

30.

January 1997

Page RSQI7

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ROAD SYSTEM IN QATAR

ZONE

Name

No.

ZONE

Name

No.

60.

New District of Doha (West Bay)

81.

Abu Nakhla

61.

Diplomatic District

82.

Rawdat Rashed

62.

New District of Doha (West Bay)

83.

MUkainess

63.

New District of Doha (West Bay)

84.

Umm Bab

64.

New District of Doha (West Bay)

85.

AI Nasraniya

65.

New District of Doha (West Bay)

86.

Dukhan

66.

New District of Doha (West Bay)

87.

67.

New District of Doha (West Bay)

88.

89.

68.
69.

New District of Doha 69

90.

AI Wakra

70.

AI Kheesa

91.

Al Wukair

71.

Umm Sial I AI Kharaitiyat

92.

Mesaieed (Town)

72.

AI Utouriya

93.

Mesaieed (Industrial Area)

73.

AI Jemailiya

94.

Shaqra

74.

Ai Khor

95.

AI Kharrara

75.

Ai Thakhira

96.

Abu SQmra

76.

AI Ghuwairiya

97.

Sawda Natheel

77.

FuwairitiAI Jassasiya

98.

Khor AI Adaid

78.

Abu Dhaiouf/Ai Zubara

79.

Madinat AI Shamall AI Ruwais

80.

Ai Shahhniya

January 1997

..

Page RSQ/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 1 DESIGN SPEED


1.1

relaxations and
considerations

departures

and

special

GENERAL

The speed of vehicles depends on the


capabilities of driver and vehicle and on other
general conditions such as the physical
characteristics of the highway and its roadsides,
the weather, the presence of other vehicles and
finally, the presence of speed limitations.
Although anyone of these may govern, often
the effects are combined.

SECTION 1

In Qatar the weather has an adverse effect on


the relationship between lyre and road surface
and hence design speed. The heat results in a
build-up of rubber deposit on the road surface
from tyres. This in turn decreases the skid
resistance of the road surface. Qatar is also
subject to intense rainfall at certain times of the
year. The addition of rainfall to a road surface
which has reduced skid resistance increases
the potential for accidents. This is particulariy
valid on the approach to and at junctions where
turning and stopping movements are high.
Furthermore, water is often spilled from water
tankers at roundabouts and junctions. Bearing
this in mind, the selection of design speed and
hence stopping distance is extremeiy important.
The design speed of a highway may be defined
as the highest continuous speed at which any
vehicle can safely travel when given favourable
weather conditions and low traffic volumes, so
that the design features of the highway may
govern. Such design features may include
structures, or frequency of junctions. The
design speed is related to the posted speed
which represents the 85 'h percentile of the
design speed, that is the value at which 15% of
vehicles are expected to exceed the design
speed. Refer to Section 1.4 for posted speeds.

Type of Highway

Class

P1
P2

Primary Routes
Rural
Urban

140
120

S1
S2

Secondary Routes
Rural Distributors
Urban Distributors

140
100

TR1
TR2
TR3
TR4
TR5

Tertiarv Routes
Rural Local Road
District Distributor
Local Distributor
Major IMinor Access
Service Roads

100
100
70
60
60

Table 1.1

Design Speed for Various


Road Classifications.

Design speeds for Special Roads (Class


Reference SR1 and SR2) require special
consideration and should be agreed with the
Director of Civil Engineering.
All reference to speed in this manual should be
taken as the design speed unless noted
otherwise.

1.2

DESIGN
SPEED
PARAMETERS

The design speed for various road


classifications are shown in Table 1.1. The
road classifications are defined in the front of
this manual, refer to Road System in Qatar.
The selection of design speed should be
approved by the Director of Civil Engineering
Department. Refer to Clause 1.8 and 1.9 for

January 1997

RELATED

The driver will vary his speed according to his


impression of the road alignment and layout.
Table 1.2 details the main design speed related
parameters which are dealt with in greater
depth in their respective clauses in this manual.
Parameter

The road alignment shall be designed so as to


ensure that standards of alignment, visibility
and superelevation are consistent with the
selected design speed.
This choice will
essentially be dependent on the provision of the
highway and its location, I.e. single or dual
carriageway or whether in a rural or urban area.
The visibility criteria are dealt with in Section 2
Sight Distance.

Design
Speed
(kph)

Reference

Posted Speed

Reference
Clause 1.4

Table 1.3
Stopping Sight

Clause 2.2

Distance

Table 2.1

Overtaking Sight

Clause 2.3

Distance

Tabie 2.2

Horizontal
Curvature

Table 3.1

Vertical Curvature

Clause 3.2

Clause 4.3

Table 4.4.3
Traffic Calming

Clause 1.9

Table 1.2 Design Speed Related Parameters

Page 1/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

1.3

SELECTION OF DESIGN SPEED

The designer must select the appropriate


design speed based on his knowledge of the
class of highway planned, the character of
terrain, development density, traffic volumes
and economic considerations. Generally for
Qatar the design speed is selected using Table
1.1.
Design speeds shall also be selected with
reference to the posted speed limit envisaged
or that which is already in place for the road and
the Road Network Plan. An allowance shall be
made for a margin of safety for vehicles which
will travel in excess of the speed limit. Refer to
Section 1.4 below.
1.4

POSTED SPEED

Design Speed
(kph)

Posted
Speed (kph)

140
120
100
80
70
60'

120
100
80
60
60

or less'"
.Special consideration50required
for
[ower class roads, see Clause 1.9

Relationship between Design


Speed and Posted Speed

The above table allows for a margin of safety


appropriate to the selected design speed.

1.5

CHANGEOVER OF DESIGN SPEED

Transitions between roads (or sections of a


road) with different design speeds shall be
carefully implemented so as not to present the
driver with an abrupt change in standards. For
details of signing the speed reduction refer to
the Qatar Traffic Manual.
Where an alignment changes from a higher to
the next lower design speed, relaxations below
the desirable minimum radius and desirable
minimum stopping sight distance shall not be
used at the start of the lower design speed
section.

January 1997

1.6

CONNECTION TO EXISTING ROADS

Care shall be taken where an improved section


of road rejoins an existing road. The existing
standard of curvature and sight distance at the
interface shall be subject to the same
restrictions as would be relevant for the design
speed of the Improvement.
Careful
consideration shall also be given for roads
passing between rural and urban areas, posted
speed step down and also dual to single
carriageways, although this latter case should
be limited to junction locations only.

In all cases it is important to emphasise the


need for clear signing at any location where
there is a speed reduction.
1.7

Posted Speed is the mandatory speed limit


applied to a road. The speed limit is displayed
on the roadside and is enforceable. The posted
speed limits to be implemented in relation to
design speed are shown in Table 1.3 below.

Table 1.3

SECTION 1

SELECTION
VALUES

OF

PARAMETER

Designers should normally aim to achieve the


desirable minimum values for stopping sight
distance, horizontal curvature and vertical crest
curvature. For sag curves, designers should
normally aim to achieve at least minimum
values.
1.8

RELAXATIONS AND DEPARTURES

Generally for Qatar the design speed is


selected using Table 1.1.
In certain
circumstances it may be uneconomic to design
an alignment to the prescribed standards and
consequently a reduced standard may be used.
This is termed a "relaxation". In situations of
extreme difficulty where application of a
relaxation does not overcome the difficulty, it
may be possible to overcome them by adoption
of departures from standard.
Any such
relaxations or departures must be agreed in
writing with the Director of Civil Engineering.
Table 1.4 shows the allowable relaxation of
design speed for the different classes of roads
in Qatar.
The road classifications for Qatar and Doha are
described in the front of this manual. The
selection of a design speed is particularly
difficult for some of the roads in the older areas
of the city. These areas are not so easily
classified into land use and factors such as
access and parking need to be assessed in
determining the design speed.
Other
considerations are the number and spacing of
junctions on a particular section of road.
Relaxations and departures provide a means of
accommodating these areas.

Page 1/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Type of Highway

Class
Reference

Primary Routes
Rural
Urban

P1
P2

Design
Speed (kph)
140-120
120-100

Secondary Routes

S1
S2

Rural Distributors
Urban Distributors

140-120
100

TR1
TR2
TR3
TR4
TR5

Tertiary Routes
Rural local Road
District Distributor
Local Distributor
Major Access
Seryice Roads

100
100-70
80-60
60-50
60-30

Table 1.4

Design Speeds for Various


Road Classifications.

Departures below minimum values may be


considered when cost or environmental savings
are considered to be significant, except in the
folloWing circumstances:

immediately following an overtaking


section on single carriageway roads.

on the immedia1e approach to a


junction, other than a roundabout,
where frequent turning traffic will occur.

1.9

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

SECTION 1

Traffic calming measures may be introduced on


existing roads to reduce traffic speed. This is
achievable by the use of narrow lanes,
chicanes, width or height restrictions, speed
bumps or different textures or colours of
pavement.
Care shall be taken to ensure that traffic
calming measures, being introduced do not
impede emergency service vehicles.
A typical speed bump may be 305m in length
with its profile reaching a maximum of 100mm.
They should ideally be located at 100m
intervals. Much shorter intervals result in
inconvenience to the residents, whereas for
much longer intervals the overall speed control
is lost. For safety reasons speed bumps should
not be located near junctions or sharp bends.
For further details on traffic calming measures,
refer to the Qatar Traffic Manual.

Special consideration is required for residential


and commercial areas.

The posted speed in residential areas is 50kph


for local roads and lower for access roads.
Lower speeds may be posted in special
circumstances such as residential cul-de-sacs
or in industrial areas where the facilities are
designed to distribute vehicles to their final
destination.
The lower design speeds applied in residential
and urban areas do not require superelevation
on bends or other special dynamic related
considerations.
One-way roads may be used for local and
access roads usually in the form of discreet
loops.
One-way roads should be designed so as not to
encourage speeding. This may be achieved by
the use of narrow lanes and avoiding long
straight sections of road, and by implementing
anyone or more of the traffic calming measures
listed below.

January 1997

Page 1/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 2 SIGHT DISTANCE


2.1

a) Vertical Plane

GENERAL

2.:w

Sight distance is the continuous length of road


ahead, visible to the driver, assuming adequate
iight, visual acuity and clear atmospheric
conditions. The arrangement of geometric
elements is crucial to ensure adequate sight
distance exists for safe and efficient operation.
There are two separate sight distances to be
considered:

..

SECTION 2

Stopping Sight Distance (for all roads)

Full Overtaking Sight Distance (for


single carriageways only)

Safe stopping distance must be provided


continuously on all highways. Safe overtaking
distance is appiicable only on two-lane
highways, primarily in rural or outlying urban
areas.
2.2

STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) is the distance


required by the driver of a vehicie travelling at a
given speed to bring his vehicle to a stop after
an object on the carriageway becomes visible.
SSD has three components; perception time,
reaction time and braking time. A combined
driver perception and reaction time of two
seconds has been allowed for in Table 2.1.

Speed (kph)

Stopping
Sight Distance 1m)

140
120
100
80
70
60
50
40

350
295
215
160
120
90
70
60

Design

Table 2.1

b) Horizontal Plane

Figure 2.1

Measurement of Stopping Sight


Distance (SSD)

2.3 FULL OVERTAKING SIGHT DISTANCE


Full Overtaking Sight Distance (FOSD) is the
minimum sight distance that must be available
to enable the driver of one vehicle to pass
another vehicle safely and comfortably, without
interfering with the speed of an oncoming
vehicle travelling at the design speed. In the
interests of safety and service, it is important to
ensure sufficient visibility for overtaking on as
much of the road as possible. FOSD influences
the average speed of the traffic especially when
a highway is near operating capacity.
Table 2.2 shows for each design speed the
FOSD required for overtaking vehicles using the
opposing traffic lane on single carriageway.
roads.
These are minimum values and
wherever possible, larger values should be
used.

Stopping Sight Distance SSD

Stopping Sight Distance is measured from a


driver's eye height of between 1.05 and 2.00m
to an object height of between 0.26 and 2.00 m,
above the road surface, refer Figure 2.1. It
shall be checked in both the horizontal and
vertical plane between two points in the centre
of the lanes on the inside of the curve (for each
lane in the case of dual carriageways).

January 1997

O.26m

2.0m
1.05m

Table 2.2

Full Overtaking

Design Speed
(kph)

Sight Distance (m)

140
120
100
80
70
60
50
40

910
720
580
490
410
345
290
215

Full Overtaking Sight Distance


FOSD

FOSD shall be measured from a driver's eye


point between 1.05m and 2.00m above the
centre of the carriageway (for each lane in the
case of dual carriageways) as shown in Figure
2.2 and shall be checked in both the horizontal
and verticai planes.

Page 2/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 2

FOSD is considerably greater than SSD and


can normally only be economically provided in
relatively flat terrain where the combination of
horizontal and vertical alignment allows the
design of a flat and relatively straight road
alignment.

Envelope of visibility

'~:~/"$H~efm

central offset required with varying horizontal


curvature, in order to maintain the design speed
related stopping sight distances. It can be seen
that extensive widening of verges and
structures, or medians with safety fence or
safety barriers, would be required to maintain
stopping sight distances on horizontal radii
below the minimum.
Figure 2.4 shows the maximum central offset
required with varying horizontal curvature, in
order to maintain the design speed related full
overtaking sight distance. It can be seen that
the higher requirements of FOSD result in
extensive widening of verges for all but
relatively straight sections of road.

2.6

Figure 2.2

Measurement
of
Full
Overtaking Sight Distance
(FOSD)

Where possible on a single carriageway it is


advisable to design sections of road specifically
for overtaking. This will reduce the frequency of
serious accidents occurring on 'roads with
continuous large radius curves.

2.4

OBSTRUCTIONS
DISTANCE

TO

SIGHT

Care shall be taken to ensure that no


substantial fixed objects obstruct the sightlines
including road furniture, bridge piers, buildings,
signs and cut slopes. However, isolated slim
objects such as lamp columns, sign supports, or
other slim objects of width 550mm or under can
be ignored.
Similarly, the effect of short
intermittent obstructions, such as bridge
parapets of minor roads under, can be ignored.
Lay-bys or parking lanes should, wherever
possible, be sited on straights or on the outside
of curves, where stationary vehicles will not
obstruct sightlines.
Sightlines should be checked where safety
fencing is installed.
2.5

EFFECT OF HORIZONTAL CURVES


ON SIGHT DISTANCE

When a road is in a cutting or at bridge


crossings it will be necessary to widen verges
or increase bridge clearances to ensure that the
appropriate stopping sight distance is not
obstructed. Figure 2.3 shows the maximum

January 1997

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

It is vital that drivers on an access or minor road


should have adequate visibility on the approach
to a junction with a major road. The driver
should have sufficient visibility to judge when to
join the main carriageway. Furthermore, it is
important for the driver on the major road to be
aware of the vehicle approaching the junction
on the minor road.
The required visibility criteria for junctions is
given in Section 6 Junctions.
The required visibility criteria should also be
applied to private accesses and driveways
leading onto access roads.
The visibility required on bends is shown in
Table 2.3 below.
Visibility distance (m)
Type of Road

Local Roads
Access Roads
Table 2.3

Absolute

Desirable

Minimum

Minimum

50
30

70
50

Required Visibility on Bends for


Residential Roads.

Where there is likely to be increased pedestrian


traffic, care must be taken to ensure that
visibility is not impaired by pedestrians. This
could occur at the following residential and
commercial locations :

Pedestrian crossing points

Sikkas and alley-ways


Schools

Page 2/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Shopping areas

Sports venues

Cinemas

Bus stops

SECTION 2

In existing
residential or' commercial
developments, it is important to review the
visibility on 90 degree bends. Where it is not
possible to achieve the required visibility,
consideration should be given to using a larger
radius or even locating a junction on the bend.
In new developments where it is not possible to
avoid the use of a 90 degree bend, the foilowing
should be considered:

Avoid building.on corner plots

Use low landscaping

Avoid placing street furniture and


signing within the visibility splay.

Care should also be taken when locating


.parking areas as parked cars wiil impede
visibility at tight bends, junctions and driveway
locations. Refer to Section 5 for further details
on parking.

January 1997

Page 213

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visibility should be checked from the plans.

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where SSD curve length. Land for

if

The values shown are maxima and apply

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i5
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I~ I~I~ I~ ~

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3.53

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1.76
1.25

3000

4000

5000

6000

RADIUS Rm

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oZ
N

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 3 HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT


3.1

provide
adequate
superelevation
crossover between the curves.

GENERAL

d)

Broken-back curves consist of two


curves in the same direction connected
with a short straight and should not be
used. This type of curve is unexpected
by drivers and is not pleasing in
appearance. An attempt should be
made to adopt one simple curve or
even a compound curve.

e)

Horizontal alignment and its associated


design speed should be consistent with
other design features and topography.
Co-ordination with vertical alignment is
discussed in Section 4.5.

f)

On duai roads, consideration may be


given to independent horizontal and
vertical
alignments
for
each
carriageway.

3.2

MINIMUM CURVATURE

The most important consideration in determining


the horizontal alignment of a road is the
provision of safe and continuous operation at a
uniform design speed for substantiai lengths of
road way. The major aspects influencing the
horizontal alignment are; safety, design speed,
topography, costs, vertical alignment and road
classification.
All of these factors must be balanced to produce
an alignment that is safe, economical, and in
keeping with the natural contour of the land and
the adjacent land use. Poor design will result in
lower speeds and a reduction in the capacity of
the road and safety.

SECTION 3

The design of a road on straight alignment


requires consideration of grades, sight distance,
pavement, reservation cross section, etc. When
horizontal curves are introduced, additional
items including radii, transition lengths,
pavement widening and superelevation require
special attention.

The minimum curvature without the need for


adverse camber, superelevation or transitions
is shown in Table 3.1 below.

In addition to the specific guidance given in this


section, there are a number of general
considerations which are important in producing
a safe and economic design. These practices,
as outlined below, are particularly applicable to
high speed situations.
a)

Flatter curves for a certain design speed


should be used where possible,
most conservative
retaining
the
standards as possible for the most
critical conditions.

b)

Compound curves consist of two or


more consecutive curve alignments.
They should be used with caution and
should be avoided where conditions
permit the use of a simple curve.
Where compound curves are used, the
radius of the flatter curve should not be
more than 50 percent greater than the
radius of the sharper curve for rural and
urban conditions. On this basis, a
several step compound curve may be
used as a form of transition to sharp
curves or a spiral, transitioning from one
radius to the next. This condition can
be relaxed for lower speeds at junctions
and roundabouts.

c)

Reverse curves on high speed roads


should include an intervening tangent or
transition section of sufficient length to

January 1997

Design
Speed
(kph)

Minimum Radius
without Adverse
Camber,
Superelevation or
Transitions
(m)

140
120
100
80
70
80
50

3800
2880
2040
1300
1020
720
510

Table 3.1 Minimum Radii without transitions


Where the radius of curvature is less than the
value indicated in Table 3.1, trp.nsition curves
should be used.

3.3

TRANSITION CURVES

The adopted form of transition between a


straight and a horizontal curve is a clothoid,
also known as transition curve. It provides a
usefui and logical section of the alignment for
the development of superelevation and is the
most common method adopted.
Where it is not possible to adhere to the values
of curvature given in Table 3.1, a transition
curve should be used.

Page 3/1

SECTION 3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


The length of transition depends on the radius of
the circular curve and the design speed. The
basic length of the transition is given by the
formula:
L=

Where:

va / (46. 7qR)

L=

V=
q=

R=

length of transition (m)


design speed (kph)
rate of increase of
centripetal acceleration
(m/sec 3 )
radius of curve (m)

Normally, q should not exceed 0.3 m/sec3


However, in particularly onerous cases, it may
be necessary to increase the value up to 0.6
misec'. On bends the length of transition should
normally be limited to .f(24R) metres. For quick
reference some common transition lengths are
given in Table 3.2.
The elements for circular and transition curves
are shown in Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2.
Superelevation or elimination of adverse camber
shall generally be applied on or within the length
of the transition curve from the arc end. The
basic transition appropriate to the design speed
however will often result in insufficient transition
length to accommodate superelevation turnover,
and it will therefore be necessary to provide
longer transitions to match the superelevation
design.
Transitions are not necessary in urban low
speed areas such as junctions and service
roads.
Radius
(m)

2400
2200
2000

1800
1600

1400

Design Speed (kph)

140

120

82
89
98
109
122
140

51
56
62
69
77
88
103

100

36
40
45
51
59
71
89
119

1200 163
123"
1000 196"
800
154"
600
400
200
Refer Table 3.3 for restrrcted

80

70

60

CAMBER AND SUPERELEVATION

On sections of road with radii greater than that


shown in Table 3.1 for the given design speed,
the crossfall or camber should be 2% from the
centre of single carriageways, or from the
central median of dual carriageways to the
outer channels. At junctions other than
roundabouts, the cross-section of the major
road shall be retained across the junction, and
the side road graded into the channel line of the
major road. On horizontal curves, adverse
camber shall be replaced by favourable
crossfall of 2% when the radius for the given
design speed is less than that shown in Table
3.1. However, it may be necessary to eliminate
adverse camber on larger radii for aesthetic or
drainage reasons. Provision of camber and
superelevation In low speed areas such as
commercial or residential areas has a tendency
to encourage drivers to drive faster and should
be avoided. Refer to Clause 3.8 for special
considerations relating to low speed areas.

30
37
46
61
91

24
31
41
26
22
61
39
77
45
122
use of superelevatlon

The following superelevation and minimum


curves are recommended (Table 3.3).
Minimum Radius (m) for

Desig

n
Speed
(kph)

(c) Superelevallon

(a)
Normal
Camber

(b)
Adverse
Camber
Eliminated

3800
2880

2880

2040

2040
1300

1300

1020

1020

720
510
360

720
510
360
255

140
120
100
80
70
60
50

720
510

5%

7"10

2040

1300

1300
1020

1020
720
510
360
255
180

1020
720
510
360
255
180
127

3.5%

7% may be only used at speCial locattons and must have the


permission of the Director 01 Civil Engineering Department prior to
its use.

Table 3.3

Minimum Radii with Camber


and Superelevation

On radii less than those shown in Table 3.1


superelevation shall be provided, such that:

Table 3.2 Basic Transition Lengths (m)

January 1997

50

3.4

= II' /2. 828R

Where:
S = Superelevation (%)
V = Design Speed (kph)
R = Radius of Curve (m)

Page 3/2

SECTION 3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Superelevation shall not exceed 5%. Only In


special circumstances and with prior permission
from the Director of Civil Engineering
Department will superelevation greater than 5%
be considered. Table 3.4 gives examples of
superelevation for selected design speeds and
radii.
Design Speed (kph)

Radius
(m)

2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200

140

120

2.88
3.15
3.47
3.85
4.33

3.15
2.31
2.56
2.83
3.18
3.64
4.24
5.09'
6.36'

4.95

5.78'
6.93

100

80

70

60

50

2.12
3.18
6.6S

2.21
4.42

2.21
2.53
2.95
3.54

2.26

4.42
5.89'

2.83
3.77
5.66'

2.17
2.89
4.33

Special Circumstances see above

Table 3.4 Superelevation of curves (%)


Progressive superelevation or removal of
adverse camber shall be achieved over or within
the length of the transition curve from the arc
end. On existing roads without transitions,
between Y2 and % of the cant shall be
introduced on the approach straight and the
remainder at the beginning of the curve.

When expanded, this formula provides the


equation for the vertical reverse curve to be
used for the superelevation curve. This reverse
curve is shown in Figure 3.3
In some difficult areas, even the above
requirements can lead to drainage problems,
ego where the superelevation is applied against
the longitudinal gradient. It may be necessary
to either modify the horizontal alignment to
move the superelevation area, increase the
variation in grade of the edge profile, or appiy a
rolling crown.
Areas susceptible to such
drainage problems shouid be identified at an
early stage in the design process, before the
horizontal alignment is fixed.

__~[~

I ~:r

I
I

--=L

Y = 3SX;/L 2 _2SX'/L 3
wh ere Y = offset
S = maximum offset
X distance from start of application

L = length of application

Figure 3.3
Superelevation shall not be introduced, nor
adverse camber removed, so gradually as to
create large, almost flat areas of carriageway, to
cause driver discomfort or to kink the edges of
the carriageway. A satisfactory appearance can
usually be achieved by ensuring that the
carriageway edge profile does not vary in grade
by more than about 0.5% from the line about
which the carriageway is pivoted, and by ample
smoothing of all changes in edge profile. It is
recommended to ensure that a minimum
longitudinal gradient of at least 0.5% is
maintained wherever superelevation is to be
applied or reversed. The distance to satisfy this
constraint is given by the equation:

Reverse Curve Formula

Figure 3.4 shows typical methods of developing


superelevation by rotating about the edges and
the centre of the road. The designer should use
the most appropriate method to suit the
situation.
For dual carriageways, greater
consideration of topography, cut and fill,
catchment and median drainage is required.

G=%xSIL
Where:
G=
S=

L=

January 1997

rate of change of gradient


(0.5%)
change
in
channel
superelevation relative to the
line
about
which
the
carriageway is pivoted (m)
length
required
to
accommodate the change in
superelevation (m)

Page 3/3

SECTION 3

QATAR HiGHWAY DESiGN MANUAL

,.

Elements:
PI
::;: Point of Tangent Intersection
BCe::;: Beginning of Circular Curve
ECC::;: End of Circular Curve
/).C = Deflection Angle of Circular Curve
R
::;: Radius of Circular Curve
T
::;: Tangent
LC ::;: Length of Curve

BCC

ECC

Circular Curve-

..
Figure 3.1

Circular Curve Elements

Elements:
PI

= Point of Tangent Intersection

BTC = Boginning of Transition Curve


Bee = Beginning of Circular Curve
ECC = End of Circular Curve
ETC = End of Transition Curve
6.
= Total Deflection Angle
6r = DeJlection Angle: of Transition Curve
fie = Deflection Angle of Circular Curve

= Radius of Circular Curve


= Main Tangent

R
MT
TK

::;: Short Tangent of Transition Curve

TL
XM

= Long Tangent of Transition Curve


= Abscissa of the Center of Radius Point

Li R
X
Y
LT
LC

= Circular Curve Offset

= Abscissa of BCC or ECG

= Ordinate

of BCe or ECG

= Length of Transition Curve


= Length of Circu lar C urva

Symmetrical Form of Transition to Circular Curve

Figure 3.2

Transition and Circular Curve Elements

January 1997

Page 3/4

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Tanaen!

SECTION 3

Suoerelevation runoff

Runout

....oW

00
Runoff slope~ 0 0

enw

Slope 1:400~

Normal
crown
-

I- -

f- -I-- _

-::';

ct Grade

_.- -

O..!!ts~e ~g~ofJ.ra~elJed way

-~

"-~

;;;

-/~D

- -

a.

l,!!id~eqge.2J t!!v~ed

-~

way

ct. Profile control

Travelled way revolved about centreline

Tangent

Superetevation runoff
~
00
00

Runout

....
w

enW

Runoff slope ~

o
....
en

Slope 1:400 \
_ c- Normal

crown

_.--

-~

Ci.. Grade

ormal CLProfile grad~

--------

----Inside edge of travelled way

~~...'!ts~e ~dg~ oUra.'!.elled way

Inside edae
Profile control

Travelled way revolved about inside edge

Tangent
Runout

Io

....

en

Superelevation runoff

~Io

.... w
Normal

crown

00

enw

It

RunOffSlope~A

Outside edge of travelled way


---~

Normal ct...Qrofile grade

-:-.. _ _

'n>i

Grade

--

"-~
a.

-~~ -

Inside edge of travelled way

Outside edge
......... Profile control

Travelled way revolved about outside edge


Notes:

A
B
C

= Norm al crown
= Level high side norm al crown low side
= Superelevation at normal crown rate
= Full superelevation

Figure 3.4

Development of Supereievation

January 1997

Page 3/5

SECTION 3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

3.5

WIDENING ON CURVES

The rear wheels of vehicles do not follow the


front wheels exactly on horizontal curves, and it
is more difficult to steer the vehicle on curves.
For these reasons it is recommended to
Increase travelled way widths on curves.

..

Widening is required for carriageways of less


than standard width and for low radius curves of
standard width to allow for the swept path of
long vehicles.
For carriageways of standard width, (3.65m,
7.3m and 11.0m for 1, 2 and 3 lanes
respectively) an increase of O.3m shall be
allowed when the radius is between 90m and
150m. Two lane roads of width greater than
7.9m require no additional widening. Widening
of road widths when the radii is less than 90m is
covered in Section 6 Junction Design.

For carriageways less than the standard width,


widening shall be as shown in Table 3.5.
Radius

LaneWldlh

Additional

Widlh(m)
Standard
Width

Radius less than gOm refer to


SeeUon 6

Radius between gDm and

Standard
Width

150m

Standard

Radius grealer than 150m

0.3
None

Width
Less than
Standard
Width

Radius less than gOm refer to

Section 6

Less than
Standard
Width

Radius between gOm and


150m subject to maximum
carriageway widths o17.9m
and 11.9m (for 2 and 3 lanes
respectively)

0.6

Less than
Standard
Width

Radius between 150m and


300m subject to maximum
carriageway widths of 7.3m
and 11.0m (for 2 and 3 lanes
respectively)

0.5

Lesslhan

Radius between 300m and


400m sUbject to maximum
carriageway widths of 7.3m
and 11.0m (for 2 and 3 lanes
respectively)

0.3

Standard
Width

Table 3.5

Application
Width

January 1997

of Additional

Lane

Page 3/6

,.

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 3

Circular curve

/'

."..

_--'t--_
-- --:;:;~~~~~;--...
./

axirn uOl s.upe~elevation "S"


& widening "w"

..
Widening

./--Avoid reserve curve


at this point

Transition curve may be widened on inside and outside

\II
-ct-_

Simple curve may be widened on inside only

Figure 3.5

Widening of Pavement on Curves

January 1997

Page 3/7

SECTION 3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


3.6

HARMONISING THE ALIGNMENT

The choice and arrangement of the linear


elements are crucial factors in ensuring that the
road will look right in its surroundings and will
be pleasing to the driver of the vehicle. The
design shal[ also provide a safe route, with the
necessary stopping sight distances.

viewpoint is at the same distance from the start


of the curve then an improvement is not
achieved, in fact the kink will appear to be
rather more pronounced.

......
The aim of flowing alignment is to combine the
various components in a manner which results
in the road being experienced by the road user
as a free-flowing, harmonious form without
visual discontinuities. Such a design results in
better integration of the road into the landscape
and helps to make the road a construction
which is visually pleasing from the viewpoint
both of its users and those outside the road
reservation.
The principles of flowing alignment are closely
linked with the way in which the driver sees the
road line and in particular the shape of the road
edges.
It is advisable to avoid small changes in
direction in a flowing alignment. These are
likely to appear unsatisfactory from the vehicle.
Furthermore, small transverse displacements
can present a confusing prospect for the driver.

StraIght

Short
curve

Straight

I
Figure 3.6

Example of Kink

In all cases, when additional width is required,


the extra width should be applied uniformly
along the transition curve. Where existing
alignments are to be improved the Widening
should take place on the inside of curves. This
is shown in Figure 3.5.

_-- ,

,,
8

n
./
Figure 3.7

Improved View with Larger


Radius

Even with a large radius curve, it is not possible


to avoid the illusion of a sharp change in
direction if the approach straights are
sufficiently long, refer Figure 3.8. The best
results are likely to be achieved with the flowing
alignment when straights can be dispensed
with. This of course is not always possible or in
fact desirable. For example, in roads Which are
not dual carriageways, the sight lines on
stretches of road where overtaking is permitted
must be based on passing sight distance and
not stopping sight distance. Straight lengths
may then be required to achieve these sight
distances. Also, it should be borne in mind that
such effects will not necessarily be significant in
the total view for any particular case. Each
design should be considered in its landscape
context. This is true of many aspects of internal
harmony, although the greater the design
speed, the iess the externai features modify the
internal views. This occurs because vegetation
and buildings are further back from the road
edge, the carriageways are wider, sight lines
longer and the roadworks generally constructed
to a larger scale.
Abrupt changes in direction can be
unsatisfactory on access roads as well as
highways. In Figure 3.9 the straights have been
joined without the use of a horizontal curve.
The appearance is quite different when a
horizontal curve is added, refer Figure 3.10.

When two straights are connected, the use of a


short horizontal curve Is likely to cause the
appearance of a kink, refer Figure 3.6. In such
cases the impression can be improved by
employing a larger radius, but an improvement
only results provided the views being compared
are taken from the same distance from the
vertex of the curve, refer Figure 3.7. If the

January 1997

Page 3/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 3

Figure 3.8

Illusion of a Sharp Bend with Long Straights

Figure 3.9

Anguiar Geometry

January 1997

Figure 3.10

Curved Geometry

Page 3/9

SECTION 3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Short straight sections of road should not be


interposed between horizontal curves of
opposite sense since the appearance of a kink
is likely to result, refer Figure 3.11. A possible
solution is the use of a pair of transition curves
refer Figure 3.12. When designing for slower
speeds or in the case of very large radii it may
be feasible to join the two curves directly as
shown in Figure 3.13. This could be done with
care since here also an impression of lack of
'
flow may result.

Similarly, in the case of two subsequent curves


in the same direction. the use of an intermediate
short straight, as shown in Figure 3.14. is likely
to produce an unsatisfactory visual effect. Here
there may be the possibility of replacing the two
curves and the straight with one circular curve,
refer Figure 3.15. Another possibiiity may be to
interpose one transition curve between the two
radii. refer Figure 3.16.

A series of reverse curves is likely to produce a


flowing alignment which is pleasing to the eye
and comfortable for the driver. This type of line
is ideal for integrating a route into an undulating
landscape.
Figure 3.17 summarises alignments to be
avoided and those to be attained where
possible.

Circular
curve

Circular

curve

Straight

Figure 3.11 Short Straight Between Curves

3.7

HORIZONTAL CLEARANCES

Generally. no structures apart from roadside


furniture. such as signs and lighting coiumns,
are allowed to fall within the road reservations.
The positioning of signs and other street
furniture should be in accordance with the Qatar
Traffic Manual. If it is not possible to position
structures outside the reservation, consideration
should be given to providing a safety barrier or
safety cushions, refer clauses 5.15 and 5.16
respectively. Setback of crash barriers is dealt
with in the clause referenced previously.
Structures should not be placed within 1.2m of
the edge of the hard shoulder, or a.6m of a
kerbed road.

Circular

Circular

curve

curve

Transition Transition

It is important to ensure that sight distance is


not impaired. especially at junction and
driveway locations. Refer to Section 2 Sight
Distance.

Figure 3.12 Back to Back Transitions

I~
Circular

Circular

curve

curve

Figure 3.13 Back to Back Circular Curves

January 1997

Page 3/10

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 3

Circular
curve

Circular
curve

Straight

Figure 3.14 Two Subsequent Curves in the Same Direction

Circular curve
Circular
curve

Figure 3.16

Figure 3.15 Single Circuiar Curve

Transition
curve

Circular
curve

Single Transition Curve


Between Two Curves

To be avoided

1 Small change of direction

2 Short horizontal curve between two straights

3 Short straights between horizontal curves of


opposite sense

4 Short straight between horizontal curves of


the same sense

5 Out of balance alignment

To be attained

1 Well-balanced alignment

2 Use of curves rather than straights where


feasible

Figure 3.17 Summary of Alignments to be avoided and those to be attained

January 1997

Page 3/11

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

3.8

SECTION 3

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Case 1

Residential roads selVe or give access to


private dwellings or properties. They should be
designed to selVe the needs of the residents
and at the same time discourage through traffic
by ensuring that the roads are not used as a
short cut.

Standard cross section, carriageway falls


from centre-line at nominal 2%. To
continue this cross-section around a
curve would introduce adverse camber.

Minimum recommended centre line radius


for local roads (TR3) is 130m and for
access roads (TR4) is 5Sm
Case 2

Normal 2% crossfall applied across the

full section, falling from the outer kerb


towards the inner kerb

Generaliy the design of roads in residential


areas and local street systems should consider
he foliowing:

Minimum recommended centre line radius


for local roads (TR3) is 100m and for

access roads (TR4) is 45m

Local streets should be designed to


minimise through traffic movements.
Street patterns should
excessive vehicle travel.

Case 3

minimise

The local circulation should not have to


rely on extensive traffJc regulations or
signs in order to function properly.

Traffic generators within residential


areas such as schools, mosques or
shopping
facilities
should
be
considered in the overali design.

The local street system should be


designed for a relatively uniform low
volume of traffic.

Local streets should be designed to


discourage excessive speeds.

Pedestrian - vehicular conflict should


be minimised.

Parking requirements should be


provided without reducing visibility
requirements or the safe operation of
the road.

There should
intersections.

be a minimum

of

Local streets should be related to


topography from the standpoint of
drainage, economics and amenities.

The speeds on residential roads are


considerably lower than major, secondary and
primary roads. As the dynamic element is not
so critical, it is not normal to implement
transitions as part of the horizontal alignment,
nor to apply superelevation to a cUlVe.

4% crossfall applied across the fUll

section, falling from the outer kerb


towards the inner kerb
Minimum recommended centre line radius
for local roads (TR3) is 80m and for
access roads (TR4) is 40m

Table 3.6

Possible Road Sections at


Bends

Table 3.6 identifies three possible road sections


at bends.
The introduction of cUlVes to residential roads is
an effective form of speed control. However
bends of smaller radius than those given in
Table 3.6 exaggerate this effect and with
particularly sev.ere bends, induce the sharp
braking/acceleration behaviour which has been
identified as undesirable.
In short cul-de-sac or loops, such as 60m or
less in length, where speeds are low the
desirable minimum inner kerb radius is 15m
with an absolute minimum of 10m.
The minimum radii to be provided at junctions is
discussed in Section 6 Junction Design.
The typical driveway should be designed for
passenger-car operation only. For a 90 degree
turn, an inside radius of 5m and an outside
swept path of a 9m radius will comfortably
accommodate most drivers In all passenger
cars. Temporary encroachment on the wrong
side of a residential street while entering a
private driveway is generally considered
allowable. For higher traffic volumes expected
at the driveways of school or apartment car
parks, increased driveway widths are
recommended.

The visibility requirements for bends on


residential roads Is detaIled in Section 2.

January 1997

Page 3/12

..

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


SECTION 4 VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
4.1

GENERAL CONTROLS

Vertical alignment consists of a series of


gradients connected by vertical curves. It is
controlled by safety, topography, highway class,
design
speed,
horizontai
alignment,
construction costs, adjacent deveiopment,
drainage,
vehicular characteristics and
aesthetics. The verticai alignment is usually
referred to as the profiie.
A smooth prbfiie with gradual changes,
consistent with the class of highway and the
character of the terrain, is preferable to a
vertical alignment with numerous sharp breaks
and short lengths of gradient.
A "roller coaster" or "hidden dip" type of profile
should be avoided. A smoothly rolling profile,
rather than a straight profile can often result in
economy of construction, without sacrificing
operating characteristics and aesthetics.
As the driver progresses along the profile with
increasing chainage, an increasing gradient is
denoted as being positive (+ve) and a
decreasing gradient is denoted as being
negative (-ve).
A broken-back profile (two vertical curves in the
same direction separated by a short section of
tangent grade) is not desirable, particularly in
sags where a full view of the profile is possibie.
Where an at-grade intersection occurs on a
highway with moderate to steep grades, the
gradient through the intersection shall be
reduced if possible. This is beneficial for
vehicles making turns and stops, and serves to
reduce potential hazards.
A superelevation runoff occurring on a vertical
curve requires special attention in order to
ensure that the required minimum vertical
curvature is maintained across the pavement.
For example, the lane profiie on the opposite
side of the road from the superelevation control
line may have sharper curvature due to the
change in superelevation rate required by the
superelevation runoff. It is therefore necessary
to check both edges profiles and adjust where
necessary in order to maintain the desired
minimum vertical curvature.
In flat terrain, the elevation of the profile is often
controlled by drainage. The vertical profile must
be positioned such that adequate drainage
structures can be constructed. In areas where
the surface water is above the ground level or
the groundwater table is immediately below the

January 1997

SECTION 4
surface, the profile shall be established so that
the low edge of the finished shoulder is at least
0.5m above the temporary water level. If the
water table is permanent then the road formation
level should be at least 1.0m above the table
due to the possibility of capillary action. In areas
of rock, if practical, the profile should be
established so that the low edge of the finished
shoulder is at least 0.3m above the rock level.
This should avoid unnecessary rock excavation.
For aesthetic reasons the length of vertical
curves should be substantially longer than the
length required for stopping sight distance.
4.2

MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM GRADES

Generally gradients should be fixed to be


consistent with the topography through which the
highway passes in order to minimise excessive
unnecessary earthworks.
The maximum
gradients for design purposes shall be as shown
in Table 4.1.
Route Classification

Max. Grade

(%)
Primary Route
Secondary Route
Tertiary Routes
Local/District Distributor
Major/Minor Access
Cui de Sac

Table 4.1

4
6
6
10
10

Maximum Gradients

In residential areas, where properties lie


adjacent to the road, the desirable maximum
gradient is 3.3%. Gradients approaching "Stop"
or "Give Way" junctions should be a maximum of
+/- 2% for a minimum of 15m before the "Stop"
or "Give Way" line. Refer Figure 4.1.

MaJor Road

Minor Road
15m min

Figure 4.1

Vertical Alignment at T-Junction


Approach

For drainage purposes, a desirable minimum


longitudinal gradient of 0.5% on kerbed roads
shall normally be adopted.
The absolute
minimum longitudinal gradient for kerbed roads
shall be 0.3%. In flat areas careful consideration
should be given to drainage requirements.
Page 4/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 4

The use of over edge drainage may also be


considered in conjunction with surface channels
or ditches in rural areas. Refer to Section 8 for
further details on drainage.
4.3

VERTICAL CURVES

Vertical curves shall be provided at all changes


in gradient, except at junctions and on lower
classes of roads where the arithmetic change is
less than 0.5%. The curvature shall be large
enough to provide for comfort and where
appropriate, stopping sight distances for safe
stopping at the design speed. The use of the
permitted vertical curve parameters will normally
meet the requirements of visibility. However,
stopping sight distance should always be
checked because the horizontal alignment of the
road, presence of crossfall, superelevation or
verge treatment and features such as signs and
structures adjacent to the carriageway, will affect
the interaction between vertical curvature and
visibility.
A vertical curve is a curve on the longitudinai
profile of a road which allows for a change of
gradient.
A crest (summit) curve is a vertical curve which
is convex in shape. Generally the sign of the
gradient as the driver travels up chainage,
changes from +ve to zero to -ve.
A sag (valley) curve is a vertical curve which is
concave in shape. Generally the sign of the
gradient as the driver travels up chainage,
changes from -ve to zero to +ve.
A K-vaiue is a constant related to the comfort of
the driver.
Vertical curve lengths can be determined by
multiplying the K-values given by the algebraic
change of gradient expressed as percentage, ie
+3% grade to -2% grade indicates a grade
change of 5%.
For dual carriageways curvature shall be derived
from the appropriate K-value in Table 4.2.
Design
Speed
(kph)

Desirable
Minimum
K-value for

140
120
100
80
70
60
50

Table 4.2
January 1997

Absolute Minimum
K-value

Crest

Crest

Sag

230
182
100
55
30
17
10

182
100
55
30
17
10
6.5

50
37
26
22
20
13
9

For single carriageways where the horizontal


alignment has been designed to allow
overtaking, full overtaking sight distance should
not be obstructed by crests. Conversely there is
no merit in providing an overtaking crest if the
horizontal curve does not permit overtaking.
K-values for vertical curvature on single
carriageways are given in Table 4.3
There are two prime factors that affect the
choice of crest curvature, visibility and comfort.
At design speeds of 50 kph and above, a crest in
the road will restrict forward visibility to the
minimum stopping sight distance before
minimum comfort criteria are approached, and
consequently desirable minimum crest curves
are based upon visibility criteria.. This is
discussed further in Section 2 Sight Distance.
Design
Speed
(kph)

Minimum
K-value for
an

Overtaking
Crest

100
80
70
60
50

Table 4.3

400
285
200
142
100

Avoid
Crest
K-values
in this

Absolute

Minimum
Kvalue

Range

Crest

Sag

400 -100
285 - 55
200 - 30
142 - 17
100 -10

55
30
17
10
6.5

26
20
20
13

K-values
for
Carriageways

Single

Particular attention is needed on dual


carriageways to check any restriction to visibility
caused by safety fences, median kerbs, bridge
piers, etc. especially at combined horizontal and
vertical curvature.
Visibility at sag curves is usually not obstructed
unless overbridges, signs or other features are
present. Forthese curves, comfort criteria appiy.
The maximum rate of vertical acceleration is to
be taken as 0.3m/sec2 However for design
speeds of 70 kph and beiow, in unlit areas,
flatter sag curves are necessary to ensure that
headiamps illuminate the road surface for at
least the required stopping sight distance. Sag
curves shouid normally be designed not less
than the absolute minimum K-values in Table
4.3.
Where, at crests, the sight line is across the
verge, consideration shall be given to the design
of a lower verge profile in order to allow for a
maximum overall height of landscaping of 0.5m
More generous sag curves may be required
under bridges and through underpasses etc. in
order to maintain the envelope of required sight
distances.

K-values for Dual Carriageways


Page 4/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

The choice of vertical profile is fixed mainiy by


the geometric standards but is also influenced by
the nature of material in the cuttings and the total
earthworks.
Ideally a balance should be
achieved between cut and fill, and the
calculations should include compaction factors
for shrink and swell and allowance for suitable
and unsuitable material.
Due to the topography of Qatar, it is unlikely that
steep gradients would be implemented which
would require a climbing lane. However, if a
scheme including a climbing lane was to be
considered, reference should be made to the UK
Department of Transport pUblication, Design
Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 6,
Section 1, Highway Link Design (TD 9/93).
4.4

HARMONISING
ALIGNMENT

THE

VERTICAL

This section should be read in conjunction with


Clause 3.6, harmonising the horizontal alignment
and Clause 4.5, combining the horizontal and
vertical alignment.
The valley curve plays an important part in
achieving internal harmony in the alignment,
especially since it can often be viewed along its
whole length at one time. This is not normally
possible in the case of .crest curves but for this
reason particular attention must be paid to
ensuring that visual continuity is maintained.
This leads to the avoidance of short summit
curves even though they may satisfy visibility
requirements.

I Gradient ..
-1--1Valley

_ _ G=,a.=.di.=.on""---II

curve

Figure 4.2

SECTION 4
radius must be sufficiently large for the
appearance of a kink to be avoided, refer
Figures 4.2 and 4.3. Even large radii will give
the appearance of an abrupt change in direction
if the viewpoint is sufficiently far from the curve,
but this is unimportant since, at great distances,
it will not be found disturbing. Drivers do not tend
to become aware of an approaching valley curve
until they are about 500m from the start.

Straight

I I
U~,

Valley curve

Level

Valley curve

Figure 4.4
Tangents, especially short ones, between two
valley curves can result in an awkward looking
line, refer Figures 4.4 and 4.5.

Figure 4.5
A vertical curve is seen as a hyperbola.
Whether or not the junction of a tangent and a
vertical curve presents the appearance of a kink
depends on the curvature of the sharpest bend
of the hyperbola and its location in relation to the
end of the tangent. It is desirable that the
hyperbola does not start at the position of its
smallest radius. In critical cases it is advisable
to examine perspective draWings of the line. An
indication of the effect of small and large radius
vertical curves on the drivers view are shown in
Figures 4.6 and 4.7 respectively.

I
,

Figure 4.3

{}
I)

As is the case with horizontal curves and


straights, when a valley curve is used to join two
gradients, or a gradient and a level length, the

January 1997

Figure 4.6

Page 4/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 4

\I
I

Summit
curve

I
Q

Valley

curve

Summit
curve

tJ
/1

Figure 4.7

Figure 4.10

A level length of road containing a short low


summit curve can cause a visual discontinuity
since the distant length of road, diminished in
size by perspective, can be seen over the crest,
refer Figure 4.8.

When a terrace is created by a sequence of


summit and valley curves, whether or not there
are tangents between the curves, it is likely to
result in an unsatisfactory view if two summits
can be seen at the same time. An example is
shown in Figure 4.12.

/lwl\v/N/XV)Nlk'iiNhVJ:I0\\Vi\w:w:t\VXWI

I,mm J

F~urv~'l

1\
~/
"

i vm:;; MINlm;1 (PIi \ vA \ Vimx \\l\\\h\\91\\h\\95:

Figure 4.9

January 1997

,r~urv~11

curvo

Figure 4.11

Figure 4.8
Similarly the use of a reverse curve in the
longitudinal section, causing a small change in
level, can result in a visual discontinuity due to
the road surface disappearing from view and
then reappearing. An example of the effect
when a reverse vertical curve is used in
conjunction with level straight lengths is shown in
Figure 4.9. A view of this type can occur with a
double reverse curve, refer Figure 4.10. In the
case illustrated, the line can be improved by
increasing the length of the valley curve and
decreasing those of the summit curves, refer
Figure 4.11 .

b,mm,l

Valley

"""""'" I

I Valley
curve

Summit Valley Summit


curve
curve
curve

7 I

~ , ,,//
,,

\~

Figure 4.12
The lower the terrace is placed and the shorter
its length the more disturbing it is likely to
appear, since it can be viewed from a shorter
distance.
All terraces tend to appear
unsatisfactory when seen from the top. As with
the horizontal alignment, the ideal solution for
the verticai alignment is a series of well
modulated vertical curves proportioned so that
they avoid the problems discussed. Such a
solution can, of course, oniy be used when the
land form and other controlling factors make it
possible.

Page 4/4

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Table 4.4 summarises the type of vertical


alignment to be avoided and that to be attained.

c::::::::::TI:: X

SECTION 4
Plan

Short summit curves


between gradients

Longitudinal section

Short valley curves


between gradients

Figure 4.13

C::I I I

I I

:r

I-----=' X

Short tangent between

-c1 X

Short tangent between


valley curves

CD ITI X
I I

I I

I I I I

j&

I [[I] X

c:r=D::::::J
\ffffI'

summit curves

Reverse vertical curve


causing small change in
level, on a level length
or gradient
A level length or gradient

containing a low valley


curve
A level length or gradient
containing a low summit
curve

Horllontal

--=:1:R
~.

Terracing on which two


summits can be seen at
one time

../

Well balanced alignm.ent

~ ../

Use of curves rather than


straights or gradients
where feasible

Table 4.4

If the out of phase lengths are small this is not


likely to be significant. In fact it is probably
advantageous to have overlap. This may be
considered to contribute to the integration of the
two aspects of the line. When an overlap is
used it should normally be small in comparison
with the length of the element. Yet there are
exceptions to this: the plan and profile
combination of the type shown in Figure 4.14 will
probably produce awkward looking perspectives.
In this arrangement, the horizontal curve ends at
the same point as the vertical curve begins.

V:llley
Levol

curvo

Gradlenl

Summary
of
desirable/
undesirable combinations of
vertical alignment
Figure 4.14

4.5

PHASING OF HORIZONTAL AND


VERTICAL ALIGNMENT

To obtain a satisfactory alignment it is important


to integrate the vertical and horizontal aspects of
the line. In order to accomplish this, the engineer
should consider the road as a three-dimensional
unit. The elements of the horizontal and vertical
alignment should be In phase wherever possible.
In other words, the corresponding elements in
the horizontal and vertical planes should start at
approximately the same points and end at
approXimately the same points, refer Figure 4.13.

January 1997

If prevailing conditions prevent using longer,


coincident curves, it is possible to achieve
significant improvement if longer overlapping
curves are implemented as shown in Figure

4.15.

Page 4/5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

." .. I.. '""" .

SECTION 4

Horizontal

s,,,rn

'

,.

Lovol

Valloy
curve

Gradiont

Figure 4.15
The best results would be obtained if coordinated curves of ionger radius could be used,
refer Figure 4.16. The following combinations of
horizontal and vertical alignment are some
additional examples of those which are likely to
result in an awkward appearance. A summary of
desirable/undesirable combinations of alignment
is shown in Table 4.5.

Figure 4.16
Table 4.5

Summary of desirable/undesirable combinations of alignment

Figure

Notes

4.17
Horizontal curve

I I
11!~umm,11

I I

Y/t,<.()"'VA'0mt..Y;A\(jI.\~t\WAYlt,.v.
V3UOy-lsummlll

Lev "I curve


I

January 1997

curve

CUIVII

A short valley curve within a


horizontal curve. This is similar to the
case of a short valley curve occUrring
along a straight, but the impression of
discontinuity will probably be even
more pronounced.

Love]

2-~-~8
Page 4/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

4.18

SECTION 4
Horizontal curvc

Low summit curve within a horizontal

curve. Here too the discontinuous


appearance is liable to be even more
pronounced than with the low summit

VJXwlR/)},.'JINJliWJI vtIl Vl1;;;;2\YiXWl..YJ/J(,

curve on a straight.

I I I I

l,l~3118~ [summitt
valJo~"i,
curve curve Lovel

Loval

---

CUrY"

:>---~

4.19

Horlzol'lal ~urv

..

cr:c:

Gradient

curvo

Gradlllnt

---------:---7

v---4.20

I V.II., I

il'
~

I"'

Straight

A horizontal curve following a straight

Horizontal
Curve

,I ,

and starting on a valley curve which


follows a gradient. This combination
tends to give the horizontal curve the
appearance of a sharp bend.

~
d

4.21

A short vertical curve connecting


gradients in a long horizontal curve.
This arrangement is liable to result in
the illusion of a pronounced kink in the
alignment. Small changes in direction
between tangents are as undesirable in
the vertical plane as they are in the
horizontal plane.

Gradient

Valley Curve

Straight

Horizontal
cliNg

1~'
~
Valley
Gradient curve Levol

IvaUIIY

Valley curves joined by a level length


or gradient and occurring along a
straight followed by a horizontal curve.
Valley curves joined by a tangent are
undesirable in themselves but when
combined with a horizontal curve in this
way they can produce the results
shown.

curve Gradient

c:;J<;

[:~;;;::J
January 1997

Page4n

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 4
Hallzanlal

4.22

Sltalght

tllrv.

ISl13fghl

I"

..I

,"mm"

Gradl.n!

ell.....

TV,I., 1

CUNa

r:adtDnl

V
4.23

Horizont.l
cUlY"

A tangent length between a vertical


curve and a compound curve.

:I~
I

Wherever possible such a tangent a~b


Instead the
should not be used.
vertical alignment should be so
arranged that the curves can be joined
directly.

Slra!phl

,.. I'

vall.~ I
<lUNa

Gradlant

A summit curve followed by a valley


curve occurring along a straight
followed by a horizontal curve. A
disjointed effect is liable to result when
the beginning of a vertical curve is
hidden from the driver by an
intervening
summit
while
the
continuation of the curve is visible in
the distance beyond.

Summit tillY"

kZ s:J
(

,
a
I

4.24

Horizontal

....S tralght

I curva

A short horizontal curve within a long


valley curve. This combination can
result in the appearance of a kink.

:IJ::;..
Valley curve

~
4.25

Hor!l:onlal

.~
.I I.' ,
Summll

Gradient

4.26

Horizontal
curve

CUrvB

GradllH\1

Horlzofllal
curve

lIT
~

A short horizontal curve occurring on


a short summit curve. This can be
dangerous since the driver is unable to
see the continuation of the curved
horizontal alignment. An even more
unsatisfactory case would be if the
horizontal curve started immediately
over the summit.

A reverse horizontal curve with the


change in curvature situated at the top
of a sharp summit curve. This also is
a dangerous arrangement since the
driver is not able to anticipate the
change in curvature.

/ //(\

Gmdllln,[ Summit curve IGr3dlont

Table 4.5

January 1997

Summary of desirable/undesirable combinations of alignment

Page 4/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Table 4.6 shows a summary of the


combinations of horizontal and vertical
alignment to be avoided and that which is to be
attained.

------------------I

I I

Horizontal curve

I I

I I

I X

~ X

"'"
Lt::1

-----

::J X

-----------

e::cr-----, X

------------c:e::L:b
~

t=r:11f1
January 1997

Short vertical curve


between gradients in a
horizontal curve

Valley curve joined by a


level length or gradient
and occurring along a
straight followed by a
horizontal curve

--..

r-:-

Horizontal curve
containing a loW summit
curve within its length

"'
r:r=t--= X

rcu

curve within its length

Horizontal curve following


a straight and starting
on a valley curve which
follows a gradient

-........

t't--,-,-:c1

containing a low valley

Summit curve followed by


a valley curve occurring
along a straight followed
by a horizontal curve

A tangent length between


a vertical curve and a
compound curve

Short horizontal curve


within a tong valley curve

Short horizontal curve


occurring on a short
summit curve
Reverse horizontal curve
with the change in
curvature situated at the
top of a sharp summit
curve

Out of phase alignment

Badly balanced
arrangement

SECTION 4

t=::r::D ../
~

Horizontal and vertical


curves in phase (the
visual continuity can often
be improved by haVing
the horizontal elements
slightly leading the
vertical ones)

../

Where possible use threedimensionable curves and


avoid the use of straights

../

Use a well balanced three


dimensional alignment

r:==CJ=:1
Table 4.6

4.6

Summary
of
desirable/
undesirable combinations of
horizontal
and
vertical
alignment

VERTICAL CLEARANCES

The minimum vertical clearances are specified


to prevent vehicles or their loads from coming
into contact with any structure or roadside
furniture.
The minimum clearance over the carriageway
Is 5.5m. This Is to be provided across all
trafficked lanes Including and shoulder or edge
strips. The figure of 5.5m allows for 200mm of
pavement construction which may be applied
during the maintenance of the road.
Minimum clearance shall be prOVided to all
structures or roadside furniture that overhangs
the carriageway. These include any bridge or
bUilding structure, sign gantry, overhead cables
or suspended lighting.
Where a public utility specifies a minimum
vertical clearance to its plant then the greater of
the clearances must be provided for. Protective
measures may be required at overhead cable
crossings such as guardwires. Guidance may
be sought from the Ministry of Electricity and
Water when planning works in the vicinity of
their installations.
Where a road passing underneath a bridge is
on a sag curve, the headroom given above
shall be increased In accordance with Table
4.7. The sag radius is measured along the
carriageway over a 25m chord.

Page 4/9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Sag Radius
(m)

SECTION 4

Additional
Clearance

Maximum driveway gradients


properties shall be 1 in 15.

to

Low retaining walls/planters may be


used to assist in matching road levels
to existing plot boundaries. However,
they shall not be allowed present a
hazard to vehicle or pedestrian traffic.

(mm)

1000
1200
1500
2000
3000
6000
>6000
Table 4.7
4.7

80
70
55
45
25
15
nil

Industrial

Sag Radius Compensation

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Special considerations for vertical alignment are


required in many areas, one of the greatest
concerns to the engineer in Qatar being the
flatness of many areas and subsequent surface
water drainage difficulties. Section 8 details the
recommended
minimum
gradients
and
comments on the importance of drainage in
nearly level areas.
Below are listed a number of vertical alignment
considerations specific to certain conditions that
the engineer should be aware of:

Maximum gradients to be 1 in 20 due


to road usage by heavy vehicles.

After long or steep down gradients,


heavy vehicles may require additional
level areas for braking distance or
emergency run-off lanes.

On long or steep up gradients, heavy


vehicles may require climbing lanes to
allow faster vehicles to pass.

Change in transverse or longitudinal


grade should not be significant so as to
cause loss of load.

Residential and Commercial

Need to match threshold levels in areas


of existing development

Preferred maximum siope


housing plots is 1 in 30

Valley points where water may collect


should be kept away from residential
accesses

Road alignment should preferably be


kept below adjacent property level

Minimum length of vertical CUNe should


be 30m due to construction tolerances

Vertical alignment changes where


abrupt or repetitive (such as in flat
areas) can be disguised by being made
at the horizontal bends

Levels of existing utilities require


consideration regarding the vertical
alignment of new roads

Footpath maximum longitudinal gradient


to be 1 in 10. Steps may be used to
overcome worse gradients but are not
preferred as they limit access by
wheelchairs

January 1997

across

Page 4/10

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


SECTION 5 CROSS SECTIONAL ELEMENTS
5.1

ROAD RESERVATIONS

In general the different road reservations are


intended to provide drivers with adequate sight
distances and ailow the public utilities sufficient
space for existing and proposed piant. Where
space for utilities is limited, "way leaves"
outside the road reservation may be obtained
by contacting the relevant pianning authority.
Figures 5.1 to 5.9 show cross sections depicting
the essential elements in typical sections for
two way single carriageways and dual
carriageways for urban and rural roads. Each
of the different elements comprising the cross
sections is discussed in detail in the following
clauses. The cross sections shown are typical
and the final layout of the reservation should be
agreed with the Director of the Civil Engineering
Department.
The recommended reservation details for rural
roads are similar to those for urban roads but
reflect the reduced access and drainage
requirements of the rural situation. Generally
for the rural situation the near side of the
carriageway would not be kerbed although flush
kerbing may be considered at certain locations.
Raised kerbing to the median of rural dual
carriageways should only be provided at
specific locations ego bridges, U-turns. In all
cases an edge strip shall be provided between
the kerb and lane edge. Verges shall be
designed to fall away from the carriageway in
the rural situation and thus water will drain to
surrounding ground.

SECTION 5

proposed land use require carriageways to be


offset to one side then approval from the
Director of the Civil Engineering Dept must be
sought.
In the case of road centrelines being offset from
the reservation. The utilities layout shall be
revised to suit the specific road cross section
proposed, the revised utility locations to be to
the approval of the Utility Authorities.
If the engineer is unable to utilise
recommendations from the typical crosssections because of existing buildings, building
usage or land ownership problems, for example,
then advice should be sought from the Director
of Civil Engineering Department before
proceeding.
Certain special routes, such as abnormal or
exceptional ioad routes or scenic routes, may
require individual reservations to satisfy their
performance criteria, ego the Corniche. In these
cases, consultation should be sought with the
Director of Civil Engineering Department.
In many areas of existing development, road
corridor widths or alignment may be restricted
by property ownerships or old planning. In
many cases, 12m reservation widths were once
the norm. In these situations the designer must
pay particular attention to many factors
including sight distances, clearance at junctions,
utility location, reduced carriageway widths,
restricted access and road closure.

Shoulders are not normally required on rural


single carriageway roads but, generally, edge
strips would be included in the design. Edge
strips may also be considered as an alternative
to fuil hard shoulder construction on rural and
urban dual carriageways for economic reasons.
A standard lane width of 3.65m has been used
on all typical cross sections illustrated.
Exceptions are permitted where it is necessary
to maintain continuity with the remainder of an
existing route, and in new development areas
such as Salwa Industrial Area and the New
District of Doha.
In order to provide adequate drainage, a
standard crossfall of 2% has been applied for
carriageways and medians.
Generally the centreline of the main
carriageway shall be iocated on the reservation
centreline.
However, should existing or

January 1997

Page 5/1

Ctil
:::J

cO'

til

ro

'<

c:

c:

.....

CD
CD

"'!

Ol

SOUTH

NORTH
EAST

WEST

.:2
'0

Verge#

Parking
Lane'

2.15

2.2

o'

Carriageway

3.65

C1'

:::J

'"

Ol

ro
ro

"'
a
o'

<

::J

SA

...

3.65

~ rf1
/

.'\

jl;

Varies

J:J

Verge

2%

G
-

::J:

i5

Telephone

E(D)

Electricity
(Distribution)

E(L)

Electricity
(Lighting)

Sewerage

Water

::J:

...
G

..

Varies

I
SA

'--

~
C

4.35

... 2%

Key

"='"

7.3

:D

Optional

Variable

Gully

SA

Soakaway

en
i5
z

;;:

r-

Dimensions in m

0.5

"'C
til

(Q

ro

;S

1.85

(0)

(L)

1.0

1.0

2.0

0.9

3.65

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(0)

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en

t-

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u ---I

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Key

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E(D) Electricity
(Distribution)

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Variable

GUlly

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::c
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m
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Gi
z

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i5
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::J:

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(Transmission)

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::J:

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Verge

:D

(Distribution)

uC;.

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--

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at Junctions

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EAST

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7.85

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s:

I
Dimensions
in m

'---"

is

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Water

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:$

.5 1.0

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(D)

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WEST
Verge
3.7
Varies

Main Carriageway

11.0

2"

NORTH

EAST

M edian

Main Carriageway

8.0

11.0

Shoulder
3.0

If not Service Road


landscaped I Buffer Zona
10.3

Varies

'i.

., T

(0)

0l511.

7.5

E E
S
(RE) (T) (L)

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.,

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTIONS

~C!

m",

>

m c. '"

CI 'C M
~-

UJUlo

~."~T---

;;:i/ici"k----

Figure 5.8

January 1997

Typical Rural Single Carriageway

Page 5/9

SECTIONS

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

=f
e'C!

~ N

0;

~ q

o M

00

OM
'E r-:

~I

"

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0

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.,;
~

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Figure 5.9

January 1997

Typical Rural Dual Carriageway

Page 5/1 0

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

5.2

SECTIONS

LANE WIDTHS

The use of 4.0m lane widths may be permitted


In particular situations to maintain continuity with
the remainder of an existing route. If the length
of new road concerned is significant,
consideration should be given to adopting a tiein for economic reasons. Where an existing
road with 4.0m wide lane widths is to be
redesigned, the lane widths should be
redesigned as 3.65m wide.

Lane widths have a great influence on the


safety and comfort of driving. it has been
shown that undesirable conditions are
generated on two-lane, two-way, rural roads,
carrying moderate traffic, with road widths iess
than 6.5m. Furthermore, it has been shown
that narrow widths severely affect the capacity
of a road.

Generally lane markings should be allowed for


as Figure 5.10.

In general, the road width to be provided


should be 7.3m, based on a lane width of
3.65m. This provides adequate clearance
between passing commercial vehicles. In
certain circumstances it may be necessary to
increase the road width to 11.3m. This may be
considered on local distributor roads to facilitate
future improvements to turning movements as
the traffic volume increases. This 11.3m width
comprises two 3.65m wide ianes with an
additional 4.0m to facilitate the turning lane.

Edge lines - line provided within the edge strip.


Lane lines - included within the carriageway
width.

The width of turning lanes is discussed in


Clause 5.10.
Where the road edge is kerbed, the
carriageway should be increased in accordance
with Clause 5.5.

Edge

Lane Width

Strip

Edge
Line

Figure 5.10

January 1997

I.

'I

,I
,
,I
1.1 I.
'11'1
,

-!I,

Edge
Strip

Lane Width

Lano

Line

I. Edge

'I

Line

,I

Lane Line / Lane Width Relationship

Page 5/11

SECTION 5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

5.3

LANE CAPACITY

provision sh'ould be made for


improvements to existing sections.

In addition to strategic importance and safety,


the desired characteristics of traffic flow will
generally determine the class of a road. For
example, high voiumes of traffic are generally
associated with urban Primary Routes, where
as low volumes are associated with Tertiary
Routes.
In most urban situations, the capacity of
intersections on a particular network will govern
the capacity of the network as a whole.
Uninterrupted flow only takes place when the
influence of at-grade intersections can be
neglected. This is rarely the case on most urban
road systems.
The capacity of a highway is affected by the
composition and the habits and desires of the
traffic using the road system and the controls
that the designer imparts onto the traffic. These
include:
Commercial vehicles
Lane distribution
Variations in traffic flow
Traffic interruptions.
Under ideal conditions, vehicles can follow one
another at average minimum headways of
about 1.8 seconds, giving a maximum flow rate
of about 2,000 vehicles per hour. A line of
vehicles can start up with an average minimum
headway of about 2 seconds giving a maximum
starting-up rate of approximately 1,800 vehicles
per hour. These maximum rates are reduced
by many prevailing road and traffic conditions.
When two or more lanes are available for traffic
in a single direction, the distribution in lane-use
will vary widely. The lane distribution will
depend
on
traffic
regulations,
traffic
composition, speed and volume, number and
location of access points, origin-destination
patterns of drivers, development, environment,
and local driver habits.
Due to the above factors, there are no typical
lane distributions. The recommendation for
1,600 vehicles per lane per hour recognises
that flow in some individual lanes will be higher
and in others lower. Refer Table 5.1.
At the planning stage, major routes should be
planned and designed as multi-lane, divided,
controlled access facilities even though they
may be developed by staged construction. In
the plans for each stage of development,
January 1997

further

Lane Provision

Road Capacity
(veh/hour)

Single Lane
2-Lane Dualling
3-Lane Dualling

1,600
3,200
4,800

Table 5.1.

Recommended Road Capacity

For detailed assessment of highway capacity


and level of service for different roads, refer to
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of
Communications, Highway Design Manual,
Volume 2, Design of Roadways, Section 1.03.
5.4

SHOULDERS

The addition of a shoulder to the nearside edge


of a road has many advantages. Shoulders
provide structural support for the pavement
edges, emergency parking space for stopped
vehicles and also provide side clearance
between moving vehicles and stationary objects.
They also provide additional running lanes for
diversions and road maintenance. Shoulders
are not usually required on urban single and
urban dual carriageways as structural support is
provided by the kerbs and channels and
stopped vehicles can find a safe place to rest in
driveways and side streets. The shoulder may
be paved to the same standard as the
carriageway or of lesser construction such as to
road base construction. The merits of using a
lesser construction should be considered
accordingly for each particular situation.
Where there is a high traffic volume, narrow
shoulders give very poor service. There is a
greater number of accidents and they incur
more frequent and costly maintenance.
In deciding whether to include a shoulder, the
engineer should consider the following:
a)

Additional width provides a place for


safe stopping because of mechanical
difficulty, flat tyre or any other
emergency.
This also minimises
disruption to traffic flow.

b)

Additional width provides space for


increased mobility to escape potential
accidents or reduce their severity.

c)

Stormwater drainage is improved as the


water can be discharged further from
the running carriageway.

Page 5/12

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

d)

Additional width increases sight


distance in cuttings and improves
lateral clearance to signs and safety
fences.

e)

The apparent openness of the inside


lane reduces driver stress.

f)

A cost benefit analysis should be


carried out at the initial scheme
assessment phase.

Where shoulders are provided a width of 3.0m


should be used at a standard crossfall of 2
percent or as an extension of the crossfall of
the carriageway.

5.5

EDGE STRIPS AND SHY DISTANCES

Edge Strip
Edge strips provide a safer carriageway, with
improved drainage and more space to move in
case of an emergency. Edge strips keep
roadside debris away from the running width of
an outside lane and prevent edge loss on the
running lane.
Edge strips are to be provided on all roads
which are not kerbed.
A width of O.5m is deemed sufficient for an edge
strip width for a median edge on a dual
carriageway. The edge strip width shall be
allowed for within the standard median width
and shall not reduce the lane width. Refer
Table 5.2.
Edge Strip/Shy Distance (m)

Outside Edge

Median Edge

Single
Dual 2
Dual 3

0.35
Shoulder
Shoulder

Urban

Road Type

Aural

Single
Dual 2 < 80kph
Dual 3 < 80kph
Dual 2 > 80kph
Dual 3 > 80kph

..

Kerb + 0.35
Kerb + 0.35
Shoulder
Shoulder

0.5
0.5

Kerb
Kerb
Kerb + 0.5
Kerb + 0.5

Whilst awaIting services and kerbs to be Installed. a


temporary edge strip a.35m shall be added to give a
carriageway width of 8.0m.

Table 5.2

Edge Strips & Shy Distances

Shy Distance
Where a kerb is provided there is a tendency for
drivers to steer a distance away from the kerb,
this is termed "shy distance". At slower speeds
the requirement for shy distance is reduced and
conversely, at higher speeds, an increased shy
distance is required. Where there is an edge
January 1997

SECTIONS

strip there is no need to provide a shy distance.


It is recommended that a shy distance of O.5m
should be added to the road width for each
kerbed road edge on roads with a design speed
greater than BOkph.
On kerbed dual
carriageway roads of design speed less than or
equal to BOkph, a shy distance of O.35m shall
be added to the outside edge as a gutter. Refer
Figures 5.1 - 5.7. The shy distance is an
additional pavement width and the lane width
shall not be reduced. Shy distance at junctions
is discussed further in Section 6.

5.6

MEDIANS

Medians are used to separate opposing traffic


lanes on dual' highways.
They provide
protection from interference by opposing traffic,
minimise headlight glare, provide space for
utilities and future lane width, provide additional
space for crossing and turning vehicles at atgrade junctions, and allow pedestrian refuge in
urban areas.
A median may vary in composition from say a
1.2m width with a pedestrian barrier to a 20m
wide median with street lighting, drainage and
landscaped areas. Medians are dependant on
the width of reservation available and the
functional requirements of the median. Often,
consultation with the relevant planning authority
is required prior to agreement of the width and
function of the median. Preferred standard
median widths are given in Table 5.3.
Narrow

Intermediate

Wide

1.2
2.0

4.0
6.0

8.0
12.0

Table 5.3

Preferred Standard
Widths (m)

Median

Narrow
Narrow medians are those in the range 1.2m to
less than 4.0m and are used in restricted
conditions. Medians 102m wide do not provide
a refuge area for pedestrians but do provide the
minimum space permitted for clearance of
opposing traffic provided the lane edge Is
kerbed. Narrow medians are used where there
is a need to provide a divided road: but where
the available reservation does not permit a
greater median width. Narrow medians are not
wide enough to provide effective left turn lanes.
The minimum allowable median width to provide
a safe pedestrian refuge is 3.5m. Pedestrians
ability to cross at narrower medians shall be
controlled or actively discouraged by the
provision of barriers/high kerbs, continuous
planting and other features.
Page 5/13

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

It is not recommended that narrow medians are


used on rural roads.

SECTIONS

A narrow median should not be considered if it


is possible to provide an intermediate or wide
median at that particular location. Acceptable
standards for the remaining cross section
elements should be maintained.

again, consideration should be given to the


provision of additional storage capacity or
outlets to allow for storm conditions.
All
drainage inlets in the median should be
designed with the top flush with the ground, and
culvert ends provided with safety grates so they
will not be hazardous to out of control vehicles
that run off the road.

Intermediate
Intermediate width medians are those in the
range 4.0m to less than 8.0m and are generally
wide enough to provide for a left turn lane. A
width of 8.0m is the desirable minimum to
provide a left turn lane and a residual median,
and a width of 8.0rn is the desirable minimum to
shelter a crossing vehicle undertaking a U-turn
manoeuvre.

It is common practice to landscape medians.


This is seen to provide a better environment and
reduce driver stress. Careful consideration
should be given to the choice of planting to
ensure that visibility and stopping distances are
not impaired. Furthermore, the upkeep of the
landscape and growth of the plants should be
designed for minimal maintenance and hence
less disturbance to the road user.

Wide
Medians 8.0m or greater in width provide space
for effective landscaping and may be used for
signing, services and drainage. Wide medians
may aiso be used to absorb level differences
across the road reserve. Rural medians should
be a minimum of 8.0m wide with a central safety
barrier.

Watering shall not require tankers to obstruct


the trafficked lanes at any time.

A disadvantage of wide medians occurs at


signalised junctions, where the increased time
for vehicles to cross the median may lead to
ineffective signal operation.
Wide medians should not be impiemented at
the expense of reduced verge widths. Verge
widths are required for pedestrian walkways,
installation of services, traffic signs, drainage
channels, parking etc. Any significant reduction
in verge width may result in hazards in the
verge which negate the advantages of a wider
median.
It is recommended that urban medians should
be kerbed and that rural medians should be
provided with an edge strip and not kerbed. A
kerbed median is desirabie where there is a
need to control left turn movements and is aiso
used when the median is to be landscaped. In
the rural situation, a depressed median is
preferred as this improves drainage of the road.
Special attention should be given to drainage of
medians. If the median is kerbed, the median
surface should be designed to have slopes of 2
percent, and should fall towards the centre of
the median if unpaved, or slope out if paved.
Depending on whether the median is paved or
open, or planted or not, the drainage should not
interfere with the operation of the highway.
Paved medians may require positive drainage
systems incorporating manholes, pipes etc.
Non-paved medians may be self-draining, but
January 1997

Where two abutting sections of highway have


different carriageway widths it is desirable that a
smooth transition should accommodate this
difference. The transition should be as long as
possible for aesthetic reasons and preferably
occur within a horizontal curve.
5.7

VERGES

The verge is a width of the reservation which


facilitates additional functions essential for the
operation of the road. As a minimum verges
must be able to accommodate highway signs,
structures, utility services such as water,
electricity, Q.TEL, drainage, and additionally
such items as traffic signals and street lighting.
Where a verge is adjacent to a development a
set back may be required. Verge widths may
vary from a desirable minimum of 3.0m up to the
limits of the reservation, which could be in
excess of 15.0m. Paved verges should be
designed with a 2% fall towards the carriageway
for drainage purposes. However, in larger
paved areas, falls shall be designed to specific
drainage collection points in the verge.
It is important to ensure that whatever is

installed in the verge (such as structures, signs


or landscaping) does not affect the sight
distances required for the particular design
speed of the road. Additional care should also
be taken at traffic signals and junctions where
more signage is implemented.
Verges may be paved, landscaped or graded
depending on the intended use of the verge.
It may be necessary to increase the verge width
if soakaways are to be installed within the verge.

Page 5/14

SECTION 5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

of
utilities to
be
Due
investigation
accommodated shall be made at the design
stage.
5.8

PARKING BAYS AND LANES

The need for parking is determined by the


existing and future deveiopment of the
immediate surrounding area. Consultation will
be required with the Traffic Section and the
Planning Department to determine the future
.development plans and the amount of on-street
and off-street parking required.
Where possible, parking shall be provided away
from the carriageway and in conveniently
located, specific iots or along service roads.
Parking shouid not be provided near junctions
or opposite access points as this is likely to
increase the probability of accidents and also
hinder sight distance.

Parking Bays (angled parking)


If the width of available reservation allows,
consideration should be given to the provision of
parking bays. Parking bays should not be
permitted on the main through carriageway of
dual carriageways. The perpendicular parking
bay should be made up of stalls 3.0m wide and
8.0m in length. The dimension requirements for
angled parking are shown in Tabie 5.4 and
Figure 5.9. Parking in bays requires greater
adjacent lane width to accommodate the turning
movement depending on the choice of parking
angle.

January 1997

Angle

Figure
5.9

45"

SO'

75'

90'

Stall width, parallel


10 aisle

4.25

3.50

3.25

3.00

Staillengih alline

9.00

7.75

6.80

6.00

Stall depth to wall

6.40

6.70

6.60

6.00

Aisle width belween


slaillines

4.50

5.00

7.10

8.00

Stall depth interlock

5.30

5.95

6.20

6.00

Module, wall to
interlock

16.20

17.65

19.90

20,00

Module, interlocking

15.10

16.90

19.50

20.00

Bumper overhang

0.60

0.70

0.75

0.75

(lypical)

DimenSIons for 3m by 6m stalls

Parking Bay Dimensions (m)

Table 5.4

/-

Provision for parking is achievable by the


following methods.
Parking Lanes (parallel parking)
Parking lanes may be provided adjacent to the
inside lane of the carriageway (ie. the slow
iane). The standard width required for a parking
lane is 2.5m, each bay being nominally 8.5m in
length. Care should be taken when providing a
parking lane to ensure that the design speed is
appropriate to allow a safe stopping distance, if
for example, a passenger were to accidentally
step into the carriageway whilst embarking or
disembarking a vehicle. It is recommended that
parking lanes should only be provided on single
carriageway roads, with posted speeds of 50
kph or less. The lane provision, design speed,
stopping sight distance and traffic volumes
should also be appropriate to allow minimal
interruptions to traffic flow when vehicles are
entering or leaving the parking lane.

On

Dimension

v
x

H
C

F
W.ltle Interlock
Module

Interlocking
Modula

Interlock 10 Kerb
Modul.

x SloU nolDvellable In clltlaln loyout_

Figure 5.9

Parking Bay Dimensions for


3.0m x 8.0m Stalls

Service Road Parking


If there is sufficient reservation width,
consideration should be given to the provision of
a service road to access either a parking lane,
parking bays or designated car park. This
results in a safer highway and fewer
interruptions to through traffic, and enables flow
to be maintained more easily. Refer to Clause
5.11 for service roads.
Parking on Access Roads
Where residential development is dense and the
requirement for additional on-street parking is
likely, then the standard parking lane width of
2.5m shall be used. The minimum parking lane
width is 2.2m. The designer should bear in mind
that the very low number of vehicles using
access roads means occasional on-street
parking by visitors or delivery vehicles wiil not
cause congestion. In fact, their presence will
help to keep the speed of other vehicles low.

Page 5/15

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 5

Parking Exclusions
Parking shall be excluded from the following
locations:

Junctions; to provide space for


pedestrians to cross and to maintain
adequate visibility. See Figure 5.10

Bends; to maintain adequate forward


visibility for drivers

Pedestrian crossing points; to minimise


crossing width and enable crossing
pedestrians to be seen clearly by
drivers

Any other location where parking would


cause unsafe conditions.

.............).

1..-_

----_._._--------._._-------j-_.------_._._---------_._............... l.---j ~'5Ty~_? l----j


5.0m

m'n:7

I ( ""s.om

min.

Parking

;
;

!
*In all cases parking must not encroach on visibility splays.

Figure 5.10

5.9

Typical
Parking
Lane
Treatment at T-Junctions.

SIDE SLOPES

Side slopes fall into two categories.


embankment and cutting. They serve two main
functions; firstly they provide structural stability
to the road, secondly they provide a surface on
which out of control vehicles may travel and
recover, minimising the chance of overturning.

Cut and fill slopes should be flattened as


appropriate with the topography and be
consistent with the overall type of highway. The
intersection of slope planes in the highway cross
section should be well rounded to simulate
natural earth forms. The rounding and flattening
of slopes minimises drifting and wash out of
loose material such as sand and hence reduces
maintenance costs.
It is recommended to carry out an adequate
geotechnical investigation prior to specifying
slopes. The investigation will determine the
maximum slopes for cut and fill and the criteria
for benching or erosion protection if required.
Benches should ideally be 4.0m in width and
laid to falls of approximately 1 in 20 to avoid
ponding of water and consequential slip failure.
In rock cuttings it is recommended to include
ditches and a debris verge to provide a safe
landing and catchment area for possible rock
fall. and removal of surface water run off. This
additional width also provides a useful area for
rock face maintenance. It is becoming common
practice in the UK for rock outcroppings to be
left in place for reasons of economy or
aesthetics.
This may be considered for
application in Qatar. However in such situations
this may prove lethal if a vehicle were to collide
with the outcrop. It is recommended that at all
such locations a safety fence be prOVided.
Refer to Clause 5.15 for safety fences.
For details of sand slopes, wind blown sand and
dune control refer to the Kingdol)l of Saudi
Arabia. Ministry of Communications. Highway
Design Manual. Book 2, Section 1.16, Sand
Dune Control.

Where possible the side slopes should fall away


from the verge at a slope of 1 in 5. It is usual to
consider the provision of a safety fence when
slopes are steeper than 1 in 5 and/or the height
of the slope is greater than 6m. Safety fencing
is discussed in Clause 5.15. Generally, it is
better to use flatter slopes, proViding there is
adequate fall for drainage. Slopes in cutting
should not be steeper than 1 in 2 and preferably
should be 1 in 3 to allow mechanical
maintenance equipment to be used on the
slope. If there is insufficient width which would
require siopes. steeper than 1 in 2. then partial
or fUll retaining walls should be used or some
method of slope stabilisation. Retaining walls
should be set back from the carriageway to
avoid a constricting feeling and reduce stress
for the driver.

January 1997

Page 5/16

,.'.

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

5.10

SECTIONS

AUXILIARY LANES

Auxiliary lanes serve as speed change lanes,


storage lanes or a combination of the two. They
may also be either right turn or left turn facilities
at junctions (refer to Section 6 Junctions). A
speed change lane is primarily for the
acceleration or deceleration of vehicles entering
or leaving the through traffic lanes. A speed
change lane should be sufficient in length and
width to enable a driver to make the necessary
change between the speed of operation on the
through highway and the lower speed necessary
to turn, with minimal disruption to the speed of
following vehicles. Speed-change lanes can
have different layouts depending on the
alignment of the highway, frequency of
intersections and the distance required to effect
the necessary change of speed.
Refer to Section 6 Junctions for further details
on the following topics.
Deceleration Lanes
A deceleration lane consists of a taper and a full
lane width. The length of deceieration lanes
should be determined according to the design
speed of the highway and the design speed
necessary to make the turn. The greater the
difference between these speeds the ionger the
deceleration lane should be. Deceleration lanes
on approach to at-grade intersections can also
function as storage lanes for turning traffic.
Acceleration Lanes
Design considerations for acceleration lanes are
similar to those for deceleration lanes.
Acceleration lanes are provided to permit an
increase In speed before entering the throughtraffic lanes and also to serve as manoeuvring
space, so that a driver can take advantage of an
opening in the adjacent stream of through-traffic
and join it.
Left and Right Turn Lanes
The provision of separate left and right turning
lanes should be determined by a capacity
analysis for the junction under consideration.
Acceleration and deceleration tapers should be
used with these turning lanes. The length of
turning lanes shall depend upon the length
required for speed change and the number of
vehicles to be stored. Typically the storage
length is based on the number of vehicles that
are likely to accumulate in two minutes, as
determined by the capacity analysis, and Is
calculated by the following formula:

January 1997

S=NU30
Where S =
N =

Storage length (m)


Design volume of turning
vehicle (vehicles per hour)
Length in metres occupied by
each vehicle (7m for passenger
vehicles, 12m for trucks)

For further details of junction design and lane


capacity refer to Section 6 Junctions and the
Qatar Traffic Manual.
5.11

SERVICE ROADS

Service roads are roads which run roughly


parallel with, and are connected to the main
through highway. They are generally of low
design speed and preferably restricted to oneway traffic.
Figure 5.7 shows a typical
reservation with a service road.
Service roads provide a number of functions
depending on the deveiopment of the
surrounding area. The provision of service
roads reduces the number of access points onto
the main highway and segregates the higher
speed through traffic from the lower speed local
traffic. This reduces interruption of traffic flow,
makes the best use of road capacity and results
in a safer road.
Service roads may also provide an alternative
route if maintenance is required on the through
road or in case of an emergency..
The width of the servjce road is dependant on
the classification of traffic expected to use the
service road such as light vehicles, delivery
lorries or heavy goods vehicles.
Further
consideration should be given to the turning
requirements of such vehicles, the type and
number of access points and type of street
parking, if required.
Service road connections to the main road
should be designed as at-grade junctions in
accordance with the guidelines given in Section
6 Junctions.
Where one-way service roads'are to be installed
within the reservation the absolute minimum
width of outer median permitted is 1.2m
provided no signing is required. This distance
allows for the provision of a central pedestrian
barrier only. if traffic signs are required or other
street furniture the desirable minimum width is
2.1 m. A wider outer median is preferred, but
this will depend on the width available within the
reservation. Wider outer medians give greater
scope for landscaping which enhances the
appearance of both highway and the
Page 5/17

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


appearance of both highway and
development adjacent to the highway.

SECTION 5
the

Refer to HMSO pUblication, Designing for


Deliveries for detailed explanation and
gUidelines of requirements for service
roads/areas, and turning movements for
different vehicle types.
5.12

PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES

Pedestrian facilities are generally found within


the verge and at road crossing points. The
provision of paved pedestrian areas is related to
the function of the roadside development. It is
often difficult to obtain reliable estimates of
pedestrian volumes and movements. For this
reason, studies should be carried out at the
concept and preliminary design stage. All urban
roads and junctions shall allow space for
footpaths unless the area strictly forbids
walking. A width of 2.0m should be provided
depending on pedestrian needs. The width of
paved pedestrian areas should be increased to
a minimum of 3.0m near schools, large sports
venues, commercial areas or other areas with
high pedestrian volumes. Footpaths may be
constructed of paving blocks or concrete and
laid to crossfalls of 2% towards the roadway to
permit drainage.
Where possible a separation area should be
included within the verge which acts as a buffer
between vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The
separation width should be designed to
discourage pedestrians from standing at the
kerbside. This is achievable by providing a
number of obstacles such as low planting,
raised blockwork or pedestrian barriers. A
minimum separation width of 1.2m is desirable.
A separation width is not required in commercial
areas with on street parking where wider
footpaths are usually provided.
Pedestrians should be activeiy discouraged
from crossing roads along the length of dual
carriageways.
Special pedestrian refuge
sections should be provided at selected points,
or ideally at junction locations.
It is
recommended that these refuge areas be a
minimum of 3.5m wide and should be staggered
so that pedestrians are not able to approach
and cross both carriageways in one line.
On roads with a posted speed of 60kph or less,
it is recommended to provide a pelican crossing
(signaiized pedestrian crossing) or a zebra
crossing (pedestrian crossing defined by road
markings) as a crossing point for pedestrians.
These crossings should be located, signed and
marked in accordance with this manual and with
the Qatar Traffic Manual.
January 1997

In areas with high volumes of pedestrian traffic,


footpaths should be provided on both sides of
the road. Some urban areas and most frontage
roads can be served with a footpath on one side
only.
In these areas, footpaths must be
continuous for the full pedestrian route.

On rural roads, footpaths are not usually


required, except along sections of road where
there is sUbstantial residential or commercial
deveiopment. In such situations, footpaths are
usually located between the bottom of the
embankment and the property line.
Pedestrian Ramps
In order to provide adequate and reasonable
access for the safe and convenient movement of
pedestrian and handicapped persons, including
those in Wheelchairs, kerb ramps should be
included at all pedestrian crossing points. Kerb
ramps should be at least O.9m in width, sloped
at the rate of 1 in 12 or flatter, and located on
the pedestrian side of the kerb face.
The edge of the ramp facing the carriageway
shall be flat and set 25mm above the level of the
road pavement. Drainage equipment such as
gratings should not be placed in ramp areas
where they may caused a hindrance to
wheelchairs.
Structures for Pedestrian Movements
The need for a pedestrian grade separated
structure such as a footbridge or underpass
must be investigated in some depth for each
particular situation. The investigation should
cover studies of pedestrian generating sources,
travelling
patterns,
crossing
volumes,
classification of road to be crossed, land use,
location of adjacent crossing facilities, and social
and cuitural factors. The structure to be provided
must accommodate handicapped pedestrians
and those with wheelchairs. Ramps should be
prOVided to a preferred grade of 1 in 12.
However, a maximum grade of 1 in 10 may be
used in difficult locations. Level landing areas of
1.5m length should be installed such that no
individual ramp section is longer than 9.0m.
Handrails should be provided on all steps and
ramps. The width of the walkway should be a
minimum of 2.5m between walls or railings. It
may be necessary to install pedestrian barriers
in the vicinity of the structure to deter
pedestrians from crossing the road at-grade.
A pedestrian overstructure is preferred to an
underpass.
An over structure should be
designed to be in keeping with the surrounding
area in terms of geometry and architecture. The
required headroom clearance for overstructures
is detailed in Clause 4.6. Lighting and fencing
should be considered on a site by site basis.
Page 5/18

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 5

Pedestrian underpasses shall be well lit with


clear unobstructed visibility. A pavement or
ramp approaching an underpass should provide
a clear view through the underpass. The
desirable headroom clearance through the
underpass is 3.0m.
Specific consideration needs to be given to the
drainage of underpasses both for the removal of
rainwater and effects of high groundwater
levels.

5.14

USE OF KERBS

There are a number of types and combinations


of kerbs available, each with particUlar
applications. Some of the details in regular use
are listed beiow.
Raised kerb
Raised kerb with channel block
Edge kerb

5.13

UTILITIES

Channel block

Road corridors are given in Figures 5.1-5.9.


These are intended to provide adequate space
for road cross section requirements and at the
same time allow the public utilities sufficient
space for existing and proposed plant. Where
space for utilities is limited, "wayleaves" outside
the road reservation may be obtained by
contacting the planning department.
The pUblic and private utilities
accommodated include the following:

to

be

Telephone (Q.TEL)
Cable television
Electricity - distribution
Electricity - lighting
Electricity - transmission
Sewerage
Return effluent

Flush kerb
Dropper kerb
Dropped kerb
Vehicle barrier unit (VBU).
The standard kerb unit is available in a range of
sizes and shapes. The shape is varied to
enable kerbs to be installed on a range of radii.
It is recommended to check the availability and
dimensions of kerbs with the manufacturer as a
full range may not be available in Qatar.
Kerbs provide a number of functions which are:
to define and provide structural support to the
edge of carriageway; to control highway
drainage;
to
segregate
vehicles
and
pedestrians.
Kerbs are to be used on all urban roads and
only at special locations on rural roads, such as
junctions where there is a need to give a clear
delineation of the road edge.

Surface water and land drainage


Water
Oil and gas.
Each utility has their own working procedures
and works specifications. These shall be
referred to when designing the road
construction and drainage facilities.

Where there is a need to install a safety fence


alongside a kerbed section of road, the fence
design, kerb design and drainage design should
be carried out together. The kerb may affect the
choice of safety fence type, and it is important to
ensure that the combined drainage/kerb facility
does not reduce the safe operation of the safety
fence.

Particular consideration may be required to


position soakaways if the reservation width is
restricted. Refer to the typical cross sections
shown in Figures 5.1 to 5.7. Where space is
limited, soakaways may be lowered, by the
addition of rising sections, to allow shallow
utilities such as Q.TEL to pass above the
soakaway chamber. However, in new roads,
priority is to be given to road related utilities, ego
drainage, lighting etc.

January 1997

Page 5/19

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


5.15

SAFETY FENCES

General
A safety fence is a longitudinal barrier used to
shield motorists from natural or man-made
hazards located along a road. It may also be
used to protect bystanders, pedestrians and
cyclists from out of control vehicular traffic.
Safety fences may be located in the verge or
median
depending
on the
particuiar
requirements and location. Refer to Figure 5.11
for the definition of terminology used in safety
barrier design.
The safety fence is designed to prevent an
errant vehicle from leaving the carriageway and
striking a fixed object or feature that is
considered more hazardous than the barrier
itself. This is accomplished by containing and
redirecting the errant vehicle.
On a divided road, a safety fence is located in
the median to separate opposing traffic.
Safety fences should only be installed if they
reduce the severity of accidents. This may
appear subjective, but generally a barrier should
be provided if the consequences of a vehicle
striking a fixed object, or running off the road
are determined to be more serious than hitting
the safety fence itself. Other considerations are
traffic speed and traffic volumes and a cost
analysis.

SECTION 5
minimum radius a standard size car can
negotiate without losing tyre contact. This is
dependant on approach angle and speed as
well as the characteristics of individual vehicles.
Roadside Obstacles
A safety fence should only be installed if it is
clear that the result of a vehicle striking the
barrier will be less severe than the accident
resulting from hitting the unprotected object.
Generally, if an object is greater than 10m
from the travelled way, it does not require
protection.
Table 5.5 summarises of the various needs for
safety fencing.
Pedestrians
The most desirable solution to protect the
innocent bystander is to separate pedestrians
and vehicuiar traffic. If this is not achievable
then consideration of safety fencing shouid be
given at schools, busy commercial and retail
centres, sports venues and other locations
where high pedestrian movements are
anticipated or observed.

The cost analysis is based on:

Removing or reducing the hazard so


that it no longer requires protecting

Installing an appropriate safety fence

Leaving the hazard unprotected.

Median safety fences are generally provided


where the median width is relatively narrow and
the traffic volumes and speeds are high. They
may also be provided where the separated
carriageways are at different ievels, as the
likelihood of an accident increases the steeper
the slope between carriageways. It is important
to provide gaps in the median fencing for
emergency use and maintenance.
Embankments
Embankment height and side slope are factors
in determining safety fence need. The provision
of safety fencing should be considered when
slopes are steeper than 1 in 5 and/or the height
of the slope is greater than 8m, refer to Figure
5.12. Rounding slopes reduces the chances of
an errant vehicle becoming airborne. The
optimum rounding may be defined as being the
January 1997

Page 5/20

c..

CO

C
III

CD

'<

.....
<D
<D
-..j

JJ
c

III

::J

"

.....
.....

:Il

J:

J:

is

!ll.

~o

5"

""0"
sa.
a

::J

(j)

Downstream
Term inal
or E d
Trea Iment

Length of Need

Standard Section

"T1

Hazard or
other Feature
Transition

Standard Section
or Bridge Rail

Length of Need

Transition

Standard Section

Uostream
Termin al
or End

Trealn ent

CD
::J

"

CD

ro
3

(j)

is

s:

:I>
Z
C

:I>

I""

CD

:::l

en

Edae of Pavement

Setback/Clearance to Edge of Pavement


Direction of Travel
(adjacent traffic)

Flare
Rate

Direction of Travel
(opposing traffic)

(j)

~
co
CD
en

~
.....

~
oZ

en

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTIONS

TR:~i~~~~~~:Li2??r/ ;H~LL:tJSECTION EMBANKMENT


R

R=ROUNDING
_

R 'HEIGHT
~'----

1:1

1:1.67

1:2

>-..

1:2.5

~
Q)

0-

.9
CJ)

c:
0

ti

1:3.3

Q)

CJ)

u:::
1:5

1:10

Om

3m

Figure 5.12

January 1997

6m

8m
Height (m)

12m

15m

18m

Barrier not Required for Embankment.


However, Check Barrier need for other
Roadside Hazards.

Requirement for Safety Fences on Embankments

Page S/22

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Types of Standard Sections of Safety Fence

Safety fencing is usually classified as flexible,


.semi-rigid or rigid.
Flexible systems are generally more forgiving
than other categories, as much of the impact
energy is dissipated by the deflection of the
barrier and lower impact forces are imparted on
the vehicle. There are two basic types of
flexible system:

The first is a cabled fence, normally comprising


4 strands of tensioned cable. Cable fences
redirect impacting vehicles after sufficient
tension is developed in the cable, with the posts
in the impact area providing only slight
resistance. The cable fence returns to its
original position and damaged posts are easily
replaced.
The second type utilizes a standard steel beam
section mounted on relatively weak posts. This
system acts in a similar manner to the cable
safety fence.
It retains some degree of
effectiveness after minor collisions due to the
rigidity of the beam rail element. However, after
major collisions it requires full repair to remain
effective. As with the cable system, lateral
deflection can be reduced to some extent by
closer post spacing. This system, as with all
barriers having a relatively narrow restraining
width, is vulnerable to vaulting or vehicle underride caused by incorrect mounting height or
irregularities in the approach terrain.
Semi Rigid Systems work on the principle that

resistance is achieved through the combined


flexure and stiffness of the rail. Posts near the
point of impact are designed to break or tear
away, distributing the impact force to adjacent
posts. Deflection of this type of beam is up to
approximately 1.5m (test data; 26 degrees,
95kph, 1.8 Tonnes)
Strong post fences usually remain functional
after moderate collisions, thereby eliminating the
need for immediate repair. There are a number
of different types of semi rigid fence on the
market, each system having its own
performance requirements and capabilities. A
few examples are listed below:
Box Beam
Open Box Beam
W-Beam (corrugated type of fence)
Blocked Out W-Beam
Self-Restoring Safety Fence

January 1997

SECTIONS

The self-restoring safety fence is a high


performance
fence
designed
to
be
maintenance free for most impacts and capable
of containing and redirecting large vehicles.
The combination of high initial cost and high
performance makes this barrier more suited for
use at high accident frequency locations.
When traffic speeds are expected to be greater
than 50kph the semi rigid system should be
tensioned. Tensioned systems usually require
a minimum length to be effective and are
unable to be installed on sharp radii (typically
50m length and 150m minimum radii).
Individual barrier manufacturers specifications
should be adhered to.
Object

Comment

Bridge piers,
abutments and railing
ends

Protection generally
reqUired

Culverts, pipes,
headwalls

Judgement required based


on size, shape and location
of hazard

Cut slopes (smooth)

Generally protection not


reqUired

Cut slopes (rough)

Judgement required based


on likelihood of impact

Ditches (transverse)

Generally protection
required, ditch profile to be
considered

Embankments

JUdgement required based


on height and slope

Retaining wall

Judgement required based


on relative smoothness and
anticipated maximum angle
of impact

Signs and luminalrs


supports

Generally protection
required for non-breakaway
supports

Traffic signals

Isolated traffic signals on


high speed rural roads may
require protection

Trees and utility poles

Protection may be required


depending on site by site
conditions

Permanent bodies of
water

Judgement reqUired based


on deptfl of water and
likelihood of encroachment

Table 5.5

Consideration forthe Provision


of Safety Fencing

Rigid Systems offer no deflection when hit by


a vehicle. The impact energy is absorbed by
the vehicle. For high angle and high speed
impacts, passenger size vehicles may become
partially airborne and in some cases may reach
the top of the barrier. For shallow angle

Page 5/23

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

impacts, the roll angle toward the barrier


imparted to high centre of gravity vehicles may
be enough to permit contact of the top portion of
the vehicle with objects on top of or immediately
behind the fence, ego bridge piers. Commonly
used rigid systems are the New Jersey Barrier in
the USA, and the British Concrete Barrier in the
UK.
Typically the system is relatively low cost, has
generally effective performance for passengersized vehicles and has maintenance-free
characteristics.
End Treatments
The untreated end of a safety fence is extremely
hazardous If hit, as the beam element can
penetrate the, passenger compartment and will
generally stop the vehicle. A crashworthy end
treatment is therefore considered essential if the
safety fence terminates within 10m of the
travelled way and/or is in an area where it is
likely to be hit head-on by an errant vehicle. The
termination of the safety fence should not spear,
vault or roll a vehicle for head-on or angled
impacts. For Impacts within the length of need,
the end treatment shouid have the same
redirectional characteristics as the standard
safety fence, which means that the end must be
also properly anchored.

SECTION 5

length should be 10 to 12 times the difference


in the lateral deflection of the two systems in
question ego for a beam deflection of 1.5m the
transition should be around 15m.

.,

Drainage features such as ditches should be


avoided at transition positions as they may
initiate vehicle instability.
The stiffness of the transition should increase
smoothly and continuously from the less rigid to
the more rigid system. This can be achieved
by decreasing the post spacing, increasing post
size or strengthening the rail eiement.
Selection of Safety Fence
The selection process is not easily defined but
the most desirable system is one that offers the
required degree of protection at the lowest total
cost. Table 5.6 summarises the factors to be
considered.

There are a number of different types of end


treatments which work on a range of principles,
some of which are listed below:
Breakaway Terminals
Turned Down Terminals
Energy Absorption Systems

e'

Special Anchorage for Cable Fence


Anchorage into Embankment
Further reference is essential to select the most
appropriate system for each particular situation.
Transitions
Transition sections of safety fence are
necessary to provide continuity of protection
when two different barriers join, when a barrier
joins another barrier system (such as a bridge
rail) or when a roadside barrier is attached to a
rigid object (such as a bridge pier).
The transition section should be the same
strength or stronger than the two systems.
The transition should be long enough so that
significant changes in deflection do not occur
within a short distance. Generally the transition
January 1997

Page 5/24

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Criteria

Comments

Performance
Capability

Fence must be structurally


able to coniain and redirect
design vehicle

Deflection

Expected deflection of fe'nce


should not exceed available
room to deflect

Site Conditions

Slope approaching the fence


and distance from travelled
way may preclude use of
some fence types

Compatibility

Fence must be compatible


with planned end anchor and
capable of transition to other
safety fence systems

Standard fence systems are


relatively consistent in cost,
but high performance railings
can cost significantly more

Cost

6
a)

Maintenance:
Routine

b)

c)

Collision

Materials
Storage

Few systems require a


significant amount of routine
maintenance
Generally, flexible or semirigid
systems
require
significantly
more
maintenance after a collision
than rigid or high performance
fences
The fewer the different
systems used the fewer
inventory items and storage
space required

d)

Simpiicity

Simpler designs cost less and


are more likely to be
reconstructed properly on site

Aesthetics

Occasionally safety fence


aesthetics are an important
consideration in its selection

SECTION 5
Placement
Lateral offset: As a rule, safety fences should
be placed as far from the travelled way as
conditions permit. This gives the errant driver
the best chance of regaining control of the
vehicle without having an accident. It also
provides better sight distance. Table 5.7 gives
suggested lateral offsets related to the design
speed. Other factors may override these
suggested figures.
Design Speed

140
3.7
120
3.0
100
2.5
80
2.0
70
1.7
60
1.5
50
1.0
.,
Note. Rigid system IS not recommended for design speeds
greater than 100kph

Table 5.7

Desirable Lateral Clearance


for Safety Barriers from Edge
of Travelled Way.

The desirable minimum distance between back


offence and rigid hazards should not be less
than the dynamic deflection of the safety fence
for impact by a vehicle at impact conditions of
approximately 25 degrees and 100kph.
Specific manufacturers requirements must be
followed.
However, as a guideline, the
clearances set out in Table 5.8 are typical.
Barrier Typ'e

Field
Experience

Table 5.6

The
performance
and
maintenance requirements of
existing systems should be
monitored to identify problems
that could be lessened or
eliminated by using a different
fence type

Selection Criteria for Safety


Fences

Setback from Edge of


Pavement (m)

Clearance from Back of


Fence to Hazard (m)

Tensioned wire rope

2.0

Tensioned beam

1.2

Box beam

1.2

. ..

Rigid

O'

Mimmum clearance of objects behmd the barner to


travelled way must be maintained.

Table 5.8

Typical
Manufacturers
Clearance Requirements

On embankments care should be taken to


ensure that at full deflection of the fence the
wheels of the vehicle do not overhang the edge
of the siope.
The combined use of kerbs and flexible
safety fences together should be avoided.
The use of kerbs and semi-rigid or rigid
safety fences should generally be avoided.
However, if the face of the safety fence is
within 225mm of the kerb face, a vehicle is
not likely to vault the fence.
January 1997

Page 5/25

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

A safety fence is considered flared when it is not


parallel with the carriageway. Flare is normally
used to locate the barrier terminal section further
from the carriageway, to minimise a driver's
reaction to a hazard near the road by gradually
introducing a parallel safety fence installation, to
connect a roadside barrier to a hazard nearer
the carriageway such as a bridge parapet or
railing, or to reduce the total length of rail
needed. Reference Figure 5.11.
Flare rates are a function of design speed and
safety fence type. Bearing this in mind, Table
5.9 shows typical flare rates.
Design
Speed
(kph)

Flare Rate
for Fence
within

Flare Rate for Fence


beyond Setback

Setback
1:x

Rigid System

1:35
1:30
1:26
1:21
1:17
1:13

1:23
1:20
1:17
1:14
1:11
1:8

140
120
100
80
70
60

Semi-rigid
System

1:17
1:15
1:13
1:11
1:9
1:7

Refer to manufacturers techmcal literature for special

conditions.

Table 5.9

Typical Flare Rates

The length of safety fence required should be


such that it protects the vehicle for the full extent
of the hazard. This includes the length of the
approach flare, the length of the hazard and the
runout length beyond the hazard. The runout
length is particularly important on single
carrlageways where protection is required for
vehicles travelling in the opposite lane.
Underground Obstructions
Where there is a risk of driven posts or standard
concrete footings interfering with cables, ducts
and pipes and the alignment of the safety fence
cannot be adjusted to avoid the obstruction, or
the depth of pavement construction is such that
the standard driven post or concrete footing
would not penetrate into the subgrade, special
posts or footings shall be provided with the
approval of the Director of Civil Engineering
Department.
Existing Systems
With the development of technoiogy and
understanding of this sUbject, it is a fact that
older installations are sUb-standard and do not
always meet current recommended performance
levels. These deficiencies usually fall within two
categories, those that have structural
inadequacies and those that are improperly
designed or located.

January 1997

SECTION 5
These installations will require upgrading to
current standards and each installation should
be considered on a site by site basis.
For further reference on the different types of
safety fencing refer to the British Department of
Transport document TD 19/85, Safety Fences
and Barriers, and the American Association of
State Highway and Transportation Officials
pUblication, Roadside Design Guide.
For
details of specific safety fences the
manufacturers' technical literature should be
referred to.
5.16

CRASH CUSHIONS

Crash cushions or impact attenuators are


protective devices designed to prevent errant
vehicles from impacting fixed object hazards.
This is achieved by gradually slowing down a
vehicle to a safe stop (from possible head-on
impacts) or by redirecting a vehicle away from
the hazard (for side impacts). Crash cushions
are ideally suited for use at locations where
fixed objects cannot be removed, relocated or
made to breakaway, and cannot be adequately
protected by a normal safety fence.
Crash cushions primarily serve to iessen the
severity of accidents rather than to prevent
them from happening.
Crash cushions work on one of two principles,
either absorption of kinetic energy or transfer of
momentum. In the first instance the kinetic
energy of a moving vehicle is absorbed by
crushable materiais. This can be achieved by
the use of water filled containers. Crash
cushions of this type require a rigid back stop to
resist the impact force of the vehicle.
The second concept involves the transfer of
momentum of a moving vehicle to an
expendable mass of material or weights. This
may be sand filled containers. Devices of this
type require no rigid back stop.
The design procedure is relatively straight
forward and basically relates to the number of
crash cushion units being able to slow down a
design vehicle, at a design speed under an
acceptable deceleration force.
Most
manufacturers have design charts to select an
appropriate layout.
The most common application of crash
cushions is at an exit ramp at an elevated or
depressed structure, where a bridge pier
requires protection. However, they may also
be used at temporary road works or used to
slow a vehicle down on a slope when the
brakes have failed. For optimum use, the
crash cushion should ideally be placed on a
relatively flat surface. Kerbs should also be
Page 5/26

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 5

avoided as this may cause the vehicle to


become airborne.

large sports complexes where crowds


may gather. The fencing controls the
movement of pedestrian traffic and
lowers the risk of a pedestrian
accidentally moving onto a live
carriageway.

The effective use of crash cushions is restricted


to cars travelling up to speeds of 100kph, and
not applicabie for large trucks and buses.
There are many different manufacturers of crash
cushion systems, each with there own particular
merits and applications. However, the engineer
in the selection process must consider the site
characteristics, cost, maintenance and the
structural and safety characteristics of the
different systems.

For further reference on the different types of


crash cushions refer to the American
Association
of
State
Highway
and
Transportation Officials publication, Roadside
Design Guide. For details of specific crash
cushions, manufacturers technical literature
should be referred to.
5.17

FENCING

There are many different types of fences used


within the road reservation, each type having
particular applications. The main types of
fencing are listed below:

Right of Way Fencing to delineate and


separate private property from the road
reservation

Safety
Fencing erected where
considered necessary. Refer Clause
5.15

Animal Fencing prevents animals from


entering the highway reservation. The
size and type of fencing is dependant
on the type of animal the fencing is
intended to control, ego camel or goat

Acoustic Fencing may be required in


sensitive locations such as residential
areas to lower the traffic noise level.
The fence forms a barrier and the
sound is reflected away from the
sensitive area

be
Headlight
Barriers
may
implemented at locations where it is
desirable to minimise the glare of the
headlights of oncoming vehicles, such
as at unlit bends on rural roads

Pedestrian Access Fencing may be


required where there are significant
numbers of pedestrians such as on
commercial streets, outside schools or

January 1997

5.18

ROAD CLOSURE AND PARTIAL


CLOSURE

The main aims of full or partial road closure are


to:

Deter non-access traffic from using


residential roads as through routes

Limit the number of minor accesses


onto major routes

Remove the crossroad type junction


which is generally considered unsafe.
Refer Section 6 Junctions

Although these aims are common to the design


of new roads, the approach here is different as
established route patterns, many having been
in use for years, have to be broken and
reformed elsewhere.
Provision of clear,
concise warning and/or diversion signs are
advised during the first two to three months of
operation. This will help re-educate the driver
who was familiar with the old road layout.
The most basic way to prevent traffic using a
particular route is to close the road, either at a
particular point or along a certain length. It is
usual to close a road at an existing junction, ie.
at the end of a block of properties, unless the
block is very long, ego 250-300m, in which case
"No Through Road" signs must be displayed at
the open end(s) of the road.
End of block closures could be made simply by
the use of "No Entry" signs, but these may
prove to be ineffective, particularly if drivers
approaching a closure can see traffic moving
beyond it. Hence it is preferable to provide a
physicai barrier to prevent drivers violating the
restriction. This may be in the form of a traffic
island with a sign showing the direction that
vehicles must now follow. It is important to
ensure that the arrangement is in keeping with
the area and consideration should be given to
the provision of landscaping.
Where a closure is made at a mid-block
position, provision must be made for large
vehicles, such as refuse vehicles to turn
around.
Typical turning heads are shown in Figure 5.13.
The choice of layout is dependant on the width
Page 5/27

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTIONS

of carriageway available and the positions of


existing property accesses that have to be
accommodated by the ciosure.

Any barriers or turning heads shall be designed


in such a way as to ensure that emergency
vehicles are able to gain access. This is
achievable by the use of lockable barrier gates
or demountable bollards. Whichever is chosen,
it must be capable of preventing private vehicles
from passing through the restriction. For this
reason, solutions such as a route through a
landscaped area are not recommended as they
are open to abuse, particularly by drivers of four
wheel drive vehicles.
Whatever the designed restriction, adequate
access and parking shall be provided for
residents.

Partial closure allows access into areas.


However, by the use of width restriction or
raised road humps it is made unattractive for
general road users.
Partial closure is often incorporated at
undesirable locations along the major road to
discourage use such as at accesses near to
major junctions. Where the minor road has to
remain open due to emergency vehicle access
requirements or limited access routes into the
development then partial closure is an easy way
to control general use.

January 1997

Page 5/28

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

22

-I

24.5

1>6'

I()

SECTION 5

,","

18.5

.1"1

'"a::

:[;" ':qO:/ //2;


~Q

.-f-

~6'

I
I

~
I
16

All dimension in metres


Note:
A central island radius of 10 metres will
just allow the vehicle to turn about. In
view of the restricted area available, the
island may be reduced or omitted altogether.
Minimum Dimensions for Turning Heads
In situations where larger vehicles have to be
accommodated, these dimensions should be increased to
take account of the larger turning radius and swept
path area.

Figure 5.13 Typical Turning Head Details

January 1997

Page 5/29

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


5.19

LANDSCAPING

Apart from the amenity benefits, the landscape


treatment of medians, junctions and verges can
have practical advantages. By ground
modelling, perhaps in conjunction with planting,
the layout of the road can be made more
obvious to traffic.
Landscaping can play an important part in aiding
drivers waiting to exit the minor road by
providing reference points or features by which
to judge the speed of drivers approaching on the
major road. This is particularly useful where a
major/minor junction is located In an open
landscape, where there Is a lack of natural
reference points. Planting can also provide a
positive background to the road signs around
the junction, whilst visually uniting the various
component parts. it is important that a wider
view does not distract from the developing traffic
situation as the driver sees it.
Specialised planting, which might be more
appropriate in an urban area, generally requires
greater maintenance effort if it is to be
successful. The preferred maintenance method
Is an automatic Irrigation system connected to a
return effluent main. Approval for any such
scheme must be sought from the Director of the
Civil Engineering Department and the Drainage
Division. If a return effluent main is unavailable,
care should be taken so that watering does not
require tankers to obstruct trafficked lanes at
any time.

SECTION 5

the opposite side of the roundabout to the point


of entry can, without restricting necessary
visibility, avoid distraction and confusion
caused by traffic movements of no concern to
a driver. Planting can provide a positive
background to chevron signs and direction
signs on the central island while visually uniting
the various vertical features and reducing any
appearance of clutter.
Generally the planting of roundabout central
islands less than 10m in diameter is
inappropriate as the need to provide driver
visibility leaves only a small central area
available. Such a restricted area of planting is
out of scale with the roundabout as a whole,
and becomes an incongruous "blob".
Recent experiments with a ring of black and
white paving laid in a chevron pattern inside the
central island perimeter at a gentle slope have
proved successful in improving the consplcuity
of central islands and they can be effective
from a safety point of view (Figure 5.14).
It is common to construct features such as
coffee pots etc. in roundabouts. They become
a focus for the traveller, and if designed and
positioned correctly will prove an asset to the
surroundings.
Lighting of central islands or any landscape
feature is important, though care should be
taken to avoid distraction or dazzle to drivers.

A well defined maintenance programme should


be developed if extensive planting is used to
ensure that such planting does not obscure
either opposing traffic or traffic signs at any time.
In rural areas, planting should be restricted to
indigenous species and be related to the
surrounding landscape. In the desert, for
example, any planting of other than local
species would appear incongruous and
landscape treatment would normally be
restricted to ground modelling.
At roundabouts, the areas required for visibility
envelopes can be planted with species having a
low mature height, with higher and denser
species of bushes and trees towards the centre
of the island. Due allowance for the situation
that will develop with matured growth must be
made.
Section x-x

Apart from the amenity benefits, the landscape


treatment of roundabouts can have practical
advantages. By earth modelling, perhaps in
conjunction with planting, the presence of the
roundabout can be made more obvious to
approaching traffic. The screening of traffic on
January 1997

Figure 5.14

Contrasting Chevron Markings


for Roundabouts
Page 5/30

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

SECTION 6 JUNCTIONS
6.1

however, important to ensure that the minor


road traffic movements are still adequately
provided for. Spacing between consecutive
junctions is best considered in terms of the
minimum distance that allows traffic travelling
on the main road and traffic leaving it or joining
it, to do so in an easy, efficient and safe
manner.

GENERAL

The scope of this section of the QHDM is to


identify the main types of major/minor junction
which can be used in the design of new and the
improvement of existing roads.
Advice is given on the main factors which affect
the choice between different types of
major/minor junction, on the siting of such
junctions and suitable types of layout.

In determining this distance, due consideration


must be given to:

Design speeds

To ensure a consistent approach to the design


of the major/minor junctions, a series of
recommendations covering the geometric
design of the key elements of the junction, and
how these can be best combined to produce a
good overall design, have also been included.

Weaving lengths for merging/diverging


traffic flows

Horizontal and vertical geometry of the


main road for visibility

Provisions for turning traffic wishing to


cross, join or leave at the junction.

Junctions are widely recognised as one of the


primary locations of accidents on all roads.
Safety is therefore of paramount importance
during the development of any junction design.
A number of safety issues such as: visibility;
driver perception; signing and road markings;
traffic control and pedestrian access, need to
be considered as part of the design
development process. More detailed guidance
on these and other relevant factors is given
elsewhere in this section.
6.1.1 Junction Spacing
The frequency at which junctions are located on
a main road is usually a function of the
surrounding area and its current or future
development, i.e. rural or urban environment. In
general terms, urban environments are
characterised by a mixture of residential
properties, and commercial and industrial
developments/outlets. There is usually a high
demand for through traffic and local traffic
movements. Consequently there is a high
demand for access across, onto and off of the
main road from the local road network.
In contrast, rural environments generally have
few residential properties that are interspersed
intermittently with industrial and commercial
developments/outlets. The demand on the main
road is for through traffic with local traffic
movements catered for chiefly by the local road
network. As demand for links with the main road
are lower than urban environments, junctions
occur much less frequently.

The minimum spacing between consecutive


simple T-junctions on access roads and service
roads is 80m, and across a staggered Tjunction 40m. Refer to Clause 6.7.15 for
additional information on stagger distance and
refer to Clause 7.4.9 for additional information
on weaving sections.
Consideration should also be given to the
spacing of the deceleration lanes and the
acceleration lanes of junctions along the main
carriageway.
Refer to Clause 6.14 for
information on diverge/merge distances. The
spacing of these junctions should relate to the
weaving characteristics of:

Traffic on the mainline

Traffic entering the mainline from the first


junction

Traffic leaving the main road to the


second junction.

When improving existing roads it may be


necessary to reduce the number of junctions on
the route. This may be achieved by:

Provision of service roads to collect


minor roads

Closure of minor roads and provision of


turning heads, refer to Section 5.

The spacing of junctions, particularly in urban


situations is critical to ensure that disruption to
traffic on the main road is minimised. It is

January 1997

Page 6/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.1.2 Traffic Flows


An important factor that governs the choice of
junction type at a given location is the volume of
traffic that is currently using the main road and
side roads, and the predicted future traffic
demand. Before any detailed evaluation can be
made It is important to obtain the best estimate
of all the relevant traffic flows and turning
movements for the junction.
In situations where this data is not readily
available it will be necessary to undertake traffic
surveys, or use traffic modelling to predict the
likely traffic flow levels.
The composition and turning movements of
traffic will influence the geometric layout
adopted. A high proportion of heavy goods
vehicles for example will dictate the minimum
lane width and corner radii to be adopted at the
junction. A high proportion of turning traffic may
require the provision of a segregated or
dedicated turning lane at the junction, to ensure
that adequate through traffic capacity is
. l1l.aintained.
Predicted future traffic flows are important
because they:

Enable the design to be tailored to


provide sufficient capacity to meet the
future traffic flow demands

Enable a decision to be made to


constrain the traffic flows at the given
location for a particular reason

Identify the need to allow for current or


future junctions.

Guidance on acceptable traffic flows for junction


types and layouts are given throughout this
Section.
6.1.3 Design Vehicles
An obvious but often overlooked aspect of the
design of junctions is the type of vehicle that will
be using the junction. Different sizes and
classes of vehicle have varying swept paths
and turning circles. All junctions need to be
designed to allow the vehicle with the greatest
swept path, that will regularly use the junction to
turn in a safe and easy manner. For example a
36 tonne articulated lorry is unlikely to be a
regular user of a residential road. In this
exam pie the most likely largest vehicle would
be a refuse vehicle or a school bus. Generally,
the design vehicle is likely to be a heavy goods,
public service, or refuse vehicle and it is the

January 1997

SECTION 6
corner radii and lane widths that are likely to be
affected. Swept paths should be checked using
standard templates or a computer software
package.
The vehicle classification to be used in Qatar is
shown in Table 6.1.
Failure to make adequate provision is likely to
result In:

A reduction in the junction capacity as


the larger vehicles are forced to straddle
two traffic lanes to facilitate the turning
movement at the junction

Overrunning of kerbs

Reduced visibility for other traffic


approaching or negotiating the junction.

These design principles should be extended to


the positioning of street furniture such as signs,
splitter islands, traffic signals and lighting
columns.
Allowance shall be made for the swept turning
paths of long vehicles where they can
reasonably be expected to use a junction.
Consideration shall also be given to the
manoeuvring characteristics of these vehicles in
the design of staggered junctions.
All of the geometric parameters given in this
section for use in the design of a major/minor
junction have been developed to cater for a
16.5m long artiGulated vehicle, whose turning
width is greater than for most other vehicles that
regUlarly use these junctions.
The turning requirement of a 20.0m long
drawbar trailer combination are less onerous
regarding road width.
In cases where hardstrips are present, the
design vehicle is assumed to use these on
some turns, and at some simple junctions, it
may encroach into opposing traffic lanes.
Where buses or other long rigid vehicles form a
significant portion of total or peak time traffic,
and their turning movements within these
dimensions would be awkward or present a
hazard or significant delay. Then corner radii
and lane widths should be increased based on
the use of appropriate swept path templates.

Page 6/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

6.1.4 Siting of Junctions

The siting of junctions for new build and


improvement schemes is very important.
Failure to choose a suitable location can reduce
the effective operation and safety of the
junction. It is essential to include engineering
considerations in the early pianning stages to
help minimise poor land use.
Sites that should be avoided include:

Where the major road is on a sharp


curve and visibility may be impaired by
waiting vehicles

Where the minor road approaches are


skewed less than 70 or greater than
110 to the main road.

At the top or bottom of gradients greater


than 4% on the main road

Where the minor road approaches the


main road on an up or down gradient
greater than 2%

Where junction frequency is excessive.

The problems listed above while not exhaustive


cover the more commonly occurring situations,
and they can usually be overcome by
modifications to the horizontal and vertical
alignments.
In situations where, because of site constraints,
it is not practical to fully apply these principles,
then a compromise will need to be established
that minimises the potential risks to drivers
approaching the junction. Measures such as
reduced speed limits, alignment constraints,
additionai signing and road markings can help
to minimise the potential hazards to the driver.

January 1997

Page 6/3

c..

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Weight (kg)

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Width{m)

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1.7

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1.9

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Height (m)

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Axles

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4.1

24

0.5-7.0

1-2

24000

12

2.6

4.1

24

1.5-4.0

1+2+2

SDDDD

16.5

2.6

4.1

16

0.6-10.0

1"'2+2

3 Axle lorry-rigid

(fl

~
5
z

3 Axle-articulated

Refer Tabla 9.1 for Average No. 01 Standard Axles Por Vehicle

0>

c..

III
::l

III

'<

:...

c:

-;

'0-ro"

Vahic!s Dlmltnsions

0)

VlJhicle Type

Class

~9lght

(Q

~I

<
CD

:r
0'

ro

iii"
<J)
<J)

=;;

0'

!'l.

Cil
:r
CD

36000

Length fm)

Width(rnj

Height fm}

em)

16.5

2.6

4.1

16

No. at
Axles

No. or
Standard
AXles

1.5-7.0

Wheals
(on B8Ch lOide

of lha vahlcla)

1+2+22

'0
:c
>

~:c

:r
i5
:r

~
QIIWIJill
~

o'
::l

'"sa.

(kg)

Avarage

4 AXle-articulated

()

m.

Turning Width
etween kerb
(1 Bo)

C1l

2.5~7 .0

1+2+222

1.5-7.0

1+22+2

16

2.0-7.0

1+22+22

4.1

16

1.5-7.0

1+22+222

2.6

4.1

2D

2.0-7.0

+2+22

2.6

4.1

2D

2.0-10.0

+22+22

2.3

D.6

1D

43500

16.5

2.6

4.1

16

11

36000

16.5

2.6

4.1

16

12

42000

16.5

2.6

4.1

13

49500

16.5

2.6

14

SODDD

15

36000

16

1000

5 Axht-artlculated

i5
z

s:

z
c

r-

4 Axle-articulated

111111

~
0

>

5 Axis-articulated

J:

1111111111 I111
~ ~

IIIIIIII~ [[]I]]

(
~

l;li
6 Axle-articulated

~
3 Axle-trailer

~
4 Axlll-traiJ9r

-c

M Dtor~bjcycle

III
lQ
CO

lJi

Refer Table 9.1 ror Average No. of Standard Axles Per Vehicle

1.B (INCL

rider)

C1l

oz
'"

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.2

TYPES OF JUNCTION

There are seven basic types of junctions that


should be considered for use.
There are advantages and disadvantages to
each of the seven types and the engineer
should carefully consider the suitability of each
type for the intended location and purpose.
The seven basic junction types are as follows:

SECTION 6
6.2.4 Skew or Y-Junction
This type of junction is an at-grade junction of
two roads, where the minor road approaches
the major road at an oblique angle. In a similar
manner to the T- junction, traffic control is
proVided by "Give Way" or "Stop" iine road
markings in conjunction with "Stop" or "Give
Way" signing on the minor road.
As skew angle to the main road decreases, the
junction becomes less safe.

6.2.1 T-Junction
6.2.5 Roundabouts
The T-Junction, of which there are five main
variants, is an at-grade junction of two roads
where the minor road terminates at the major
road at right angles. It is the most common type
of approach road junction and is a suitable
solution for coping with most traffic flow
requirements. Traffic control is generally
provided by "Give Way" or "Stop" signs/road
markings on the minor approach but could
include traffic control on all approaches.
In certain urban situations where traffic,
pedestrian or safety requirements dictate,
signalization may be required. The type of
traffic control is determined through a "warrant
analysis" (refer to the Qatar Traffic Manual).
6.2.2 Simple Crossroads
The crossroad is an at-grade junction of two
roads that cross approximately at right angles.
Simple crossroads are not safe junctions
because of the high number of traffic movement
conflicts that can occur at the same location.
For this reason, the use of crossroads is not
recommended. A safer solution, location
permitting, is to provide a roundabout or signal
control.
6.2.3 Staggered Junction
A staggered junction is an at-grade junction of
three roads, where the major road is continuous
through the junction. The minor roads intersect
the major road forming two separated Tjunctions on opposing sides of the main road.

A roundabout is a special form of at-grade


junction characterised by a one-way circulatory
carriageway around a central island located at
the intersection of a maximum of six roads.
Traffic flows around the central island on the
circulatory carriageway in an anti-clockwise
direction until it reaches the required exit point.
Entry onto the roundabout from the approach
roads is controlled by the appearance of gaps in
the circulating traffic flow. Traffic wishing to
enter the roundabout must give way to traffic
already on the circulatory carriageway.
6.2.6 Grade Separated Interchange
This type of junction removes the principle
vehicle conflict by the provision of grade
separation between some of the turning
movements. These junctions are complex and
include extensive connecting roads and loops.
Grade Separated Interchanges are discussed in
Section 7 of this manual.
6.2.7 Traffic Signals
Whilst not strictly a junction type, traffic signals
may be implemented on a number of junction
types to control the movement of traffic.
Junctions may be specifically designed for
signal control or signai control may be added a
later stage.
The design of physical features of this type of
junction, excluding the signal design, are
covered within this manual. An introduction to
signaiized junctions is given in Clause 6.16.

This type of junction is the preferred alternative


to a simple crossroad. However, should future
traffic volumes be expected to increase, then a
roundabout or signalisation may be preferable
from the outset at certain locations.

January 1997

Page 6/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.3

SECTION 6

JUNCTION SELECTION

6.3.2 Continuity of Standard

The selection of a junction type at a given


location is important for operational, economic
and safety reasons.
The engineer should carefully select the
junction type for the location in accordance with
the considerations listed below.
However, in some circumstances, local
conditions such as driver behaviour may also
influence the engineers choice of junction type
for a particular location. Where it is felt that
drivers may ignore "Stop" or "Give Way" signs,
a different or higher type of junction could be
selected.
Apart from the basic selection considerations
given below, the engineer should also consider
the possibility of planning benefits to be gained
by the selection of junction types at locations
that promote the use of the roads in the
hierarchy defined in this manual.
The following points should be considered:

In the interests of safety, the sequences of


junctions on a section of road or neighbouring
roads of similar standard shouid not involve
many different layout types. A length of major
road comprising roundabouts, single lane
dual ling, ghost islands and simple priority
junctions would inevitably create confusion and
uncertainty for drivers, and may result in
accidents. The safest schemes are usually
straightforward, containing no surprises for the
driver.
6.3.3 Junction Capacity
The form that a junction takes is greatly
influenced by the volume of traffic predicted to
pass through it. All junction layouts will need to
be analysed to ensure they have sufficient
capacity. This analysis should be carried out
using a standard software package (eg.
ARCADY for roundabouts and PICADY for
major/minor junctions).
Junction selection by capacity is given in Figure
6.1. It is based on capacity and on UK
congestion acceptance levels. Engineers may
consider that higher standard facilities should
be provided than that indicated by the
nomograph for operational or safety reasons.

6.3.1 Status of Intersecting Roads


Restrictions are placed on the categories of
road that may meet. As a result, for any given
permitted combination of road types, only
certain junction types will be appropriate for
use. Table 6.2 below outlines acceptable
carriageway and junction combinations.

The detailed geometry of junction types relating


to capacity is given in Clause 6.7.

Minor
7.3m Carriageway
Rural

Major

7.3m

Rural

Urban

11.3m Carriageway
Rural

Urban

T,R

Ouol-2
Rural

Oual-3

Urban

Rural

Urban
.

Carriage-

way

Urban

11.3m
Carriageway

Rural
Urban

Oual-2

Rural

T,Ts.R

Aural

T,Ts,V,R,1

T,Tu,R,1

T-Junclion
T-Junction with Signals

Table 6.2

T,Ts,R
R,I

T,Ts,V,R,1

Urban

Key:
T
Ts

"'.

T,Tu,R,1

Urban
Duat-3

T,Ts,R

T,Ts,R

Ts, R,I
R,I

T,Ts,V,R,1

R,I

T,Ts,V,R,1

Ts, R,I

Roundabout

Interchange

Tu

T-Junction with U-Turn

Service Road

Ts, R,I

Possible Junction Types for Different Major Road Carriageway Configurations

January 1997

Page 6/7

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

....o

<0

<0

>:

..,.0

'"~
0

~
....
a

:
:

"-

;;:
0

""

..J

U.

0::
0::

0
--,

::;;
0
N

+
+

+
0

(.IeM-oMll .LOW ,O~ x MOlo 0\10<1 <lONIl'l

Figure 6.1

January 1997

Junction Selection By Capacity

Page 6/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.4

MAJOR/MINOR
GENERAL

JUNCTIONS

SECTION 6
6.6

MAJOR/MINOR JUNCTION TYPES

6.6.1 The Simple TJunction


This section gives advice and standards for the
geometric design of major/minor junctions with
regard to traffic operation and safety.
6.5

SAFETY
AT
JUNCTIONS

I
I
I
I
I
I

MAJOR/MINOR

Vehicular and pedestrian accidents mainly


occur at major/minor junctions. More accidents
occur in the urban environment than the rural.

I
I

~ I
______-._~======J

These accidents are mainly associated with


poorly judged left turn movem~nts onto and
from the major road and with incautious
overtaking manoeuvres.

Various methods to enhance safety can be


introduced at major/minor junctions.
The
engineer should review each junction on an
individual basis.
Ghost Islands and single lane dualiing (physical
islands) to shelter left turning traffic and
discourage overtaking are discussed in Sections
6.6 and 6.7. Other safety measures that could
be adopted are as follows:

The use of road markings, double white


lines, raised rib markings, narrow central
hatching, block paving, ceramic studs,
refuge islands with keep right bollards or
different coloured surfacing to discourage
overtaking manoeuvres on the major
road

Skid resistant road surfaces

At urban locations where pedestrian


movements occur, pedestrian barriers,
central refuge islands and at some
locations, pedestrian crossings and
controlled pedestrian crossings

At some locations where safety is an


issue, the major/minor junction may
require traffic signals.

In addition, in rural areas, problems occur with


driver perception of the termination of the minor
road. Drivers at night, on unlit rural roads are
mostly involved with this type of misjudgment.
The engineer shall ensure that there are no
physical obstructions to the path of such a
vehicle.

January 1997

Figure 6.2

Simple T-Junction

A simple T-Junction is without any ghost or


physical islands in the major road, and without
channelizing islands in the minor road
approach. Refer to Figure 6.2.
Simple T-Junctions are appropriate for most
minor junctions on single carriageway roads, but
not dual carriageways. For new rurai junctions,
they shall only be used when the design flow on
the minor road does not exceed 300 vehicles
AADT (two-way) and on the major road does
not exceed 13000 vehicles AADT (two-way).
At existing rural and urban junctions upgrading
to a left turning facility, ghost Island or single
lane dualling should be considered when safety
considerations dictate or where the minor road
flow exceeds 500 vehicles AADT (two-way).
6.6.2 T-Junction with Ghost Island
AT-Junction with widening on the major road to
accommodate a ghost island and an extra
central lane for turning traffic. The minor road
approach should also have a channelizing
island to direct vehicles to the correct position
for turning movements. Refer to Figure 6.3.
Ghost islands will enhance safety of the junction
by giving shelter to left turning traffic from
opposing vehicles and vehicles approaching
from behind.
Measures to discourage
overtaking at ghost island widening could be the
use of physical traffic islands, double white
lines, different coloured surfacing and ceramic
studs.

Page 6/9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Figure 6.3

SECTION 6

T-Junction with Ghost Island

Figure 6.4

T-Junction with Singie Lane Dualling/Physical Island

Ghost islands, however, should not be


positioned where overtaking opportunity is
restricted either side of the junction because
drivers may use the wide ghost island hatching
and central lane as a place to overtake. If a
ghost island has to be positioned at these
locations then an alternative such as single iane
dualling should be considered.
Ghost island junctions should not be used
where traffic turning ieft out of the minor road
needs to make the manoeuvre in two stages.
This can occur when the major road flow
exceeds 18000 AADT (two-way).
6.6.3 T-Junction with Single Lane Dualling
Single lane dualling (physical islands) can be
used on rural single carriageway roads to
shelter left turning traffic on the major road and
prevent overtaking. It can also J;le used where
the traffic turning left out of the minor road
needs to make the manoeuvre in two stages.
Refer to Figure 6.4.

the major route to speed up through the junction


where slow vehicles may be crossing. Care
needs to be taken when siting the junction.
The single lane dual ling carriageway width is
6m, where 4m is the running carriageway and
there are 1 m hard strips on both sides. Some
drivers may try to overtake in this width and
hatching of the 1 m strips will discourage such
manoeuvres.
There may be certain conditions when single
lane dualling could be misinterpreted by drivers:

Where a length of road contains


alternating single and dual carriageway
sections

Where single lane dualling is proposed


within 3 kilometres from the end of a long
length of dual carriageway.

In these cases, other forms of junctions should


be considered.

Single lane dualling does, however, bring in


other safety issues. With the improved highway
layout there may be a tendency for drivers on

January 1997

Page 6/10

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

====--~

-----------------------------

~::=:::

-----jJ

I-So1-

------ ------------

"

Figure 6.5

T-Junction with Dual Carriageway with Median Opening (Signaiized Only)

Figure 6.6

T-Junction on a Dual Carriageway with Carriageway Separation

6.6.4 TJunction on a Dual Carriageway with


Median Opening (Signalized)
These T-Junctions may be used on two or three
lane dual carriageways. This layout shall only
be implemented with traffic signals. Refer to
Figure 6.5.
Short lengths of dual carriageway just to
incorporate a junction should not be provided.

be incorporated. The turning facilities should be


provided nearby at another junction. The
nearby junction may be grade separated, a
roundabout, signalization or a U-Turn where
traffic speed and traffic flow conditions are
different. Refer to Figure 6.6. Acceleration and
deceleration lanes from and to the minor road
should be designed in accordance with through
traffic volumes and speeds.
6.6.6 Crossroads

On continuous dual carriageways the median


width is usually between 2 and 8m. If required,
this width can be widened to provide space for
a left turn lane and waiting space for vehicles
turning left into the minor road.
6.6.5 TJunction on a Dual Carriageway with
Carriageway Separation
On dual carriageways, the left turn manoeuvre
from the minor road is prevented by the median,
unless the minor road warrants signalization to

January 1997

As discussed earlier in Clause 6.2.2, simple


crossroads are not recommended. Staggered
junctions are always considered a much safer
alternative, especially if a significant proportion
of the flow on the minor roads is cross
movement. In residential areas, consideration
should be given to closing off one of the arms of
the crossroads to create a preferred simple TJunction.

Page 6/11

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.6.7 Staggered Junction


A staggered junction comprises a major road
passing through the junction with opposed TJunctions on either side. Figu'res 6.7 to 6.11
show variations of staggered junction layouts.
Left/Right Stagger
The left/right stagger is preferred because the
two left turning traffic streams on the major road

SECTION 6
do not overlap, and the left turning traffic from
the minor roads does not mix with the turning
traffic on the major road. Refer to Figure 6.7.
Right/Left Stagger

A simple right/left staggered junction should not


be considered.
However, the right/left
staggered junction with ghost isiand or single
lane dualling would be an alternative. Refer to
Figures 6.10 and 6.11.

..
I
I

V '''''''--

I
I
I

Figure 6.7

Simple Left/Right Staggered Junction

Figure 6.8

Left/Right Staggered Junction with Ghost Island

Figure 6.9

Left/Right Staggered Junction with Single Lane Dualling

January 1997

Page 6/12

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

..

Figure 6.10 RighVLeft Staggered Junction with Ghost Island

Figure 6.11 RighVLeft Staggered Junction with Single Lane Dualiing


6.6.8 Right and Left Hand Skew Junction
Figure 6.12 shows a left hand skew junction
with a ghost island. The junction couid also be
right handed.

....
..
".

This form of junction can be a solution when an


existing minor road joins the major road at a
skew angle. It is sometimes calied a YJunction.
The existing junction is improved on safety
grounds by channelizing the minor road with
islands and road markings, and connecting it to
the major road at right angles for optimum
visibility.

\.,

U_.~

-----'"'._....!..

._

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::~:::&~~~~

Typicaliy skew angles of 70' or greater do not


require straightening to approach the main road
at 90'. As skew angles become smalier a large
area is required in order to achieve an effective
90' junction.
Other combinations of skew junctions could
combine staggered junctions, single lane
dualiing and dual carriageways.

Figure 6.12 Left Hand Skew Junction

January 1997

Page 6/13

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.7

MAJOR/MINOR
ELEMENTS

JUNCTION

6.7.1 General
This section outlines the geometric design
elements to be considered in the design of
major/minor junctions. Many of the elements
are dealt with separateiy, and the engineer
should work systematically through the design
procedure prior to assembling the component
parts. This is an iterative process, and it may
be necessary to alter part of the junction design
covered previousiy in order to achieve a
satisfactory design.
6.7.2 Design Speed
When considering geometric standards for the
design speed of the major/minor road junctions,
it is the design speed of the major road that
governs.

Drivers approaching a major/minor junction


from both the major road and the minor road
shall have unobstructed visibility in accordance
with the following clauses. The envelope of
visibility for driver's eye height is as described in
Section 2.

Major Road
Drivers approaching a major/minor junction
along the major road approaches shall be able
to see the minor road entry from a distance
corresponding to 1.5 times the stopping sight
distance (SSD) for the design speed of the
major road as described in Section 2. This
intervisibility allows drivers on the major road to
be aware of traffic entering from the minor road
in time for them to be abie to slow down and
stop safely if necessary.
The concept of adequate visibility to make safe
turning movements also applies to vehicies
turning ieft into the minor road from the major
road.

6.7.3 Visibility
Clear visibility on the approach to, at and
travelling through a junction is essential for the
safe and efficient use of that junction.
In
determining
the
correct
visibility
requirements for a junction, the engineer must
consider both the layout of the junction and the
vehicles that will use it. The visibility and
intervisibilily requirements provided within this
clause are related to the design speed of the
major road and little benefit is to be gained by
increasing them. However, each junction must
be considered on a site-specific basis with an
assessment made of additional visibility to be
provided due to factors such as:

Width of major road to be crossed

Traffic control on the minor approach


road

Turning movements to be made at the


junction

Gradient of
departures

Type of vehicle that will be using the


junction, ego large, slow speed vehicles
require additional Visibility.

the

approaches

and

As well as having adverse safety implications,


poor visibility reduces the capacity of turning
movernents.

January 1997

Minor Road
Minor road traffic has to approach the junction
and join or cross the major road when there are
gaps in the major road traffic streams. It is
therefore essential that minor road drivers have
adequate visibility in each direction to see the
junction layout and oncoming major road traffic
in sufficient time to permit them to make their
manoeuvres safely.
The principle of prOViding the reqUired visibility
for drivers approaching the junction from the
minor road has three distinct features (refer to
Figure 6.13):
W:
Approaching drivers should have
unobstructed visibility of the junction from a
distance corresponding to the stopping sight
distance (SSD) for the design speed of the
minor road. This allows drivers time to slow
down safely at the junction, or stop, if this is
necessary. Where a "Give Way" or "Stop" sign
is proposed, the visibility envelope shall be
widened to include the sign.

z:

A driver approaching the junction should


be able to see clearly the junction form and
those peripheral elements of the junction layout.
This provides the driver with an idea of the
junction form, possible movernents and
conflicts, and possible required action before
reaching the major road. This point is called the
'z' point which is 15m back aiong the centreline
of the minor road measured from the
continuation of the line of the nearside edge of
the running carriageway of the major road (not
from the continuation of the back of the major
road hardstrip, if this is present).
Page 6/14

..

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

X, Y: The distance back along the minor road


from which the full visibility is measured is
known as the 'x' distance. It is measured back
along the centreline of the minor road from the
continuation of the line of the nearside edge of
the running carriageway of the major road. The
'x' distance shall be desirably 10m.

The 'x' distance, from which full 'y' distance


visibility is provided, should preferably be not
more than 10m as this induces high minor road
approach speeds into the junction, and leads to
excessive iandtake.
Similarly, although the 'y' distance should
always be provided, there is little advantage in
increasing it, as this too can induce high
approach speeds and take the attention of the
minor road driver away from the immediate
junction conditions. Increased visibility should
not be provided to increase the capacities of
various turning movements.

From this point an approaching driver shall be


able to see clearly points t9 the left and right on
the nearer edge of the major road running
carriageway at a distance given in Table 6.3,
measured from its intersection with the
centreline of the minor road. This is called the
'y' distance. Relaxations are not available for
this distance.

These Visibility standards apply to new junctions


and to improvements to existing junctions.

If the line of vision lies partially within the major


road carriageway, it shall be made tangential to
the nearer edge of the major road running
carriageway, as shown in Figure 6.14.

If the major road is one way, a single visibility


splay in the direction of approaching traffic will
suffice. If the minor road serves as a one-way
exit from the major road, no visibility splays will
be required, provided that forward visibility for
turning vehicles is adequate.

In difficult circumstances, the 'x' distance may


be taken as a relaxation from 10m to 7.5m for
lightly trafficked simple junctions, and in
exceptionally difficult circumstances, to 5.0m
back from the nearer edge of the major road
running carriageway. In some urban locations
where only light vehicles are involved, the 'x'
distance can be further reduced to 2.5m.

Vehicles parked within splay lines will obstruct


visibility. Parking and access should be
designed to prevent this. Care should also be
taken in the placing of signs, landscaping and
street furniture within the Visibility splay areas to
ensure that their obstructive effect is minimised

Design Speed
of Major Road
(kph)

'y' Distance
(m)

Minimum 'x'
Distance
(m)

140
120
100
80
70
60
50
< 50

350
295
215
160
120
90
70
50

10
10
10
10
7.5
7.5
5.0
2.5

..

..

Note. In all cases the preferred x distance Is 10m. The mInimum x distances given shall only be used
wilh Clause 6.7.3.

Table 6.3

In

difficult CIrcumstances, In accordance

Minimum 'x' and 'y' Visibility Distances from the Minor Road

January 1997

Page 6/15

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

I
y

"

'1

Lines over which unobstructed


visibility shouid be provided

--------1------I
- -..:-.---1-=-=v-:--"='= = = """
xt
.
, , '' I . ..- . - .
,,
..z = 15 m
..I
, .."1/ '
w
I
x 'x' Distance
.. I .
y 'VI Distance

---

-_.-........

~,

\'..
i

Minimum Stopping Distance (SSD)


for Approach Road Design Speed

I
I

Figure 6.13 Visibility Standards

- --

-..-:::::::::"'.......,,,----- -

Tangent edge of carriageway

x 'x' Distance
y ty'Distance

Figure 6.14 Visibility Standards with a Curved Major Road

January 1997

Page 6/16

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

6.7.4 Corner Radii

,,
,,

For simple junctions, where no provision is to


be made for large goods vehicles or buses, it is
recommended that the minimum circular corner
radius should be 6rn in urban areas and 10m in
rural areas. Where provision is to be made for
large goods vehicles or buses, the
recommended circular corner radius Is shown
in Table 6.4 and Figure 6.15.

l:k:

~t.O

E ,3

,,

,';0

B"'

1.22m

27mR

--- ----__

1B"

9mR ----4

---.::i=::;;O_d':- ~"

Taper

Type

Rate
T

Length of
Taper (m)
L

Corner
Radius (m)
R

Urban
Simple

1:5

30

10

1:10

25

15

1:6

30

15

Junction

1:8

32

15

All Other

20

Junction

Alternatively, where large goods vehicles


comprise a significant proportion of the turning
movements, use of the compound curve shown
in Figure 6.16 is recommended.
Junction

I~E
,
'"
E

These radii only apply where there are no


diverge tapers or lanes, or merge tapers. Refer
to Sections 6.7.13 and 6.7.14.

Figure 6.16 Design of a Compound Curve


6.7.5 Carriageway Widths
All of the geometric parameters defined in this
clause can be seen for the three main types of
major/minor junctions in Figures 6.17 - 6.19.

Rural
Simple

Junction
Ghost
Island

Junction
Staggered

Table 6.4

Circular Corner Radii

R = Corner Radius
L = Length of Taper

T = Taper Rate

Through Lanes
At ghost and physical island junctions, the
through lane in each direction shall be 3.65m
wide, exclusive of edgestrips.
At dual carriageway junctions, the through lane
widths remote from the junction shall be
continued through the junction.
Minor Road Approaches
On a minor road approach of nominal width
7.3m, where a channelizing island is provided,
both lanes shall be 4.0m wide at the point where
the hatched markings surrounding the
channelizing island begin. (Refer to Figure
6.17).
At the point where the channelizing island
commences, the widths on either side shall be
as follows:

a)

On the approach to the major road, 4.0m


wide for a ghost island or 4.5m wide for
single lane dualling or a dual
carriageway, exclusive of hardstrips. If
the approach on the minor road consists
of two lanes, this dimension shall be
5.5m.

b)

On the exit from the major road, 4.5m


wide for a ghost island, or 5.0m wide for
single lane dualling or a dual
carriageway, exclusive of hardstrlps.

I
J

Figure 6.15 Circular Corner Radii

January 1997

Page 6/17

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


If there are no channelizing islands in the minor
road, the nominal approach width should
continue up until the tangent point of the curve
to join the edge of the major road running
carriageway.

. 7.3m Nominal Width


b. 4.0m In All Cun

c. 4.5m for Gholll.land


5.0m for Slngll Lan, Qualllng
tlr Dual Carrlaglway

--------~- ====

d. 4.0m f"rGhnllsland
4.5m ForSlngl. Lan, OU.Hlnll

or Du,l Cam_lIlwlY
5.5m It Two lana Approach

-- - - - - " " ' - - -

SECTION 6
Where the minor road approach is a dual
carriageway it should be either reduced to a
single carriageway before the junction (see
Figure 6.18), or signalized.
Where 16.5m long articulated vehicles (eg.
Class 8) are anticipated, but are likely to form
only a very small percentage of the total number
of vehicles and where conflicts will not occur on
bends, the carriageway widths should be
designed to cater for the lower class vehicle that
will regularly use the junction with an additional
1m allowance for variation in vehicle position.
Alternatively, figures from Table 6.5 could be
used.
An articulated car transporter will turn in the
widths shown, but where provision is to be
made for this type of vehicle, street furniture
above 2.5m high should be set back at least 1m
from the edge of the minor road carriageway at
the bellmouth (this does not apply for
channelizing islands) to allow for the projection
of the trailer over the tractor cab.

Figure 6.17 Minor Road Approaches

Approach Reduced to Single Carriageway

Approach Incorporating V-turn Facility

Figure 6.18 Minor Road Dual Carriageway Approaches

January 1997

Page 6/18

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6
On single lane sections greater than 50m in
length, the allowance given in Table 6.5 shall be
made for broken down vehicles. However, the
engineer must be careful not to use this
additional width in iocations that may encourage
2 lane flow to develop, ego at intersection right
turn lanes.

Carriageway Widths Around Corners


Where carriageways are taken around corners
and short radius curves, added width shall be
provided to cater for the swept path of larger"
goods vehicles and the "cut in" of traiier units.
Table 6.5 shows the recommended minimum
widths for various nearside curve radii based on
the Class 12 design vehicle. For radii above
100m, the standards set out in Table 3.5 shall
be used.

Inside

Single Lane Width

Comer/Curve
Radius

(Excluding Edgestrip
Provision)

(m)

(m)

Single Lane Width with


Space to Pass Stationary
Vehicles (Including
Edgeslrip Provision)
(m)

Two Lane Width for One Way or Two Way Traffic


(Excluding Edgestrip Provision)
(m)

Inside Lane

Outside Lane

Tolal

10

8.4

10.9

8.4

6.5

14.9

15

7.1

9.6

7.1

6.0

13.1

20

6.2

8.7

6.2

5.6

11.8

25

5.7

8.2

5.7

5.2

10.9

30

5.3

7.8

5.3

5.0

10.3

40

4.7

7.2

4.7

4.6

9.3

50

4.4

6.9

4.4

4.3

8.7

75

4.0

6.5

4.0

4.0

8.0

100

3.8

6.3

3.8

3.8

7.6

Tabie 6.5 Minimum Corner and Curve Radii and Carriageway Widths

__=

"

~=~

- - - -.,... - -7;===========-

L3S~

a. Turning Length (+Queuing Length


if required, see clause 6.7.8)

c. Through Lane Width (6.7.5)


d. Turning Lane Width (6.7.6)

b. Deceleration Length (6.7.10)


e. Direct Taper Length (6.7.9)

Figure 6.19 Major/Minor Junction with a Ghost Island

January 1997

Page 6/19

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.7.6 Central Islands Major Road
Ghost Islands
For new junctions, the desirabie width of a ghost
isiand turning lane shail be 4.0m, but a
relaxation to 3.0m is permissible. At urban and
suburban junctions, it can sometimes be
advantageous to use a greater width not
exceeding 5.0m to ailow a degree of shelter in
the centre of the road for large goods vehicles
turning left from the minor road to execute the
turn in two separate manoeuvres.
For improvements to existing junctions, where
space is very limited, a reduced width may be
unavoidable. The width of ghost islands shall
not bEl less than 205m.
At righVleft staggered junctions, the deceleration
lengths would overlap but the width of the ghost
island shall not be increased to make them lie
side by side. The starting points of the left
turning section shall be joined by a straight line,
which will mean at higher design speeds, the full
width of the turning lane will not be developed
until the end of the diverging section (as shown
in Figure 6.10). The width of the turning lane
shail be the full width of the ghost island.
Physical Islands
At single lane duailing and dual carriageway
junctions, the width of the central island at the
crossing point shall be 10.0m, including median
hardstrips. This width will shelter most large
goods vehicles turning left from the minor road,
except for very long vehicles. In exceptional
circumstances where use by very long vehicles
is expected and a roundabout is not feasible, a
width of 14.0m including hardstrips wiil be
needed to shelter the largest articulated
vehicles (1605m) and a width of 16.5m including
hardstrips will be required to shelter drawbar
trailer combinations (20.0m). The minimum
width of a physical island, usually located at the
end of the direct taper shall be 3.5m.
Crossing left turn movements within the central
island can usefuily be separated by physical or
painted guide islands set out with road markings
so that the number of traffic conflicts at any
point is reduced. Painted guide islands can be
enhanced by the use of coloured surfacing or
textures within them, block paving, road
marking or traffic studs. However, designs
which have numerous small traffic islands
should be avoided as they are confusing and
tend to be ignored.

SECTION 6
one time. This can lead to greater safety. For
the separation to be effective, the junction must
be large enough for drivers to identify in
adequate time those vehicles which wiil conflict
with their intended path and those that wiil not.
If this is not so, gaps in the flow cannot be used
effectively by traffic entering the junction.
6.7.7 Central Island Tapers
Central isiands, whether for ghost isiands
(Figure 6.20) or single lane dualling (Figure
6.21)
should
normally be
developed
symmetrically about the centreline of the major
road to their maximum width at the tapers
shown in Table 6.6. The maximum island width
should continue through the junction to the
tangent point of the minor road radius and the
edge of the major road carriageway.
Design Speed

Taper for Ghost

(kph)

Island and Single

Dual

Lane Quailing

Carriageways

1:20
1:20
1:20
1:25
1:30

1:40
1:40
1:40
1:45
1:50
1:55
1:60

50
60
70
80
100
120
140

Table 6.6

Taper for

_.

--

Tapers for Central Islands (1 :T)


T

- -_ _~""1~---.J.1-<>=~~~'S.>:..'-S=~--9

ta
R

T.Ghost Island Taper (1:T)

R. Rounding (50mR Typical)

Figure 6.20 Ghost Island Development


For single lane dualling, the central island
should be introduced by means of hatched
markings until there is sufficient width to
accommodate the appropriate sign on the nose
of the physical island with the required running
clearances to it.

Preventing or minimising conflicts by separation


means that drivers are only faced with simple
decisions on their choices of movement at any

January 1997

Page 6/20

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

=====-==~'==::d:l~
!~

'\" - .'Road Sign


T. PhysIcal Island Taper (1 :T)

Figure 6.21 Physical Island Deveiopment


6.7.8

..

6.7.10

Left Turning Lanes

Left turning tapers and lanes in the centre of


ghost islands, and single lane dualling are
especially useful as they provide a convenient
space for vehicles to slow down and wait before
turning off the major road. These junction
layouts can also assist the left turn out of the
minor road.
The overall length of a left turning lane provided
at ghost island, single lane dualling and dual
carriageway junctions will depend on the major
road design speed and the gradient.

Turning Length in Median (a)

The turning length is provided to allow long


vehicles to position themselves correctly for the
left turn. The turning length should be a
minimum of 10m long irrespective of the type of
junction, design speed or gradient, measured
from the centreline of the minor road. It is
shown on Figure 6.19.
Where capacity calculations indicate that for
significant periods of time there will be vehicles
queuing to turn left from the major road, the
turning length shall be increased to allow for a
reservoir queuing length to accommodate such
vehicles. For simplified calculation of storage
length refer to Section 5.10.
Where reservoir provision appears desirable at
a junction with ghost islands, consideration shall
be given to providing physical islands instead to
afford greater protection to turning traffic.
Where site conditions prevent this, the reservoi'r
space may still be provided.
Direct Taper Length (e)

6.7.9

The direct taper length is the length over which


the width of a left turning lane is developed. For
ghost islands and physical islands in single lane
dualling and dual carriageway junctions, left
turning lanes shall be introduced by means of a
direct taper whose length is part of the
deceleration length and depends on the design
speed. This taper iength is given in Table 6.7
and illustrated in Figure 6.19.
Design Speed
(kph)

Direct Taper
Length e (m)

50
60
70
80
100
120
140

5
5
15
15
25
30
35

Tabie 6.7

It consists of a turning length, as described in


Clause 6.7.8, and a deceleration length. This
component shall be provided in accordance
with Tables 6.8 and 6.9, in which the gradient is
the average for the 500m length before the
minor road.
Design
Speed
(kph)

Up Gradient

0-4%

Above

Down Gradient
O~4%

4%

50
60
70
80
100
120

Table 6.8

25
25
40
55
80
110

25
25
25
40
55
80

Above

4%

25
25
40
55
80
110

25
25
40
55
80
110

Deceleration Length - b (m) for


Ghost Island and Single Lane
Dualling

0-4%

Above
4%

0-4%

Above
4%

50
60
70
80
100
120
140

25
25
40
55
80
110
150

25
25
25
40
55
80
110

25
25
40
55
80
110
150

25
40
55
80
110
150
200

Table 6.9

Up Gradient

Down Gradient

Design
Speed
(kph)

Deceleration Length - b (m) for


Dual Carriageways

The deceleration length can be seen on Figure


6.19. The deceleration length is based on the
assumption that vehicles will slow by one
design speed step on the trunk road before
entering the length. The deceleration rate on
the level is assumed to be 0.375g. There is no
reaction time as this is a planned manoeuvre.

Direct Taper Length - e

January 1997

Page 6/21

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.7.11

Median Openings

The opening in the median for single lane


dualling at the crossing point shall be 15.0m
wide.
Problems have been experienced with driver
confusion over priority within the median,
particularly where the width of the physical
Island has been increased to cater for large
goods vehicles.

SECTION 6
illustrated in Figure 6.29. Opposite the refuge
openings, dropped kerbs shall be installed to
aid pedestrians.
6.7.13

Nearside Diverging Tapers and


Auxiliary Lahes

Measures to regularise the priority arrangement


within the median opening include channelizing
the central area.

Nearside Diverging Taper


Major road traffic, when slowing down on the
approach to a junction in order to turn into a
minor road, may impede following vehicles that
are not turning. It is helpful, therefore, to permit
the divergence of the two streams at a small
angle by the provision of a nearside diverging
taper.

Consideration may also be given in these


circumstances to introducing differential
coloured sUrfacing or studs to enhance the road
markings or indicate the area of allowable
overrun for large goods vehicles. However,
such coloured surfacing should also be visible
at night and in poor weather conditions.

Nearside diverging tapers are of iess benefit in


terms of operation and safety than left turning
lanes because the right turn from the major
road does not cross an opposing traffic stream
and is rarely impeded. However, nearside
diverging tapers should always be considered
for higher speed roads or on gradients.

6.7.12

Nearside diverging tapers shall not be provided


at simple junctions (Clause 6.6.1). They shall
be provided at junctions between major and
minor roads where the design speed for the
major road is 80 kph or above. They shall be
provided at other junctions in the following
circumstances for traffic in the design year:

Traffic Islands

Traffic islands can be ghosted or kerbed


(physical) and should be provided in the mouth
of the minor road at major/minor junctions
(except at simple junctions) to:

Give guidance to long vehicles carrying


out turning movements

Channeiize intersecting or merging traffic


streams

Warn drivers on the minor road that a


junction is ahead

Provide shelter for vehicles waiting to


carry out manoeuvres, such as waiting to
turn left

Assist pedestrians.

Physical traffic islands shouid be positioned in


urban situations only, shall have an area of at
least 4.5 square metres, and shall be treated to
be conspicuous in poor lighting conditions.
Smaller areas should be defined by road
markings. The risk of overriding the islands can
be reduced by offsetting the approach nose
from the edge of the vehicle paths.
Where a traffic island serves as a refuge for
pedestrians, it shall be at least 1.5m wide and
have openings in the centre at carriageway level
to make the crossing easier for pedestrians (see
Clause 5.12). The recommended layout and
details of the design of channelizing islands are

January 1997

Where the volume of right turning traffic


is greater than 600 vehicles AADT (oneway).

Where the percentage of large goods


vehicles is greater than 20%, and the
volume of right turning traffic is greater
than 450 vehicles AADT (one-way).

Where the junction is on an up or down


gradient of greater than 4% at any design
speed and the volume of right turning
traffic is greater than 450 vehicles AADT
(one-way).

Where the major road traffic flow is greater than


7000-8000 AADT (one-way), then the figures
given above for turning traffic should be halved.
Nearside diverging tapers shall not be provided
when the minor road is on the Inside of a curve
where traffic in the diverging lane could
adversely affect visibility for drivers emerging
from the minor road. They shall generally not
be provided where the design speed for the
major road Is less than 80 kph nor where the
cost of provision is excessive. In this case,
adequate warning of the junction ahead must
be provided.

Page 6/22

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Nearside diverging tapers shall be formed by a


direct increase to a width of 4.0m contiguous to
the corner into the minor road. A radius of at
least 20m should be used where the main road
design speed is 80kph and at least 40rn above
this speed. The width around this corner will
depend on the radius selected. The length of
this lane is defined as being from the beginning
of the taper up to the start of the radius, as
shown in Figure 6.22.

In this instance, consideration shouid be given


to the provision of a nearside auxiliary lane
instead of a taper for diverging traffic. The
provision of an auxiliary lane, as shown in
Figure 6.23, would allow turning traffic to move
off the mainline prior to any deceleration.
The auxiliary lane should be of sufficient length
to allow for the speed change from the major
road to the turn into the minor road and would
not normally be less than 80m. Its length may
also depend on any need for reservoir space for
turning traffic.
The auxiliary lane should
commence with a direct taper (Figure 6.23), the
length of which shall be determined from Table
6.7. The taper should be that used for a left
turning lane for a single lane dualling or dual
carriageway junction, with the relevant
deceleration length given in Tables 6.8 and 6.9.

The desirable length of a nearside diverging


taper shall be that of the relevant deceleration
length given in Tables 6.8 and 6.9.
Auxiliary Lane
At major road flows of over 7000-8000 AADT
(one-way), vehicles decelerating on the main
carriageway and moving into the diverging taper
to a point where there is a full lane width
available in the diverging taper may have a
significant effect on the capacity of the through
carriageway by impeding following drivers.

~~=~~~~~~~t

.~

1.. - - _ - - ' a L - . . - a. Deceleration Length

Figure 6.22 Major/Minor Junction with Nearside Diverging Taper


E

============~~
b

I,
a

a. Deceleration Length
b. Direct Taper Length

Figure 6.23 Major/Minor Junction with Nearside Auxiliary Lane

January 1997

Page 6/23

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.7.14

SECTION 6

Merging Tapers

Merging tapers permit minor road traffic to


accelerate fully before joining the faster traffic
streams on the mainline where the joining traffic
may otherwise impede flow or be a hazard
(Figure 6.24).
Merging tapers shall oniy be used at dual
carriageway junctions. They shall be provided
generally where the major road design speed is
80 kph or above, or when and the volume of
right turning traffic in the design year exceeds
600 vehicles AADT (one-way).
However, where the merging taper is for an
upgradient of greater than 4% or where the
percentage of large goods vehicles exceeds
20%, the threshold value may be reduced to
450 vehicles AADT (one-way).

A separate turning lane, with a radius of at least


25m where the main road design speed is 80
kph, and at least 30m above this speed, shall
be used to introduce the merging taper from the
minor road. The initial width of the lane, which
will depend on the radius of the turning lane
(determined from Table 6.5), should be
decreased at a constant taper depending on the
design speed.
The lengths of the tapers to be used are given
in Table 6.10. The minimum initial width of a
merging taper shall be 4.0m.
On dual carriageways, with a design speed of
120 kph or greater, the merging taper may be
preceded by a short nose of 40m length formed
between it and the end of the 30m approach
curve. The back of the nose should have a
minimum width of 2m (Figure 6.25).

Merging tapers shall never be used at single


lane dualling junctions.

Design

At some junctions on dual carrlageways, there


may be safety benefits in providing merging
tapers at lower flows.

Speed
(kph)

Merging
Length ~ a
(m)

80
100
120
140

90
110
130
150

Table 6.10 Merging Length - a

-----------------~---E

..."!
a. Merging Length

Figure 6.24 Major/Minor Junction with Nearside Merging Taper

January 1997

Page 6/24

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

b
Nose 2m minimum --...........

1'-2

------------~~~-~
o

....
a. Merging Length
b. Nose Taper

Nose~ N#

_ .= =

~
o

Z::Z>Z2>55...Q

Shoulder

Figure 6.25 Major/Minor Junction with Nearside Merging Taper (Allernative for Dual Carriageway with
a Design Speed of 120 kph)
6.7.15

Stagger Distances

Design
Speed (kph)

The stagger distance of a junction is the


distance aiong the major road between the
centrelines of the two minor roads.
Left/Right Stagger
For simple major/minor junctions with a lefVright
stagger, the minimum stagger distance shali be
40m.
For a ghost island junction the stagger distance
shali be 50m and for a junction with single lane
dualiing it shali be 40m. These are based on
the distance required for manoeuvring the
20.0m drawbar trailer combination design
vehicle between the two minor roads, and shall
be provided on all new staggered junctions,
including the upgrading of rural crossroads,
where large vehicles are expected.
Right/Left Stagger
The minimum values for staggered right/left
major/minor junction are given in Table 6.11.
For higher design speeds, the distance is based
on the sum of the two deceleration lengths lying
side by side plus the turning lengths (and
queuing lengths, if appropriate) at each end, as
indicated in the table. Otherwise it is based on
the manoeuvring requiremenls of the design
vehicle.

January 1997

Stagger Distance
(m)
Ghost Island

Single Lane
Dualling

50

50 (Manoeuvring)

..

60

50 (Manoeuvring)

..

70

60(10+40+10)

..

80

75{10+55+10)

75(10+55+10)

100

100 (10 + 80 + 10)

100 (10 + 80 + 10)

Table 6.11 Minimum Stagger Distance for


Right/Left Staggered Junction
6.7.16

Skew Junctions

The design parameters where the minor road


approaches at an angle other than 90', for both
left hand and right hand skew junctions, are
The geometric
shown in Figure 6.26.
parameters are set out in Clauses 6.7.5 to
6.7.12.

Page 6/25

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

------.,---.=..-::_=-=-=-=-:-:;- = = =

-~~ _-::::--_-

~==~~===~~~~~
I.

.~

/:
/
/

f;
H

- ~: === -

--------r-=--==---=-=-=-::-:-=--,= = = = -

~=
,...............

I,

k;\

-~- - -~-

~~~

---------------

.1.a.1

a. Turning Length (+ Queuing Length


if required, see ciause 6.7.8)

c. Through Lane Width (6.7.5)

b. Deceleration Length (6.7.10)

e. Minor Road Entry Width (6.7.5)

d. Turning Lane Width (6.7.6)

Figure 6.26 Major/Minor Junction with Skew Minor Road

January 1997

Page 6/26

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.7.17

T-Junction
Separation

with

SECTION 6

Carriageway

right-in/right-out connections shall be designed


in accordance with Section 7.

On dual carriageways, left turn crossing


manoeuvres at the junction are prevented and
facilities shall be provided nearby for turning
traffic, as highlighted in Clause 6.6.5. One
method of achieving this is to provide an
interchange, the principle of which is shown in
Section 7. The design of such crossings is
outlined in the following paragraphs and the
rlght-in/right-out connections to the mainline are
illustrated in Figures 6.27 and 6.28.

Traffic shall be introduced to the right turn lane


by a nearside diverge or auxiliary iane in
accordance with Clause 6.7.13.
Traffic leaving the right turn lane should "Give
Way" or merge with the major road traffic in
accordance with Clause 6.7.14, or join an
added lane, depending on the major road
design speed, traffic flows and layout.

Preventing left turns removes the need to


signalize the carriageways on the major road to
cater for these movements. The major road
carriageway can pass through the junction at a
constant width.
Two right-in/right-out
connections are used with an overbridge or
underpass.
These junctions should be
designed in composite form, as described in
this section, catering for the right turn
movement only.
For the right turn merge to the main road, the
minor road channelizing Island shown in
Figures 6.27 and 6.28 shall be designed so as
to provide a constant width of turn into the
major road. The width shall be determined from
Table 6.5.
The detail of the island as
approached aiong the minor road is as set out
in Ciause 6.7.18. If there is a merging taper as
shown in Figure 6.28, the widths and tapers
shall be as set out in Clause 6.7.14. The
hatched markings shall be extended from the
minor road centreline to link with those for the
merge taper, the channelizing island being
provided within them, as in Figures 6.27 and
6.28.
.
For the right turn diverge from the major road,
the channelizing island described in Clause
6.7.12 and shown in Figures 6.27 and 6.28 shall
be designed so as to provide a constant width
around the turn to the minor road. The width
shall be determined from Table 6.5. Where a
nearside diverging taper or nearside auxiliary
lane is present (see Figures 6.22 and 6.23), the
hatched markings should be extended along
their current path until the intersection with the
centreline of the minor road, and the
channelizing island shall be provided within
them. This is shown in Figures 6.27 an 6.28.
The right-in/right-out connections can also be
used with the compact interchange detailed in
Section 7. It offers a cheaper but more
restricted form of grade separation where the
economic case for a full interchange cannot be
fully justified. The connector roads between the

January 1997

Page 6/27

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Channellslng Island flared to


give constant carriageway
width around the turn

Figure 6.27 TJunction with Carriageway Separation

~------------------

a. Diverge Taper

c. Merge Taper

b. Nose Taper

d. Curve Widened Lane

Figure 6.28 TJunction (Alternative for Dual Carriageway with a design speed of 120kph).

January 1997

Page 6/28

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.7.18

Channelizing Islands

T-Junction
The recommended channelizing island iayout
for T-Junctions or staggered junctions, where
the minor road centreline is inclined to the major
road at an angle of between 70' or 110', is
shown in Figure 6.29: This shouid be read in
conjunction with Tables 6.12 and 6.13.

SECTION 6

b)

For right hand skew junctions, the island


should be about 15 metres long. The left
hand side of its tail (viewed from the
minor road approach) should touch the
curved minor road centreline and be
rounded off at a radius of 0.75m to
1.00m.

c)

The offset, d, for right hand skew


junctions is 4.5 metres.

d)

For left hand skew junctions, the circular


arc R, touches the curved minor road
centreline and is tangential to the offset
edge of the through traffic lane on the
major road into which left turning traffic
from the minor road will turn.

e)

The island should be about 15 metres


long. The tail is offset about 1m to the left
of the curved minor road centreline
(Viewed from the minor road approach)
and rounded off with a radius of O.75m to
1.00m.

The following points shouid also be noted:


a)

"Edge of major road carriageway" means


edge of major road travelled way.

b)

The circular arc R, is tangential to the


offset, d, from the minor road centreline
and the offside edge of the through traffic
lane on the major road into which left
turning traffic from the minor road will
turn.

c)

By striking a circular arc of radius (R, + 2)


metres from the same centre point as arc
R, to intersect the edge of the major road
carriageway, point A is established where
a straight line drawn from the centre point
of arc R, to this intersection crosses R,.

d)

The circular arc R2 is tangential to the


offside edge of the major road offside
diverging lane and also passes through
point A.

e)

Radius R2 is normally the same value as


R, but should be designed to ensure that
the island nose is positioned between 2 4 metres from the edge of the main
carriageway and that the width of the
island lies between 2- 5 metres.

f)

The design ensures that left turning traffic


from the major road will not clash with
traffic waiting to turn left from the minor
road.

Skew Junctions
The design of a channelizing island for skew
junctions is similar to that outlined above, but
the following points should be noted:

a)

The centreline of the minor road is turned


with a radius of at least 50 metres to meet
the edge of the major road at right angles.

January 1997

Page 6/29

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Centreline of _ _-I
minor road

2.5

0.75-1.0mR

..,.o

d
0.75mR
(min)
Edge of
major road
carria g ewa"y'-+3-_-"'-L---'<,.---ifrr_---,;L-

-'---,_

Figure 6.29 Design of Channelizing Isiand

Minor Road
Inclination - 8"

Offset - d
(m)

70
$0
90
100
110

1.5
2.0
2.5
2.0
1.5

Width of Major Road


Carriageway at
Junction - w
(m)

Radius - R,
(m)

7.3

12

11.3 (Ghost Island)

14

17.3 (Single Lane Dualling)

22

Table 6.12 Channelizing Island Offset


Table 6.13 Design of Radius R,

January 1997

Page 6/30

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.7.19

Splitter/Right Turn Islands

Splitter/right turn islands may be used to


chanelize traffic flows and separate conflict
points within a junction.
They have additional benefits of reserving
space for signing and aiding pedestrian
movement by proViding a refuge at bUSy
junctions. Refer to Figure 6.30.
Corner radii and carriageway widths given in
Table 6.5 shall be used to construct the right
turn lane.
The raised island shall be
constructed to give shy distances to travelled
ways as illustrated in Figure 6.30.

SECTION 6
Traffic leaving the right turn lane should "Give
Way" or merge with the major road traffic in
accordance with Clauses 6.7.4 or 6.7.14, or join
an added lane, depending on the major road
design speed, traffic flows and layout.
6.7.20

Drainage and Crossfall

From considerations of surface water drainage


and driver comfort, the road camber on the
major road shall be retained through the junction
and the minor road graded into the channel line
of the major road. Checks shall be made for flat
areas at all changes of gradient. superelevation
of crossfall. Refer to Section 8.

Splitter islands are particularly useful at


signalized junctions where minor road right turn
traffic can be controlled by "Give Way" signs
and markings rather than signals.
Traffic shall be introduced to the right turn lane
by a nearside diverge or auxiliary lane in
accordance with Clause 6.7.13.

= Inside Corner Radius

RW

= Outside Corner Radius

= Lane Width

= O.5m Aadius

"i<r1

Hatched Marking

Edge of
Travelled

Figure 6.30 Typical Layout of Splitter Island


January 1997

Page 6/31

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.7.21

SECTION 6

Traffic Signs and Road Markings

The need for, and layout of, traffic signs and


road markings is an integral part of the design
process and no junction design is complete
without these features having been inciuded.
Advance direction and warning signs shall be
provided, and care must be taken with the
positioning and size of signs at the junction
itself so that they do not interfere with drivers'
visibility requirements. These matters need to
be considered from the earliest stage as they
can fundamentally affect layout and hence iand
acquisition requirements. Advance signing on
minor roads may need particularly careful
consideration. Refer to the Qatar Traffic
Manual for details of signing and marking.
6.7.22

Road Lighting

Road lighting is normally provided at


major/minor junctions in rural areas only when
an intersecting road has lighting. When an
existing junction is being modified, the lighting
provision should be checked for suitability with
the new arrangement. Any alteration should be
carried out prior to, or at the same time as the
roadworks. Refer to Section 10.

13,'

January 1997

Page 6/32

..

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.8

ROUNDABOUTS - GENERAL

This section defines the main types of


roundabouts that can be used for an at-grade
junction of any class of road.
The requirements are defined in relation to the
.size of roundabouts, effect of approach speed,
visibility, entry width, entry deflection and the
circulatory carriageway.
The recommendations for siting of roundabouts
are given in Clause 6.1 .4.
6.8.1 General Principles
The principal objective of roundabout design is
to secure the safe interaction of traffic between
crossing traffic streams with minimum delay.
This is achieved by a combination of geometric
layout features that, ideally, are matched to the
volumes of traffic in the traffic streams, their
speed, and to any locational constraints that
apply.
There are two broad regimes of roundabout
operation. The first occurs in urban areas with
high peak flows, often with marked tidal
variations and physical restrictions on the space
available. The second regime occurs in rural
areas and is characterised by high approach
speeds, low tidal variation and few physical
constraints.
Entry width is an important feature that
determines entry capacity and often needs to be
larger in urban situations than in rural cases.
On the other hand, the most important
determinant of safety is vehicle deflection
imposed at entry because this governs the
speed of vehicles through the junction. It is
particularly important whenever approach
speeds are high. Entry deflection is related to
the entry path curvature and limiting this radius
of curvature in the vicinity of the entry to 100m
maximum ensures that sufficient deflection will
be undergone by entering vehicles to limit
through speeds.
The characteristics of roundabout accidents and
their frequencies in relation to geometric layout
design and traffic flows have been studied in
the UK by Transportation Research Laboratory
(TRL). The relationships derived from these
studies have provided insights into how various
aspects of design interact to influence the types
and frequencies of accidents at roundabouts.
These relationships therefore, constitute the
fundamentals of design for safety.
As
relationships between aspects of design are not
always mutually compatible, minimising the
likely incidence of a particular type of accident
January 1997

SECTION 6
may increase the potential for another. Design,
therefore is a trade-off between operational
efficiency, minimising delays at the junction, and
various safety aspects within whichever location
constraints apply. The latter are often the
dominating
factor
when
designing
improvements to an existing junction,
particularly in urban areas.
Consideration of the need for, and layout of
traffic signs and road markings should be an
integral part of the design process. Reference
should be made to the Qatar Traffic Manual.
The provision of road lighting at roundabouts
should normally be regarded as an essential
safety requirement.
Sometimes lighting
requirements may conflict with environmental
considerations.
However, it should be
recognised that roundabouts are generally safer
than other forms of at-grade junctions and the
decision to use a roundabout should not be
abandoned solely because of lighting problems.
In sensitive locations it may be possible to adopt
alternative lighting methods and other measures
to make the roundabout more visible. When an
existing roundabout junction is being modified,
the lighting layout should be checked for
suitability with the new road arrangement and
any alteration carried out prior to, or at the same
time as the roadworks. It is important that
approaching drivers see and perceive that they
are approaching a roundabout and are not
misled by the projection of the lighting layout,
particularly at times of poor visibility.
6.8.2 Types of Roundabout
Defin itions
The preferred main type of roundabout to be
used in Qatar is the Normal Roundabout. There
are other forms such as Mini and Double
Roundabouts, and other variants of these basic
types, ie. Ring Junctions, Interchange
Roundabouts and Signalized Roundabouts.
Normal Roundabout
A roundabout having a one-way circulatory
carriageway around a kerbed central island 4m
or more in diameter and usually with flared
approaches to allow multiple vehicle entry.
(Figure 6.31).
The number of entries recommended is either 3
or 4. Roundabouts per10rm particularly well with
3 arms, being more efficient than signals,
provided the traffic demand is well balanced
between the arms.

Page 6/33

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

a Traffic deflection

Island

Figure 6.31 Normal Roundabout


If the number of entries is above 4, driver
comprehension is affected and the roundabout
becomes larger with the probability that higher
circulatory speeds wiil be generated.

Interchange Roundabouts
The foilowing examples of interchanges are
discussed in Section 7 Interchanges.

Two bridge roundabout

One bridge
(dumbbell)

Ring junction interchange.

and

two

roundabouts

Signalized Roundabout
As with Major/Minor Junctions, traffic signals
can be installed at roundabouts to improve
safety or traffic capacity. Traffic signals can be
used at one or more of the approach arms or
even on the circulatory carriageway on some
large roundabouts.

January 1997

Page 6/34

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.9

SAFETY AT ROUNDABOUTS

SECTION 6

6.9.1 General

Design to encourage slow entry to the


junction and quick exit to leave the
junction clear for the next users.

It is generaliy known from studies that fewer


accidents occur at roundabouts than at
signalized junctions of similar traffic flows. The
severity of accidents is also much iess than at
other junctions.

Measures to reduce accidents at existing


roundabouts with poor safety records include:

Repositioning or reinforcement of warning


signs

Care must be taken in layout design to secure


the essential safety aspects.
The most
common problem affecting safety is excessive
speed, both at entry or within the roundabout.
The most significant factors contributing to high
entry and circulating speeds are:

Provision of map type advance direction


signs

Making the "Give Way"


conspicuous.

Moving the central island chevron sign


further to the right to emphasise the angle
of turn, placing another chevron sign
above the normal position, and placing
chevron signs in the median in line with
the offside lane approach on dual
carriageways.
Chevron boards can
impinge on circulatory visibility but the
effects can be minimised by positioning
the boards (and associated turn right
sign) 2m back from the central island
kerbline

When approach speeds are low (usualiy


in urban areas), a ring of contrasting
paving can be laid in a chevron pattern
inside the central island perimeter at a
gentle slope, refer to Clause 5.19.

Inadequate entry deflection

A very acute entry angle which


encourages fast merging manoeuvres
with circulating traffic

Poor visibility to the "Give Way" line


Poorly designed or positioned warning
and advance direction signing

"Reduce Speed Now" signs, where


provided, being incorrectly sited

More than four entries leading to a large


configuration.

Additional safety aspects to be considered in


designing a layout include:

Angle between arms:


The accident
potential of an entry depends on both the
angle (anticlockwise) between its
approach arm and the previous approach
arm, and the traffic flows. A high flow
entry should have a large angle to the
next entry, and a low flow entry a smalier
angle in order to minimise accidents

Gradient: Whilst it is normal to flatten


approach gradients to about 2% or less
at entry, research at a limited number of
sites has shown that this has only a smali
beneficial effect on accident potential

Visibility to the left at entry: This has


comparatively little influence upon
accident risk. There is nothing to be
gained by increasing visibility above the
recommended level
Crest Curves: Junctions should not be
sited on crest curves where the approach
sight to the roundabout is impaired

January 1997

line more

In rural areas it is not recommended to


instali raised kerbed. chevrons on
roundabouts. Experience has shown that
physical obstructions such as chevron
kerbing wili be hit inadvertently at night
time by vehicles whose drivers are not
aware of the junction ahead. Chevron
signs should be placed in these locations
only

Landscaping where approach speeds are


high in urban areas can provide a useful
supplement

Provision of "Yeliow Bar Markings" on fast


dual carriageway approaches has shown
that a 57% reduction in accidents can be
achieved. This is from studies carried
out in the UK by the TRL

Provision of appropriate levels of skidding


resistance on the approaches to
roundabouts and on the circulatory
carriageways

Page 6/35

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

It should be noted that at the speed of


traffic on a circulatory carriageway,
skidding resistance is derived from the
surface texture of the aggregates which
form the surface of the road (the microtexture). Particular consideration should
be given to ensure that the aggregates
used have skid resisting properties
appropriate to the circumstances
The deep surface texture (the macrotexture) necessary for good skid
resistance on high speed routes is not
required for circulatory carriageways.
Deep surface texture is required
however, on the approaches to
roundabouts if the design speed of traffic
is greater than 120 kph

Avoidance of abrupt and excessive


superelevation in the entry region

Reduction of excessive entry width by


hatching or physical means

Provision of "Reduce Speed Now" signs


and/or "Count-down" markers

Reduction of the circular width by


insertion of a central island collar.

Care should be taken with the choice of kerb


type for roundabout design. A safety probiem
can arise where certain specialist, high profile
kerbs are used around a central island as they
can be a danger to vehicles over-running the
entry. Observations have shown that these
kerbs can result in loss of control or overturning
of vehicles unless the approach angle is small
and actual vehicle speeds are low. Where
high profile kerbs are to be used on
approaches, the kerbs can be hazardous for
vehicles and pedestrians, and consideration
should be given to the provision of pedestrian
guardrails. Care shouid be taken to ensure that
visibility sightlines are maintained.
High circulatory speeds cause associated entry
problems and normally occur at large
roundabouts with excessively long and/or wide
circulatory carriageways. Excessive circulatory
speeds can also be caused at smaller
roundabouts by inadequate deflection at
previous entries.
The soiution to high
circulatory speeds usually has to be fairly
drastic, involving the signalization of problem
entry arms at peak hours. In extreme cases
the roundabout may have to be converted to a
ring junction in which the circulatory
carriageway is made 2-way and the
entries/exits are controlled by Individual normal
roundabouts or traffic signals.
January 1997

If entry problems are caused by poor visibility to


the left, good results can be achieved by
moving the "Give Way" line forward in
conjunction with curtailing the adjacent
circulatory carriageway by hatching or extension
of the traffic deflection island.
6.9.2 Two Wheeled Vehicles
Though roundabouts have an impressive
overall safety record for most vehicle types, this
does not apply equally to two wheeled vehicles.
Research has shown that at four-arm
roundabouts in the UK, injury accidents
involving two-wheeled vehicles constitute about
half of those reported.
The proportion of
accidents involving cyclists is about 15%,
although they typically constitute less than 2%
of the traffic flow.
The accident involvement rates for two-wheeled
vehicles, expressed in terms of accidents per
road user movement, are 10-15 times those of
cars, with pedal cyclists generally having slightly
higher accident rates than two-wheeled motor
vehicles riders.
The study at four-arm roundabouts by the TRL
in the UK has shown for example that, in 50 and
60 kph posted speed areas, there are
differences in pedal cycie accident involvement
rates for different categories of roundabouts.
Engineers should be aware of the following:

Normal roundabouts with small central


islands and flared entries have accident
- rates which are about twice those of
normal roundabouts with large centrai
islands and unflared entries.
This
relationship appears to apply consistently
for all types of vehicular road users. As
previously stated, analysis of accident
data suggests that when all types of
accident are considered, entry deflection
is the most important factor

70% of pedal cycle accidents at smaller


normal roundabouts are of the
'entry/circulating' type, for example, motor
vehicle entering roundabout collides with
pedal cycle crossing entry

At dual carriageway roundabouts, the


accident involvement rate for cyclists is
about two to three times greater than that
at dual carriageway traffic signals, but for
cars, the opposite is true.

Page 6/36

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

6.9.3 Large Goods Vehicles

The problem of large goods vehicles


overturning or shedding their loads at
roundabouts has an obvious solution in relation
to layout geometry. Whilst in the UK there are
only about 60 personal injury accidents a year
in this category, there are considerably more
damage-only accidents. Load shedding often
involves great congestion and delay, and is
expensive to clear, especially if occurring at
major junctions.
Experience suggests that
roundabouts where these problems persist
usually exhibit one or more of the following
features:

Inadequate entry deflection leading to


high entry speeds

Long straight sections of circulatory


carriageway leading into deceptively tight
bends

Sharp turns into exits

Excessive crossfall changes on the


circulatory carriageway

Excessive adverse
nearside lane of
carriageway.

crossfall on a
the circulatory

An incipient problem for some vehicles may be


present even if high speeds are not occurring.
Research has shown that an articulated, large
goods vehicle with a gravity height of 2.5m
above the ground can overturn on a 20m radius
bend at speeds as low as 24 kph. Particular
attention should be paid to ensure that
pavement surface tolerances are complied with
and that abrupt changes in crossfall are
avoided. It is good practice to make the exit
radii greater than the entry radii.

January 1997

Page 6/37

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.10 ROUNDABOUT ELEMENTS


6.10.1

Definitions

Entry Width: e, is measured from the point A


along the normal to the nearside kerb, see
Figure 6.32.

I' Average Effective Flare Length

Figure 6.33 Average Effective Flare Length

A.Point of Maximum Entry


Deflection at Left
Hand End of Give Way
D.

Line
Entry Width

v. Approach Half

Width
r. Entry Radius
D. Inscribed
Circle Diameter

Inscribed Circle Diameter: D, is the diameter


of the largest circle that can be inscribed within
the junction outline, see Figure 6.32. In cases
where the outline is asymmetric, the local value
in the region of the entry is taken.

The Entry Angle: <p, serves as a geometric


proxy for the confiict angle between entering
and circulating streams. For roundabouts
having a curved circulatory carriageway,

Figure 6.32 Geometric Design Features


Approach to Half Width: v, is measured at a
point in the approach upstream from any entry
flare, from the median iine (or offside edge of
carriageway on duai carriageways) to the
nearside kerb, aiong a normai, see Figure 6.32
Average Effective Flare Length: I', is found as
shown in Figure 6.33. The iine GF'D is the
projection of the nearside kerb from the
approach towards the "Give Way" iine, parailel
to the median HA and at a distance of v from it.
BA is the iine aiong which e is measured (and
is therefore normal to GBJ), and thus D is at a
distance of [e-v] from B. The iine CF' is parailel
to BG (the nearside kerb) and at a distance of
[e-v]/2 from it. Usuaily the line CF' is therefore
curved and its length is measured aiong the
curve to obtain I'.
Sharpness of Flare: S, is defined by the
relationship:
S = 1.6[e-v]/1'

and is a measure of the rate at which extra


width is developed in the entry flare. Large
values of S correspond to short severe flares
and smail values to long gradual flares.

January 1997

Entry Angle

Figure 6.34 Entry Angle

The line BC is a tangent to the iine EF, which is


midway between the nearside kerbiine and the
median line or the edge of any median island
on the offside, where this line intersects the
"Give Way" line. <p is measured as the acute
angle between BC and the tangent to A'D' at
the point of intersection between BC and A'D'
shown in Figure 6.34.
For all other roundabouts, the construction is
shown in Figure 6.35. The iine BC is the same
as in Figure 6.34. The line GH is the tangent to
the line JK, which is in the foilowing exit,
midway between the nearside kerb and the

Page 6/38

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

median line or the edge of any median island


on the offside, where this line intersects the
outer edge of the circulatory carriageway. BC
and GH intersect at L. <IJ is then defined by:

= 90-fangle BLG]/2 ie BLH/2


when the right hand side of the equation is
. positive.

6.10.2

Entries

The design of roundabout entries is a complex


procedure, there are several variables which
need to be addressed to ensure a design which
is safe and has adequate capacity.
The designer has fiexibility in the application of
the parameters to best meet the partiCUlar site
requirements and constraints. The variables
are:
Entry Width
Flare Length
Entry Angle
Entry Radius
Approach Carriageway Half Width.

Entry Anglo ~ Doflnod as (90~-'El/2)

6.10.3

Figure 6.35 Entry Angle


When the right hand side of the equation is zero
or negative, <IJ=O. Angle BLG is measured on
the "outside" of the roundabout, that is, on the
side facing away from the central island.
Entry Radius: r is measured as the minimum
radius of curvature of the nearside kerbline at
entry, see Figure 6.32. For some designs the
arc of minimum radius may extend into the
following exit, but this is not important provided
that a half or more of the arc length is within the
entry region.
Minimum Stopping Sight Distance:
defined in Section 2.

as

Entry Path Curvature: This is a measure of the


amount of entry deflection to the right imposed
on vehicles at the entry to a roundabout, see
Clause 6.10.8.
Traffic Deflection Island: a raised area
(usually kerbed) on the carriageway, which is
located and shaped so as to direct and also
separate traffic movements onto and from a
roundabout.
Ghost Islands used for Subsidiary Traffic
Deflection: a shaped area, fiush with the road
surface, delineated by road markings, and
within the entry width of the approach to a
roundabout, so located to deflect and direct
traffic movements into the circulatory
carriageway.

January 1997

Entry Width

It is good practice to add at least one extra lane


width to the lanes on the entry approach, but as
a general rule, not more than two lanes should
be added and no entry should be more than
four lanes wide.
The relationship between
entry width and capacity is quite significant.
Entry width is the largest single factor, apart
from approach carriageway half width, affecting
capacity.
There may be some cases, usually associated
with low predicted flows, where increased entry
width is not operationally necessary, but in
these circumstances it is still recommended that
two entry lanes be provided. This will give
added fleXibility at abnormal flow periods in the
future, a passing facility in the event of
breakdown, and will ease the problem of space
provision for long vehicles turning.
Lane widths at the "Give Way" line shall be not
less than 3m. Lane widths should be tapered
back in the entry fiare to a minimum width of
2m. It is generally better to use wide lane
widths because they are more suitable for large
goods vehicles. For example, at a 10m wide
entry, 3 x 3.33m lanes are better than 4 x 2.5m
lanes.
The development of entry lanes should take
account of the anticipated turning proportions
and possible lane bias since drivers often have
a tendency to use the nearside lane. The use
of lane bifurcation where a lane widens into two
should maximise use of the entry width. The
use of short offside lanes is not recommended.

Page 6/39

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

The alignment of entry lanes is also critical.


On rural roundabouts, where design speeds are
relatively high, the kerbline of the deflection
island (or central reserve in the case of a dual
carriageway) should be on an arc which, when
projected forward, meets the central Island
tangentially.
In urban areas, where design
speeds are lower, this is less important, but
nevertheless should be achieved where
possible. Care should be taken to ensure that
the resultant entry angle is not too low and that
entry path curvature is not too great.

this the design becomes one of link Widening.


Where the design speed is high, entry widening
should be developed gradually, avoiding any
sharp angles. In urban areas the use of long
flare lengths is often not possible due to land
constraints and capacity may have to be
achieved using wider entries and shorter flares.
As a rough guide, the total length of the entry
Widening (BG) should be about twice the
average effective flare length I' (Figure 6.33).

6.10.5
For capacity assessment, the entry width
should be taken as the width which drivers are
likely to use. Where the offside kerbline forms
a vehicle path which is tangential to the central
islands, the entry width and effective entry width
are the same.
It is usual to consider design flows 15 years
after opening for highway schemes. This can
result in roundabout entries with too many lanes
for earlier year flows and lead to operational
problems. A design year layout will determine
overall geometry and land requirements for the
roundabout, but for the early years, it may be
necessary for the designer to consider an
interim stage.
This approach can result in
reduced entry widths and entry lanes.
Consideration can also be given to an interim
reduction of the circulatory carriageway width,
either by an increase in diameter of the central
Island, or by extending islands forward into the
circulatory carriageway.

6.1'0.4

Entry Angle

The effect of entry angle on entry capacity is


negative; as the angle increases capacity
decreases slightiy. However, care shoult;l be
taken in the choice of entry angle since high
and low angles may result in increased accident
potential.
The angle should, if possible, lie between 20
and 60 degrees. Low entry angles force drivers
into merging positions where they must either
look over their shoulders to their left or attempt
a true merge using their mirrors (with the
attendant problems of disregarding the "Give
Way" line and generation of high entry speeds).
High entry angles produce excessive entry
deflection and can lead to sharp braking at
entries accompanied by "nose to tail" accidents,
especially in rural areas. The best entry angle
value is about 30 degrees. Figures 6.36 and
6.37 show two extreme cases.

Flare Design at Entry

Flares on the approach to roundabouts shall be


such that:
a)

The maximum entry width shall not


exceed 10.5m for single and 15.0m for
dual carriageway approach roads

b)

The average effective flare length shall


not exceed 100m, but it should be noted
that beyond 30 or 40m any expected
extra capacity
is derived from
extrapolation beyond the bounds of
experimental data and should therefore
by treated with caution.

The capacity of an entry can be improved by


increasing the average effective flare length,
though this is of limited effect. A minimum
length of about 5m is desirable in urban areas,
whilst a length of 25m is considered adequate
in rural areas. Flare lengths greater than 25m
may assist in geometric layout but have little
effect in increasing capacity. Flare lengths
should not be areater than 100m. as bevond
January 1997

Entry Angla ill Defined as (90".6/2)

Figure 6.36 Example of Too Low an Entry


Angle and also Substandard Entry
Deflection

Page 6/40

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Entry angle

Figure 6.37 Example of Too High an Entry


Angle and also Excessive Entry
Deflection
.'

6.10.6

Entry Radius

For small roundabouts entry capacity increases


with entry radius up to about 20m, higher radii
result in very little increase in capacity. The
minimum entry radius should be 6m, a good
practical design is about 20m. Where a
roundabout is designed to cater for large goods
vehicles in particular, the entry radius should
not be less than 10m. For large roundabouts
(40-60m diameter), large entry radii will almost
certainly result in inadequate entry deflection,
for example it will not be possible to achieve the
deflection standard if the entry radius is 100m
or more.
6.10.7

Entry Kerbing

As entries are almost always kerbed, hardstrips


should be terminated when entry widening
begins. The simplest procedure is to place the
kerbs at the back of the hardstrip and then
terminate the hardstrip edge line by profiling it
back towards the kerbs in a short smooth curve
or taper. (See Figures 6.38 and 6.39). This is
not appropriate where there is regular use by
cyclists who may wish to continue to the edge
of the circulatory carriageway by using the
hardstrip.

January 1997

Page 6/41

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

--.... --....
a
b
c
d

\
\

------\

'\\

Kerbs
Edge Lines
Edge Line Profiled Back towards the Kerb
Edge of Carriageway

Figure 6.38 Method of Terminating Edge Strip on Single Carriageway Approach to a Roundabout

d _--.-

-"=~

-------------------

---

......

---- ----

...-

1m

1m
--------------------_

-----

---\

-...... ............ ......

............

\
\
\
\

'"

a
b
c
d

Kerbs
Edge Lines
Edge Line Profiled Back towards the Kerb
Edge of Carriageway

\
\

Figure 6.39 Method of Terminating Edge Strips on Dual Carriageway Approach to a Roundabout

January 1997

Page 6/42

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.10.8

Entry Deflection

Entry Path Curvature is one of the most


important
determinants
of
safety
at
roundabouts. It is a measure of the amount of
entry deflection to the right imposed on vehicles
at entry to the roundabout.
For design purposes oniy, at both new and
improved 'normal' type roundabouts, the vehicie
entry path shail be such that when inscribed in
accordance with the foilowing construction, the
tightest radius of the entry path curvature shail
not exceed 100 metres.
Construction of the Vehicle Path
The method of construction and measuring the
entry path curvature is described beiow, and
shown in Figures 6.40 to 6.43. Figure 6.41
shows an approach with negative curvature,
Figure 6.42 shows an approach with positive
approach curvature, and Figure 6.43 a
roundabout at a "Y" junction.

SECTION 6
e)

That the vehicle proceeds towards the


"Give Way" line, then:
-

It proceeds towards the central island


of the roundabout passing through a
point not less than 1m from the
nearside channel or kerb, the position
of which relative to the starting point
depends on the amount of approach
flare to the right (Figure 6.40 and 6.41)

The vehicle is then assumed to


continue on a smooth path with its
centreline never passing closer than
1m from the central island (it may be
more in some configurations).

Draw, to a scale not less than 1/500 using a


flexible curve of equivalent, the centre line of
the most realistic path that a vehicle would take
in its complete passage through the junction on
a smooth alignment without sharp transitions.
More than one independent assessment of the
vehicle paths shail be carried out.

Assume:
a)

The entering vehicle is 2m wide and wiil


be taking the 'straight ahead' movement
at a 4 arm roundabout and across the
head of the Tee at a 3 arm roundabout

b)

That there is no other traffic on the


approach and on the circuiatory
carriageway

c)

That the driver will negotiate the site


constraints with minimum deflections and
that lane markings by the "Give Way" iine
wiil be ignored

d)

The initial approach position for entry


path curvature measured from a point not
iess than 50m from the "Give Way" iine is
within the range:
-

1m from the nearside kerb

1m from the centreline of a single


carriageway or 1m from the offside
kerb of a dual carriageway

This will ensure that ail approach


alignments are examined and that no
vehicle
path
can
exceed
the
recommended maximum radius of
curvature

January 1997

This tightest radius shail be measured by


means of suitable templates. See "To Measure
the Entry Path Curvature".
The exact path drawn wiil be a matter of
personal judgement and the results should be
examined for compliance and consistency with
the appropriate clauses in this section.
One convenient method of construction of the
reqUired path is to imagine the advance of ail
the channel or kerb lines and centreline in the
case of single carriageways (together with
central islands and deflection islands) into the
carriageway by 1m.
The vehicle path wiil be the line of least
resistance, whose centreline will normally, but
not always, be tangential to these construction
lines; in the entry, at the central island and in
the exit. Any reverse of curvature in the vehicle
path around the central island must be drawn so
that there is no sharp deviation between that
curve and the entry curve. Particular care in
checking entry path curvature is required when
considering smail central island designs.
To Measure the Entry Path Curvature
The entry path curvature is measured on the
curved length of path in the vicinity of the "Give
Way" line (but not more than 50m in advance of
it) between points X and Y (see Figures 6.40 to
6.43) about 20m to 25m but not less than 20m
in length, over which the tightest radius occurs.

Page 6/43

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Figure 6.40 Determination of Entry Path Curvature

___ ..L
~

--------/'"

---c

}<:;--

__

~~~

_-----

--

--

'.....

./
\. ...~/ / '

.;\

~~.-J'\\

..... ,

Ir
T1m min

Figure 6.41 Determination of Entry Path (On a Curved Approach Arm with Negative Approach
Curvature)

January 1997

Page 6/44

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

--- -----

------

--~T-----------~-

1mmin

~---

_L_

\,

c
Y
~~------~------_,r,
---',
1m mm

Figure 6.42 Determination of Entry Path Curvature (On a Curved Approach Arm with Positive Approach
Curvature)

a. The radius should be measured over a distance of 20-25m;


it Is the minimum which occurs along the approach entry
path in the vicinity of the Give Way line but not more
than SOm in advance of it.
b. Commencement point 1m from the offside kerb for
02 or 1m from centre line for S2L, not less than Sam
from the Give Way line.
C. Vehicle entry path curvature.

Figure 6.43 Determination of Entry Path Curvature for a Roundabout at a "Y" Junction
January 1997

Page 6/45

SECTION 6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.10.9

Achieving Entry Deflection

A good method for creating entry deflection on


new schemes where there are no other
constraints is to stagger the arms, as shown in
Figure 6.44. This will help with the overall
design, reduce the size of roundabouts,
minimise land acquisition and assist with the
construction of "easy" exits.

In urban areas, the restrictions on space


available coupled with the turning width
requirements of large goods vehicles may
necessitate small normal roundabouts which
cannot proVide sufficient entry deflection to the
right by means of the central island alone. In
these cases, deflection should be generated by
means of enlarged traffic islands in the entry,
(Figure 6.45).

It is not good practice to generate entry


deflection by sharply deviating the approach
roads to the left close to the roundabout and
then to the right at entry. Approach curves
should be fairly gentle, but there are cases
when horizontal radii below the minimum for the
general design speed of the approach link may
be used, provided always that they are
proceeded by the "Roundabout Ahead" warning
sign as defined in the Qatar Traffic Manual.
However, tight radii will require large amounts of
verge widening to provide adequate forward
visibility and add to the verge maintenance
requirements.
There is evidence to suggest that a gentle left
hand bend leading to a right hand deflection at
entry is more safe than a gentle right hand
bend.

II. C.ntr.lln. Off.. t H:;-20m (Noll 'E y Exltl)

Figure 6.44 Entry Deflection by Staggering


Approach Roads

Figure 6.45 Example Showing How Island Design can Increase Entry Deflection at an Existing
Roundabout

January 1997

Page 6/46

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.10.10 Visibility
The forward visibility at the approach to a
roundabout shall be as indicated in Section 2 for
the appropriate design speed. This Minimum
Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) is measured to
the "Give Way" line as shown in Figure 6.46.
The following guidelines represent good
practice concerning the provision of visibility
and, when subject to relaxation, there is a need
for additional signing to alert drivers of all
vehicles to potential hazards.
Eye and Object Heights
Visibilities, with the exception of visibility to the
left at entry and across the central island, shall
be assessed in accordance to Section 2.
Visibility to the left and across the central island
shall be obtainable from a driver's eye height of
1.05m to an object height of 1.05m, and the
envelope of visibility shall extend to 2.0m above
the road surface.
Where traffic and direction signs are to be
erected on a central reservation, verge, or
deflection island within the envelope of visibility,
including to the left, the mounting height shall
not be less than 2.0m above the carriageway
surface and the envelope checked on sites with
changes of gradient.
Visibility to the Left
Drivers of all vehicles approaching the "Give
Way" line shall be able to see the full width of
the circulatory carriageway to their left from the
"Give Way" line for a distance appropriate to the
sight stopping distance for the circulatory traffic
(measured along the centreline of the
circulatory carriageway) as indicated in Table
6.14, and shown in Figure 6.47. This also
applies to roundabouts that have parapet walls
on either side of the circulatory carriageway.
This visibility shall be checked from the centre
of the offside lane at a distance of 15m back
from the "Give Way" line, as shown in Figure
6.48. Checks shall be made that crossfall
design or construction and sign location do not
restrict visibility.
It should be noted that excessive visibility at
entry or visibility between adjacent entries can
result in approach and entry speeds greater
than desirable for the junction geometry.
Consideration shall be given to limiting in
particular the visibility of adjacent entries to that
from 15m back on the approach, and the
visibility along the approach to no more than the
stopping sight distances for the design speed of
the approach, by the selective use of
landscaping.
January 1997

SECTION 6
Forward Visibility at Entry
Drivers of all vehicles approaching the "Give
Way" line shall be able to see the full width of
the circulatory carriageway ahead of them for a
distance (measured along the centre line of the
circulatory carriageway) appropriate to the size
of the roundabout (as indicated in Table 6.14).
The visibility shall be checked from the centre of
the nearside lane at a distance of 15m back
from the "Give Way" line as shown in Figure
6.49.
Circulatory Visibility
Drivers of all vehicles circulating on a
roundabout shall be able to see the full width of
the circulatory carriageway ahead of them for a
distance appropriate to the size of roundabout
(as indicated in Table 6.14). This visibility shall
be checked from a point 2m in from the central
island as shown in Figure 6.50. It is often useful
to improve the conspicuousness of central
islands by the use of landscaping, but this could
obstruct circulatory visibility. The circulatory
visibility envelope will encroach onto the height
of vegetation or surface treatment. In these
situations, limited penetration into the visibility
envelope by vegetative growth of a dispersed
nature would not be unacceptable.
Inscribed Circle Diameter
(m)

Visibility Distance
(m)
("a" in Figure 6.49)

<40

Whole Junction

4060

40

60-100

50

> 100

70

Table 6.14 Visibility Distance


Pedestrian Crossing Visibility
Drivers of all vehicles approaching a pedestrian
crossing across an entry shall have a minimum
distance of visibility to it of the Stopping Sight
Distance for the design speed of the link (see
Section 2). At the "Give Way" line, drivers of all
vehicles shall be able to see the full width of a
pedestrian crossing across the next exit if the
crossing is within 50m of the roundabout (see
Figure 6.51). In urban areas, adjacent roadside
development may however prevent this visibility
splay being fully established.

Page 6/47

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Visual Intrusions
Signs, street furniture and planting shali not be
placed within the visibiiity enveiopes so as to
obstruct visibiiity, but infringements by isolated
siim projections such as lamp columns, sign
supports or bridge columns can be ignored
provided they are less than 550mm wide. The
only exception to this will be positioning of
bollards on defiection islands and staggered
chevron boards on centrai isiands. Where
possible, care shali be taken to minimise the
effects of pedestrians on visibility requirements.

January 1997

Page 6/48

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

\
\

\-- ......

. -E -.L \._. . . .~

-___

- - - ---=::.=-::::::::::::::::::::::::==-'
_--_-

"'T
7 .3m Dual Carriageway

11.3m Single Carriageway

7.3m Single Carriageway

a::::Il Vehicle Position Centre of Nearside Lane

Desirable Minimum Slopping Sight Distance (SSD) for Approach Road Design Speed

Figure 6.46 Measurement of Stopping Sight Distance

January 1997

Page 6/49

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Area of circulatory carriageway over

which visibility shall be obtained--':--/


from viewpoint
3. Sight Stopping Distance for Circulating Traffic
b. Half Lane Width

Figure 6.47 Visibility to the Left Required at Entry (From "Give Way" Line)

Area of circulatory carriageway over

--"

which visibility shall be obtained


from viewpoint

<l.

<:{

Sight Stopping Distance for Circulatlng Traffic

b. Half Lane Width


c. Limit of Vl51bility Splay

Figure 6.48 Visibility to the Left Required at Entry (15m back from "Give Way" Line)

January 1997

Page 6/50

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

- -- - --

Area of cirCUlatory carriageway over which


visibility shall be obtained

from viewpoint

a. Sight Stopping Distance for Circulating Traffic


b. Half Lane Width
c. Limit of Visibility Splay

Figure 6.49 Forward Visibility Required at Entry

Area of circulatory carriageway over which


visibility shall be obtained

from viewpoint

a Distance Related to CirCUlatory Speed


b Limit of Visibility Splay

Figure 6.50 Circulatory Visibility

January 1997

Page 6/51

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

<SOm

\
\
\

~/c/

,,

/'

\
\

, :.'_-----;=-.Jlll1IL- - - 7

--

a Minimum area over which unobstructed

visibility Is required from viewpoint


when crossing Is within SOm of exit
b Half lane width

'"a

c Limit of visibility splay

Figure 6.51 Visibility Required at Entry to Pedestrian Crossing at Next Exit

January 1997

Page 6/52

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

6.10.11 Circulatory Carriageway

6.10.12 Inscribed Circle Diameter (ICD)

The circulatory carriageway should, if possible,


be circular in plan, avoiding deceptively tight
bends.

The following advice is based on the swept


turning paths generated by a 16.5rn long
articulated vehicle with a single axle at the rear
of the trailer. This is referred to below as the
"Design Vehicle".

The width of the circulatory carriageway shall


not exceed 15m. However, block paving
'collars' around the central island can be used
to provide additional width if long vehicle turning
movements need to be catered for on smaller
roundabouts.
The width of the circulatory carriageway shall be
constant and lie between 1.0 and 1.2 times the
maximum entry width. However, see Clause
6.10.12 if small Inscribed Circle Diameters
(ICDs) are being contemplated.
It is normal practice to avoid short lengths of
reverse curve between entry and adjacent exits
by linking these curves or joining them with
straights between the entry radius and the exit
radius. One method is to increase the exit
radius. However, where there is a considerable
distance between the entry and the next exit, as
at three entry roundabouts, reverse curvature
may result (see Figure 6.50).
There may be situations where the turning
proportions are such that one section of
circulatory carriageway will have a relatively low
flow. In this case, there may be an over
provision in circulating carriageway width and
an area of carriageway, usually adjacent to an
entry deflection island, becomes unused. It
would be possible to reduce the circulatory
carriageway width by extending the deflection
island and advancing the "Give Way" line. This
method of reducing circulatory width may also
be adopted as an interim measure in the early
years of a scheme.
For larger roundabouts, this reduction in
circulatory width can be achieved by the use of
hatch markings and is often associated with
taking out of use the offside entry lane. If such
measures are to be considered as an interim
geometric design feature for early years traffic
flows, consideration should be given to the use
of contrasting hard surfacing for these areas.
For smaller roundabouts it is more appropriate
to consider interim circulatory carriageway
reduction by increasing the size of the central
island. If this is to be introduced from the
outset, a preferable measure would be the use
of contrasting hard surfacing but hatch markings
could also be considered.

January 1997

The turning width required by this type of


vehicle is greater than that for all other vehicles
within the normal maximum dimensions
permitted in the classifications given in Table
6.1, or likely to be permitted in the near future.
The requirements for other vehicles (including
a 12m long rigid vehicle, 12m long coach, 20m
drawbar trailer combination, and a 16.5m
articulated vehicle) are less onerous.
The smallest ICD for a normal roundabout that
will accommodate the "Design Vehicle" is 28m.
It should be noted that it may be difficult, if not
impossible, to meet the entry deflection
requirement with normal roundabouts which
have ICDs up to 40m.
In this case
consideration could be given to the installation
of a low profile central island which would
provide adequate deflection for standard
vehicles but allow overrun by the rear wheels of
articulated vehicles and trailers. Such islands
should have the same profile as the circulatory
carriageway with a maximum upstand of 50mm.
The turning space requirements for the "Design
Vehicle" at normal roundabouts from 28m to
36m ICD are shown in Figure 6.52. For ICDs
above these values, and/or where low profile
central islands are to be installed, the circulatory
carriageway width should be checked against
Table 6.5. But usually the rule in Clause
6.10.11 will provide more than adequate width.
6.10.13 Exits
The spacing of an exit and the preceding entry
shall not be less than that which results from the
combination of the minimum entry radius (6m)
and the minimum exit radius (20m), though
desirable radii of 20m, and 40m respectively
should be used where possible. If an existing
roundabout is to be modified to include an
additional entry, care must be taken to ensure
that this does not affect safety at the proceeding
entry and following exit. It may be necessary to
redesign the whole junction if adequate spacing
between adjacent entry/exit cannot be
achieved.
The principle of "easy exits" shall be applied. A
nearside kerb radius of about 40m at the mouth
of the exit is desirable but for larger rural
roundabouts this may be increased to suit the

Page 6/53

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

overall junction geometry. In any case, this


radius shall not be below 20m or greater than
200m.
At the beginning of an exit, its width, measured
normally to the exit radius, should, where
possible, allow for an extra traffic lane over and
above that of the link downstream.
For example, if the downstream link is a single
2 lane or wide single 2 lane carriageway, the
width at the exit should be 7.0m or 7.5m, and if
the link is a 2 lane dual carriageway, the width
should be 10m to 11 m. This extra width should
be reduced on the nearside in such a way as to
avoid exiting vehicles encroaching onto the
entering carriageway at the end of the traffic
deflection island. Normally, this would be at a
taper of 1:15 to 1:20, though where the exit is
on an up gradient, the local widening may be
extended to reduce intermittent congestion from
slow moving larger vehicles and to provide an
overtaking opportunity for faster vehicles.
Similarly, if the exit road is on a right hand
curve, it may be necessary to extend the taper
length and the length of the traffic deflection
island. Within single carriageway exits, a
minimum width of 6m, measured normally to the
nearside kerb, should be provided adjacent to
traffic deflection islands to allow traffic to pass a
broken down vehicle. Figure 6.53 shows a
typical single carriageway exit embodying some
of the above principles. On exits, the edge line
should continue along the line of the kerbing
once this is terminated (see Figures 6.38 and
6.39).

January 1997

Page 6/54

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

\
\

\
\
I

I
I

I
I
I

////
------------_.......
a
b
C
d
e
f

--

..-.-',"

Main central island


Low profile subsidiary central Island where provided
Remaining circulatory carriageway width 1.0-1.2 x maximum entry width
Design vehicle
1m clearance minimum
Inscribed circle diameter (ICD)

Central Island Diameter


(m)

R1
(m)

R2
(m)

Minimum ICD
(m)

4.0

3.0

13.0

28.0

6.0

4.0

13.4

28.8

6.0

5.0

13.9

29.8

10.0

6.0

14.4

30.8

12.0

7.0

15.0

32.0

14.0

6.0

15.6

33.2

16.0

9.0

16.3

34.6

18.0

10.0

17.0

36.0

Figure 6.52 Turning Widths for Smaller Normal Roundabouts

January 1997

Page 6/55

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.10.14 Crossfall and Longitudinal Gradient
Steep gradients should be avoided at
roundabout approaches or flattened to a
maximum of 2% before entry. Crossfall and
longitudinal gradient combine to provide the
necessary slope that will drain surface water
from the carriageway. Thus, although the
following clauses are for simplicity written in
terms of crossfall, the value and direction of the
greatest slope must always be taken into
account
when
considering
drainage.
Superelevation is arranged to assist vehicles
when travelling round a curve. Its values, when
used, are equal to or greater than those
necessary for surface water drainage.
Superelevation is not required on the circulatory
carriageways of roundabouts whereas crossfall
is required to drain surface water. However, on
the approaches and exits superelevafion can
assist drivers to negotiate the associated
curves.

SECTION 6
Normal crossfall for drainage on roundabouts
should not exceed 2% (1 in 50). Crossfall
should not exceed 2.5% (1 in 40). To avoid
ponding, longitudinal edge profiles should be
graded at not less than 0.67% (1 in 150), with
0.5% (1 in 200) considered the minimum.
The design gradients do not in themselves
ensure satisfactory drainage, and therefore the
correct siting and spacing of gullies is critical to
efficient drainage.
For Entries
Here, curves may be tightened, (see paragraph
6.10.9) and the degree of superelevation should
be appropriate to the speed of vehicles as they
approach the roundabout but superelevation
should not exceed 5% (1 in 20). in cases where
superelevation is used, it should be reduced to
the crossfall required merely for drainage in the
vicinity of the "Give Way" line, since with
adequate advance signing and entry deflection,
speeds on approaches should be reducing.

To provide comfort and enable drivers to remain


in control, the maximum algebraic sum of
opposing crossfall gradients should not be
greater than 5%.

a Exit Radius

Figure 6.53

January 1997

40~100m

Typical Single Carriageway Exit

Page 6/56

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

/
/

n
,,

a /

, a

,,

/
/

,,

X
/

t:>

/
/

a /
/
/
/

/
/

a Crown Line
b Smooth Crown

Figure 6.54 Typical Example of Crossfall Design Using One Crown Line Which Joins the Traffic
Deflection Islands by Straight Lines
For Circulatory Carriageway
Values of crossfall should be no greater than
those required for drainage, although it is good
practice at normal roundabouts, to arrange for
crossfall to assist vehicles. To do this, a cross
line is formed where the entry and exit
carriageways meet the conflicting crossfall of
the circulatory carriageway. This line can either
join the end of the traffic deflection islands from
entry to exit (Figure 6.54), or divide the
circulatory carriageway in the proportion 2:1
internal to external. The conflicting crossfalls at
the crown lines have a direct effect on driver
comfort and may also be a contributory factor in
load shedding and large goods vehicle roll-over
accidents.
The maximum recommended
algebraic difference in crossfall is 5% although
lesser values are desirable, particularly for
roundabouts with smaller ICD. Care needs to
be taken during detailed design and at the
construction stage to ensure a satisfactory
carriageway profile, without sharp changes in
crossfall, is achieved. A smoothed crown is
essential.
In some cases with small ICDs it may be more
appropriate to apply crossfall across the full
circulatory carriageway width either towards the
January 1997

central island or away from it. This should only


apply where vehicle speeds are relatively low.
For Exits
Superelevation, related to the horizontal
alignment, should be provided where necessary
to assist vehicles to accelerate safely away from
the roundabout. However, as with entries,
crossfalls adjacent to the roundabout should be
those required for surface water drainage. If the
exit leads into a left hand curve, superelevation
should not be introduced too quickly and to
such a value that vehicles tend to encroach into
an adjacent (dual or opposing single
carriageway) lane.
Adverse Crossfall
Adverse Crossfall is crossfall that acts against
the desired movement of a vehicle when
turning. It can lead to driver discomfort and
even safety hazards and should, if possible, be
eliminated from the paths of the main traffic
movements at normal roundabouts. Smaller
normal roundabouts in urban areas are often
superimposed upon existing pavement profiles
and in these cases, the cross section of the
existing roads will influence crossfalls at the
roundabout. T-Junctio'ns require particular
Page 6/57

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


attention. Some adverse crossfall can be
accepted in order to fit the existing levels
provided approach speeds are low. Limited
adverse crossfall at these roundabouts can
assist in making the form of junction more
conspicuous to drivers.
6.10.15 Segregated Right Turning Lanes
Segregated right turn lanes are a useful method
for giving an improved service to vehicles
intending to leave a roundabout at the first exit
after entry. Their use should be considered
when more than 50 percent of the entry flow, or
more that 300 vehicles per hour in the peak
hours, turn right at the first exit. However, when
considering the use of these lanes, vehicle
composition should be examined. If the right
turn vehicles are predominantly light and there
is a high proportion of cyclists and/or large
goods vehicles leaving the roundabout, there
could be problems with differential speeds at
the merge, particularly if this is on an uphill
gradient. If segregated lanes are to be used in
these situations they should finish with a "Give
Way" line at the exit to the lane.
The use of these lanes in urban areas where
pedestrians are expected to cross should be
carefully considered. In no circumstances
should pedestrians be expected to cross right
turn lanes segregated by road markings.
If pedestrians are anticipated they should be
channelled with the use of guard rail to a safer
crossing point. If this is not possible the
segregation should by a physical island of
sufficient width to accommodate the anticipated
peak number of pedestrians.
There are two basic types of segregated right
turn lanes, namely segregation by road
markings and physical segregation. In both
types, vehicles are channelled into the right
hand lane by lane arrows and road markings
supplemented by advance direction signs, and
vehicles proceed to the first exit without having
to "Give Way" to others using the roundabout.
Segregation by road markings is more common,
but is less effective because it is subject to
abuse. It is essential that the operation of the
segregated lane is not impaired by traffic
queuing to use the roundabout itself. The
designer should ensure that the approach
arrangements are sufficiently clear so that they
are relatively self-enforcing.
Segregated right turn lanes should not induce
high speeds. The design speed should not
exceed that of either the entry or exit link, and
any desirable speed reduction should be
achieved at the entry to the lane rather than
January 1997

SECTION 6
within it. Forward visibility throughout the
segregated lane should be the appropriate
stopping site distance for the design speed.
Where the large goods vehicle proportion is
low, the lane width may be reduced to 3.5m but
should not be less than 3.3m. Where road
markings are used to create the lane
segregation, the overall width of the marking
should normally be a minimum of 1.0m. Where
the large goods vehicle content is higher, the
lane width must be checked to ensure that it
can accommodate the swept paths of larger
vehicles, especially where physical segregation
occurs. Further information on the widening of
lanes on curves is given in Table 6.5 and
Section 3.
It is not necessary to make allowance for
broken down vehicles. With segregation by
road markings, such vehicles can be overtaken
with caution. Where physical segregation is
introduced, this should not prevent a right turn
at the roundabout in the normal way from the
non-segregated part of the approach.
These lanes have been observed to handle
1300 vehicles per hour with ease and for design
purposes a maximum capacity of 1800 light
vehicles per hour may be assumed where the
exit is free running. Segregated lanes need not
be considered as part of the entry when
calCUlating
capacities for other traffic
movements.
The merging between vehicles from a
segregated right turn and other vehicles exiting
the roundabout should take place within 50m of
the roundabout, where speeds are still
comparatively low. Ideally, there should not be
a forced merge. However, running the two
streams alongside each other is only possible
where the exit link can provide two lanes in the
same direction.
In other cases the segregated right turning
traffic has to merge with the other stream, giving
way where necessary. This merging length
should be at least 10m long. Segregation by
road markings is not recommended if vehicles
have to give way at the merge point. Where
street furniture is placed on the island in the
vicinity of the merge, it should not obstruct
visibility.
In the improvement of an existing urban TJunctions, the signing on the segregated right
turning lane must clearly indicate to drivers that
they have to "Give Way" to vehicles leaVing the
roundabout.

Page 6/58

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

6.10.16 Road Markings

Road markings are used to channelize traffic


and, where required, to indicate a dedicated
lane. Lane indication arrows to reinforce the
advance map type direction signs at entries can
be beneficial where heavy flows occur in a
particular direction.
Lane dedication by arrows and markings on the
circulatory carriageway is not normaliy
recommended.
Where a roundabout is
particularly extensive and partially signalled and
it is tending to a gyratory system, then some
degree of channelization by road markings may
prove beneficiai operationally.

January 1997

Page 6/59

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.11 U-TURNS - GENERAL
The provision of U-turn facilities are appropriate
to a limited number of situations in rural
locations on duai carriageways and when
combined with other forms of junction in urban
situations. We shali consider rural U-turn
facilities only in this section.
Generaliy rural U-turns shouid be provided in
advance of or beyond junctions as foliows:

SECTION 6
The area of median in the vicinity of the U-turn
should be kept uncluttered and free from
obstructions that are over 1.0m high and wider
than 500mm, with the exception of signs. The
visibility requirements are given in Table 6.15.
This measure will help to ensure that drivers
exiting from the U-turn are able to see vehicles
approaching from their right, and for them to be
seen by drivers on the major road.
U-turns, in a similar fashion to left turns,
contribute to congestion by drawing slow
moving turning traffic into the offside lane. They
also add to the accident hazard particularly
where U-turning movements are heavy or of
slow moving vehicles. However, U-turns often
afford the best economically available solution
to a given problem.

Beyond a junction to enable drivers to


return to an important junction if they miss
their turning

Beyond a junction to accommodate left


turn traffic movements not otherwise
catered for at the junction

In advance of a junction where through


and other turning movements would be
hampered by the U-turn movement

6.13.1

To facilitate maintenance operations, use


by emergency services etc.

The main elements in the production of an


acceptable U-turn facility are:

One of the key requirements for a satisfactory


U-turn design is that the width of the
carriageway, including the shoulder or turning
bay, be sufficient to permit the turn to be made
without encroachment beyond the outer edges
of the road pavement. The minimum median
width for a U-turn is 11.6m. This aliows space
for physical islands each side of traffic waiting to
turn. U-Turns should be positioned at least
400m in advance of or beyond any junction.
Figure 6.55 illustrates the standard U-Turn
layout.
Wherever a U-turn facility is to be provided,
consideration should be given to providing a
reciprocal U-turn. This enhances safety by
reducing the likelihood of any illegal turning
movements that may have resulted from the
provision of a single U-turn facility and presents
a consistent layout to drivers.
6.12 SAFETY AT U-TURNS
Safety is a major concern at ali junctions,
particularly on high volume, high speed roads.
Where U-turn facilities are to be provided on
these roads, the hazard created by the turning
vehicles and their interference' with through
traffic must be minimised. Designs that enable
vehicles to be in a protected position while
waiting to turn are safest. As are those that
make the turning vehicle cross and leave the
opposing carriageway before returning to the
near side lane with a standard merge
movement.
January 1997

6.13 U-TURN ELEMENTS


General

Median width

The length of the median opening

Use of acceleration/deceleration lanes or


tapers

The nature of the turning traffic

The design speed of the main road.

Figure 6.55 and Table 6.15 detail standard UTurn layout arrangements for rural locations.
6.13.2

Direct Taper Length (d)

The direct taper length is the length over which


the width of a left turning lane is developed. Left
turning lanes shali be introduced by means of a
direct taper whose length is part of the
deceleration length and depends on the design
speed. This taper length is given in Table 6.16.
6.13.3

Width of Physical Islands in the


Median

The width of median at the turning point shali be


a minimum of 11.6m including hardstrips. This
width is sufficient to shelter most large goods
vehicles using the U-turn facility. The minimum
width of a physical island, usualiy located at the
end of the direct taper shali be 305m. The
minimum width of physical island separating the
storage lane from the through lanes shali be
1.2m or that necessary to incorporate signing.
Page 6/60

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.13.4

Left Turn Lane

The length of the left turning lane will depend


on the major road design speed and the
gradient. It consists of a median opening length,
a storage/queuing length and a deceleration
length.
The deceieration length shall be
provided in accordance with Table 6.17, in
which the gradient is the average for the 50Om
length before the U-turn opening.
6.13.5

Median Openings (a)

The opening in the median at the crossing point


shall typically be 11 .Om Wide, as shown on Fig
6.55. However this shOUld be adjusted to suit
long vehicles or those with abnormal loads
when required.
6.13.6

Storage/Queuing Length (b)

The storage/queuing length shall be determined


in accordance with the requirements of the
Qatar Traffic Maunal. The queuing length shall
be separated from through traffic by a physical
island on each side and the queuing lane width
shall be 5.0m.
6.13.7

Merging Length (e)

The merging length shall be constructed in


accordance with Clause 6.7.14. The merge
length commences a minimum distance of 45m
from the inside radius of the median opening, or
if the major road design speed is 120kph or
greater, the merge nose taper commences at
this point. The distance of 45m is that required
for the design vehicle to be parallel to the major
road carriageway following the U-turn
movement.

SECTION 6
6.13.9

Road Lighting

It is particularly important that U-turns are


clearly visible to through traffic. In all cases,
street lighting shall be provided. Refer Section
10.
6.13.10 Traffic Signs and Road Markings
U-turns shall be clearly signed in accordance
with the Qatar Traffic Manual. Consideration
should be given to providing additional signing
for the traffic on the through route to indicate
that vehicles may be crossing the road ahead.
6.13.11 Drainage and Crossfall
To allow for surface water drainage and driver
comfort, the road crossfall on the major road
shall be continued through the U-Turn. Checks
shall be made for flat areas at all changes in
gradient, superelevation or crossfall. Surface
run-off shall not be allowed to collect in streams
and flow from the U-Turn across the major
through road, or to collect on or cross the UTurn lane so as to present a hazard to vehicles
manoeuvring and braking. In addition, the rural
situation requires the engineer to carefully
consider the maintenance requirements of any
drainage system he adopts. Refer to Section
8.

The width of shoulder on the exit of the U-turn


shail enable the design vehicle to make the Uturn without using excessive steering lock whilst
maintaining a 1m hardstrip from the outside
wheel to the edge of surfacing. To aid vehicle
direction, the shoulder should be marked or
studded to guide vehicles to the merging length.
6.13.8

Pavement Construction

The pavement construction for the entire U-turn


facility shall be a minimum of that used for the
major through road construction.
Where
consistent heavy loading is expected, the
engineer should consider more durable
pavements. Refer to Section 9.

January 1997

Page 6/61

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

II

SECTION 6

'

~~,~..::::::::::::::::_---_::::::::::::::::--:::_::::-::-:~
~

"mlo

ll. Median opening


b. Queuing length

c. Deceleration length + direct taper length


d. Direct I.. per length
c. MergIng length (nose length when required)
$1 and S2. Visibility distances

Figure 6.55 Typical U-Turn Layout

Design Speed

S1

S2

Design

on Major Road

(m)

(m)

Speed
(kph)

(kph)

Up Gradient
0-4%

Above

Down Gradient
0-4%

Above
4%

25
25
40
55
80
110
150

25
40
55
80
110
150
200

4%

0-45
45 - 60
60 - 80
Over 80

50
75
125
175

5.0
7.5
10.0
10.0

Table 6.15 Visibility Distances


Design Speed

Direct Taper Length

(kph)

(m)

50
60
70
80
100
120
140

5
5
15
15
25
30
35

50
60
70
80
100
120
140

25
25
40
55
80
110
150

25
25
25
40
55
80
110

Table 6.17 Deceleration Length - c (m) for


Dual Carriageways

Note. Roundmg shall be applied to the kerbllnes, typically

50mR.

Table 6.16 Direct Taper Length - d

January 1997

Page 6/62

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.14 URBAN ROAD - SERVICE ROAD
DIVERGE/MERGE
Service roads should be provided in the urban
situation where through traffic on a district
distributor or higher classification road will be
significantly affected by traffic manoeuvres from
developments lying adjacent to the through
road. The function of the service road is
therefore twofold:
..

Collects connecting minor roads and


concentrates the entrances and exits to a
limited number of locations along the
major road, thereby allowing major road
traffic to flow more freely

..

Provides road users with a safer


environment adjacent to developments by
separation from higher speed through
traffic.

Service roads typically run parallel to the major


road. However, their vertical alignment is often
governed by a lower design speed and can
therefore be used to match threshold levels in
existing development situations.
Service roads should preferably be connected
to major roads using the major/minor junctions
criteria listed earlier in this Section. However,
limited reservation space usually requires the
junction to connect at a skew to t[ie major road.
This creates the following undesirable situations
which the engineer should recognise in
preparing service road designs:

.
.

..
.

Avoiding long straight service roads

..

Providing
lengths

satisfactory

diverge/merge

..

Siting diverges and merges away from


other junctions or traffic generation points
(both on the major and service roads).

Figure 6.56 shows a diverge and merge for a


service road off an urban road of design speed
100 kph or greater. The spaci~g of diverge
nose to merge nose is also fixed by the design
constraints of the facility. Major road
hardshoulders continue across the junction as
a painted hatched marking.
Figure 6.57 shows a similar diverge and merge
for a service road off an urban road of design
speed 80 kph or greater but less than 100 kph.
The spacing of diverge nose to merge nose for
this design speed is fixed by the design
constraints of the facility.
Major road
hardshoulders are shown with 45' tapers at
distances, set backs and shy distances shown.
The minimum weaving length between merges
and diverges is given in Table 6.18.
Design

Minimum

Speed
(kph)

Merge/Diverge

distance
(m)

120
100
80
70
60
50

500
417
333
292
250
208

Note. Junction spacings may only be reduced below these

Angled diverge off the main carriageway


encourages high speed entry into the
service road and consequent danger to
other service road users

Table 6.18 Minimum Merge/Diverge Weaving


Length

Angled merge onto the main carriageway


requires the driver to make use of his
mirrors to effect a safe merge with major
road through traffic.

The minimum weaving length in metres


between
successive
Merge/Merge
or
Diverge/Diverge measured between the tips of
the noses shall be:

The above points can be mitigated to some


extent by:

SECTION 6

minima on the express approval of CEO Roads.

Weaving Length (min) = 3.75V

Where V = design speed of main road (kph)


Eliminating parking and providing
uncluttered visibility in the area of merges
and diverges
Introducing a chicane type manoeuvre at
the entrance to a service road therefore
slowing traffic entering the service road
Increasing the conflict angle where
vehicles entering and vehicles using the
service road meet

January 1997

The distance given by the above formula may


be increased if the minimum requirements for
effective signing are provided.
Note: Service roads would generally be one
way in the same direction as the major road, the
major road always being a dual carriageway or
minimum 11.3m wide single carriageway.
However, where space permits, a service road
may be two way with normal T-junction
entry/exits onto the major road.
Page 6/63

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Deceleration
Len th
(See Table 6.9)

.....

Y = 4.0m

Major Road
3m Shoulder

Service Road
One Way
Merging
Length
(See Tabie 6.10)

2Y~:3:::0:"==;;~Z;~Z22Z22Z
I-_M-,a3,,"jmu..r.Rc!J0.Qa!!dlc!!~r:.._LL.L..L.t.~:'
_

,zzzllllllll
Service Road
One Way

Y = 4.0m

Figure 6.56 Service Road Diverge/Merge for Speeds;, 100kph

---

Deceleration

..

10

I(SeeLength
I
Table,6.9)

....

Dr

30'

Service Road

One Way
Y=4.0m
Parking or Shoulder

paint

Markr~

____ _0~51

15

"I

Merging Length
(See Table 6.10)

I'" /

"I'" 10 Dol Major Road

/30'
:..\ - - - - - - -

3.0

Service Road

One Way
Y=4.0m

Figure 6.57 Service Road Diverge/Merge for Speeds;, 80 kph < 100 kph

January 1997

Page 6/64

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


6.15 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
6.15.1 Residential Areas

In urban areas and, in particular, within


residential areas, where there is the likelihood
of pedestrians crossing the road and where
parking may be on-street, careful consideration
is required at road junctions.
The most commonly used junction to access
developments and the most appropriate is the
T-Junction. There are two basic forms of
access layout.
In the first form, the major traffic flow is on the
through route (eg. a local road with access
roads joining), as shown in Figure 6.58.
In the second form, shown in Figure 6.59, all
traffic is distributed to the residential access
roads. This is the preferred method of treating
access roads, as the short lengths of straight,
combined with the turning movements required
at the junction, serve to restrict vehicle speeds
and the number of accesses onto and off the
major route.

SECTION 6

traffic flow, for drivers on the minor road to fail


to obey the priority signing and drive through the
junction, thereby creating a hazard to traffic on
the major road.
The preferred form of vehicular crossing
movement is the staggered crossroads.
Wherever possible the offset should be to the
left so that vehicles making the crossmovement first turn left then right. This is
discussed in Clause 6.2.3.
Roundabouts may be used at the junctions of
local roads with local roads and of local roads
with access roads.
However, roundabouts are generally only
required where the volume of traffic on the
minor road approaches is of the same order as
that on the major road, and where the overall
level of traffic is such that vehicles on the minor
road experience severe delay. If the residential
road network is properly planned, this should
not occur.
6.15.2 Older Residential Areas

Many existing older residential areas in Qatar


have particular requirements. When considering
recoristruction of these roads, the following shall
be noted:

Figure 6.58 MUltiple Access Roads Joining a


Major Road

Narrow road reservations giving rise to


poor visibility, especially at junctions

High parking requirement

Street system of ill defined through-ways,


crossroads and rat-runs

Poor utility records and poor utility


condition

Highly variable threshold levels, often


adjacent.

No existing surface water drainage

r-----c--,- - - - - - - - - - - - ,---------,

I-----SIC-----I
Figure 6.59 Access Roads Concentrated Prior
to Main Road Junciion
As already discussed in Clause 6.2.2, the use
of 'simple' crossroads is not encouraged as
there is a tendency, particularly in areas of low
January 1997

Existing development in low lying flood


areas
Poor illumination.

Faced with this number of considerations, it is


essential that the engineer carefully plan the
revised road system to meet the requi rements
of the area. Traffic should be restricted from
areas where it is undesirable, rat-runs should be
closed, parking regulated and surface water
effectively collected. The following are typical
actions:

Page 6/65

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

Close or partially close one or more legs


of a crossroads

Provision of a sign posted alternative


cycle route away from a junction

Introduce parking at every opportunity

Grade separation (eg. in urban areas) by


means of a footbridge or subway. This
could be combined for use by both
pedestrians and cyclists.

Close some minor access roads leading


Into the development from local or district
distributors

Identify areas such as schools, shops,


mosques, etc that may require specific
consideration for parking or access

Introduce one-way
appropriate

Introduce traffic calming if required

Introduce block paving as a road surface


to identify areas where pedestrian traffic
Is a dominant factor

Introduce effective surface water removal

systems

where

Consider utility requirements for future


developments and reconstruction
Introduce street lighting.

Many of the factors identified for older


residential areas can be satisfactorily applied to
any older area. Engineers should first identify
the area uses and needs and apply suitable
solutions to arrive at a well thought out, safe
and useful environment.
6.15.3 Other Road Users
The principle road users in Qatar are vehicles.
However, it is important that the' engineer also
considers the requirement~ of other users of the
road system, particularly cyclists and
pedestrians, where major/minor junctions
including roundabouts present a particular
hazard.
Measures to improve cyciist and pedestrian
safety are described below:

Provision of cycle lanes adjacent to the


running carriageway will go some way
toward protecting the cyclist. This lane
should be identified with the cycle lane
marking. At junctions the minor road
"Stop" and "Give Way" lines should be
set back out of the way of cyclists
Provision
of
a
displaced
cycle
track/footpath for shared use by
pedestrians and cyclists with uncontrolled
or controlled crossings at junctions

January 1997

If provision of any of these is not possible, then


greater emphasis should be placed on safety
with carefully selected crossing places. At
roundabouts, where cyclists are always at risk,
motorists should be made aware of their
presence by road markings and signing,
especially where segregated right turning lanes
are used.
Pedestrian requirements at major/minor
junctions including roundabouts should be
carefully considered.
Although it is preferable to provide separate
pedestrian routes away from junctions, where
road crossing widths are less and traffic
movements more predictable, this is rarely
practical.
Suggested facilities for improved pedestrian
safety at junctions are given below:

Provision of a minor road central refuge


at an unmarked crossing place with
dropped kerbs and tactile paving, if In a
busy pedestrian area

Provision of a pedestrian crossing, with or


without a central refuge. These should
not be of excessive length or angled to
the road

Provision
of
displaced
pedestrian crossings

Provision of a subway or footbridge.

controlled

At-grade pedestrian crossing points should not


be placed in the. mouth of the junction. Instead
they should be located away from the mouth
where the carriageway is relatively narrow. In
urban areas, with low pedestrian flows, it is
possible to provide a central refuge in the
hatched area of a ghost island junction, though
it is important to check for the design vehicle
movements.
If a crossing giVing pedestrians priority is
provided close to the entry/exit points of a
roundabout the safety of pedestrians will be
compromised and traffic operation problems
may become evident with the roundabout.
Where a crossing must be provided within the
layout of a roundabout, a non-signalized
Page 6/66

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 6

pedestrian crossing is preferred. A signalized


pedestrian crossing may be confusing to drivers
approaching the "Give Way" line of a
roundabout. If a signalized pedestrian crossing
is provided, it should preferably be of the
divided crossing type to minimise delays at the
exits.
In urban areas, where iarge numbers of
pedestrians are present, pedestrian barriers
would prevent pedestrians from crossing
indiscriminately across the junction. They
should direct the pedestrians to a controlled,
safer place to cross. Pedestrian barriers should
be of the standard CED design and positioned
so that the drivers view of the pedestrians is
maintained and vice-versa.
The type of safety facility seiected for
pedestrians and cyclists at major/minor
junctions (including roundabouts) will depend
upon the expected volume and movements of
pedestrians, cyclists and vehicular traffic.

January 1997

Page 6/67

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

6.16 SIGNALIZED JUNCTIONS


6.16.1

SECTION 6
The lane width on the approach to the junction
shall be in accordance with Clause 5.2.

Introduction

Design of signalized junctions brings together


the highway engineer and the traffic engineer.
In Qatar this requires the close involvement of
the Civil Engineering Department - Roads
Division. The highway engineer is responsible
for the geometric parameters of the road design
on the approaches to and through the junction.
The traffic engineer is responsible for the
specific layout of the junction in terms of
capacity, turning movements, signing, marking,
pedestrian considerations, specification and
position of signals.
Reference shall be made to the Qatar Traffic
Manual and a concept layout should be agreed
with the Director of Civil Engineering
Department prior to proceeding with the
preliminary and detail design stages.
6.16.2

Basic Requirements

When designing traffic signal installations, care


should be taken to ensure the following:

Drivers have sufficient advance warning


to know exactly which direction to take at
the junction

Drivers are guided into the intended lane


or lanes by road markings

Drivers have a clear view of the signals at


the junction itself

The junction layout allows easy visual


recognition of correct exit lanes and
required vehicle trajectory.

Movement from "Stop" line to exit lane is


a natural flowing movement and does not
interfere with other movements allowed at
the same time.

6.16.3

The number of lanes at the stop line shall be


maintained across the junction to the exit lanes.
The possibility of introducing slip roads at the
corners of a junction should always be
considered. These allow right turning traffic to
"Give Way" or "Stop" rather than wait for the
signals. They also provide larger turning radii
than would otherwise be the case and can be
beneficial to pedestrians when provided with
clearly defined crossing points.
If U-Turns are to be provided at the junction,
lane widths and turning movements of different
vehicles should be considered and the position
of pedestrian refuge points checked against
possible conflict.
It is preferable that left turn lanes and through
lanes are segregated by physical islands for the
entire queuing length. It is also preferable that
entry and exit traffic on opposing carriageways
is segregated by a median or physical island.
Minimum visibility requirements to the primary
signals are detailed in the Qatar Traffic Manual.

Typical Layout Features

It is impractical to deal with all possible


variations of junctions. The various features
mentioned is this clause may be considered for
most situations.
The size of traffic islands and pedestrian refuges
is important. Adequate clearance between the
kerb and any street furniture is needed to
prevent damage by vehicles having a lateral
overhang.

January 1997

Page 6/68

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 7

SECTION 7 INTERCHANGES

c)

To improve the alignment of a road

INTRODUCTION

d)

To standardise junction types when


upgrading a corridor to motorway status.

7.2

TYPES OF INTERCHANGE

7.1

For new roads with high predicted traffic fiows,


consideration can be given to grade separation.
Grade separation removes confiicts between
the major vehicle fiows thereby improving safety
and capacity of an intersection. For existing atgrade junctions, grade separation can also be
considered to improve safety and capacity if
these partlcuiar problems have been identified.
It is important for the engineer to use the correct
terminology. The principle definitions relating to
grade separation are given below:

Intersection: The meeting point of two or more


roads.
Junction: The treatment of the road alignment
at the intersection to enable traffic to negotiate
the intersection in the defined manner.
Grade Separation: Removes conflicts arising
from an intersection by the provision of a
bridge.
Interchange: When grade separation is used
but a connection is maintained between the
roads, this combination of grade separation and
junctions is called an interchange.
Interchanges may be complex and include
extensive connecting roads and loops. They will
only be required for the highest range of traffic
flows.
This section sets out the requirements for the
design, layout and size of Interchanges. It is
essential that the engineer produces safe
designs that provide adequate capacity.
Interchanges are generally required between
primary routes and between primary and
secondary routes although they may be
positioned at the intersection of any urban or
ru ral road. The major selection criteria are
always safety and capacity.
Interchanges may be considered to improve an
existing junction for a number of different
reasons. For example:
a)

To remove a hazardous main at-grade


junction in order to improve safety

b)

To eliminate traffic delays at a bottleneck


caused by the volume of crossing and
turning traffic

January 1997

7.2.1 General
The decision to provide an interchange and the
type and detailed design of an Interchange will
be specific to a particular site. The seiection of
the most suitabie facility for a particular site and
the associated design parameters depend upon
a number of controliing factors which include:
Safety
Road classification for the connecting
routes
Design speed
Traffic volume and mix
Required junction capacity
Number of junction legs
Topography
Land available, the type of land and its
present use
Economics
Lighting
Environmental impact
Access to local communities
Pedestrians, farming and cyclists.
Safety is always the most important factor
followed by capacity.
Layouts will vary for different locations. It is
uniikely that the layout for one site could be
directly applicable for another. The traffic and
topography are unlikely to be the same.
However, it is desirable to standardise layouts
along a particular route wherever possible to
attempt to reduce confusion to drivers and
thereby improve safety.
The two forms of Interchange considered
provide a wide variety of types available to the
engineer. These have been classified into the
following generic types for selection of the most
suitable form:
Full Interchanges

Full interchanges combine grade separation of


major conflicts with slip or loop roads that begin
and end with diverges and merges.
Full cloverleaf interchange
Directional interchange with variants
3-leg junction types including trumpets
Partial cloverleaf.

Page 7/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Compact Interchanges

Compact
Interchanges combine
grade
separation of major conflicts with connector
roads that either begin or end with a form of
junction other than a diverge or merge.
Diamond junctions and variants
Roundabouts and variants
Half cloverleaf and variants
Compact 3 and 4 leg grade separation

SECTION 7

A typical full cloverleaf interchange is shown in


Figure 7.1. It is a 4 leg interchange which
provides free flow movements for all traffic. It
completely eliminates all left turn conflicts.
Inner loop/slips are provided for the 4 left turn
movements and outer loop/slips are provided
for the 4 right turn movements.
Advantages:
a)

All left turn movements are provided for


with one grade separated single structure

b)

All traffic movements are free flowing

c)

The interchange may be built in stages

d)

Traffic signals are not required.

Junctions and Weaving Sections

The main aim of grade separation is to remove


the conflicts between turning vehicles thereby
improving safety and capacity.
Therefore
particular attention must be paid to the design of
those areas of an interchange where this
conflict cannot be removed.
Junctions are the areas of carriageway where
traffic joins or ieaves the main road and are the
locations where accidents are most Iikeiy to
occur.

Disadvantages:
a)

Requires large land take

b)

Weaving lengths on both routes are


greatly reduced. A collector distributor
road would help weaving by reducing the
traffic speed, but would increase the
structurai costs

c)

Multiple merges and diverges complicate


traffic signing

d)

Short deceleration lane lengths for inner


loops

e)

The design speed of the inner loops is


generally low

This form of interchange provides uninterrupted


movement for all turning traffic by the use of
interchange links.

f)

Provision for U-turn movement


restricted until fully constructed

Full Cloverleaf Interchange

g)

Significant environmental impact due to


the size of the junction.

On a single carriageway road the length


between successive junctions is called the
stagger distance. Refer to Section 6.
On a dual carriageway the distance between
any combination of successive junctions is
called a weaving section. This is the length of
carriageway in which drivers change ianes in
advance of turning off the main road. Due to
lane changing, weaving sections must be
carefully designed in order to give drivers
sufficient time to make their manoeuvres safely.
Refer to Clause 7.4.9.
7.2.2 Full Interchange

is

Trumpet Junctions
Trumpet junctions can be of varying forms.
Typical layouts are shown in Figures 7.2 and
7.3.

Advantages:

Figure 7.1

Full Cloverleaf Interchange

January 1997

a)

The layouts generally provide a relatively


high speed semi-direct connection for
large traffic flows

b)

Only one structure is normally required

c)

Successive merges and diverges are


avoided therefore no weaving lengths are
required

Page 7/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

b)

Economic landtake and low construction


costs

c)

Single exit slip road simplifies signing

d)

No weaving lengths are required on the


major road

e)

No acceleration or deceleration tapers


required on or under structures

f)

Simple structures can be achieved

g)

Can improve capacity of the at-grade


intersection by providing extra lane width
at entry, segregated turning lanes and
traffic signals.

SECTION 7

Figure 7.5

Dumbbell
Interchange

Figure 7.6

Two
Bridge
Interchange

Roundabout

Disadvantages:
a)

Lower capacity on the minor road due to


left turning movements

b)

Many points of conflict on the minor road


increasing the accident potential. Traffic
signals will help reduce conflict

c)

With the many turning movements at two


locations on the minor road, visibility and
intervisibility is difficult

d)

Possibility of traffic turning the wrong way


down slip roads

e)

Turning traffic from the primary route has


to stop at the secondary route with the
possible requirement of wider lanes for
storage capacity

f)

Little possibility of future expansion of the


junction.

Interchange with Roundabouts and Variants


Interchanges with roundabouts can provide a
more flexible junction arrangement than a
diamond interchange. The roundabout element
can cater for varying turning volumes, thereby
reducing the overall delay to vehicles in
comparison with simple T-junction elements.
They are particularly useful when there is a
large percentage of left turning traffic.

The two most common forms of roundabout


interchange are the two bridge and the
dumbbell type. The dumbbell type is the most
economic because of the single structure and
reduced landtake, however the two bridge type
is safer for larger volumes of traffic. These are
shown in Figures 7.5 and 7.6.

January 1997

Roundabout

Advantages:
a)

The dumbbell roundabout is very


economic with a signal structure and very
small landtake

b)

The two bridge roundabout, although not


so economic is safer with a less confined
"Give Way" area

c)

High standard merge and diverge can be


provided in advance and beyond the
structure

d)

Single exit slip roads simplify signing

e)

No weaving lengths are required on the


major route

f)

No acceleration or deceleration tapers on


or under structures

g)

Simple structures can be achieved

Page 7/4

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


h)

SECTION 7

Can improve capacity of two bridge


roundabout by providing extra lane width
at entry, segregated turning lanes and
traffic signals.

4th QUlldmnt

40m

20m

Disadvantages:
a)

b)

The efficiency of the roundabout relies on


drivers being aware of how roundabouts
operate. Drivers must give way to traffic
on the roundabout to their left and must
not queue across the exits which would
cause the roundabout to lock
Difficult to enter large, two bridge
roundabouts if circulatory speeds are
high.

Compact 3 and 4 Leg Partial Cloverleaf


Interchanges
Compact partial cloverleaf intersections can be
used in rural or urban locations. They are
simple, low speed versions of partial cloverleafs
with the same advantages and disadvantages
except that they have smaller land take and
lower cost. Typical compact partial cloverleaf
interchanges are shown in Figures 7.7 and 7.8.

JI

lsI Quadraifnl

Compact

Connector
Road

~l

Connector
Road
2nd Quadrant

Figure 7.7

Figure 7.8

3rd Quadrant

Compact
Partial
Interchange

Cloverleaf

Variant of Compact
Cloverleaf Interchange

Partial

The objectives of compact partial cloverleafs


are as follows:
a)

Provide a safe means of crossing a high


speed route

b)

Reduce the environmental impact of full


interchanges by providing a compact
junction layout

c)

Regulate and maintain vehicle speed for


minor route traffic through the junction at
a level appropriate to the layout
standards

d)

Remove the left turn manoeuvres from


the major route

e)

Provide a junction with minimal land take

f)

Provide an operational, efficient junction


layout.

g)

Provide an economic solution for


modifying an existing junction to grade
separation standards.

-....,

====Il=:---..;:=0::v,::=Z::======

Compact

2nd Quadrant

4th Quadrant

===lr=~==~~=====

R40m

The only disadvantage is that high speed traffic


on the major route will exit on a tight loop
radius. Adequate advanced signing, good
visibility and chevron signing at the exit point
will reduce the safety hazard. If all such
junctions along a primary route are the same
then drivers would be very aware of the
tightness of all such loops and would adapt
accordingly.
It is only when there is inconsistency in the
design standards and types of junctions that
drivers are confused and safety is
compromised.

January 1997

Page 7/5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


7.3

SELECTION OF INTERCHANGE TYPE

SECTION 7

than the minimum weaving length as defined in


Clause 704.9.

7.3.1 General

This section outlines the design procedures for


selecting a form of interchange most suitable for
a particular location. The geometric design of
the elements are covered in Clause 704. A
series of preliminary designs shall be prepared
for comparison before final selection and
production of a detailed design.

7.3.4 Initial Information Requirements and


Decisions

The following information must be collated to


form the basis for the selection of the most
appropriate type of interchange for a particular
location.
Required Information:

7.3.2 Traffic Flows and Design Year

The major factor influencing junction design is


safety. However, for the road network to operate
efficiently, new junctions must have sufficient
capacity. It is not possible to ensure at the time
of design that a new junction has sufficient
capacity indefinitely. Instead, new and improved
junctions shall be designed on traffic levels
predicted to occur in the Design Year, typically
20 years after the opening of the schemes, to
ensure that they are free of congestion for a
reasonable period.
Predicted traffic flows shall be based on the
existing, observed traffic flows growthed up to
model the Design Year flows. All Junctions and
Interchanges shall be designed using the peak
hour flows. The use of peak hour flows will
model the worst case for traffic congestion. Of
particular ''l1portance to junction design is the
volume of traffic undertaking each turning
manoeuvre. All predicted traffic volumes and
turning volumes for the Design Year shall be
agreed with CED Roads.

a)

Define the classification of the roads


approaching the intersection

b)

Define the carriageway cross-section of


the roads on each side

c)

Define the design speed of the roads

d)

Define the proposed opening year for the


new facility

e)

Obtain the existing traffic volumes must


be obtained for the peak hour and apply
growth factors.

f)

Define the location of any constraints to


the scheme.
These include land
ownership, existing and proposed
utilities, planning constraints, topography,
dry wadi courses, flood plains and
ground conditions.

g)

Define the environmental constraints.


These include proximity to dwellings,
severance of communities, plants of
particular importance, animal habitats
and reguiarly used animal tracks and
migration routes.

7.3.3 Junction Spacing Within the Network

In deciding on the form of the interchange the


engineer must consider the location within the
overall road network. The aim must be to
produce a consistent junction strategy across
the network that maximises safety. Guidance on
the junction strategy for a particular location
shall be sought from CED Roads.
The minimum spacing of consec.utive junctions
on a multi-lane road is defined in Clauses 6.104
and 704.9, and is based on safety requirements
for weaving movements. This minimum spacing
will also allow the design of effective traffic
signing and lighting schemes for each junction.
These clearances shall be achieved between
the maximum extent of the consecutive merges
and diverges for each junction. In no
circumstances shall spacing between junctions
of consecutive interchanges be reduced lower

January 1997

Having collated the above information, the


following decisions must be made before
finalizing the form to be used.
Initial Decisions:
a)

Agree the overall strategy with CED


Roads

b)

Agree predicted traffic volumes and


turning volumes with CED Roads

c)

Decide which turning movements will be


accommodated

Page 7/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


d)

SECTION 7

Decide which movements will be given


priority with grade separation and highgrade links, and which minor movements
will be accommodated by low-grade links
and junctions

g)

Provision for non-motorway traffic and


non-motor vehicle road users

h)

Estimate of construction costs

The engineer must also consider:


e)

Confirm
horizontal
and
clearances for structures.

vertical

7.3.5 Type of Interchange for Preliminary


Design
The type of facility must be selected before
preliminary designs are prepared. The various
types of junction and their relative advantages
and disadvantages have also been discussed in
Section 6. For a given location two or more
types of facility may be worked up into
preliminary designs for evaluation.
No fixed rules can be given for the selection due
to the multitude of criteria that must be
considered. Each location will have different
governing criteria and it is for the engineer to
use his experience to select the most
appropriate type for evaluation.

i)

Method of construction

j)

Method of maintenance

k)

Environmental
landscaping

I)

Lighting and signing principles

m)

Provision of safety fences and barriers.

effects

including

Preliminary designs will be discussed with CED


Roads and approval granted before the
engineer progresses to detailed design. Certain
elements of the preliminary designs may need
to be worked up into more detail at the request
of CED Roads to fully assess the relative merits
of the preliminary designs.

Safety will always be the highest priority.


However, adequate capacity is also important to
reduce congestion and thereby improve safety.
Refer to Section 6.3.
7.3.6 Preliminary Designs
Preliminary designs are prepared for alternative
arrangements to assess suitability and relative
costs. The main elements of the facility must be
defined in sufficient detail and at a suitable
scale to determine the landtake required.
The items to be defined in the preliminary
design include:
a)

Safety implications for road users and


non-road users

b)

Number of lanes required for each


movement

c)

Radii of links and loops

d)

Vertical and horizontal clearances for


structures and maximum carriageway
gradients

e)

Lengths of ioop roads, slip roads and


merges and diverges

f)

Lengths of weaving sections

January 1997

Page 7/7

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


7.4

DESIGN ELEMENTS

SECTION 7
Loop Road:

A particular form
of
connector road where the
carriageway turns through
an angle of approximateiy
270
in
order
to
accommodate the traffic
movement.

7.4.1 Definitions

Interchanges are made up of distinct elements,


each serving different purposes. Anyone
facility may have any number of these elements.
The detailed design of each of these separate
elements is covered in this section. For
clarification, they are defined below:
Main Road:

Minor Road:

The
carriageway
or
carriageways that are given
priority, generally by nature
of carrying the highest
volume of traffic.
The
carriageway
or
carriageways that are not
given priority, generally by
nature of carrying iow
volumes of traffic.

Merge:

The area of tapered


carriageway where traffic
joins the main road.

Diverge:

The
area of tapered
carriageway where traffic
leaves the main road.

Weaving Section: The length of carriageway


between
successive
merges and diverges where
traffic changes lanes in
order to reach its chosen
exit.
Physical Nose:

The point where the


carriageway surfaces of the
main line and the merge or
diverge separate.

Painted Nose:

The length of chevron


marking from the physical
nose to the intersection of
the merge or diverge with
the main road travelled way.

7.4.2 Design Speed

Auxiliary Lane:

An additional lane added


parallel to the main road and
used in conjunction with a
merge or diverge carrying
higher traffic volumes to
provide extra capacity.

Connector Road: The length of road that joins


merges, diverges, "Give
Way" or "Stop" junctions
within an interchange. Slip,
Link and Loop roads are
types of connector road.
Link Road:

A
particular form
of
connector road that joins
diverges and merges within
a full Interchange to provide
uninterrupted movement for
turning traffic.

Slip Road:

The iength of carriageway


between the end of the
merge or diverge and the
"Give Way" or "Stop" line on
the junction within the
overall interchange.

January 1997

Design speeds for slip roads and link roads are


related to the design speeds for the main road
as shown in Table 7.1.

Main Road
Design
Speed

Urban
a) 120kph
b) 100kph

Link

Rural
(a) 140kph
(b) 120kph

Slip
Road

Link

Slip

Road

Road

Road

Design

a)1200r100

a) 70

a) 140 or 120

a) 80

Speed

b)100orBO

b)70

b)120or100

b) 80

Type of
Connector
Road

Table 7.1 Design Speed for Link and Slip


Roads
Where two alternative design speeds are
shown, the engineer may use the lower if it is
considered that safety will not be compromised.
Where transition curves are used between
design elements within the interchange, the
transition curve relating to the higher design
speed must be used. The appropriate Stopping
Sight Distance must always be used. Design
speeds on slip roads must not be reduced
below the stated values as they terminate with
"Stop" or "Give Way" junctions and would
compromise safety.

Page 7/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 7

7.4.3 Lane Provision and Capacity


Lane provision for the main road, slip roads, link
roads and loops shall be based on the agreed
traffic flows as defined in Clause 7.3.2. For
interchanges, the minimum number of lanes
provided on any particular element of the
junction shall be based on 1600 vehicies per
lane per hour. The number of ianes shall be
rounded up to the nearest whole number.

Provision on Main Road


Hard Shoulder
Slip

Roads

Terminate

Continue edge strip


10 10m before "Give
way" or "Stop" line

edge

strip 10m before


"Give
Way" or
"SlOp" line

Link

The engineer may wish to increase the lane


provision above the minimum defined above for
operational reasons. The 1600 figure is based
on UK acceptabie congestion standards for all
purpose roads and may not be suitable for all
locations in Qatar.

Roads

Lane provision for the main road or roads


through the junction shall not be less than the
provision either side of the junction except with
the approval of CEO Roads.

Loops

Where the minimum lane provision is one lane,


the engineer may wish to add an extra lane to
reduce the potential for problems with broken
down vehicles blocking the carriageway or
restricted space for maintenance. Any proposed
changes from the minimum lane provision shall
be agreed with CEO Roads.

Terminate
hard
shoulder opposite
physical
nose.
Reduce at 1:30 to
1.0m edge strip.

Edge Strip

Jf both main roads


have
hard
shoulders, continue
them along the link
road.
ff
not,
terminate
hard
shoulder opposite
physical
nose.
Reduce at 1:30 to
1.0m edge strip.

Table 7.2

As link roads

If both main roads


have edge strips
continue them along
the link road.

As link roads

Provision of Hard Shoulders and


Edge Strips on Connector Roads

7.4.5 Merges and Diverges at Interchanges

7.4.4 Hard Shoulders and Edge Strips

Within interchange areas, merges and diverges


are the iocations where accidents are most
likely to occur. It is essential for the engineer to
pay particular attention to their layout. Traffic
should be able to leave or join the main road as
smoothly as possible. To this end, the speeds
of traffic joining or leaving the main road must
be similar to that on the main road. Acceleration
or deceleration to the appropriate speed should
take place on the slip road or link road before
the merge or after the diverge. The geometry of
the carriageway or other conditions in the
vicinity of the merge or diverge must not
impede this smooth flow. Queuing in the area of
the merge or diverge must be avoided.

W here hard shoulders or edge strips


(Reference to Section 5.4 and 5.5) are provided
on the main road either side of the interchange,
they shall be continued through the interchange.
For connector roads, the provision of hard
shoulders or hard strips shall be in accordance
with Table 7.2.

Two aiternative types of merge and diverge


shall be used depending on the volumes of
traffic as defined in Clause 7.3.2. They are the
standard taper and the auxiliary lane layout.
The auxiliary lane layout has an additional lane
parallel to the main road to increase capacity of
the merge or diverge taper.

On the main road, the hard shoulder or edge


strip shall continue immediately after the
chevrons for the painted nose.

To select a merge layout, hourly flows for the


merge and the upstream mainline are inserted
into the nomograph Figure 7.9.
The
intersection point of the merge and upstream
main line flows will fall within a segment of the
nomograph from which the number of lanes
required on the connector road, and need for
an auxiliary lane are determined.

For the majority of interchanges, the maximum


number of lanes provided for connector roads,
is likely to be two. If the lane provision for any
particular connector road, is more than two, the
engineer may have incorrectly defined which is
the main road and shall refer to CEO Roads for
guidance.

January 1997

Page 7/9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 7

To select a diverge layout, the procedure is


repeated using the hourly flows for the diverge
and the downstream mainline, and the
nomograph Figure 7.10. The mainline lane
capacity is based on a flow of 1600 veh/hour.
Generally the auxiliary lane layout is used in
locations with higher volumes of traffic. The
auxiliary lane shall be the same width as the
nearside lane of the main road but may be
reduced to a minimum width of 3.5m in urban
areas on approval of CED Roads.
Where the existing mainline lane capacity is
already at a maximum or where exceptionally
large merge or diverge flows are expected,
provision of a lane gain a lane drop may be
required. In these instances, the engineer
should refer to the "Design Manual for Roads
and Bridges, Volume 6 Road Geometry, Section
2 Junctions, Part I TD22192 Layout of Grade
Separated Junctions" and the merge and
diverge layouts should be agreed with CED
Roads.
The standard taper and the parallel taper merge
and diverge are shown in Figures 7.11, 7.12,
7.13 and 7.14. The geometric parameters for
setting out are shown in Table 7.3 for merges
and Table 7.4 for diverges.
Stopping Sight Distance in accordance with the
higher design speed from the adjacent elements
shall be provided over the whole length of the
merge or diverge

January 1997

Page 7/10

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 7

.\

3000

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2500

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2000

\
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'U

Ql
~

1500

LL

Ql

I..

\1> . . .. \.1> >.\

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en

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.icllwgain sh~lIpe.< .
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-'=
-'=

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.... N .Forvalues

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1Il

0:::

...

:;;;

.s
500

()

Q)

1Il
....I

\AI

Q)

c
c

\1

()

Lane 1 Lane 2
Upstream Mainline

Lane 3

Lane 4

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Upstream Mainline Flow (Veh/hour)


A = Standard Taper
B = Auxiliary Lane

Figure 7.9

Merge Design

January 1997

Page 7/11

SECTION 7

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

b.

.~e

..se?>~
\)\'S

~i\~\\

\-?>~e ..\

e'?>
\-?>~. ...

\-?>~e'l-\
.\.
\ . .... . ....-..
.............. \.>
3000

\>. >>..X

\
\

.. \

--_ 1\

_ ..1\>
\ .....

...

....

1\ .. ., \

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2500

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.
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\ . . .\ \

.>

1500

\...
"C
11I

1000

o
0::

....
Ql
C
C

...J

Ql

o
500

.....

11I

\
\ A

\ I

\1

c..>

Lane 4

Lane 1
Lane 2
Lane 3
Downstream Mainline

A =Standard Taper
B =Auxiliary Lane

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Downstream Mainline Flow (Veh/hour)

Figure 7.10 Diverge Design

January 1997

Page 7/12

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Road Class

SECTION 7

Length of entry
taper (m)
(1 )

Taper for min


angle at
physical nose
(2)

Painted nose
length (m)
(3)

Min auxiliary
lane length (m)
(4)

Length of aux lane per


lane provided (m)
(5)

Rural
140 kph
120 kph
100 kph

205
150
130

1:40
1:30
1:25

115
85
75

230
190
160

75
55
55

Urban
120 kph
100 kph
80 kph

130
95
75

1:25
1:15
1:12

75
50
40

160
125
100

55
40
40

Table 7.3

Geometric Parameters for Merges

Pointed

Physical

Taper

NOBO

Noao

Taper

Auxiliary Lane

Painted
Nose

Physical
Nose

(1)

(3)

(2)

(1)

(4)& (5)

IS)

(2)

~~~~~-~--------

----------

Figure 7.11 Standard Taper Merge

Road Class

Length of exit
taper (m)

Figure 7.12 Auxiliary Lane Merge

Taper for
min angle
at physical

Painted nose
length (m)
(4)

Min auxiliary
lane length (m)
(5)

Length of aux lane per


lane proVided (m)
(6)

1 lane
(1 )

2 lane
(2)

nose

Rural
140 kph
120 kph
100 kph

170
150
130

185
150
130

1:15
1:15
1:15

80
70
70

200
170
150

75
55
55

Urban
120 kph
100 kph
80 kph

130
95
75

130
110
90

1:15
1:15
1:12

70
50
40

150
125
100

55
40
40

Table 7.4

Physical
Noso
(3)

(3)

Geometric Parameters for Diverges

Painted
Nose
(4)

Taper
(1) & (2)

Physical
Nose
(3)

Palnll,ld

-----

Figure 7.13 Standard Taper Diverge

January 1997

Nose

AuxllJary Lane

Taper

I')

(5)& (6)

(1)& (2)

---------------------------------

Figure 7.14 Auxiliary Lane Diverge

Page 7/13

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


7.5

OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

7.5.1 Clearance and Headroom


Clearances and headroom shall be designed in
accordance with Clause 3.7 and 4.6. The
engineer shall seek guidance from CED Roads
to define if any additionai clearance or
headroom is required for specific structures to
accommodate abnormal load routes.
7.5.2 Superelevation
Superelevation and camber shall be designed
in accordance with Clause 3.4. Special
consideration shall be given to the
superelevation on adjacent design elements.
The engineer must ensure that the entire
carriageway will drain efficiently and that there
is minimal risk of long vehicles grounding at
changes of superelevation.
7.5.3 Safety Fencing
Safety fencing shall be provided at locations
defined in Clause 5.15. Special consideration
must be given to measures at the physical nose
of diverges. High speed vehicles crossing the
painted nose are at particular risk. The ends of
safety barriers at these iocations must be given
special treatment to reduce the dangers of
head-on impact. Consideration shall be given to
the provision of energy absorbing terminations
for these locations.
Direction and warning signs for interchanges
may be large and possibiy gantry mounted.
Consideration must be given to the protection of
isolated signs and gantry legs.
In addition to safety fencing designed to
mitigate accidents, consideration should be
given to provision of safety fencing to prevent
illegal movements within the interchange.
lIiegal movements across the verges between
slip or link roads are highly dangerous to all
traffic and must be strongly discouraged.
7.5.4 Signing
Effective and clear signing is essential for the
safe operation of any junction. This is
particularly relevant to interchanges where
vehicle speed and traffic volumes are high.
Signs at such junctions will be large and
possibly gantry mounted. Adequate clearance
must be provided for the large foundations
required.

January 1997

SECTION 7
Detailed guidance on signing is provided in the
Qatar Traffic Manual. As a general point, the
engineer must consider signing requirements at
the preliminary design stage. At this stage the
engineer can build in suitable locations and
visibility splays for the signs.
7.5.5 Lighting
Suitable roadway lighting greatly reduces the
potential for accidents throughout the road
network. Lighting design is detailed in Section
10. As with signing, the engineer must consider
lighting requirements at the preliminary design
stage. Lighting columns can have very large
bases which may need special consideration.
7.5.6 Utilities
Information must be obtained from the Utility
Authorities at an early stage of the design.
Diversion or modification to existing or
proposed equipment can have a major impact
on the design and the cost of an interchange.
Utility Authorities may require service
reservations to be provided through the
interchange to accommodate future equipment
not yet detailed.
7.5.7 Emergency Vehicles
At the preliminary design stage the engineer
must consider how emergency vehicles could
reach the scene of an incident, particularly if the
carriageway is blocked by other vehicles held
up by that incident. Provision of additional
lateral clearances at structures could be
considered along with emergency median
crossovers with demountable safety fences.
7.5.8 Maintenance Provisions
Maintenance of the carriageway is an important
long term objective for the network. The
engineer must consider the implications of
maintenance strategies and traffic management
on the layout of the proposed interchange. He
must ensure that the facility will be safe to
maintain and that turning movements can be
reasonably accommodated whilst maintenance
is taking place.
7.5.9 Environmentallssues
Environmental issues shall be considered at the
preliminary stage. All reasonable efforts shall be
made to design out unacceptable environmental
impacts. The remaining impacts shall be
mitigated as far as reasonably practical.

Page 7/16

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 7

One main impact of interchanges is visual


intrusion due to their size. Carefui landscaping
can reduce the impact of large structures above
ground level. A combination of hard and soft
landscaping can usually achieve the best
results. Materials in keeping with the
surroundings should be used, with careful
consideration of colours, textures and styles. In
proposing soft landscaping, the engineHr must
consider how it could be safely maintained
throughout the year, including regular wQtering.
The design of hard and soft landscaping must

not interfere with the operational requirements


of the facility. No landscaping features shall
obstruct stopping sight distances, visibility of
signs or the effectiveness of roadway lighting.

January 1997

Page 7/17

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

Reduces the damaging affect


of pore water build up in the
pavement,
formation
or
subgrade

SECTION 8 DRAINAGE
8.1

INTRODUCTION

8.1.1

Functions of Highway Drainage

The requirement for satisfactory road drainage


has a direct bearing on the ability to use the
road during and after a rainfall event, long-term
serviceability of the road structure, provision of
an acceptable urban environment and
minimising health risk caused by long term
surface ponding.

Prevents pavement weakening


due to ingress of salt lenses
from the lower subgrade layers.

Prevents damage to property in


flood prone areas

Construction of a highway shall not be allowed


to increase the risk of flooding to properties.
The highway drainage system must therefore be
considered as providing four primary functions,
which due to land use constraints are usually
dealt with differently in urban and rural
situations, namely:

Collect precipitation falling on the


highway reservation, adjacent side
roads and catchment and convey to a
suitable outfall:

Concentrates flood water to


discharge basins for easy
removal.
The engineer shall undertake the following
minimum studies for each highway using the
criteria set out in the clauses in this section:

Reduces the danger


standing water to traffic

of

Maintains the
trafficked lanes

all

use

of

Reduces sediment build up at


the road side

Reduces percolation into the


road structure.

Guide surface water run-off safely


across or under roadways:
Minimises disruption to traffic
Minimises
pavement
structure

damage to the
or embankment

Guides surface water run-off to


suitable discharge points
Minimises road impact on the
natural surface hydrology in
rural areas.

Remove water percolating through the


pavement, lower ground water and
prevent capillary rise:

January 1997

In the case of exceptional rainfall


events the road surface itself can be
used as a storm carrier:

8.1.2

Determine the total amount and rate (0)


of storm water run-off reaching the point
under consideration
Select appropriate criteria on limits and
frequency of acceptable flooding
Determine points of concentration,
discharge and hydraulic controls,
together with method of entry into and
exit from the drainage system
Determine the requirement for the
provision of sub-surface drainage.

Minor and Major Systems

Drainage of highways is the joint responsibility


of the Civil Engineering Department's Roads
Division and Drainage Division. Each Division
has defined responsibilities and procedures
which shall be adhered to when designing
highway drainage. These are explained in the
following clauses.
Minor System
The Roads Division is responsible for the design
of the Minor System, nameiy the road drainage,
comprising gullies, soakaways, connecting
pipework and storage areas required prior to
discharge into the Drainage Division Network.
The
highway drainage system shall be
designed using parameters defined in this
section. The point of discharge and discharge
parameters listed below, will be provided by the

Page 8/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

CEO Drainage Division:


Diameter of trunk sewer
Allowable discharge volume
Invert level of trunk sewer
Location of trunk sewer
Acceptable method of discharge into
the trunk sewer.
Major System
CEO Drainage Division is responsible for the
Major System which comprises all the drainage
components beyond the agreed interface point
with the minor system:

Trunk. surface water sewer network


Surface water pumping stations
Ground water control networks
Surface water storage retention
areas/tanks.
The preferred drainage method is by a positive
system. However should this not be practical
due to distance from a suitable discharge point
or economics, agreement to discharge water to
the ground or adjacent areas may be sought
from the Director of the Civil Engineering
Department.
8.2

DESIGN CRITERIA

8.2.1

Hydrological Data

Rainfall Characterization
Long term rainfall records for Qatar commenced
in 1962 and are recorded daily. together with
other weather information, from a number of
locations by the Civil Aviation and Meteorology
Department of the Ministry of Communications
and Transport.

Summaries of recorded data are issued


regulariy.

For the purpose of highway drainage design the


country shall be considered as haVing the same
rainfall characteristics for all regions.
The Total Rainfall and Maximum Rainfall in 24
hours data (Table 8.1a & b) provided from Doha
International Airport Meteorological Station
provides the longest available rainfall record
and shall be referred to for design purposes.
However, a more onerous review may be
required in specific cases where flood damage
to strategic highways' or property would be
severe.
Intensity-Duration-Frequency
Data regarding individual storm events in Qatar
is scarce and generally inadequate. However,
statistical analysis and comparisons by a
number of researchers has established an
intensity - duration - frequency relationship
which is generally found to stand comparison
with Bahrain data and to some extent. the
Bilham FormUla. See Figure 8.1 a & b.
1=25.4 [(1.25 x TIN)"282 - O. 17
T

Where
I =
T=
N=

rainfall intensity (mm/h)


duration of storm (hours)
Probable number of
occurrences in 10 years

Run-off Coefficients (C)


Typically. for densely built up areas. there is a
high run-off for all rainfall intensities. However.
as development becomes more sparse or
ground conditions more pervious the total runoff will reduce. Run-off is also affected by storm
intensity.

Calculation of surface water run-off shall be


made using Figure 8.2 which gives values for
run-off coefficients which reflect the above
situations.

Qatar lies in an arid region and annual rainfall


may vary from 20mm to over 300mm per
annum.
Individual storms occasionally as
intense as 124mm in a 24 hour period and
54mm in a 3 hour period. have been recorded.
Rainfall is therefore characterised by:

High variability

Severe thunderstorms
geographical extent.

January 1997

of

limited

Page 8/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

State of Qatar
Ministry of Communications & Transport
Department of Civil Aviation & Meteorology
Total Monthly Rainfall (mm)
Station: Doha International Airport
Long: 51 34E
Lat: 25 15N

Elevation: 11 metres

Year/Month

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Total

1962

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.4

1963

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.5

106.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

5.6

1.5

115.0

1964

23.1

36.3

13.0

2.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

155.4

302.8

1965

5.0

1.2

0.0

68.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

13.0

0.0

87.3

1966

0.0

40.5

0.0

3.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

43.9

1967

0.0

2.0

3.3

13.9

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

19.2

1968

0.0

40.4

0.0

27.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

68.2

1969

101.8

0.2

0.0

15.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

117.1

1970

10.7

0.0

1.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.2

1971

0.6

5.8

0.0

6.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

15.0

1972

1.6

6.7

57.7

9.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

7.9

84.7

1973

22.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

22.2

1.7

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

4.1

51.9

1974

5.8

23.4

16.7

1975

31,3

46.3

1.1

1.8

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

4.4

64.9

1976

25.2

53.9

23.1

40.3

Trace

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

5.4

45.5

Trace

193.4

1977

41.4

17.9

0.5

2.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

17.3

5.1

3.1

90.6

1978

0.0

12.8

1.0

5.9

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

Trace

19.7

1979

5.7

0.1

68.9

Trace

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

27.2

101.9

1980

12.7

30.8

6.6

Trace

0.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

Trace

50.6

1981

6.4

2.4

23.4

Trace

1.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

\33.6

1982

2.7

16.7

102.3

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

Trace

20.3

21.2

167.3

1983

8.0

5.4

46.2

6.9

0.9

0.0

0.0

0.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

68.1

1984

Trace

Trace

23.5

Trace

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

17.2

40.9

1985

1.7

0.0

0.5

Trace

Trace

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

Trace

7.5

9.7

1986

4.7

7.4

5.7

32.6

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

27.6

78.0

1987

0.9

0.1

60.1

Trace

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.2

61.3

1988

6.8

130.5

2.7

12.8

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

152.8

1989

Trace

2.0

12.6

2.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

9.2

43.2

69.7

1990

10.7

13.7

0.6

4.6

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

29.6

1991

0.3

1.3

26.2

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

3.1

31.9

1992

8.7

26.8

1.9

2.9

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.2

0.0

50.6

103.2

1993

12.1

74.4

2.3

6.4

2.6

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

97.8

1994

0.1

0.5

25.6

3.9

8.6

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

Trace

0.0

Trace

38.7

1995

0.0

32.4

141.6

6.6

Trace

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

60.3

260.9

Mean

12.4

18.7

19.7

8.4

3.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

3.0

13.4

80.1

Total

420.2

636.4

668.8

285.2

121.3

0.0

Trace

0.7

Trace

34.9

102.7

454.7

2724.9

Table 8.1 a Total Rainfall - Doha International Airport 1962 - 1995


(Data to be reviewed at regular intervals)

January 1997

Page 8/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

State of Qatar
Ministry of Communications & Transport
Depanmenl of Civil Aviation & Meteorology

Maximum Rainfall in 24 Hours (mm)


Station: Doha Inlernatlonal Airport
Lal: 25 15N Long: 51 34E
Year/Month

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JU,

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

Year

1962

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

1963

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.9

64.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

5.6

1.5

64.0

1964

47.0

15.0

13.0

2.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

80.1

80.1

1965

3.0

0.6

0.0

30.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

13.0

0.0

30.0

1966

0.0

17.6

0.0

2.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

17.8

1967

0.0

1.5

1.5

6.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

6.1

1968

0.0

25.0

0.0

14.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

25.0

1969

58.0

0.2

0.0

6.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

58.0

1970

6.7

0.0

1.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

6.7

1971

0.6

5.B

0.0

7.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

7.4

1972

O.B

2.5

32.1

4.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0

5.9

32.1

1973

15.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

15.0

1974

5.4

9.2

9.0

1.7

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.5

9.2

1975

20.2

29.3

1.1

1.3

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.7

29.3

1976

23.2

23.2

9.4

94.4

Trace

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

3.6

45.5

Trace

45.0

1977

10.0

17.9

0.5

2.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

17.3

6.1

3.1

17.9

1978

0.0

9.5

0.5

5.6

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

Trace

9.5

1979

4.5

0.1

46.8

Trace

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

16.8

48.8

1960

7.2

20.2

3.0

Trace

0.7

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

Trace

20.2

1961

6.4

2.4

12.7

Trace

1.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

12.7

1982

1.6

9.9

40.1

2.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

Trace

17.3

11.8

40.1

1963

6.0

4.1

17.5

5.0

0.9

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

17.5

1964

Trace

Trace

15.2

Trace

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

16.2

16.2

1985

1.7

0.0

0.5

Trace

Trace

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

Trace

3.B

3.B

1986

3.7

6.2

3.4

17.1

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

16.0

17.1

1987

0.5

0.1

28.0

Trace

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.2

28.0

1988

4.1

41.3

2.3

6.7

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

41.3

1989

Trace

1.3

5.0

2.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

8.3

34.9

34.9

1990

7.5

6.B

0.6

2.3

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

7.5

1991

0.2

1.3

14.7

0.6

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.9

14.7

1992

3.0

20.5

1.6

1.2

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

12.2

0.0

32.7

32.7

1993

5.5

44.6

1.9

2.0

1.6

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Trace

44.6

1994

0.1

0.5

B.B

2.0

B.6

0.0

0.0

Trace

0.0

Trace

0.0

Trace

B.B

1995

0.0

12.0

58.2

3.1

Trace

0.0

Trace

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

38.6

58.2

Highest

58.0

44.6

58.2

34.4

64.0

0.0

Trace

0.7

Trace

17.3

45.0

80.1

80.1

Table 8.1 b Maximum Rainfall - Doha International Airport 1962 - 1995.


(Data to be reviewed at regular intervals)

January 1997

Page 8/4

SECTION 8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

0
N

1/
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~
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c:

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/

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/ 1/ I
II /'II

I 1/

..c:

11 if

jj
~

II)

(4/WW) Al!sUalullleJu!e~

Figure 8.1 a Bilham Formula, Intensity - Duration - Frequency Chart (O-4h)

January 1997

Page 8/5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

If

/ / I

1/11

/ / / / j

/ ///
/ / //j'/
/

----- ~ ~ ~/
a

C")

(4/WW) AllsualUI neJuletJ

Figure 8.1 b Bilham Formula, Intensity - Duration - Frequency Chart (1-24h)

January 1997

Page 8/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

1.0

0.9

./

-,0

"'~
C\\'i

s Fully Built up

.0. ROc

./
0.8

Can rete, Surf cinQ

IRoof

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,~

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e~

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0;,"V--:,.:,,~

LL
LL

I
0.6

Z
::J

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I

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.....
Z

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I

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./

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.-

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0

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~

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./
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I /

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0.0
o

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Bo

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

160

170

180

RAINFALL INTENSITY (I) mm/h

Figure 8,2 Run-off Coefficients for Urban Catchments

January 1997

Page8n

SECTION 8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Catchment Area (A)
Rural

The area to be considered shall incorporate


two parts:

The area of the road corridor subject to


direct precipitation

The broader naturai catchment area


road
runs.
within
which
the
Specifically, the effect the road may
have on the natural surface and subsurface drainage of the area.

Reference to topographic mapping should be


made to assess the catchment area.
Urban

The area to be considered shall incorporate two


parts:

The area of the road corridor subject to


direct precipitation

The additional adjacent area assessed


by reference to the Development Plans
and topographic mapping for the area.

The additional area will be dependent on


factors such as intensity of development,
provision of flood storage areas, and
contribution from adjacent roads and
developments.

At a chosen point the peak flow generally


occurs at the instant all parts of the catchment
are contributing to the flow.
The Time of Concentration (Te) is defined as
the interval in time from the beginning of the
rainfall to the time when water from the most
remote part of the catchment reaches the point
under consideration by the engineer.
The Time of Concentration is a function of the
average slope, length 'and roughness of the
catchment.
A number of equations have been developed for
computation of the Time of Concentration for
various methods of flood analysis. However, it
is recommended that where the Rational
Method is employed, Manning's equation is
used for the calculation of flow velocity in
gutters, drainage channels or pipes.
Manning's Equation:

V=

n
Where

=
=

R
S

=
=

Q=2.78CIA

C = Run-off coefficient
I = Rainfall intensity (mm/h)
A = Area (hectares)

For areas larger than 50 Hectares, mostly rural


conditions, consideration should be given to
assessment of run-off by a combination of
historic observation and generation of storm
hydrographs. The method used shall be
agreed with CEO.
Time of Concentration (Tc)
The engineer wishing to size a drainage system
must ascertain the peak rainfall run-off from the
catchment under consideration for the
designated design storm return period.

January 1997

= -L
V

Where
Time
of
Concentration
(seconds)
= Mean velocity of flow (m/s)
= Length of flow path from the
point of consideration to the
furthest catchment extremity
(metres)

Te =

V
L

Where

Mean velocity of flow (m/s)


Manning's
of
coefficient
roughness
Hydraulic radius (metres)
Slope (percent)

Time of Concentration:
Te

Surface Run-off (Q)


Highway drainage areas to be considered in
Qatar are typically less than 50 Hectares. For
these areas surface run-off (Q litres/second)
shall be calculated using the formula:

R;;S~

For easy reference, when preparing drainage


computations to the Rational Method, the
engineer may use the nomograph given in
Figure 8.3.
When considering short duration storms the
rainfall intensity changes rapidly with only a
small change in storm duration, (Figure 8.1 a).
Therefore it is important that for small drainage
areas an accurate assessment of Time of
Concentration is made. However, due to the
necessity for the surface to receive rainfall and
reach a flowing condition the Time of
Concentration shall not be reduced to less than
3 minutes.

Page 8/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Permeability (P)
Permeability of the ground shall be determined
by in situ geotechnical testing as described in
Appendix B of this manuaL
Ideally the permeability will be assessed at a
number of locations aiong a project site and
soakaway sizes optimised on the basis of the
test results.
Should geotechnicai data not be available then
reference to Table 8.2 and to records heid by
CEO Roads and Drainage Divisions should
assist the engineer. However, where existing
records are used, this shouid be verified by site
permeability testing during construction in order
to confirm the design values used.

SECTIONS
The run-off that a positive highway drainage
system shall be designed for is determined by
the Time of Concentration and reference to the
acceptable frequency limits provided for the
different highway classes in Table 8.3.
Highway
Classification

Primary
Secondary

Tertiary

Table 8.3

Permeability

Soil Type

Situation

Storm Return
Period
(years)

Rural
Urban

1 in 10
1 in 10

Rural
Urban

1 in 5
1 in 5

Rural
Urban

1 in 2
1 in 2

Design Return Period - Positive


System

(m/s)
1
Clean gravels

10,1

Where a positive drainage system is not


available and drainage is to soakaways, then
the 24hrs total rainfall figures given in Table 8.4
shall be used.

10-2

Clean sands
and sand~

Area Description
Residential Areas &
Minor Roads

12mm in 24 hours

10~

10-5

Major Roads &


Commercial Areas

18mm in 24 hours

Very fine
sands, silts and

clayMsilt

10'

gravel mixtures
Desiccated and
fissured clays

laminate

Table 8.4

Design Total Rainfall - Soakaway


System

10-7
1O-e

Unfissured clays and clay-silts


(>20% clay)

Rainfall

10~

10-9

Where the highway is required to cross a water


course, the acceptable frequency limits against
flooding and damage from natural water
courses given in Table 8.5 shall be maintained:

10- 10
Special measures required In thiS range.

Table 8.2
8.2.2

Typical Permeability

Design Return Period

The design of an economic surface water


drainage system is related to the acceptable risk
against flooding. Though Qatar is an arid
country, when storms occur, the disruption and
damage caused can be considerable. However,
to provide a complete, risk free, surface water
drainage system would be prohibitively
expensive. The following Design Return Period
tables list the minimum storm return periods to
be used in the design of surface water systems.

Highway
Classification

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary

Table 8.5

Situation

Rural
Urban
Rural
Urban
Rural
Urban

Storm Return
Period
(years)
1
1
1
1
1
1

in 50

in 50
in 20

in 20
in 10
in 10

Design Return Period - Natural


Surface Run-off

The engineer may chose a reduced level of risk


if a specific project requires this.

January 1997

Page 8/9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

If there is a requirement to utilise the road as a


storm run-off carrier in the case of a major
rainfall event then advice regarding the
acceptable frequency limits for individual
situations should be obtained from the CED
Drainage Division. This will typically reflect
those shown on Table 8.6.
Classification of Area Subject to Flood

Hospital/Airport

Industrial
Prestigious Commercial
Government Offices and Private Offices
Residential & Light Commercial

Table 8.6

Storm
Return
Period

1 in 100
1 in 50
1 in 20
1 in 20
1 in 10

Design Return Period - Areas

If an area forms a boundary with no natural


outlet for surface run-off then higher acceptable
frequency limits may apply. CED Drainage
Division should be consulted further for advice.
8.2.3

Design Method

Surface water drainage design should be


submitted to the CED Roads Design Section for
approval as part of the project detail design
report.
Detail design should utilise the
information provided within this Design Manual.
Basic design methods to be used are as follows:
Lloyd Davis Rational Method
Suitable for the majority of surface water
drainage systems enVisaged in Qatar, ego Minor
branch connections to a major trunk sewer
designed by others. The relevant storm and
catchment parameters given in this section are
used to calculate surface water discharge flows
and the piped system is sized to suit these flows.

A standard calculation sheet to be completed


and submitted with designs is given in Figure
8.4.
A number of important points need to be
considered by the engineer utilising this method.

Simple to use

provide
Larger catchments can
conservative results, typically when
chosen pipe diameters exceed 600mm

Care should be taken in selecting run-off


coefficients and rainfall intensities for
use in the equations.

January 1997

SECTION 8

Catchments where the contributing


area does not increase uniformly with
time can produce erroneous results.

Hydrograph Methods

Suitable for larger urban catchments where


storage in pipes and above ground becomes
significant, and for calculation of overland flow
in larger rural catchments for the sizing of
culverts and retention ponds.
Storm hydrographs should be built up from
existing known storm data. However, this
information is currently not widely available in
Qatar and hydrographs such as a UK summer
storm are considered generally equivalent to
Qatar storms and therefore suitable for use in
hydrograph models.
Design of larger diameter piped systems should
take account of pipe storage and proprietary
computer software models should be used at
the direction of CED Roads to optimize system
design.
Retention ponds, storage tanks and hydraulic
restrictors shall be modelled using methods as
agreed with CED Roads.
Soakaway Design
Soakaways should be considered for surface
water drainage in areas where a positive
system is not available or economics preclude
the use of a positive system.
However, areas of high groundwater table shall
not be considered suitable for soakaways. In
these areas positive systems shall be provided
with outfalls to EFA's, storage/retention tanks or
pumping stations.
Where permeability has been accurately
assessed with confidence and where its long
term availability through maintenance is without
doubt, then ground permeability can be
considered within the design of the soakaway.
In all other situations the soakaway shall be
considered a storage chamber and shall be
capable of storing the total rainfall requirement
of Table 8.4, below carriageway formation level.
Each gully shall be connected to an individual
soakaway, except at junctions where areas to
be drained are reduced due to gully/channel
requirements.
Soakaways shall be positioned in accordance
with the reservation cross-sections given in
Section 5.

Page 8110

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

Soakaways can introduce localised subsidence


due to wash out of fines. As such, they shall not
be positioned under the carriageway, shoulder or
parking area or within 5m of a structure (subject
to geotechnical advice).
Soakaways shall be sized and located so as not
to introduce water to the pavement construction.
Soakaways should be constructed with a rising
piece to enable shallow utilities to pass above
the main chamber.

In particular situations the engineer can consider


linking soakaways by pipe connections at invert
or intermediate levels. However, he should
ensure that this is not going to merely
concentrate the surface water at the road valley
point.
Where the existence of a perched water table
has been established by geotechnical
investigation, CED Drainage shall be consulted
regarding the use of combinations of boreholes
and soakaways to discharge to lower aquifers.
It should be noted that in some areas lower
aquifers may be under a piezometric head or
utilised for potable water purposes.
When a road is reconstructed or a piped
drainage system is installed in an existing road,
the original soakaways are unlikely to be either
efficient or undamaged by corrosion and will
need to be removed or renovated.

January 1997

Page 8/11

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

o
o
o

1\

1\

1\

1\

1\

0
0

'"

1\ 1\

1\
1\

1\

1\

1\

1\

1\

1\

E
0
0
N

1\

1\ 1\ 1\1\ 1\
o

~o

0
0
~

<iJ

....J
~

'"

1\ 1\

1\

1\

1\

>

LL

1\
I~

0
Z

P., o~ ~r< r\

}::

....J
LL

1\

1\

0
N

1\

I
I-

<.9
Z
W

....J

0
~

1\

'"
~
~

...
'"

::J
(j)

>
~

itt;~.

....J

>
0
N

lLL

'"

0
W

...

::;];

'"0

I-

LL

...

~~

c:

W
U

'"

r>'

<0

Figure 8.3

Time of Concentration - For Use with Rational Method

January 1997

Page 8/12

t..

<0

III

<:

Cil

'<

:..
'"

'"'"
--l

"~

J:!

III

::l

(f)

0-

:3

:lJ

Location of Pipe

(f)

ro
:;:
ro

0
ro
w

cO
::J

0
0

"0
C

::r:
l5
::r:

STORM SEWER DESIGN COMPUTATIONS

From

To

Diff. in
Level
(m)

Length

Pipe
Slope

(m)

Velocity Time of Time of Rainfall


Flow
Conc. Intensity
(m/s)

(min)

(min)

(mm/h)

Impermeable Area (Ha)

Flow

Pipe papaclly

Dia
Roads

Cut

Other

Total

(m'/s)

(mm)

Flow
!capacily

(m'/s)

Velocity Velocity Femark


Full
Velocity (m/s)

~o

m
(f)

l5
z

:s:
>
z
c:
>
,...

:J

-n
0

:3

(f)

'1J

III

to
C1l

'"

g
oZ

ex>

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

8.3

URBAN DRAINAGE

8.3.2

8.3.1

Introduction

Urban development causes changes to the runoff process by both altering the route and
surface characteristics over which the run-off
flows.

Drainage of highways in urban areas of Qatar is


achieved using the major and minor systems
described in Clause 8.1.2 and constructed and
maintained by the CED Roads and Drainage
Divisions.
Highway drainage shall be provided for all
urban roads.
Rainfall falling within the catchment area shall
be collected and disposed of within the highway
limits or to a designated outfall point. Surface
run-off shall not be allowed to shed outside the
highway reservation unless to a specified
discharge point. Surface water shall not be
allowed to stand within the highway reservation
for an extended period of time so as to cause
public nuisance or a health hazard.
It is important that the highway drainage
requirements are established early in the design
process to ensure that adequate reservation
space is provided and service utilities routed to
avoid possible clashes, particularly with
soakaways. Refer to typical cross-sections in
Section 5.
Drainage problems can often be alleviated by
the engineer considering the layout of the road
system and planning of a new development in
harmony with the natural drainage of a
catchment.

Highways form a part of the urban catchment


and the highway engineer must carefully
consider adjacent development and its
discharge points and Gharacteristics in order to
accurately assess the total catchment that may
be contributing to the highway drainage system
under design.
The urban catchment provides the engineer
with further points for consideration; that of
availability of discharge points for the collected
water, and the environmental damage due to
increasing build up of pollutants washed into the
highway drainage system.
8.3.3

Guide overland flow

Isolate drainage
manageable sizes

Increase the drainage path and hence


time of concentration

Provide additional flood storage area

Provide a drainage reservation to the


area discharge point.

catchments

into

Open areas such as parks, school yards, car


parks etc. can provide storage areas should the
drainage system be unable to cope with area
surface water run-off. Their location should
therefore be carefully chosen at the planning
stage to make the best use of topography and
drainage constraints.

January 1997

Positive Drainage

Positive drainage is preferred in all urban


situations.
Water collected is piped or
channelled to a discharge point from whence it
can be collected and discharged away from
roads and developed areas.
Highway drainage by positive means involves
discharging run-off to a point advised by the
CED Drainage Division for onward transmission
by the Trunk Sewer System.
8.3.4

The roadway can be used to provide the


following functions:

Urban Catchment

Drainage of the Carriageway

Rain falling on the road surface builds up and


presents a hazard to vehicles both during and
after storms.
It is therefore necessary to
provide drainage to the carriageway by a
combination of transverse and longitUdinal
gradients, shedding to water collection points
and a distribution system.
Typical topography in urban areas of Qatar,
where roads are kerbed, requires slack
gradients to minimise the appearance of a roller
coaster road and reduce fill requirements. The
minimum gradient criteria to be used are given
below:

Transverse gradients of 2% are


provided as normal for drainage off the
travelled way to the channel

Page 8/14

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Minimum longitudinal gradients of 0.3%


should be provided to drain the edge of
a travelled way to a discharge point
However, a desirable minimum
longitudinal gradient of 0.5% is to be
provided, where practical

Care shall be taken at junctions and


areas of superelevation to ensure that
the combination of transverse and
longitudinal fall does not create a flat
zone in the carriageway

In particular cases, a rolling crown may


be used as an alternative to
superelevating channel lines to avoid
flat zones, Figure 8.5. The length of the
rolling crown is determined using the
same formula as that for applying
superelevation (refer to Clause 3.4).

~_-,r,------,Smooth crown

x-x

SECTION 8
To maintain gully performance under the
influence of wind borne debris and dust and to
improve collection under the effect of high
rainfall intensity, it is preferred that gullies are
constructed as pairs.
Valley points of large catchments should be
located in areas where flooding would present
minimal hazard or disruption, or where
additional water storage or dispersion is
available. ie Emergency Flood Areas (EFA),
parks and gardens, trunk storm sewers etc.
Gullies shall be linked to the disposal system,
by piped connections.
The preferred minimum gradient for gully
connections is 1%. However, gradients of 0.5%
are acceptable should situations dictate.
Maximum gully connection length is 36m.
Should longer lengths be required then
intermediate manholes or catchpits shall be
included in the scheme to facilitate cleaning.
Utilities shall be located so as not to provide a
hindrance to the drainage system installation
and maintenance or increase the chance of
damage during utility maintenance works.
Storm sewer design shall be in accordance with
CED Roads and Drainage Divisions' design
gUides and specifications. Storm sewers shall
cater for the flows computed from the design
criteria in this Section and any additional flows
advised by CED Roads or Drainage Divisions at
the project commencement.

Figure 8.5

Typical Detail of a Rolling Crown


Across a Single Carriageway

Drainage collection points in urban areas should


typically be prOVided by gullies located along
the channel or gutter. On gradients of 0.5% or
less the flow of water to the gullies can be aided
by the use of channel blocks. Gully spacing is
a function of grating size, road gradient and
crossfall and acceptable flow width at the
channel. Standard gully spacings and criteria
are given in Figure 8.6.
Where standard criteria do not apply, the
engineer should consider reducing the gully
spacing or referring the specific case to more
detailed calculation procedures.
On roads with longitudinal falls, valley points
shall be provided with double gullies to aid
water collection.

January 1997

Page 8/15

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

200
NOTE
190

Graph depicts
Longitudinal gradient
at channel given as %
- Flood width of 1.0m
- Crossfall2%
- Heavy Duty Grating

180
170
160

150

140

130

120

110

0..

1\

E
(')

100

...J

1\

(j)

>...J

90

::::>
(')

80

50~

""I~

1\

70

60

2~

50

"\

"""i'--

40

'" 1'-"" ""

...........

0.3%

30
20

-----I--r-..r--

---...........

---

10
0

'" 4

<D

'"

",6
<D

'"

10

11

12

'"r--

IMPERMEABLE WIDTH (m)

Figure 8.6 Gully Spacing

January 1997

Page 8/16

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

8.3.5

Drainage of Medians, Footways and


Verges

Medians
Medians in urban areas are normally paved or
landscaped with planting. Paved medians shall
be sloped to shed run-off onto the adjacent
carriageway for collection by the carriageway
drainage system.
Landscaped areas in
medians shall be edged so as to prevent run-off
from these areas taking soil and plant debris
onto the carriageway.

SECTION 8
They are to be used in situations where run-off
from sizeable catchments would become
trapped at a valley point and consequential
flooding would cause damage to adjacent
properties or render a road impassable with no
equal adjacent route available for detours.
Water should not be allowed to pond for
extended periods so as to cause a health
hazard.
Emergency Flood Areas shall therefore be
prOVided with:

Footways
Footways shall normally be sloped at 2%
towards the carriageway to shed run-off onto
the carriageway.

Where new highways are to be constructed in


areas of existing development, care must be
taken to ensure road levels are set to allow the
footway to slope from the property threshold to
the carriageway. Areas of wide paving may
require sloping to additional collection points
away from the carriageway. These collection
points must be suitable for pedestrian traffic to
cross without risk of injury and must be situated
so as not to be a hindrance to maintenance
access.

..

Borehole soakaways to aid discharge to


the ground water table, where
investigation has shown this is
achievable.

..

Permanent surface water pumping


station and rising main connected to the
trunk sewer system.

It is the duty of adjacent property owners to


prevent significant run-off across the footway by
the introduction of collection channels. This is
particularly relevant in the case of polluting runoff such as from petrol station forecourts.
Collected water may be added to the highway
drainage system once cleaned of grit, oil and
other pollutants.
Verges
Verges with hard landscaping shall be sloped to
shed water towards the carriageway. Where
soft landscaping is prOVided then it shall be
edged and sloped to prevent run-off from
depositing soil and plant debris onto the
adjacent pedestrian or trafficked surfaces, or
into property thresholds. Areas of raised
planting which incorporate drain holes shall
incorporate a filter membrane to prevent
washout of soil onto adjacent areas.
8.3.6

A location where water can be easily


pumped by tanker or temporary
pumping station.

In order to make the best use of land in


developed areas it is normal practice to design
EFA's as sports fields, parks, playing fields, car
parks etc.
EFA's that are not landscaped or utilised for
other purposes have a tendency to collect
rubbish and become an eyesore.
EFA's should be considered a potential
drowning and disease hazard. Where possible
they should be kept shallow and spread over a
large area.
This helps evaporation and
dissipation and presents a less deep water
hazard. Side slopes should be gentle to allow
easy exit and marker posts should be located
around the rim to identify the deeper area in
times of heavy flooding.
Prior to designing EFA's the prevailing
groundwater table should be ascertained to
ensure the excavation does not allow standing
water to remain. Soakaways or boreholes can
be constructed in the base of the EFA to
encourage water dissipation.

Emergency Flood Area (EFA)

Emergency Flood Areas are portions of land set


aside, within or adjacent to the highway reserve,
that are used for additional storage of
exceptional run-off generated by storms greater
than those normally designed for.

January 1997

Page 8/17

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


8.3.7

Maintenance Strategy

All highway drainage systems shall be designed


with future maintenance procedures being
considered.
Routine maintenance will be required due to
build-up of wind blown debris and settled
sediments in gutters, gullies and pits.
Exceptional maintenance should be limited by
good design and construction practices.
CEO Highway Maintenance Section are the
responsible authority for the maintenance of the
highway drainage system, including EFA's and
storage areas not in the Trunk Storm Sewer
System.
CEO Drainage Division are the responsible
authority for maintenance of the Trunk Storm
Sewer System.
8.4

RURAL DRAINAGE

8.4.1

Introduction

Drainage of highways in rural areas of Qatar


can be considered as two cases:

SECTION 8
8.4.3

In order to reduce surface build up of rainfall


and the consequent hazard to vehicles both
during and after storms, it is necessary to
provide drainage to the carriageway by a
combination of transverse and longitUdinal
gradients shedding onto the verge and adjacent
land:

Transverse gradients of 2% are


provided as normal for drainage of the
travelled way.

Longitudinal
gradients
are
not
considered for drainage purposes on
unkerbed roads. However, care must
be taken during the design of
superelevated sections to avoid flat
zones in the carriageway.

In areas where carriageway edge run-off could


damage verges or steep embankments then
edge kerbing or edge channels shall be
provided to collect water to discharge points.
Discharge points would include gullies and
precast channels.
8.4.4

Drainage of rainfall falling onto the road


and highway reservation

Drainage of natural overland flows.

Drainage of run-off from the road and highway


reservation shall normally be achieved by
shedding onto adjacent land.
8.4.2

Rural Catchment

The engineer is not usually faced with the


problem of catching and dissipating rainfall as in
urban situations, but is allowing run-off to flow
generally unimpeded on its natural course.
Rural catchments are often extensive and can
build considerable volumes of water in their
lower reaches during even moderate storm
events.
Considerable care should be taken in assessing
the size, slope and surface characteristics of the
catchment (refer to Figure 8.2) and applying the
appropriate design storm (refer to Table 8.5).

January 1997

Drainage of the Carriageway

Drainage of Medians and Verges

Medians
Medians in rural areas would normally be
unkerbed and unpaved.
The median should be sloped away from the
carriageway to prevent run-off washing soil
debris onto the road.
Where run-off is collected from long sections of
gradient, median outlets should be provided at
wadi and valley points to prevent water ponding
and flooding onto the carriageway. Alternatively
the median may be broken into individual
catchment segments and surface water allowed
to percolate into the embankment or evaporate.
Median ditches, if required, should have a
maximum side slope of 1 in 6 and shall be
designed such that water in the ditch cannot
percolate into the road construction, see Figure
8.7.
Where ditches are required to facilitate
subsurface drainage, it is important to ensure
that adequate outlets or storage volume is
provided.

Page 8/18

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

-"'M"'.dria"'n'----~ _ _

------.,If-'

I
2~.L
"LJ

slo
,
~

17%

____if---I

J~

"
17% u

-P=j~:----",2.",5-'-I."I---'2",.5'------<:F+
Ditch1profile

SL column
typically

--"''''-~~~~T~O~PyOf=D~i~!C~h==:c;r-lJ~5~~8omcle
ar~ge~~:~~:::::::::-

Longitudinal Section
on Centreline

Rainwater storage

Fig 8.7 Typical Median Ditch


Verges and Ditches
Verges in rural areas shall be sloped to shed
water away from the carriageway.
At the back of the verge a shallow ditch may be
provided to both collect and transport
carriageway run-off and catch minor area runoff for transport to wadiis along the route.
The designer shall ensure that ditches are not
located so they can introduce surface water to
the pavement construction. Normal practice is
to ensure the ditch invert is a minimum of O.3m
below the carriageway formation level at the
outer edge of the carriageway.

SECTION 8
In areas of steep cutting, ditches should be
located so they are not filled with loose debris
from the cutting. In areas where natural surface
run-off is high it may be necessary to install a
ditch setback from the top of cuttings to prevent
rainfall damaging the cutting face.
8.4.5

Natural Surface Drainage

Where a highway crosses a wadi, the wadi


catchment characteristics, design storm and
class of road will determine the type of road
crossing required. It is normal practice to allow
run-off even from small catchments, to cross
under the road so as to minimise disruption to
the natural surface flow.
Culverts
A culvert is a covered channel or pipeline used
to convey a watercourse under the road. It
consists of an inlet, one or more barrels and an
outlet.
Typically, culvert barrels will be constructed
from concrete or steel pipes or boxes. Inlets
and outlets may be constructed with gabions,
mattresses, stone pitching or concrete.
The hydraulic characteristics of a culvert are
complex due to the number of flow conditions
that can occur. The highway engineer shall
consult specialist literature in his design of
culverts and shall choose the most appropriate
culvert for the specific purpose considering the
following general constraints:

Preferred minimUm
diameter 800mm

Minimum pipe culvert diameter 450mm

contributing catchment
appropriate storm duration
gradient
roughness coefficient of lining/surface

Flooding against embankments is


acceptable short term. Freeboard to
edge of carriageway to be a minimum
of O.5m for the design storm.

In most cases it is expected that rural ditches


will be unlined. Permissible depths of flow for
unlined channels are given in Figure 8.8.

Embankment slopes of 1 in 6 or greater


do not normally require protection
against washout due to short term
ponding. Long term ponding may
require embankment slopes of 1 in 10.

Ditch dimensions and shape shall be designed


following consideration of its location and
impact on highway safety together with the
following hydraulic considerations:

Shallow side ditches are not normally graded to


proVide a fall but follow the road profile.
Ditch slopes should not present a significant
hazard to traffic leaving the road during an
accident. Side slopes of 1 in 6 or shallower
should suffice for this.

January 1997

pipe

culvert

The engineer shall balance embankment height


with culvert height to provide a satisfactory
technical and economic solution.

Page 8/19

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

Fords

Where wadi flows are exceptionally high or the


road requires a low storm design return period
and is lightly trafficked, culverts may prove
impractical.
The engineer may therefore
consider incorporating a dry ford or vented dry
ford. In designing a dry ford, care must be
exercised to ensure driver awareness of the
potential hazard.
Guide posts should be
positioned adjacent to the carriageway to assist
traffic positioning and advance signing shouid
be used to indicate the dry ford to approaching
drivers.

Specific attention must be paid to minimising


scour and the prevention of carriageway
surfacing and edge loss. Verges, medians and
embankment slopes should be protected by
impervious layers or rock.
Washout of
embankment fines should be prevented by the
use of filter layers or impermeable membranes.

January 1997

Page 8/20

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTIONS

Cf)

......
c

CO

o~

( /)

(/)

Q)

0::

II

Q)

eft. Q..
10 0
OCf)

,/

'-

Q)

~c

CO

C'!.c:

O()

o
Cf)
Q)

o~

"<'"""

I
I

.Q

"0

'-

(/)

1/

/
1/

eft.
"<'"""
"<'"""

00

(w) '4ldea MOl.:! WnW!Xel/\l

Figure 8.8 Permissible Depths of Flow for Unlined Channels

January 1997

Page 8/21

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

8.5

JUNCTION DRAINAGE

8.5.1

Introduction

Effective drainage of the carriageway at


junctions is particularly necessary for two
reasons:

SECTION 8
Lightweight Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC)
embankment channels are easily installed to
prevent washout of embankment slopes at
areas of run-off concentration such as at kerb
ends.

8.5.2

Drainage at Junctions

The need to retain surface grip to


enable the safe stopping, starting and
turning
manoeuvres
routinely
undertaken by vehicles at these
iocations.

Carriageway crossfalls and longitUdinal


gradients at junctions are used to channel
water to collection points. The following are
examples of satisfactory crossfall layouts with
typical collection points:

The need to maintain the traffic system


capacity, particularly at major junctions
makes it essential that flooding of lanes
and reduction in junction capacity is
avoided.

T-Junctions (Figure 8.9)

The following criteria must be considered to


satisfy the above requirements:

Satisfactory transverse gradients must


be maintained, particularly on the
approach to "Stop" or "Give Way" lines
Longitudinal gradients must be carefully
chosen to keep slack sections of
channel to a minimum

Where slack gradients are unavoidable


the transverse gradient should be a
minimum of 2%

Collection points must be carefully sited


to avoid ponding or run-off across
carriageways from one channel to
another

Collection points must link to an easily


maintainable disposal system with
adequate capacity.

Constant camber maintained on major


road

Longitudinal gradient on major road


maintained across minor road throat

Longitudinal gradient maintained on


minor road to major road channel line

Constant transverse gradient on minor


road maintained to radius tangent
points

Gully positions chosen to prevent flow


crossing the minor road entry/exit.

It is preferred to maintain the major


carriageway transverse
gradients
through cross roads or small signalized
junctions.

MAJOR ROAD

-}---------,t--------{-

--r?
~

Junctions should preferably be situated away


from valley points for large catchments to
prevent flood concentration at these points.
Locating junctions adjacent to trunk sewers or
EFA's to provide additional drainage facilities
should also be considered.

,I
I

Urban junctions should always be kerbed and


are therefore drained by gullies to the disposal
system.
Rural junctions would normally be kerbed
however an economic collection and disposal
method may be achieved by flush kerbs located
at collection points with shallow lined channels
removing the water to the adjacent ground.

January 1997

Figure 8.9

EI

MINOR ROAO

GULLY

..... DIRECTION OF DRAINAGE

Typical Drainage at T-Junctions

Page 8/22

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

Large Signalized Junctions (Figure 8.10)


..

Transverse gradients to be maintained


at approach to "Stop" lines & pedestrian
crossings

..

Longitudinal gradients to be satisfactory


to prevent a large flat area being
created at the intersection point

..

Transverse gradients on right turn slips


to provide superelevation

..

Valleys created in siips to have


adequate collection and disposal points

..

Additional guliies placed at collection


points serving a large surface area

..

Gully positions chosen to prevent flow


crossing carriageways.

Roundabouts (Figure 8.11)


..

Transverse gradients maintained at


approached to "Give Way" lines

..

Longitudinal gradients to continue to be


maintained on approaches and
departures

..

Channel of central island to fall to one


collection point

..

Transverse
gradients
provide
superelevation for right turners or those
circulating

..

Gullies positioned to prevent cross


carriageway run-off.

January 1997

Page 8/23

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTIONS

--I

Ill!

-..

GULLY
DIRECTION OF DRAINAGE

t
t
- - ~---;m - F~-+ --=J- -'- / - - t t l

Figure 8.10 Typical Drainage at Large Signalised Junction

GULLY
. . . DIRECTiON OF DRAINAGE

,,

," ,

;f

---

-+

, '",,

;f
/
/
/

-fI
Figure 8.11 Typical Drainage at Roundabouts

January 1997

Page 8/24

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


8.6

SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE

8.6.1

Introduction

SECTION 8

Tidal coastal areas where the water


table varies close to the surface.

It is preferred that a soils investigation is

Water can be introduced to the pavement by:

.
.
.
..

Rainfall permeating
wearing and base
pavements)

through
courses

the
(old

Rainfall permeating through the verges


and medians
High groundwater table at the formation
due to natural water table or seasonal
ponding
Capillary rise from groundwater near
the formation.

Where these situations are present, subsurface


drainage is required to prevent build up of pore
water within the pavement, formation and
subgrade. Increase in pore water can weaken
the pavement by:

.
.
.

Transferring loads to lower (weaker)


sections of the pavement through
increase in pore water pressure
Washout of fines by movement of pore
water
Increase in salt content in pavement
layers and subsequent swelling due to
capillary rise when appreciable
quantities of salt are present in the
sUbgrade
Swelling in susceptible material,
followed by shrinkage or drying out.

undertaken to assist in deciding the need for


subsurface drainage.
8.6.2

Subsurface Drainage Methods

High Groundwater
In areas of existing developm~nt where high or
rising groundwater is likely to bring moisture to
the formation level, a collection and disposal
system shall be installed to lower the water
table.
It is normal practice that this is performed by the
installation of a perforated land drain below the
carriageway, together with a positive surface
water drainage system. This would normally be
undertaken by the CED Drainage Division as
part to the Trunk Sewer Network. In these
locations, soakaways shall not be used for
drainage.
Alternatively, in rural areas, the provision of side
ditches can serve the dual function of
intercepting overland flow and aid in the
lowering of groundwater local to the road
structure.
Coastal Areas
In tidal coastal areas, sabkha is likely to be
present as an indication of a high groundwater
table.
In these situations capillary rise of up to 1.0m
can draw saline water up to the road formatioA
ievel, depositing salt lenses and increasing pore
pressure.
This is generally prevented by:

SubSUrface drainage is not normally detailed in


Qatar as it is rarely a problem. Low lying areas
are normally filled prior to development to raise
them sufficiently above the groundwater table.
Roads
are
generally constructed
on
embankments in areas of high groundwater as
they are usually subject to flood inundation
during storms.

Construction of high embankments

..

Introduction of a granular capillary


break layer below the formation.

drainage is therefore only


necessary in the following

General Design Consideration


The highway engineer should consider the
introduction of water to the formation as likely to
happen due to annual rainfall and irrigation of
plants in the median and verges.

Areas of existing development and


rising groundwater levels

In most cases the dry granular nature of the


typical Qatar subgrade layers means the pore
pressure rise due to percolation is slight.

Subsurface
considered
situations:

..

January 1997

Page 8/25

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 8

However, to provide an additional safety factor


against this occurrence, the following measures
should be considered:

Slope the formation to drain away from


the carriageway to the verge or median

Avoid steps in the formation that could


lead to water concentration points

Keep planting areas separated from the


pavement construction to prevent
moisture transfer

Ensure planting area watering is


effectively controlled to prevent over
watering

Utilise surface water drainage details


that will reduce the chance of
accidental damage and maintenance
problems

Ensure soakaways do not introduce


water to the pavement construction.

January 1997

Page 8/26

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


SECTION 9 PAVEMENT DESIGN
9.1

INTRODUCTION

9.1.1

General

The pavement designs described in this manual


replace those given in the 1989 Highway
Design Manual issued by the Civil Engineering
Department of the Ministry of Public Works.
Unlike the previous designs, based on the road
hierarchy and a standard subgrade, the new
designs described in this section are based on
the cumulative traffic over a definite design life
(normally 20 years) and three subgrade
strengths. The designs are set out in catalogue
format and the technical basis for these is
described in an Annex at the end of this section.
All materials, methods of construction and
tolerance used for road pavements must be in
accordance with the Qatar Construction
Specification (QCS). The Civil Engineering
Department (CEO) laboratory should be
consulted during both the design and
construction stages of any project to ensure that
the latest material specifications are being
used.
The various types of pavement constructions
described herein may be used for kerbed or unkerbed roads, in locations with or without
positive drainage. Any requirement for kerbing
and drainage will depend upon the exact nature
and location of the road - refer to Section 8.
9.1.2

Typical Pavement Structures

A typical flexible pavement structure is shown in


Figure 9.1. It comprises a wearing course laid
upon roadbase and sub-base layers, and the
subgrade.
The wearing course must provide a skid
resistant running surface and should be both
crack and rut resistant. However, due to its
exposure to the extremes of temperature and
high wheel load shear stresses, the wearing
course will probably deteriorate and require
replacement before the rest of the pavement.
Resurfacing is likely to be required at intervals
of approximately 6-8 years during the life of the
road.
The roadbase is the main structural layer of the
pavement and may consist of either asphaltic
concrete or granular material (gravel or crushed
stone) for medium traffic levels, but only
asphaltic concrete for high traffic levels. Its
thickness is determined by the amount of traffic
which is expected during the design life.

January 1997

SECTION 9
The sub-base is a granular layer to support the
roadbase and its thickness is determined by the
strength of the underlying subgrade. In addition
to providing adequate support to the roadbase,
the sub-base must be able to carry construction
traffic without developing excessive ruts.
The subgrade is the top layer of the earthworks
and depending on the road geometry, will be
either cut or fill.
In rigid pavements, the asphalt wearing course
and roadbase are replaced by a high quality
concrete slab, with or without reinforcement.
The sub-base is normally cement bound rather
than just granUlar, to ensure a robust surface on
which to erect side forms and joint assemblies
and to minimise any pumping of fine material
through slab joints.
FleXible-composite pavements consist of a
cement bound roadbase with asphalt surfacing.
As the cement bound material normally cracks
transversely due to shrinkage and temperature
warping, the surfacing must be thickened to
provide insulation, to reduce the temperature
gradient in the roadbase, and to prolong the
period for crack development through the
surfacing.
In pre-cast block paving, the asphalt surfacing
is replaced by a layer of concrete blocks
bedded on a course of sand. This pavement
type is only used in areas of low speed traffic,
typically in parking areas, or when a contrasting
appearance is required for areas such as
median strips.
9.1.3

Road Deterioration

Generally, pavements gradually deteriorate with


time under the influences of environment and
traffic. The environmental deterioration can take
the form of hardening of the bitumen in the
surfacing which can lead to excessive
brittleness and cracking, or to salt damage of
thin surfaced roads built on or with salt-rich
materials. Poorly designed or maintained
drainage can lead to weakening of pavement
layers or the foundation which then deforms
under traffic
loading.
Traffic-related
deterioration can take many forms including the
development of ruts, general unevenness of the
road surface, with a consequent loss of riding
quality, and cracking which can lead to pop-outs
and potholes.

Page 9/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

~I

Wearing Course (40mm layer of asphalt concrete, Gabbro aggregate)

~
m"

Roadbase

(Generally, asphalt concrete, Limestone aggregate 110 - 230mm thick


dependant on traffic. For traffic less than 5 million standard axles,
granular material can be used for part of this layer)

Sub-base

(Granular layer, varying between 100 and 200mm


depending on subgrade strength)
Formation

Subgrade

(In-situ or imported, CBR > 15%)

",r

,
, ,, ,
'.'
,'.'
, , ,, , ,
, ,, ,
Va'"
,'.'
, ,,,, , ,,
,, , ,,
,
"'.9

Figure 9.1

Typical Pavement Layers

Determining when a pavement has "failed" or is


no longer providing the intended level of service
is not simple. Generally the deterioration is very
slow and variable. Criteria for "failure" can be
set such as rut depth, roughness, deflection or
even the level of maintenance expenditure or
total quantity of patching.
Occasionally, major deterioration can occur
over a relatively short period of time when, say,
a low quality, moisture susceptible sub-base
becomes wet due to surface cracking or a rise
in groundwater level. However, distress at the
surface of the pavement does not necessarily
indicate the structural failure of the road.
Surface cracking and rutting within the wearing
course material may be treated without the
need for major structural maintenance, as the
main structural layer of the road, the roadbase,
could be completely undamaged.

9.1.4

Variability in Materials and Road


Performance

Road pavement performance is a ve ry variable


process due to a number of factors. Variations
in the thickness and quality of the pavement
layers and variations in the strength of the
foundation all contribute to this, even though
materials may comply with the relevant
specifications. Also, uncontrolled factors such
as the long term ageing of the bitumen cause
variations in performance.
The random nature of variations in each layer
should ensure that most deficiencies in
thickness or strength do not coincide, or very
January 1997

SECTION 9

rarely so. The importance of good practice in


quarrying, material handling and stockpiling to
ensure this randomness and also to minimise
variations themselves cannot be over
emphasised.
Sometimes a road fails to carry traffic
satisfactorily to the end of its design life
because the traffic is considerably greater than
predicted. Proper axle load assessment and
reliable traffic forecasting are essential to
prevent this. However in some circumstances
this is very difficult and either a generous
contingency will have to be provided or the
traffic and/or pavement regularly monitored so
that strengthening can be carried out before the
pavement is seriously weakened.

9.2

TRAFFIC ASSESSMENT

9.2.1

Introduction

Pavement deterioration under trafficking is due


to both the magnitude of the wheel loads and
the number of times the load is applied. For
pavement design purposes, it is essential to
consider not only the number of vehicles that
will use the road over the design life but also
the axle loads of these vehicles. This is done
by converting each axle load to an equivalent
number of "standard axles" of 80 kN using an
empirical relationship and totalling these over
the life of the pavement. The conversion to
standard axles is described in more detail in
Clause 9.2.5. Light vehicles cause negligible
damage - an axle load of 10 kN (1 tonne) has a
damaging effect of only 0.00024 standard axles
Page 9/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

compared to the normal maximum axle load of


130 kN (13 tonnes) which has the effect of 6.45
standard 80 kN axies.
The pavement designs in this manuai are
selected on the basis of the cumulative traffic to
be carried over the design life expressed in
standard axles. The determination of this
number is done in three stages:
1

The traffic for each class of vehicle


which is expected to use the proposed
road, both at opening and subsequentiy
over the design life, must be forecast

The axle loading of each class of


vehicle over the life of the road must be
estimated

The cumulative number of standard


axles to be carried over the design life
must be caicuiated from stages 1 and

SECTION 9
At the end of the 20 year design period, the
great majority of pavements will continue to be
used, but will probably require strengthening.
The precise works will be determined by
evaluation as described in Clause 9.6, but will
probably take the form of an overlay of 50 to
150mm, with or without planing the existing
surfacing. Outside urban areas, with minimal
kerblng and ironware and generous shoulders
or verges, a raised road surface will not present
any significant problems. However, in urban
areas or adjacent to and under over-bridges,
raised surface levels coLlid be difficult or
expensive to accommodate. In these areas, an
increased initial pavement thickness would
allow inlays to be used and thus avoid the need
for overlays and changes in level.
9.2.3

2.
These stages are described below.
9.2.2

Traffic Forecasting

This is an uncertain process, particularly in a


country with a developing economy such as
Qatar. To forecast traffic growth, the following
three traffic categories must be considered.
Anyone of these could be dominant or
insignificant, depending on the site.

Design Life

The design life for the majority of pavements


will normally be 20 years. In this period it
shouid not be necessary to either strengthen or
reconstruct the pavement provided that the
traffic volume and axle loads have been as
forecast. At the end of the design period the
pavement should still have sufficient integrity to
allow overlaying, rather than full reconstruction,
to extend the life for further service. However,
some surface deterioration, generally rutting or
cracking, will occur in this period. The ruts
couid be caused by slow or stationary vehicles
(at junctions), high temperatures and over-rich
mixes (where the mix parameters have drifted
to high bitumen or low voids within the specified
limits) and couid develop early in the pavement
life before the bitumen has aged and stiffened.
Cracking will normally arise (after 10 years) as
a result of ageing of the bitumen in the high
temperature environment. Depending on the
status of the road and the extent and degree of
surface deterioration, resurfacing by a thin
overlay (40mm) or inlay (planing off and
replacing the surfacing) may be necessary
within the design life.
There may be situations where the future traffic
loading may be very uncertain depending, say,
on the siting or timing of some major
development. In this case it may be prudent to
consider a shorter design period and make
provision for possibie strengthening overiays
when plans are more definite. The CED should
be consulted in cases where a design period
different to 20 years appears appropriate.
January 1997

Normal traffic, which would pass along


the route even If no new pavement was
provided

Diverted traffic, which is attracted to the


route because of the improved
pavement

Development traffic, which arises from


either
planned
or
unplanned
development along the road corridor.
(The latter type is sometimes termed
generated traffic).

Normal traffic can be assumed to continue to


grow according to current trends, either as a
fixed number of vehicles per year or as a fixed
percentage of the current total. Diverted traffic
can be considered from an economic
perspective. It can be assumed that all vehicles
which would save either time or money by
switching from an existing route to the new
pavement would choose to do so. Diverted
traffic is normally forecast to grow at the same
rate as the traffic on the road from which it has
been diverted.
The quantity' of planned
development traffic can be estimated from the
details of policy plans.
The quantity of
unplanned development traffic, sometimes
called generated traffic, will be far more difficult
to predict but will be influenced by the
availability of land for such development and by
experience from previous road projects.
Allowance must also be made for the
construction traffic which will be associated with
both types of development.
Page 9/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Traffic forecasting must differentiate between
light, medium and heavy goods vehicles as their
growth rates may be different and their
pavement damaging effects are very different.
Whilst most routes will have approximately
similar traffic in both directions over a period of
time, checks should be made for any directional
effects.
9.2.4

be factored up to obtain 24 hour totais

The average of the six 24 hour counts


(total or vehicle class) in each direction
should be considered to be the oneway Average Daily Traffic (total or
vehicle class)

On important road schemes, the sixday counts should be repeated several


times throughout the year to ensure
accuracy in the ADT values.

9.2.5

Standard Axles

Traffic Counts

The requirement for counts of present traffic will


depend on the type of road project being
considered and the relative magnitude of the
three types of. traffic expected to use it.
Forecasting normal and diverted traffic will
require knowledge of the flows and vehicle
composition on existing roads running parallel
to, or in the vicinity of, the proposed road.
Obviously, development traffic cannot be
counted, but traffic resulting from planned
development should be quantifiable if the
general details of the planned residential,
commercial and industrial projects are known.
For most roads it is likely that there will be some
relevant traffic data available but this will
probably have to be augmented or updated by
further counts.
Conventional traffic counts, to justify or to
geometrically design a road project, are usually
based on manual or automatic methods where
all vehicles are combined to produce a single
Average Daily Traffic (ADT) figure. The ADT is
defined as the total annual traffic summed for
both directions and divided by 365. However,
for pavement design purposes, it is essential
that classified counts are carried out so that the
heavy goods vehicles which cause most of the
pavement damage can be clearly quantified.
The counting process must yield separate ADT
values for each vehicle class.
Also, for
pavement design it is the traffic in one direction
or individual lane, rather than the two-way flow,
which is of interest.
Manual classified counts should be carried out
using the Qatar standard 16 classes indicated
in Table 9.1. In order to ensure that the ADT
and
composition
percentages
are
representative of the yearly traffic, the following
method is suggested:

SECTION 9

Traffic counts are performed on six


consecutive working days (excluding
Fridays), for both travel directions

Times of abnormal traffic activity should


be avoided such as public holidays, etc.

During the six days at least two counts


should be for a full 24 hours. The
count totals for the other days should

January 1997

For pavement design purposes the damaging


effect of vehicle axles is expressed in terms of
a "standard axle". This was originally defined
as one carrying 18,000 Ib (8,160 kg), in the
AASHTO road trial in the USA in 1956-8
(Croney and Croney, 1991). Subsequently this
load has been rationalised in SI units to 80 kN
(eqUivalent to 8,157 kg). In order to determine
the cumulative axle loads over the design life of
the pavement, it is necessary to convert the
numbers of each class of heavy vehicles that
will use the road, to an equivalent number of
80kN standard axles. Axle loads are related to
the standard axle using the following
relationship:
Standard Axles ~ (Axle Load(kg)/
8157

For example, axle loads of 5, 8, 10 and 13


tonnes are equivalent to 0.14, 1.00, 2.26 and
6.45 standard axles, respectively.
Class

Type

No.
of

Axles

Wheels
(on each
side of the
vehicle)

Average No.
of Standard
Axles per
Vehicle
1B00Nf

Mini-bus

1+1 or 1+2

0.2- 0.5

Bus/Coach

f+2

0.7 - 5.0

P/U Truck

1+1 or 1+2

0.1-3.0

Riaid Lorrv

1+2

0.4-7.0

Riaid Lorrv

1+2+2

1.56.0

Arctic. LorN

1+2+2

0.6-10.0

Arctic. Lorrv

1+2+22

1.510.0

10

Arctic. Lorrv

1+2+222

2.57.0

11

Arctic. LorN

1+22+2

1.57.0

12

Arctic. Lorrv

1+22+22

2.0 - 7.0

13

Arctic. Lorry

1+22+222

1.57.0

14

Trailer

+2+22

2.0 - 7.0

+22+22

2.0- 10.0

15
Trailer
Nole. Refer also to Table 6.1

Table 9.1 - Qatar Standard Vehicle Classes


For each vehicle class, a representative number
Page 9/4

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

need to be weighed and the average number of


standard axies for that class determined. This
is then 'appiied to ail the vehicles of that class
for the design period. The values can vary
considerably depending on the proportions of
the various vehicle classes and the degree of
loading. On some routes, the loading is very
directional, eg the approach to a quarry may
have similar vehicle flows in both directions, but
empty lorries in one and fully laden in the other,
hence axle load surveys are essential.
At present, Qatar has no legal iimits on either
axle or gross vehicle weights. A considerable
amount of overloading, relative to the designed
vehicle weights occurs.
Local surveys have
found extreme cases of vehicles being loaded
to nearly twice their designed gross vehicle
weights. Overloading causes a big increase in
wear to the pavement. In the case of a 5-axle
articulated truck, this can increase from about 4
equivalent standard axles, for the designed
weight iimit, to 160 for the overloaded case.
Obviously, not all vehicles will be overloaded to
this degree, but the average number of
equivalent standard axles per vehicle for each
traffic class wiil generaily be higher than in
places where legal iimits, related to the vehicle
design, are imposed and enforced.
An
indication of the likely range of average values
for Qatar in each of the classes is shown in
Table 9.1. (Classes 1 and 2, consisting of cars,
4-wheel drive vehicles, iight pick-ups and taxis
cause negligible pavement damage and have
been omitted.) The wide ranges are due to the
varying proportions of loaded, part loaded and
empty vehicles and the extent of overloading.
The mix will vary with vehicle class and route.
Axle load surveys, using portable weighbridges,
should be carried out to determine the axle load
distribution of a sample of the heavy vehicles in
the vicinity of the road. Data coilected from
these surveys can then be used to calculate the
mean number of standard axles for a typical
vehicle in each class. These values can then
be used in conjunction with traffic forecast to
determine the predicted cumulative standard
axles that the road will carry during its design
life. Alternatively, there may be data available
from the CEO, who should be consulted on the
need for specific load surveys.
Axle loads can also be measured and counted
by weigh in motion (WIM) systems. These
involve the embedment of load sensitive strips
or pads, flush with the road surface, across the
wheel path. These systems are very attractive
because axle loads are measured while
vehicles travel at normal speeds. However,
WIM systems require careful, regular calibration
and the measurements are affected by the

January 1997

SECTION 9

speed of the vehicles, the transverse position of


the vehicle wheel and the smoothness of the
road surface. In UK, trials of WIM systems
have shown substantial unexplained variations
in average vehicle loads between sites with
similar traffic.
Moderate errors in weight
measurement will be converted to much larger
errors in the equivalent standard axle values. If
WIM systems are used, it is strongly
recommended that check weighing of a sample
of the heavy vehicles be carried out using
conventional weighbridges, either permanent or
portable types. This is in addition to the
caiibration already mentioned.
9.2.6

Determination
Standard Axles

of

Cumulative

In order to determine the cumulative "standard


axles" over the design life of the road, the
foilowing procedure should be followed;
1.

Determine the daily traffic flow for each


class of vehicle weighed using the
results of the traffic survey

2.

Determine the average daily onedirectional traffic flow for each class of
vehicle

3.

Make a forecast of the one-directional


traffic flow for each class of vehicle to
determine the total traffic in each class
that will travel over each lane during the
design life

4.

Determine the mean equivalence factor


for each class of vehicle and for each
direction from the results of the axle
load survey

5.

The products of the cumulative onedirectional traffic flows for each class of
vehicle over the design life of the road
and the mean equivalence factor for
that class should then be calculated
and added together to give the
cumulative "standard axle" loading for
each direction. The higher of the two
directional values should then be used
for design.

For dual carriageways it should be assumed


that the slow lane will carry ail the heavy
vehicles unless local experience indicates
otherwise or the one-way ADT traffic flow
exceeds 13000 vehicles per day. In the latter
case 90% of the heavy traffic should be
assumed to travel on the slow lane. All lanes of
the carriageway should be designed for the slow
lane traffic. Each carriageway can be designed
for a different number of standard axles.

Page 9/5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 9

However, the differences would have to be at


least 50% before pavement thicknesses were
altered significantly. In practice, the largest
number of standard axles in either slow lane
would determine the design for all lanes.
9.2.7

S1: > 15% and <25%


S2: > 25% and < 50%
83: > 50%

Design Traffic Classes

Accurate calculations of cumulative traffic are


difficult to make due to inaccuracies in the traffic
forecasts and average numbers of standard
axles for each vehicle type. Consequently the
pavement designs are provided as a set of
discrete thicknesses for defined ranges of traffic
rather than as a graph of thickness versus
cumulative standard axles. Each range of
cumulative axles is termed a class and these
are summarised in Table 9.2, expressed in
millions of standard axles (msa).
For
comparison, the pavement classes used in the
previous design manual are also shown. When
the forecast number of axles is considered fairly
reliable, and is within 10% of one of t'le class
boundaries, it is acceptable to use a design
based on the average of the adjacent classes.
Traffic Class

T1

T2

T3

T.

T5

T6

Design Traffic
(msa)

<1

12

25

10

20

10

20

50

Previous
Pavement
Classification

Tertia""
Secondarv
Prima'"

Table 9.2 - Design Traffic Classes


9.3

PAVEMENT MATERIALS

9.3.1

Qatar Construction
(QCS)

Specification

The full details of the materials to be used in


pavement construction and the subgrade are
given in the QCS together with the applicable
test methods, based mainly on British
Standards. Brief descriptions of these materials
are given below.
9.3.2

Accordingly, the present pavement designs


include three classes of subgrade defined by
CBR:

Subgrade

Qatar generally has high strength natural soils


consisting of weathered limestone or sands.
Historically, it has been possible to construct
earthworks, or at least the upper layers, using
material with a minimum soaked California
Bearing Ratio (CBR) of 25% and the previous
pavement designs were based solely on this
strength. However it is becoming impractical or
expensive to always provide this standard. In
some locations, such as cuttings, a significantly
higher strength of in situ subgrade is possible.

January 1997

The CBR values are measured using the BS


1377 method, on soaked subgrade samples
statically compacted to 95% of the maximum
dry density (MDD), determined using the BS
1377 4.5 kg rammer method. There are also
grading and Atterberg Limit requirements,
detailed in the QCS. The in situ subgrade must
also be compacted to the same relative
compaction, namely 95% of MDD (4.5 kg
rammer).
The specified subgrade strengths must be
sustained for a depth of at least 300mm and the
material below this must have a CBR, at the in
situ density, of at least 10%. This can be easily
confirmed using a simple hand operated
Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (Kleyn and
Savage, 1982), rather than the much more
labourious method of recompacting laboratory
samples to the same density.
Where the above conditions are not fulfilled,
either some of the subgrade material must be
replaced with higher quality material, or the
amount of cover (fill height) increased. The
necessary replacement or cover thickness can
be determined on the basis of providing the
same stiffness at formation level (top of the
earthworks) as for the standard CBR 25%
subgrade. Details for this procedure are given
in the Annex to this section. The proposals for
these non-standard subgrade situations must be
discussed with the CED.
9.3.3

Granular Material for Sub-base and


Roadbase

The same material is used for both layers and


may consist of either crushed stone or gravel, or
natural gravel, or a mixture of these. There are
requirements for aggregate hardness, durability,
cleanliness, grading, shape and strength, given
in the QCS. The principal requirement is for the
material to achieve a CBR value of not less than
60% when compacted to 100% of the maximum
dry density (MDD) determined using the BS
1377 4.5kg rammer method. This material is
used as sub-base for all pavements, except the
concrete slab designs, in thicknesses ranging
from 100 to 200mm, depending on subgrade
strength.
The in situ sub-base must be
compacted to the same density as the CBR test,
namely 100% of MDD (4.5 kg rammer).

Page 9/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 9

Roadbase - Asphalt Concrete

The required grade of bitumen is 60/70 Pen with


a binder content typically between 4.0 and
5.0 %. Compaction requirements are the same
as for asphalt concrete roadbase and the laid
material should have voids of about 5 to 6 %
before trafficking.

9.3.4

The standard form of pavement construction


uses a type MD1 asphait concrete roadbase
between 100 and 230mm thick depending on
traffic loading. This material must comply with
a given grading envelope (maximum particle
size 37.5mm) and will be proportioned using the
Marshall Design method to meet the following
criteria:
Minimum Stability:
Maximum Flow:
Air Voids:
Voids Filled with Bitumen:

8 kN
4mm
3to 6 %
60to 75 %.

The required grade of bitumen is 60/70 Pen


with a binder content typically between 3.2 and
5.0%.
The QCS specifies additional
requirements for particle shape, soundness,
particle strength, water absorption and abrasion
resistance.
The criteria for compaction on the road will
result in average voids from 5 to 6 % in the laid
material before trafficking.
9.3.5

Cement Bound Material

This is used as sub-base in the concrete slab


pavements and as roadbase in flexible
composite pavements. A fairly wide grading
envelope is specified for the material which may
consist of, any or all of, sand, gravel or crushed
rock. This is mixed with cement either in-place
or in an off-road mixer. A modest cube strength
of 7.5 N/mm 2 at 7 days, is specified.
This material has not previously been much
used in Qatar, but is now included for use as
sub-base for concrete slab pavements and it
may also provide a cheaper roadbase. Limits
on grading, cleanliness and durability are given
in QCS. For both sub-base or roadbase use,
this material must be compacted to 95% of
MDD (4.5 kg rammer).
9.3.6

Wearing Course

A standard surfacing of MD4 asphalt concrete,


laid as a 40mm course, is used on all flexible
and flexible-composite designs. The nominal
maximum aggregate size is 14mm and the mix
proportions are determined in a similar manner
to the asphalt concrete road base, but with the
following difference.
Imported gabbro
aggregate must be used for the coarse fraction,
to provide adequate skid resistance and
resistance to polishing. This last requirement
raises the cost of the material considerably, and
justifies the thickness of only 40mm.

January 1997

9.3.7 Concrete for Rigid Pavements


Rigid construction is included for use in local
areas with a high risk of rutting. It may be
adopted more widely in the future. Concrete
slab pavements require high quality concrete,
sometimes termed pavement quality concrete
(PQC), with a 28 day cube strength of 40N/mm 2
High quality mix constituents, good quality
control and thorough curing are necessary to
ensure that the required standard is achieved.
In order to reduce the risk of cracking due to
imperfect curing or joint construction, reinforced
jointed slab construction has been adopted.
LongitUdinal reinforcement to BS 4483 is
required at the rate of 600mm 2/m width. The
reinforcement also reduces the slab thickness
compared to an un-reinforced slab and reduces
the number of transverse joints.
The
reinforcement is placed with 50 to 60mm of
cover below the slab surface and maintaining a
minimum cover of 30mm below any longitudinal
joint sealing groove. Longitudinal joints must be
provided to limit slab widths to less than 5.Om
for limestone aggregate. Most other aggregates
with higher coefficients of expansion must be
limited to 4.0m. Transverse expansion and
contraction joints must be installed alternately at
15m intervals and proper transitions provided
between sections of concrete and asphalt
construction. Details of these features, derived
from the UK Highway Construction Details
(DoT, 1991), are provided in the QCS.
9.3.8

Precast Paving Blocks

These are manufactured from Portland Cement


concrete in two thicknesses, 60 and 80mm.
The thickness to be used depends on the level
of traffic. The average compressive strength
must be not less than 40 N/mm 2 and individual
blocks not less than 35 N/mm 2
Other
requirements, including preferred shapes and
dimensional tolerances are given in QCS.
The paving blocks are laid on a compacted
course of sand, normally in simple herring-bone
bond. The laying course sand may be either
natural sand or crushed rock fines, complying
with the grading envelope in Table 9.3. The
sand is laid so that after compaction it forms a
layer 30mm thick. After placement, the blocks
are compacted using a Vibrating plate
compactor and finally, sand is vibrated into the
joints.
Page 9/7

SECTION 9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


% by mass passino

Nominal
sieve size

Laying Course

(mm)

Jointing Sand

Sand

10

100

100

90-100

100

2.36

75-100

95-100

1.18

55-90

90-100

0.6

35-70

55-100

0.3

8-35

15-50

0.15

0-10

0-15

0.075

0-3

0-3

These pavements do not satisfy conventional


analytical strain criteria but have performed
satisfactorily in other areas of high
temperatures. The designs in Figure 9.3 are
based on those in Figure 9.2, but with some of
the asphalt concrete thickness replaced by
twice this thickness of granular roadbase. This
is in accordance with the structural number
concept of the AASHTO design method (1993)
in which the reduction in thickness of one layer
is compensated by increasing another, in
proportion to the material coefficients. In this
instance the granular layer (CBR 60%) has a
coefficient of 0.13 whilst the asphalt (stiffness
1.0 GPa) has one of 0.26.
9.4.4

Table 9.3 - Sand Gradings for Block Paving


Full details of the laying procedure are given in
the QCS, based on BS 6717, Part 3.
9.4

DESIGN CHARTS

9.4.1

General

The designs for the various types of


construction are presented as a series of charts,
Figures 9.2 to 9.6. Knowing the subgrade class
(refer Clause 9.3.2) and the traffic class (refer
Clauses 9.2.6 and 9.2.7) the thicknesses of the
layers can be easily read for each pavement
type. Not all types of pavement are considered
appropriate for every traffic class.
Pavement construction should be constant
across all running lanes as the savings to be
made by reducing the roadbase thickness are
not great. In rural situations, where the hard
shoulder/edge strip is not expected to have
heavy usage, its pavement thickness may be
reduced. In urban areas, where parking is
expected, a reduction of the pavement
construction for the hard shoulder is not
recommended.
The
design
requirements
for staged
construction is dealt with in Clause 9.5.
9.4.2

Asphalt Concrete Roadbase


(Figure 9.2)

This type of construction will suit all classes of


traffic and is similar to past pavement practice in
Qatar.
The basis of these designs are
discussed in the Annex to this section.
9.4.3

Asphalt and Granular Roadbase


(Figure 9.3)

This type of construction is restricted to roads


expected to carry no more than 5 million
standard axles and with only a small proportion
of heavily loaded vehicles.
January 1997

Flexible-Composite
(Figure 9.4)

Roadbase

This type of pavement has not previously been


used to any great extent in Qatar although it is
very common and successful In some
countries. The cement bound layer will crack
transversely soon after construction through a
combination of drying shrinkage and thermal
gradient warping. The successful performance
of this type of pavement depends on the
shrinkage of the cement bound roadbase being
small and the asphalt roadbase being tolerant
of the cracked roadbase. The low strength of
7.5 N/mm2 and the use of limestone, with a low
coefficient of thermai expansion, should result
in narrow roadbase cracks.
The high
temperatures are likely to assist the asphalt
surfacing in resisting the development of
reflection cracks.
Thick asphalt surfacing will reduce the
development of cracking by insulating the
cement bound layer and reducing the
temperature gradient and warping stresses.
The material thicknesses shown in Figure 9.4
are based on UK practice. However, it is
probable that the asphalt surfacing thickness
could be reduced in future designs, after some
experience of satisfactory performance is
obtained.
9.4.5

Reinforced Jointed Concrete Slabs


(Figure 9.5)

Rutting of conventional asphalt pavements at


the approaches to junctions or at roundabouts
is a significant problem in Qatar. It results from
the high ambient temperatures, inherent
properties of the asphalt concrete and high axle
loads. Although it may be possible to reduce
deformation by mix re-design, or by the use of
bitumen modifiers, there will be uncertainty
over performance and the increased stiffness
may could cause other problems in later life.
Page 9/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 9

Concrete slab pavements at these problem


locations will provide guaranteed, rut-free
performance. Concrete pavements require
considerable attention to mix quality, placement,
joints and curing to be successful. Jointed
reinforced concrete slab construction has been
selected in preference to un-reinforced slabs as
the reinforcement will provide more tolerance to
any workmanship deficiencies and wiil also
reduce the slab thickness and number of joints.
The designs shown are based on UK practice
(DoT, 1994) which is based on the work of
Mayhew and Harding (1987). The concrete slab
(40 N/mm', 28 day cube strength) rests on a
cement bound sub-base (7.5 N/mm', 7 day
minimum cube strength). This is to ensure that
there is a robust surface on which to erect side
forms and joint assemblies, and that pumping of
sub-base or subgrade fines through joints is
minimised. Joint details and reinforcement
around openings shail be as shown in the UK
Highway Construction Details, Series C (DoT,
1993) or as specified by the CEO.
The UK un-reinforced slab designs agree
closely with USA practice (Portland Cement
Association, 1984). It has not been possible to
directly verify the reinforced slab designs as the
Portland Cement Association manual does not
cover this type.
If properly constructed, concrete pavements
should last longer than asphait pavements and
';e cheaper to maintain because they should not
require resurfacing or re-texturing for at least 30
years. However the joints wiil probably require
periodic resealing at 15 year intervals.
9.4.6

Precast Block Paving (Figure 9.6)

Block paving may be used for the construction


of car parks or parking bays, median strips and
verges, laybys and access roads. Selection of
the appropriate design will be on the basis of
both total traffic and the incidence of heavy
vehicles. Granular roadbase has been selected
as this will be a more practical material than
asphalt for working in smail areas, which wiil
often be the case with this type of roadwork. In
addition, any fuel or oil spillage wiil not affect the
structural layers.
The designs are based on German practice
(Roads and Traffic Research Association, 1986)
and are only suitable for the stated levels and
types of traffic. Where block paving is required
for locations with substantial numbers of heavy
vehicles, such as ports or industrial areas, other
designs such as those of the British Ports
Association (1994) should be used.
The
proposed designs for such situations should be
discussed with CEO.
January 1997

Page 9/9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 9

Traffic Classes

T1

T2

T3

T4

Standard Axles
(millions)

<1

1-2

2-5

5-10

T5

T6

10~20

20-50

40

Subgrade

S1

Class

250

CBR,
greater than
15%

200

and lass than


25%

300+

40

Subgrade
Crass
52

250

CBR,
greater than

25%
and les8 than
50%

300+

".< .
.. " .'"..

...

300+

300+

.......
.
-

300+

150

...... 300+
40

Subgrade
Class

.... ;.:.
.' .

83

250
CBR,
greater than
50%
300+

.-............. 300+
..

100
300+

.. -w

Layer definitions

Notes
1. Standard Axles are 80 kN.

Wearing Course (Asphalt Concrete MD4)


2. All thicknesses in milllmetres.
Roadbase (Asphalt Concrete MD1)

3. These diagrams afe expected to have the widest


application and are similisr to the past practice.

Sub-base (Granular Material)


Subgrade (CBR at 95% of MOD
(BS 1377, 4.5Kg rammer, soaked

Figure 9.2

January 1997

4. Roadbasa thicknesses greater than 130mm


should be laid in two courses.

Asphalt Concrete Roadbase Designs

Page 9/10

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Traffic Classes

Standard Axles
(millions) ,

Subgrade
Class

S1

SECTION 9

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

<1

1-2

2-5

5-10

10-20

20-50

Not
Considered
Suitable

Not
Considered
Suitable

Not
Considered
Suitable

40
90

Not
Considered
Suitable

150

CBR,
greater than
15%
and less than
25%

200

300+

40
90

Subgrade

Class

82

CBR,
greater than

150

25%

150

and less than


50%

300+

40
90

Subgrade

Class

83

100

CBR,
greater than

120

50%

., ..
'",
. 300+
., .
'."

300+

. ' ".
,

' '.

Layer definitions

Notes
1. Standard Axles are 80 kN.

Wearing Course (Asphalt Concrete MD4)


2. All thicknesses in millimetres,
Upper Roadbase (Asphalt Concrete MD1)
Lower Roadbase (Granular Base Material)

...........

Figure 9.3

January 1997

3. These designs are only to be used when the


proportion of goods vehicles, with equivalent
standard axles of 12 or more, does not exceed
5% of all vehicles.

Sub-base (Granular Material)


Subgrade (CBR at 95% of MOD
(BS 1377, 4.5Kg rammer, soaked))

Asphalt and Granular Roadbase Designs

Page 9/11

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 9

Traffic Classes

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Standard Axles
(millions)

<1

1-2

2-5

5-10

10-20

20-50

Subgrade
Class
81

Not
Economic

Not
Economic

Not
Economic

40
150

Not

Economic

CBR,

270

greater than
15%
and less than
25%

200
300+

Subgrade
Class
52

40
150

CBR,

270

greater than
25%
and less than
50%

"',."
<0

: .. :" 300+

.. ...
~

......

.. '."

40
150

Subgrade

Class

100

,," ~.
.""" 300+

83

CBR,
greater than
50%

270

300+

Layer definitions
Wearing Course (Asphalt Concrete MD4)

Noles
1. Standard Axles are 80 kN.
2. All thicknesses in millimetres.

Upper RoadbasB (Asphalt Concrete MD1)


Lower Roadbase (Cement-bound Material
cube strength of 7.5 N/mm 2 at 7 days)
Sub-base (Granular Material)
SUbgrade (CBR at 95% of MDD
(BS 1377, 4.5Kg rammer,soaked

Figure 9.4

January 1997

3. The asphalt concrete inhibits the


development of reflection cracking.
4. A low strength Cement-Bound
Malerial has been selected to
minimise reflection cracking.
5. The cost of this form of construction
is similiar to Asphalt Concrete
Roadbase, but could vary depending
on local circumstances.

Flexible-Composite Roadbase Designs

Page 9/12

SECTION 9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Traffic Classes

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Standard Axles
(millions)

<1

1-2

2-5

5-10

10-20

20-50

SUbgrade
Class

Not
S1

Economic

Not
Economic

200

CBR,
greater than

150

15%
and less than

25%

300+

Subgrade
Class
82

Same

Same

Same

Same

as 81

as 81

as 81

as 81

Same
as 81

Same

Same

Same

as 81

as 81

as 81

CBR,
greater than 25%
and less than
50%

Subgrade
Class
83
CBR,
greater than

50%

Notes

Layer definitions

1. Standard Axles are 80 kN.


Concrete Slab (40 N/mm~ cube strength at 28 days

mm 2/m

with 600
to BS 4463)

of longitudinal reinforcement 2. All thicknesses in millimetres.

Cement-bound Sub-base
(7.5 N/mm 2 cube strength at 7 days)
Subgrade (CBR at 95% of MDD
(BS 1377, 4.5Kg rammer, soaked

3. Transverse joint spacing shall be not greater


than 15m.
4. These pavement designs are intended for use
at junctions or other areas with a high risk
of rutting.
5. The design given for Class T3/S1 provides the
minimum construction thicknesses to be used.

Figure 9.5

January 1997

Reinforced, Jointed Concrete Slab Designs

Page 9/13

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Traffic Classes

Standard Axles

(millions

SECTION 9

TO

T1

<0.5

0.5 -1
80
30

Subgrade

Class

81

200

CBR,
greater than

15%

200

and less than


25%

300+

80
30

Subgrade
Class

82

CBR,

200

greater than 25%


and less than
50%

150

300+

SUbgrade
Class
83

80
30

CBR,

200

greater than
50%

300+

.'O..."

100

w._

~.: ~ 300+

..
w"

Layer definitions

Notes
1. Standard Axles are 80 kN.

Precast blocks (60 or BOmm)


30mm sand laying course
Roadbase (Granular Material)
Sub-base (Granular Material)
Subgrade (CBR at 95% of MDD
(BS 1377, 4.5Kg rammer, soaked))

Figure 9.6

January 1997

2. All thicknesses in miIHmetres.


3. TO Traffic Class includes residential roads and
parking areas with minimal heavy vehicles.
4. T1 Traffic Class includes laybys, dual
carriageway median strips and areas
with appreciable heavy vehicles.

Precast Block Paving Designs

Page 9/14

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 9

9.5

SPECIAL PAVEMENT SECTIONS

9.5.1

Staged Construction (Single Layer


Construction)

Sometimes it is appropriate not to construct the


full pavement thickness at one time for one of
the following reasons:
..

A road may initially be required to carry


only limited traffic.
After the
completion of related development
(other roads or industrial or residential
projects) traffic volumes will increase
A new road may carry construction
traffic in the first few years of its life
and thereafter normal traffic. The
application of the wearing course could
be delayed until after the construction
traffic has ceased to avoid rutting of
the final surfacing

..

An anticipated change to traffic flow


patterns may require extensive
changes to road markings.

Assessments should be made in each case of


the traffic over the whole design life and in the
initial period. The sub-base would be designed
for the whole life but roadbase and surfacing
would be matched to the initial level of traffic.
The balance of the asphalt would be added in
due course.
However, other
considered:

..
..
..

factors

must

also

be

Any ironware in the carriageway will


have to be lifted when the overlay is
applied
Kerbing, if present, must either be
installed high or also raised when the
overlay is applied
Depending on the status of the road,
the initial top course of asphalt may
have to be a conventional wearing
course containing gabbro aggregate.
This will involve extra cost to provide
two, rather than one, asphalt courses
with superior aggregate
Sufficient overbridge headroom must
be provided to allow for the overlay
thickness
The approaches to underbridges
should be constructed to full thickness
to avoid either overlaying the structure
or full depth reconstruction of the
approaches.

January 1997

Pavements for temporary roads can often be


constructed to
lower standards than
conventional pavements because performance
expectations will be lower (deeper ruts or more
cracking will be tolerable).
However, the
following should also be considered:

.
.
.

Design
period
unpredictable
Design traffic
unpredictable

may
may also

be
be

very
very

Savings may not be very substantial.

9.6

PAVEMENT EVALUATION

9.6.1

Introduction

As the road network reaches maturity, there will


be fewer new roads to design but more existing
pavements to rehabilitate.
Increasingly
pavement engineers will be required to evaluate
existing pavements and devise appropriate
resurfacing or strengthening measures.
Pavements deteriorate in different ways and at
different rates depending on traffic, pavement
thickness, material quality, drainage etc. The
visible deterioration does not always give a
reliable indication of the underlying cause(s)
and some investigation is needed. A fourstage, highway pavement evaluation procedure
is outlined below:

1.

Routine Monitoring

2.

Detailed Survey

3.

Detailed
Investigation
(Planning,
Execution and Interpretation)

4.

Interpretation and Remedial Works


Design.

9.6.2

Routine Monitoring

The objective of routine monitoring is to identify


those parts of the road network which are
showing signs of surface or structural
deterioration and require further investigation
and possible maintenance. Routine monitoring
of most of the network should be carried out at
intervals of 2 to 4 years, depending on the age,
condition and importance of the road, and the
traffic usage. The monitoring will be by visual
surveys with written records of the condition
supplemented by photographs or video tapes.
Some indicative rut measurements should be
made. In rural areas the survey will normally be
carried out during a slow (20 kph) drive-through,
with occasional examinations on foot at
junctions, structures or any locations with
serious defects. In urban areas the surveys will
Page 9/15

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


be carried out mainly on foot, from the verges
or footways.
The results of all Routine
Monitoring should be stored in the Pavement
Management
System
(PMS)
being
implemented by the CED in 1996.
9.6.3

Detailed Survey

Where any significant pavement deterioration


is discovered, a Detailed Survey should be
carried out over the affected length and
adjacent area. The objectives of this survey
are to obtain a good description of the
deterioration (type, degree and extent) and an
indication of the likely causes. The survey will
consist of a more detailed visual survey carried
out on foot, including rut measurements. Nondestructive testing of these pavement lengths,
using either Benkelman Beams or a Falling
Weight Deflectometer (FWD), may also be
useful at this stage. Deflections can be used to
check if there is any change in pavement
stiffness between a sound and deteriorated
section and should assist in deciding whether
the deterioration is confined to surface layers or
affects the whole pavement structure. The
FWD will give more detailed structural
information as it measures the deflections bowl
of the pavement in response to a dynamic load.
Using appropriate software, it is possible to
back-calculate the stiffnesses of the pavement
layers, provided that the thicknesses of these
are known. In order to produce consistent
measurements and layer stiffnesses, the
recommendations given in the FEHRL (1996)
publication should be followed. The stiffness of
asphalt layers are strongly influenced by
temperature and the results of all deflection
measurement must be corrected to a standard
temperature. To do this, temperatures in the
asphalt layers must be measured at the time of
test.
Where the deterioration is considered serious
or is worsening, strengthening or resurfacing
work will be necessary. However, a Detailed
Investigation will be required to provide further
information to decide precisely what work is
necessary. If the pavement condition is not too
serious, it may be appropriate to merely repeat
the Detailed Survey after, say, one year.
9.6.4

Detailed Investigation

The objective of the Detailed Investigation is to


explain the pavement deterioration, including
the identification of the layer(s) responsible for
the deterioration and thus provide information
to enable any strengthening to be economically
designed. It will normally involve coring and
test-pitting of selected areas of the pavement
together with in situ and laboratory testing of
the pavement layers. If deflection testing has
January 1997

SECTION 9
not already been carried out at the Detailed
Survey stage, it should now be carried out.
The investigation must be properly planned and
effort concentrated at locations to produce data
which will be relevant to explaining the
deterioration. Before planning the investigation,
as much background information as possible,
applicable to the length of interest, should be
assembled:

Original construction details, including


specifications

Local
subgrade
conditions

Maintenance history

The results of any previous pavement


surveys or investigations

Past and current traffic flows and


composition.

and

drainage

Some or all of this information should be


available from the CED Pavement Management
System. If there are major omissions in this
information, then the Detailed Investigation may
need to be expanded to include tralfic counts
and additional cores or test pits. Where
thicknesses are unknown, ground penetrating
radar may be of assistance but this technique
needs careful calibration against known
thicknesses for each type of pavement being
surveyed.
The standard investigation strategy is to
compare deteriorated and sound section$ of
pavement (20 to 100m in length) carrying
similar traffic and of similar construction (the
selection of such sections, itself, can sometimes
indicate a possible cause of deterioration).
Appropriately sited cores and/or test pits should
reveal any differences in material qualities or
thicknesses which may explain the different
performance. Depending on the variation of
traffic and construction within the length of
interest, a number of pairs of comparison
sections may be necessary. Where available,
deflection and FWD data may be used to select
pairs of sections with high and low deflections.
However, adequate explanations for the
different stiffnesses are not always found. The
majority of cores or pits should be in the
deteriorated sections, sited right on the
deterioration (cracks, ruts etc) to determine
exactly which layers are affected. In the case of
cracking, it is important to know the depth of
crack propagation and for rutting, whether or not
this is present in both the asphalt and
underlying granular layers. To determine which
layers are contributing to a rut, or other
Page 9/16

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 9

deformation. will require a set of three or more


cores. straddling the rut.

9.6.5

The foilowing points should be considered


when planning and executing the investigation:

The interpretation of the data from the


investigation must address the following issues:

..

What is the nature. extent and degree


of the deterioration?

..

Is only the surfacing or the whole


pavement affected?

..

What has caused it?

..

What remedial treatment is needed?

..

The cores and test pits are


fundamentai to the whole investigation
and should ail be carefuily examined
and logged by a competent materials
or pavement engineer. The core log
sheets should include a photograph
with a scale. fuil details of asphait
thickness and condition. including
texture. segregation. voids. iayer
bonding. width and depth of cracks.
stripping. soft or otherwise deleterious
aggregate. bleeding and any other
peculiarities
Granular layers (sub-base and
subgrade) can be rapidly and cheaply
assessed by in situ testing using either
a hand operated Dynamic Cone
Penetrometer (DCP) (Kleyn and
Savage. 1982)(Jones and Rolt. 1991)
or a portable dynamic plate bearing
tester (PDPBT) (Roads and Traffic
Research Association. 1992). The
DCP test can be carried out through a
core hole but the PDPBT will require a
test pit to expose an area of 0.5 by
0.5m.
Static plate bearing tests or in situ
California Bearing Ratio tests could
also be carried out in place of the DCP
or PDPBT but are slower. more costly
and technically no better than these
hand methods
Decisions on the number and type of
laboratory tests should be made after
the assessment of the field data.
Samples of suspect foundation
material should be obtained during the
excavation of the test pits. but not
necessarily tested. Decisions on what
laboratory tests should be carried out
would be made after the field data has
been reviewed
Density testing of sub-base or
subgrade layers wiil be helpful where
the strength of these layers is
unexpectedly low and low compaction
is suspected to be the cause. A
maximum
dry
density
value
(determined in the laboratory) wiil also
be necessary to determine relative
compaction.

January 1997

Interpretation
and
Remedial Works

Design

of

Provided that the Detailed Survey has been


thorough and the Detailed Investigation has
been properly planned. the first two issues
should be answered by a proper presentation of
the survey/investigation data.
Answers on the causes could be very obvious
such as an under-designed pavement. poor
quality asphalt containing segregated aggregate
and voids. or soft and friable sub-base. In other
cases the causes may be more subtle requiring
detailed laboratory testing to identify.
In
practice. interpretation should commence with
the completion of the Detailed Survey and
continue during the planning and execution of
the Detailed Investigation to ensure that
relevant and sufficient data is obtained to
answer the main questions.
Successful
interpretation leading to robust conclusions
depends strongly on having carried out the right
field work. sampling and testing in the first
place.
In addition to evaluating the existing pavement.
the future design traffic must be estimated
before deciding what thickness of overlay will be
required. The methods described in Clause 9.2
for new roads are appropriate. Normally.
pavement strengthening should be designed for
a 20 year life. subject to the comments made in
Clause 9.2.2.
A possible method of determining overlay
thicknesses is to compare the existing
pavement thickness with that required to carry
the total of past and future traffic (AASHTO
1993). The overlay will provide the difference in
thickness between the existing pavement.
Allowance should be made for any difference in
quality of existing material and the current QCS.
due either to deterioration or a lower original
specification. Defective or deteriorated wea(ng
course should be replaced before overlaying.
Roadbases with moderate deficiencies could be
retained but with a reduced allowance of
thickness.
Page 9/17

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

In cases where reconstruction is proposed, this


should be designed in accordance with the
requirements of the rest of this section.
Granular sub-base is not subject to fatigue and,
provided that it complies with the current
specification, is unlikely to require replacement.

9.7

SECTION 9

PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION (1984).


Thickness design for concrete highway and
street pavements. Skokie, Illinois, USA.
ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY (1970). A
guide to the structural design of pavements for
new roads. Road Note 29. HMSO, London.

REFERENCES

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE


HIGHWAY
AND
TRANSPORTATION
OFFICIALS (1993). AASHTO Guide for design
of pavement structures. Washington, DC.
BRITISH PORTS ASSOCIATION (1994). The
structural design of heavy duty pavements for
ports and other industries, 2nd edition. London.
CRONEY D and P CRONEY (1991). The
design and performance of road pavements,
2nd edition. McGraw Hill International,
Maidenhead, UK.

ROADS
AND
TRAFFIC
RESEARCH
ASSOCIATION
(1992).
Technical
test
specification for soil and rock in road bUilding,
Part B 8.3, Dynamic plate-load test using the
light falling-weight device. (In German.)
Cologne.
TRANSPORT and
ROAD
RESEARCH
LABORATORY (1990). A users manual for a
program to analyse dynamic cone penetrometer
data. TRRL Overseas Road Note 8.
Crowthorne: Transport and Road Research
Laboratory.

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT (1991).


Manual of contract documents for highway
works, Volume 3, Highway construction details,
HMSO, London.
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT (1994).
Design manual for roads and bridges, Volume
7, Pavement design and maintenance, HMSO,
London.
FEHRL - FORUM OF EUROPEAN NATIONAL
HIGHWAY RESEARCH LABORATORIES
(1996). Harmonisation of the use of the falling
weight deflectometer on pavements, Part 1.
FEHRL Report No. 1996/1. Crowthorne:
Transport and Road Research Laboratory.
JONES CR and J ROLT (1991). Operating
instructions for the TRL dynamic cone
penetrometer (2nd edition). TRL Overseas
Centre
Information
Note.
Crowthorne:
Transport Research Laboratory.
KLEYN, EG and PF SAVAGE (1982). The
application of the pavement DCP to determine
the bearing properties and performance of road
pavements. Proceedings of the International
Symposium on Bearing Capacity of Roads and
Airfields. Trondheim.
MAYHEW, HC and HM HARDING (1987).
Thickness design of concrete roads. Research
report 87. Crowthorne: Transport and Road
Research Laboratory.
MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS of the
KINGDOM of SAUDIA ARABIA (1990).
Highway Design Manual. Riyadh.
January 1997

Page 9/18

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


ANNEX9A

9A.1

BASIS OF THE DESIGN


METHOD FOR ASPHALT
ROADBASE

Although the analytical method is technically


attractive, there are considerable practical
difficulties:

methods are sometimes used to extend the


empirical results to wider ranges of traffic or
layer thicknesses, or to slightly different
pavement types.

DESIGN METHODS

Analytical and empirical methods can both be


used to determine the thicknesses of pavement
iayers to carry a specified amount of traffic. In
the first, the materials to be used in the
pavement are characterised by their stiffnesses
and fatigue laws, ie. the relationship between
strain and the number of load cycies to produce
failure. The pavement is then proportioned so
that strains at critical depths, due to standard
wheel loads, do not exceed permissible values
for the required number of load repetitions (the
horizontal strain at the base of the roadbase
and the vertical strain at the top of the
subgrade are normally considered to be the
critical criteria). The design documents
produced from analytical methods may consist
of either a detailed calculation procedure or an
easily read "catalogue" of diagrams or graphs
relating layer thicknesses to traffic and layer
properties.

SECTION 9

Determining stiffness values is


complicated. Asphalt stiffness varies
with temperature, rate of loading and
age of the bitumen. For unbound
materials, the stiffness varies with
moisture, stress history and confining
stress
There is no standardisation of fatigue
measurement and a wide variety of
tests are in use, hardly any of which
are compatible (Tangella et ai, 1990).
Consequently, each analytical design
method has its own load cycles/strain
relationship based on a specific fatigue
test method
The field evidence of fatigue failure, in
the manner assumed in the analytical
method, is not conclusive.

In the empirical method, the performance of


trial pavements is monitored to determine the
amount of traffic which can be carried before
the condition is considered unacceptable.
Sometimes the traffic is accelerated by
continually trafficking by heavy vehicles, as in
the AASHTO Road Trial, or occurs normally, as
in the trials carried out in the UK on public
roads. The latter method is the more reliable,
however, the trial results are only strictly
applicable to the trial conditions. Analytical
January 1997

The design documents produced from empirical


performance studies are usually in "catalogue"
format with the exception of the AASHTO
method In which traffic, pavement thickness and
material quality are related by an empirical
equation.
In practice, design by either method is often
checked to some degree by the other.
9A.2

DESIGN STRATEGY

Conditions in Qatar differ from the temperate


environments, where both the analytical and
empirical methods have been most practised,
and need to be reflected in any design for local
use:

Qatar has a much hotter climate which


will greatly affect the stiffness of any
asphalt and will affect bitumen ageing

Subgrade strengths are generally high


due to the prevalent limestone and
sand, and many roads are constructed
on low embankments of good fill
material

A significant proportion of heavy


vehicles are overloaded causing
significantly more damage than the
same types of vehicle elsewhere.

The material standards in Qatar are similar to


mainstream practice elsewhere.
'
9A.3

APPLICABLE METHODS

The first stage in determining asphalt roadbase


pavement designs for Qatar was to review
established methods or "catalogues" which
could apply to the hot conditions, either because
they were empirically derived from the
performance of pavements in a hot climate, or
allow the input of low stiffness values. The
methods reviewed are listed in Table 9A.1.
The methods all quantify cumulative traffic on
the basis of equivalent 80kN (or 8 tonne)
standard axles using a 4th power law. The first
three methods do not require specific
temperature or asphalt stiffness input but the
last three do.

Page 9/19

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


No

APpli~~~e

Temp.
Inout

Design Method

No

Tropical and
Countries

A Guide 10 the Structural


Design of Bitumen-Surfaced
Roads in Tropical and SubTropical Countries (TAUOD~':l\
Overseas Road Nole 31, 1993

No

South Alrica

No

Saudia Arabia

V"

USA

V"

International

Va,

Australia

Structural Design of Interurban


and ~~~al Aoad ~:ivements.
TRH4 CSJR, 1985
Highway Design Manual

AASHTO Guide for Design of


Pavement
~he!~iavement Design Manual

1978

The standard stiffness nomographs


(Van der Poel, 1954 and Bonnaure et
ai, 1977) indicate stiffnesses between 1
and 3 GPa for MD1 asphalt roadbase
Back calculation of falling weight
deflectometer data from Qatar indicates
an average roadbase stiffness of over 3
GPa for mature asphalt.
Similar
analysis of data from 18 month old
Malaysian pavements indicates asphalt
roadbase stiffness of 1.5 to 3.5 GPa at
40C.

These are appreciably higher than the values of


only 0.3 to 0.6 GPa indicated in the Shell
method, which are considered to be too low.
Partly as a consequence of these low
stiffnesses, the Shell method indicates much
greater pavement thicknesses compared to all
the other methods except for Saudia Arabia.
The satisfactory performance of roads in hot
environments with much thinner asphalt
roadbases than the Shell designs suggests that
the method is conservative for these conditions.
An asphalt roadbase stiffness of 1.0 GPa has
been used in the AASHTO and Austroads
methods. The South African, AASHTO and
TRL Overseas methods all indicated very
similar thicknesses of 110 to 270mm of asphalt
for 1 to 50 million standard axles. All the others,
in varying degrees, were thicker.

January 1997

The manual
experience

Many Australian pavements are built in


a fairly hot climate

The Austroads manual produces


designs for hot climates which accord
reasonably well with performance.

~avemenl DeSiT,n\
Austroads. 1992

The Shell method, No.5, gives temperature


data for Bahrain which is applicable to Qatar.
The weighted mean monthly air temperature is
given as 28C which results in an effective
pavement temperature of 40C for a 200mm
thickness of asphalt.
Two methods of
determining asphalt stiffnesses at this high
effective pavement temperature have been
considered:

SPECIFIC METHOD FOR QATAR

The second stage in determining asphalt


roadbase thicknesses was to set these slightly
greater than the 110 to 270mm values and then
adjust to ensure that the roadbase and
subgrade strains did not exceed permissible
values. The fatigue laws from the Austroads
manual were used for this because:

Struclure;11993\

Table 9A.1 - Design methods

9A.4

Count

Sub-Tropical

SECTION 9

reflects

more

recent

The fatigue laws are:


Transverse strain at the bottom of the roadbase

J1eh = (6532)/(I"P2)
of 1.0 GPa, and

for asphalt with a stiffness

Vertical strain at the top of the subgrade

Jlf:,= (8511)/([lf14)

( Jlf: = microstrain and


repetitions. )

= number of load

The layer stiffnesses and Poisson's ratios used


to determine the strains are shown in Table
9A.2.
Description

CBR%

Asphalt
Stiffness

Stiffness
(GPa)

Poisson's
Ratio

1.0

0.35

Granular
Sub-base

60

0.200

0.35

Subgrade

50

0.170

0.45

Subgrade

25

0.125

0.45

Subgrade

15

0.100

0.45

Subgrade

10

0.075

0.45

Table 9A.2
(5% voids, 4% of 60170 Pen bitumen at a
temperature of 40C)

(1 GPa = 1 Gigapascal = 1x1 0' N/rrf and 1 MPa


= 1 Megapascal = 1x1 0' N/ni)
The standard approximate relationship for
subgrade stiffness, E (MPa) = 10 x CBR (%),
only applies to low strength material. The above
Page 9/20

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 9

values are based on those determined either


from plate bearing tests or back analysis of
falling weight defiectometer data.
In ali cases, asphalt fatigue was found to 'be the
critical criterion.
9A.5

Capping material of greater strength may be


used. However, in determining the thickness,
higher stiffness values should be used with
great caution as the in situ stiffness is
dependent not just on the quality of the capping
but also on the stiffness of the underlying
material.

WEAK SUBGRADES

In Clause 9.3.2, the minimum subgrade strength


included in the design charts was set at a CBR
of 15% at in situ density which is generally
achievable. However, in the smali number of
cases where the in situ subgrade strength falls
below this, it will be necessary to provide a layer
of stronger material calied "capping" between
the subgrade and the sub-base. The capping
wili normally be either the 15% or 25% CBR
subgrade material used in the standard designs
and wili have the same stiffnesses as above. In
cuts or where the road surface is close to
ground level, some of the subgrade will have to
be removed and replaced with capping. In fili
situations, the upper earthworks layers must be
constructed with the capping material.
A
method of determining the necessary capping
thickness for either case may be based on the
surface stiffness at formation level, ie
immediately below the sub-base.
The minimum strength standard subgrade
(Class S1) consists of at least 0.3m thickness of
CBR 15% material (or stronger) resting on
material with a CBR of at least 10%. A 40kN
single wheel load at formation level wili produce
a surface deflection of 1A9mm. The thickness
of the capping layer required for a weaker
subgrade will be that which produces the same
deflection for the same load. The thickness will
be determined by trial and error using an elastic
layer programme to model the stiffnesses of the
subgrade layers. For the cases of subgrade
CBR values of 7%, 5%, and 3%, the required
thicknesses of CBR 15% capping wili be 0.5,
0.9 and 1.9m. For the weaker subgrades of
CBR 5% and 3% it wili be more effective to use
the stronger CBR 25% capping in thicknesses
of 0.35 and 0.7m respectively. Other capping
thicknesses are possible depending on specific
strengths or stiffnesses, but for practical
reasons the thickness should not be less than
0.2m.
The stiffnesses and Poisson's ratio used in this
analysis are shown in Table 9A.3.
Descriplion

CBR%

Stiffness

Poisson's

(MPa)

Ratio

Capping

25

125

0.45

Capping

15

100

0.45

Subgrade

'A

75

0.45

Subgrade

65

0.45

Subgrade

50

0.45

Subgrade

30

0.45

9A.6

REFERENCES

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE


HIGHWAY
AND
TRANSPORTATION
OFFICIALS (1993). AASHTO Guide for design
of pavement structures. Washington, DC.
AUSTROADS (1992). Pavement design - a
guide to the structural design of road
pavements. Sydney, Australia.
BONNAURE F, G GEST, G GRAVOIS and P
UGE (1977). A new method of predicting the
stiffness
of
asphalt
paving
mixtures.
Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt
Paving Technologists, Vol. 46.
COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL
RESEARCH (CSIR) (1985). Structural design of
interurban and rural road pavements. Technical
recommendations for highways (TRH 4).
Pretoria, South Africa.
SHELL INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM CO.
(1978). Sheli Pavement Design Manual,
London.
TANG ELLA SCSR, J CRAUS, JA DEACON and
CL MONISMITH (1990). Summary report on
fatigue response of asphalt mixtures. Strategic
Highway Research Program, Report f>HRPA/IR-90-011. National Research Council,
Washington, DC, USA.
TRANSPORT and
ROAD
RESEARCH
LABORATORY (1993). A guide to the structural
design of bitumen-surfaced roads in tropical and
sub-tropical countries. Overseas Road Note 31,
fourth edition. Crowthorne: Transport and Road
Research Laboratory.
VAN DER POEL C (1954). A general system
describing the visco-elastic properties of
bitumen and its relation to routine test data.
Journal of Applied Chemistry; VolA.

Table 9A.3
January 1997

Page 9/21

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECllON10
measured in terms of reduction in
personal injuries, fatalities, property
damage, and other costs to society.
More effective usage of the road and
the possible increase in its capacity are
also considered.

SECTION 10 ROADWAY LIGHTING


10.1

INTRODUCTION

10.1.1 Reasons for Lighting


Highway lighting is provided to aid the safe and
orderly movement after dark of all road users,
both vehicular and pedestrian.
For the driver, properly designed lighting will
increase his range of vision, reveal hazards
more effectively, reduce fatigue and particularly
in the case of high-speed roads, increase the
traffic carrying capacity. Pedestrians will be
able to orientate themselves and to detect
vehicular and other hazards. From the police
point of view, crime directed against the person
and property will be discouraged, whilst
surveillance and recognition will be greatly
enhanced, particularly if good colour rendering
is provided.
10.1.2 Justification
In considering whether a road should be lit,
from an engineering point of view, the following
factors should be considered.
..

The nature of the road (eg. motorway


or mixed traffic road) as determined by
its geometry and also by its night traffic
accident rate.

..

The traffic intensity and composition


(eg. fast traffic only or mixed traffic).

..

The danger points and other special


situation, such as junctions, crossings
for cyclists and pedestrians and other
interruptions in driving continuity which
may present drivers with unexpected
situations.

..

.
..

It is particularly important to avoid


sudden changes in the visual field of
the drivers as far as determined by the
lighting and to allow drivers to prepare
themselves well in advance for
manoeuvres which suit the situation to
be met over the next stretch of road.

10.1.3 Scope
This section of the Manual sets out the
performance requirements and standards which
shall be adopted for the design of lighting on all
types of highway in Qatar, except for those
footpaths which are separated from vehicular
routes.
10.1.4 Complementary Standards
This section of the Manual requires the use of
BS 5489 : Road Lighting: Parts 1-10 : 1992.
10.2

PERFORMJl.NCE REQUIREMENTS

10.2.1 Summary of Road Classifications in


Qatar
Individual roads in the State of Qatar each fulfill
certain functions within the overall network. A
hierarchy exists which defines their various
roles and the position of a road within this
hierarchy is a measure of its national
importance. Route classification is discussed at
the front of this manual. Table 10.1 shows the
relationship between the classification used in
this manual and the classification used by
Ministry of Electricity and Water, Street Lighting
Section.
Category

Class 'A'

MOIO/ways

or

Express

Highway Class
(Refer Talile 1)
P1, P2

Roads (eg Doha-Ruwais


Road, Doha - Abu Samra
Road)
Class 'B'

Ring and Radial Roads

P1. P2, S2

Class 'C'

Commercial and Shopping


Sireets

S2, TR1. TR2

Class '01'

Distributor Roads

TR1. TR2

Local Sireets, Residential

TR3, TR4, TR5

Class '02'

Factors such as traffic volume, speed,


road use during the night, night
accident rate, road geometry, and
general night visibility conditions are
important when considering highway
lighting.

Description

Roads or Access Roads

Refer to Table 1.1 for full descnptlons of the Highway


Classification.

Table 10.1

Road Classifications in Qatar


for Roadway Lighting

Justification for lighting is also based


on the economics of lighting as
compared to the cost of not lighting.
Economic returns for lighting are

January 1997

Page 10/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECllON10

10.2.2 Lighting Performance


Recommendations
Minimum designed performance levels for the
various classes of road are given In Table 10.2.
Category
(Class)

Maintained
Average
luminance
LAV cd/m~

Overall

Longitudinal

Me<

Unlformity

Ratio Uo

Uniformity
Ralio Ul

Threshold
Increment
TI%

'A'

2.5

0.4

0.7

10

'B'

2.0

0.4

0.7

10

'C'

2.0

0.4

0.7

20

'01'

1.25

0.4

0.5

20

'D2'

0.75

0.4

0.5

30

Light Pollution
Another effect of lighting is 'sky glow' which
occurs when upward stray light is reflected back
to earth. Although some sky glow from major
conurbations is unavoidable, special care
should be taken when designing road lighting in
areas where little exterior lighting exists, to limit
the amount of upward or stray light. Such areas
should be considered to be environmentally
sensitive at night and special light control
lanterns specified.
As well as hindering
astronomers, many people feel that this form of
light pollution diminishes the aesthetic
properties and value of the dark night scene.
10.3

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

10.3.1 Decisions Prior to Design


Table 10.2

Lighting
Requirements
Traffic Routes

for

For slip roads and shoulders on Class 'A' and


Class 'B' roads, maintained average luminance
values of 2.0 and 1.25 respectively will be
acceptable, but the other parameters should
remain unaltered.
10.2.3 Limitation
Pollution"

of

Glare

and

"Light

Disability Glare
Disability glare, defined and discussed in BS
5489 : Part 1, reduces the contrast between
objects and their background, so that their
visibility is decreased. An object that is just
visible (that is at the threshold of visibility) when
there is no disability glare will, in the presence of
disability glare, merge into the background. The
percentage by which the background luminance
has to be increased to render the object just
visible again is known as the threshold
increment (Tl).
This provides a notional
measure of disability glare from installations.
The value of the Tl depends on the light
.distribution from the luminaire between 70' and
900 in elevation in the vertical plane at which the
luminaire is observed, usually within 10' of
azimuth of the transverse axis of the luminaire.
It also depends on the road luminance, the
layout of the luminaires, the mounting height and
the observer position.
Discomfort Glare
Control of the Tl within the limits recommended
in Table 10.2 will generally ensure that
discomfort glare, defined in BS 5489 : Part 1, will
be adequately controlled.

Arrangement and Mounting Height


Lantern arrangement and mounting height shall
be in accordance with the options set out in BS
5489 : Part 2 within the local geometric,
maintenance and environmental constraints that
apply. Greater mounting heights shall be
considered, particularly for wider carriageways.
Limitation of Glare
The performance requirements of Clause 10.2
shall be met by the selection of lanterns as
described in BS 5489 : Part 2.
In order to limit the glare factor on roads Class
'A' or 'B' where the surrounds are dark, lanterns
must be flat glass type with a distinct cut-off
limiting the visual aspect of the light source to
an angle of 30' from the horizontal. Lanterns
will be mounted at a minimum height of 12
metres from the road surface.
For Class 'C' roads where the surrounds are
mostly bright, the mounting height will be a
minimum 10 metres and either cut-off lanterns
or lanterns having a prismatic controller will be
permitted.
Class '0' roads where the decorative and
aesthetic aspect dominates (e.g. Pole top
lanterns) should use diffusers to eliminate both
discomfort and disability glare. The mounting
height for such lanterns shall be from 3 to 8m.
Overhang
Overhang shall be in accordance with the
options set out in BS 5489 : Part 2. Bracket
projection generally shall be as small as
possible in order to minimise vibration effects
on both the lamp and the column itself.
For aesthetic reasons, the bracket arm is
usually limited to one quarter of the column
height (ie. H/4), as longer arms can give the
impression that the column is top heavy.

January 1997

Page 10/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

SECTION 10
(inciuding service
different levels.

roads)

constructed

at

The Light Source


In order to conserve energy and achieve high
efficiency, Qatar has standardised on high
pressure sodium lamps for Class 'A' and 'B'
roads and high or iow pressure sodium lamps for
Class 'C' roads. Class 'D' roads may be lit with
sodium, high pressure mercury, metal halide or
linear compact fluorescent.

The presence and location of existing road


furniture and service utilities such as power
distribution lines, telecommunications, and
various underground services may impose
certain constraints on the lighting layout.

Maintenance Factor
Maintenance factors, as defined in BS 5489 :
Part 2, shall be taken for designs from Table 4 of
that Standard.

The location and form of major intersections,


median openings and other traffic facilities such
as pedestrian crossings and bus stops must
also be considered.

The necessity for lantern cleaning at more


frequent intervals than lamp changing will be
avoided if a minimum degree of ingress
protection rating of IP65 is specified.

Thus the road lighting designer must be


completely familiar with the section of road to
be lit and equally important, he should have a
good understanding of traffic operations that
occur particularly during night time. It is only
with this knowledge that he can arrange the
lighting layout to best meet the many controls
and demands of individual sites and achieve
the maximum lighting effectiveness at
reasonable cost.

Road Surface
Design tables based on the 'representative
British road surface' as given in Table 3 of BS
5489 : Part 2 may be used.
However a more economical lighting design is
possible if a concrete road surface is to be
provided. If at a later stage the concrete surface
may be overlaid with bituminous material then
the lighting shall be designed for this initially.
Where design calculations are carried out by
computer, a range of characteristic road surface
reflection tables may be input from Publication
CIE No. 30-2 : Calculation and Measurement of
Luminance and Illuminance in Road Lighting.
Most proprietary lighting calculation programs
will contain data files for one or more of these
standard road surfaces.
10.3.2 Standard Lighting Geometries for
. Different Road Profiles
Road authorities are primarily concerned with
road lighting for its accident reducing potential.
However, these benefits can be seriously
diminished if insufficient attention is given to
reducing the hazard created by lighting poles
near the roadway.
Whilst the development and application of
geometric standards for roads and streets has
reduced the variation in roadway layout for
various classes of roads, the road lighting
designer is nevertheiess confronted with a large
number of road layout features and conditions
which will influence the lighting design.
Divided or Dual Carriageway Roads
This type of roadway layout is most common for
high volume urban and rural arterial roads.
Such roads may involve cross sections with
service roads on one or both sides of the main
carriageways, a great range of median and outer
separator widths and often with carriageways
January 1997

The general lighting arrangement will of course


be dependant on the roadway width, luminaires
available and the desired mounting height in
accordance with the design rules and
procedures as set out in BS 5489 : Parts 2 and
10. However, a choice of several layouts will
usually be available to the designer.
On dual carriageway roads any of the following
arrangements of luminaires
may be
appropriate:
a)

Single Sided Arrangement.

Single sided arrangement on each carriageway


with luminaires mounted on the right hand side.
In some cases the mounting height possible
even with special brackets will be inadequate
for the width of carriageway and an alternative
arrangement will be required.
b)

Opposite Arrangement.

On dual carriageway roads, an opposite


arrangement involving poles mounted along the
right (footpath) side of each carriageway may
be appropriate where the carriageways are not
too wide and the median is narrow.
c)

Twin Central.

This arrangement provides the designer with


the greatest flexibility in locating luminaires but
requires the minimum median width to be at
least 1.8m and preferably wider. The choice of
mounting height is flexible, as clearances to
overhead distribution lines will generally not be
a problem.

Page 10/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


This layout can be considered the most suitabie
for dual carriageway arterial roads, particulariy
those with carriageway widths greater than 10m,
because of the following advantages:
..

The number of poles can be minimised


by selecting the highest practical
mounting height.

..

The installation cost is often lower than


other layouts because of less
underground cabling and oniy one row
of poles.

..

This layout provides excellent route


guidance.

..

It is often feasible to install guard fences


at hazardous locations where vehicle
collisions with poles become a problem.

Undivided Roads
Undivided roads form the major length of urban
traffic routes. They are usually bordered by
relatively narrow verges and footpaths which
may contain overhead power distribution lines.
On these roads the designer is often confronted
with constraints such as clearance of power
distribution lines, location of underground
services, location of driveways and commercial
entrances and often the presence of trees etc.
which will make an optimum layout difficult to
achieve.
In general, single sided arrangements will rarely
be practical and depending on the width to be lit
and mounting height available, a staggered or
opposite arrangement must be selected.
On wide undivided roads (and sometimes on
dual carriageway roads) there is a tendency by
lighting designers to locate the luminaires well
out over the carriageway, in an attempt to
achieve a single sided arrangement.
Such
layouts are generally unsatisfactory because of
.the 'flash' produced as vehicles pass directly
under the luminaires and more importantly, the
verge and footpath area is often poorly lit as a
result of the overhang exceeding H/4, refer to
Clause 10.3.1 Overhang.
Curves
BS 5489 : Part 2 sets out the requirements for
spacing luminaires around curves. This usually
calls for the luminaires to be located on the
outside edge of the curve which is in conflict with
normal road safety requirements to avoid
locating obstructions at such locations.
It is suggested that unless the curve is quite
sharp (which would be unusual on a traffic route
of reasonable standard) the designer should

January 1997

SECTION 10
forgo the use of the sighting gauge and simply
close up the spacing slightly to raise the
general ambient light level to compensate.
It should be remembered that true silhouette
vision against the road pavement as
background will generally not be achieved on
curves and drivers will be seeing by either
direct vision or by silhouette vision against
fences, buildings and trees, etc. along the
verges.
Crests
The designer will generally follow normal 'evengrade' procedures when crests are encountered
on the section of road to be lit. However, if the
crest is relatively sharp, as might exist where
the
road
overpasses
another
road,
consideration should be given to the use of cutoff rather than semi-cut-off luminaires. Often
this should involve only one or two luminaires at
the top of the crest.
10.3.3 Lighting Columns as Hazards
Road accidents involving fixed objects beside
the roadway are a considerable concern to
everyone involved with roads and traffic.
Table 1 of BS 5489 : Part 1 recommends
minimum clearances between columns and
edge of carriageway for a range of design
speeds.
10.3.4 Typical
Lighting
Junctions

Layouts

at

Junctions are particularly important elements of


the road system both from the point of view of
efficient traffiC operation and of road safety.
The latter is evidenced by the fact that at least
60% of casualty accidents in urban areas occur
at these locations.
It is especially important, therefore, that the
lighting standard at junctions be at least as
good and preferabiy somewhat better than that
on the intersecting roads. In addition, the
importance of minimising the number of poles
and/or locating them clear of vulnerable areas
cannot be overstressed.
BS 5489
Part 3 makes specific
recommendations in respect to the positioning
of key luminaires at simple intersections and
the engineer should conform with these
requirements as far as practical.
The large variety of channelization layouts,
each designed to meet the specific site and
traffic conditions at any particular location,
makes it difficult to set down standard luminaire
arrangements. However, some rules relating to

Page 10/4

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

luminaire arrangement can be formulated to


guide the lighting designer in the achievement of
good design practice:
..

At the outset,
the engineer must
recognise that seeing by silhouette
vision is unlikely to occur at junctions
and as a result, the layout should aim at
illuminating the conflict area and the
objects in and around it, such as
pedestrians, cars, kerbed islands,
pavement markings and signs etc. so
that they are seen by direct vision

SEC110N10

..

At roundabouts in the small approach


splitter islands, on the central island
opposite entry roadways and on the
right
hand
side
immediately
downstream of an entry point to a
roundabout.

Figures 10.1 to 10.6 show typical lighting


layouts recommended for standard junction
designs in Qatar.
i
I

The level of illumination and its


uniformity should be such that the layout
of the islands and the various
carriageways and turning roadways are
by
drivers
clearly
discernable
approaching on the intersecting roads
and negotiating the required movements
within the junction
Luminaires must be placed to provide
the best possible illumination of
pedestrian crossing areas

I
B

The luminaire layout as seen in


perspective should not confuse but
enhance the route of through traffic. A
good layout will provide route guidance
to lead traffic through the junction

..

Care should be taken to ensure that


points where traffic streams merge and
diverge are well lit

..

The number of lighting poles near the


conflict area should be minimised.
Where traffic signals are installed or
being installed, joint sharing of the
pedestals should be achieved wherever
possible.
Where large channelizing
islands exist, consideration should be
given to the use of high mast flood
lighting techniques to reduce the
number of poles around the junction.

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

A:
"-

Appr.
1/2 s

,
I-~
Appr.

1/2 5

Note: S = design column spacing on the main road.

Figure 10.1
..

1/3 S

Typical Layout for T-Junction

It is very important to avoid locating poles:

..

Close to the approach ends of narrow


residual medians and median islands

..

In the nose area of islands where traffic


streams diverge

..

In areas where the poles might obstruct


the sight lines of drivers waiting to enter
or cross another traffic stream

..

In the vulnerable areas along the


outside of curved slip roads

January 1997

Page 10/5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


10.5.6 Safety Standards
Engineer's Responsibilities
In order to promote safe working practices for
both construction and maintenance, the design
engineer shall carry out Risk Assessments for
any activities which may endanger personnel or
property, including the following where relevant:
Working at height
Use of mobile
platforms

elevating

SECl10N10
Most road lighting maintenance is carried out
using elevating platform vehicles (EPV). These
are available in various sizes to service up to
about 21 m mounting height, but are expensive
to purchase or hire.
On most lighting installations, the maintenance
vehicle will stand on the carriageway directly
underneath the luminaire, thus reducing the
trafficable width available during maintenance
operations.

working

Storage and use of liquid propane gas


Storage and use of highly flammable
liquids

Where the mounting height is 12.5rn or less and


the EPV can be positioned directly beneath the
luminaire, outrigging stabilizers may not be
required.
In other situations, the use of
stabilizers will be necessary and will further
considerably reduce the trafficked width
available.

Slinging of loads
Use of lifting equipment
Use of hand tools
Use of compressors and pneumatic
power tools
Use of portable electrical equipment
Electrical work up to 415 volts
Installing/replacing luminaires
Electrical testing and commissioning
Disposal of discharge and fluorescent
lamps
Disposal of waste materials
Work in the vicinity of underground
services
Work in the vicinity of overhead electric
cables
Work in and with excavations

Depending on the nature of the road in question


and the traffic demands, it will be necessary to
implement appropriate traffic control measures
and possibly even schedule the maintenance
work to periods of low traffic flow.
These arrangements can be both inconvenient
and costly and the alternatives available should
be properly evaluated. The alternatives may
involve a different luminaire arrangement at a
lower mounting height, the use of hinged poles
(which are now available at relatively little
additional cost) or the use of a fewer number of
greater mounting height columns with luminaire
lowering gear (high masts).
10.6.2 Quality of Equipment
When comparing costs of alternative items of
equipment, the "whole life" cost ,of the
installation should be considered rather than
just the initial construction cost. It will often be
found that more expensive, high quality
equipment requiring less maintenance attention
will be cheaper in the long run, as well as
causing less inconvenience to the road user in
terms of obstruction to the highway during
maintenance operations. There may also be
safety benefits in using high quality equipment.

Roadworks
Minor demolition and breaking out of
services.

Guidance on luminaire maintenance factors is


given in Table 4 of BS 5489 : Part 2.
10.6.3 Inventory and Fault Reports

10.6

MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION

10.6.1 Design Implications


It is often important to consider the implications
of the lighting maintenance operation during the
planning and design of a road lighting
installation. This is particularly so in respect to
lighting on motorways and other high traffic
volume and/or high speed roadways.
January 1997

In order to obtain the most cost effective service


from a lighting installation, adequate procedures
for the reporting and logging of faults, and the
planning of maintenance programmes need to
be established.
An essential requirement for these activities is
the provision of an accurate, comprehensive,
easily accessible inventory system, nowadays
Page 10/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

usually installed on a desk-top computer or PC


network. A large amount of manual survey and
logging work is involved initially, but this will be
repaid within a fairiy short time by
improvements in efficiency of management.
It is of great benefit when logging fault reports,
which may often originate from persons with no
technical knowledge, to be able instantly to view
details of the installation on a visual display
screen.
10.6.4 Cleaning and Lamp Replacement

It is essential that cleaning and lamp


replacement routines should be closely followed
to maintain the installation.
Maintenance
programmes should include lamp replacement,
luminaire cleaning, renewal of failed parts,
checking of gaskets and optical components,
lubrication, painting and night inspections.
Apart from the deterioration of luminaire parts,
which can be corrected by cleaning, there is
also a longer term deterioration which is
permanent and cumulative.
Restoration of
photometric performance may, therefore,
require replacement of optical systems or even
the whole luminaire.
Site tests should be
carried out at intervals of not more than five
years to check that performance is acceptable.
The procedure according to which lamps are
replaced is a matter of local policy, cost and
lamp type used. The cost of replacing lamps
on demand should be compared with that of
group replacement. In making the comparison,
the following factors are among those that
should be considered:

SECTION 10

The frequency
electrical safety.

of

inspection

for

It will normally be found that lantern cleaning,


which is a costly, labour-intensive activity, can
be restricted to coincide with the lamp-changing
operation if a luminaire with enclosure
protection to at least IP65 is installed.
10.6.5 Frequency of Inspections

It is recommended that visual, structural and


mechanical inspections of street lighting
equipment should be undertaken annually with
full electrical testing every five years.
10.6.6 Hours of Operation

Road lighting is required during all the hours of


darkness, independently of traffic flow, and
should normally be in full operation from about
30 min after sunset to about 30 min before
sunrise.
Questions of local policy are outside the scope
of this guide, which deals only with technical
matters. However, it should be noted that
lighting serves emergency services, public
security and pedestrians as well as drivers and
that extinguishing lighting during the hours of
darkness is detrimental to these interests.
The practice of extinguishing certain luminaires
when the traffic flow is small does not fulfil the
lighting needs of vehicular traffic and may
increase the likelihood of collision with columns.

The shape of the lamp survival curve


for its environment
The lamp lumen depreciation curve
Ease of access, e.g. extent of signing
and coning required
Interference with traffic
The required frequency of patrolling for
outages
The frequency of need for cleaning of
luminaires
The overall proportion of outages that
can be tolerated
The grouping of outages that can be
tolerated

January 1997

Page 10/9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX A

APPENDIX A SURVEYS

A2

A1

Survey in Qatar is controlled by the Ministry of


Municipal Affairs & Agriculture (MMM) and the
Centre for Geographic Information Systems
(CGIS) who obtain, update and keep the
current survey data, and set the criteria by
which survey data is recorded and presented.

INTRODUCTION

Survey is a specific discipline, the results of


which are utilised for a great many purposes
from planning to construction.
With regard to road design, the purpose of
survey is twofold.
Firstly, it is required to establish the roadway line
within the context of existing land ownership or
planning requirements, thus fixing the available
corridors for the roadway and associated
utilities.
Secondly, it is required to identify elements
which exist within and adjacent to a corridor in
order that a satisfactory road design can be
affected.
To complete this function it is important that the
survey contractor provides all the information
the engineer needs and that the engineer makes
full use of all the survey information available.
Survey work in Qatar is controlled by its own
comprehensive specifications and regulations.
As such, this appendix is not intended as a
survey manual but as an aid to the highway
engineer, to enable the production of
comprehensive designs whilst having due
regard for existing and proposed site features.

SURVEY IN QATAR

The Qatar Survey Manual, issued in 1989 by


the Ministry of Industry & Public Works,
(subsequently replaced by the Ministry of
Municipal Affairs and AgricUlture) and
amending circulars, deal principally with
cadastral,
control,
engineering
and
hydrographic
survey.
This includes the
specifications,
accuracy
and
working
procedures to be used when undertaking these
types of survey relating to the Qatar National
Grid (horizontal position) and Qatar National
Height Datum (level).
In addition to survey controlled by the MMAA,
the Centre for GIS produces and maintains the
Geographic Information System(GIS) for Qatar.
For convenience, this appendix lists the various
survey bodies that offer services and functions
useful to the highway engineer.
The
organizations are illustrated in Figure A1. Each
organization operates its own specific
procedures and methods that should be
adhered to if interfacing with it.

Items specifically covered are:

Government bodies controlling survey


within Qatar

Survey information useful to the


highway engineer that is currently
available from each organization

Survey information that should be


collected for use on road design
projects

Procedures required by the Civil


Engineering Department for survey
work associated with road design
projects.

Survey during road construction is not covered


within this appendix. However, the general
requirements of as-built surveys are discussed.

January 1997

Page A/1

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX A

Centre
for
GIS

_._- -_.
Q

P!anning
Department
_~~

!
i
i

"~J

Land
Information
Centre

_,_ _1_ _- - ,

Mapping &
Positioning
Section

- - - - - -

General
Survey
Section

~,
I
1_.

I-lighway
Design

Section
,---------'

CEO
Survey
Unit

Figure A1

January 1997

MMAAlCGIS - Survey Related Organizations

Page AJ2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


A2.1

Centre for GIS - Mapping and


Positioning Services

The Centre of GIS was established in 1990 with


the target of setting up, operating and
maintaining a Geographic Information System
for Qatar.
The Geographic Information System is an easily
accessible digital library of all surface and
subsurface features in Qatar. It is therefore an
important tool for planning and co-ordinating all
developments in Qatar.
Because of the link GIS naturally forms with all
bodies associated with development, each
government discipline that encompasses
construction of new features includes a GIS coordinator. In addition, the Centre for GIS
employs survey teams who check and collect
new features for inclusion within the digital
database.
Functions of the Centre for GIS useful to the
highway engineer are listed below.

Topographical Database
The digital topographical mapping database is
available at nominal scales of 1:500,000,
1:200,000, 1:50,000, 1:10,000 and 1:1000
(urban areas only).
The 1:10,000 and 1:1000 high resolution
databases are stereo-compiled from aerial
photography and form Qatar's GIS Digital Base
Map Database (DBMD).
The larger scale digital mapping was created by
digitizing existing maps.
The DBMD is constantly updated sheet by sheet
from aerial and ground observations.

1:1000 mapping has an accuracy of


500mm which is acceptable for most
studies and concept road design and is
useful as a back-drop for illustration of
areas adjacent to the route under
consideration

1:10,000 mapping has an accuracy of


3m which is suitable for location plans
and diagrams.

1:50,000 mapping has an accuracy of


25m and is suitable for presentationstyle diagrams.

January 1997

APPENDIX A

National Control and Benchmarks


The 1" - 41h order survey control points and
benchmarks situated around Qatar provide coordinate and level information for the entire
country. A greater density of control is given in
the urban areas.
Orthoimagery
Orthoimagery
comprises
digital
aerial
photography that is assembled to form a visual
picture of the landscape. It has an accuracy of
500mm with a greater resolution in urban
areas. The digital orthoimagery database is not
generally made available due to the amount of
information contained within the files (typically
60MB/sheet).

1:1000 orthoimagery is available for


urban areas of Doha, Wakrah and
Dukhan. This is useful for engineering
studies and as a check on field data

1:10,000 orthoimagery is available for


the whole of Qatar. This is useful for
engineering
studies,
particularly
relating to the identification of drainage
catchments and wadi locations.

Digital Elevation Model


The digital elevation model consists of
accurately recorded spot heights for the whole
of Qatar.
Levels are related to the Qatar National Height
Datum and quoted to two decimal places.

Satellite Imagery
Available in digital format and posters for the
whole of Qatar.
Satellite imagery is not
generally used in highway design but is useful
for specific studies because additional
information that is not available on the digital
mapping or orthoimagery is presented.
Aerial Photography
The earliest black and white photography taken
in 1947 is still available.
Complete
photographic cover of Qatar dates from 1977
and colour photography is generally available
dating from 1980.
Aerial photography for the whole of Qatar is
presented at scales of approximately 1:40,000
and is useful for route and development
planning and engineering studies.
Wadi
conditions, areas of high water table and
flooding are clearly identifiable from the aerial
photography.

Page A/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Old Mapping
Early map series are available on film or paper
sheets from archives.
The mapping was
produced from aerial photography taken during
1971,1973,1977,1980 and 1987. Scales of
1:200,000, 1:100,000, 1:50,000, 1:20,000,
1:10,000, 1:5,000, 1:2000, 1:1000 and 1:500
have been prepared, though not all areas of
Qatar are covered by each scale. The engineer
should refer to the Qatar Survey Manual for
further details of coverage and series.
Old mapping is useful for identifying features
such as sink holes, shore lines and low areas
since covered by development.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
The global positioning system provides position
and level of any place in the world from satellitegenerated location information. A minimum of
3 satellites need to be operational over the
locality. GPS equipment may be small enough
to be hand-held. Varying levels of horizontal
and vertical accuracy are available, depending
on the number of satellites read and the
occupation time at the station.
The Centre for GIS broadcasts VHF correction
information for use with GPS equipment within
Qatar to provide real time outputs.
GPS has much use in route finding and strip
level surveys in areas where more accurate
control is not available. However, in Qatar
where accurate control is widespread across the
whole country, its uses are limited by the cost
required to achieve the accuracy necessary for
highway design.
A2.2

Land Information Centre - General


Survey Section (GSS)

The Land Information Centre was created in


1994 and incorporates the General Survey
Section.
Functions of the General Survey Section useful
to the highway engineer are listed below.
Cadastral Database
The GSS maintains a database of registered coordinates relating to land ownership boundaries
for the whole of Qatar. The information is
available in the form of co-ordinated points in
text files.

APPENDIX A
Approval of Survey Companies
The GSS is responsible for the approval of
private survey companies who can access
cadastral information and undertake cadastral
survey work for private or government bodies.
Approval of Corridor Intersection Points
For new corridor alignments the calculation of
corridor intersection points and curve
parameters shall be made by the highway
engineer or surveyor based on adjacent
cadastral information.
Where there is no existing adjacent cadastral
information, corridor IP's and curve parameters
shall be computed from Planning Department
policy plans. Existing site features such as
walls, pylons, posts etc may be used to define
boundaries reflected on the policy plans. The
computed corridor IP's and curve parameters
shall, in this instance, be reported for the
approval of the General Survey Section.
Companies that are approved for cadastral
survey work by the General Survey Section
shall be employed to compute and report these
points.
Highway engineers are reminded that road
alignments shall be developed in accordance
with the relevant sections of the QHDM.
Alignments are therefore not defined by the
corridor centreline (Refer to Section 5).
A2.3

Planning Department

The Planning Department is responsible for the


co-ordination of all land planning in Qatar
including the outline approval of private
developments.
Functions of the planning department useful to
the highway engineer are listed below.
Policy Plans
The Planning Department can provide current
policy plans illustrating information regarding
land use allocation for the whole of Qatar.
Policy plans are available at scales of 1:1000
for urban areas and 1:2000 for rural areas.
Paper copies of policy plans are available
illustrating the up-to-date land use planning.
Digital copies of the policy plans are updated
every three months, and are also made
available for general use.

Cadastral information shall be used by the road


designer for the production of road corridor and
network plans and in the computation of road
intersection points and centrelines.

January 1997

Page A/4

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


A2.4

CEO Survey Unit

The CED Survey Unit operates exclusively for


the Roads Division. Its main activities are listed
below:

Topographical surveys for in-house


design work
Setting out for grading schemes
undertaken by the Direct Labour
Organisation.

Functions of the CED Survey Unit useful to the


highway engineer are listed below.
Road Intersection Points
The CED Survey Unit maintains a database of
road intersection points.

APPENDIX A
A3.2

Services survey shall be undertaken utilising


electronic radio-detection methods. Line and
level of existing services apparatus shall be
recorded on services survey plans.
Services survey drawings shall be prepared at
1:500 scale for urban areas on A1 sheets and
in digital format. Scales for use in rural areas
should be chosen to reflect the amount of detail
required. Layer numbering, line types and
symbols shall be in accordance with the Civil
Engineering Department standard.
The
horizontal accuracy of the services surveyed by
electronic radio-detection shall be to 250mm,
with vertical accuracy to 100mm. Where
services are located by trial pits they shall be
surveyed to an accuracy of 5mm horizontally
and vertically.

IP's computed by the highway engineer from


cadastral information shall be submitted to the
CED Survey Unit for review.

Location of services lines are to be


determined by the co-ordinate of points
along the lines.

Topographical Surveys
Topographical surveys for CED Roads projects
are subject to CED Survey Unit review and
approval.

Co-ordinates may be derived from


measuring:

a)

As-built Surveys
As-built drawings are prepared by contractors
with the assistance of supervising consultants
and private survey companies. They are
recorded in digital and map sheet form and are
archived in the CED Prime Document Storage.
As-built surveys are reviewed by CED Survey
Unit on an ad hoc basis as required.
A3

Typical survey requirements for highway design


projects are listed below.
A3.1

b)

c)

SURVEY WORK PROCEDURES

In order to maintain consistency between


projects, specific procedures are to be followed
in surveying, recording and presenting survey
information for highway design projects.

Topographical Surveys

The topographical survey shall cover the full


extent of the works to be designed and include
tie-ins to all existing features.
Survey data recorded shall be sufficient to
enable preparation of survey drawings and shall
be prepared in accordance with the specification
given in AS.

January 1997

Services Surveys

angle/bearing and distance


from known control points.
offset and chainage from
known/co-ordinated lines (eg.
road centreline)
distances from 2 or more
known points.

Level shall be recorded on the survey


plans to national datum at specific
points along utility routes. Points shall
be levelled and recorded at bends,
junctions and at 25m intervals along
straights.

All radio-detection survey operators shall be


approved by the Civil Engineering Department
prior to commencement of the services survey.
The results of radio-detection surveys shall be
corroborated by manual excavation of trial
holes at selected sites In accordance with
service authority procedures.
A3.3

As-built Surveys

On completion of construction, as-built survey


drawings shall be produced by the project
contractor.
As-built utility information shall be collected
during site works by the contractor and
recorded in digital format for line and level by
PageA/S

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

All as-built
the supervising consultant.
information shall be collected in a digital format
compatible with CED's highway design and
draughting software.

APPENDIX A
For road corridors, cross section levels to the
edge of the reservation or agreed extent shall
be taken at 25m intervals.
A5.2

Preparation of Survey Data

As-built survey drawings of principal alignments


and visible features shall cover all of the works
installed under the contract including utilities,
services and all finished alignments and levels,
both above ground and subsurface.

The Contractor shall prepare and submit the


data observed as survey plans in the following
format:

As-built surveys shall be undertaken by


companies approved by the General Survey
Section and shall be in the format approved by
the Civil Engineering Department.
The
construction contract is not normally considered
complete until the as-built surveys have been
submitted to CED and approved.

Topographical survey drawings shall


be produced at 1:500 scale for urban
areas. Larger scales of 1:200 or 1:100
shall be used for areas requiring
greater detail such as major junctions.
In rural areas, where few features are
present, the survey drawings shall be
produced at 1:1000 scale or as
otherwise agreed

Surveys plans shall be contoured at


0.5m vertical intervals. Additional spot
levels shall be indicated at low and
high points and across flat areas
without contours

Levels at 25m intervals shall be


indicated on the survey drawings. In
larger open areas a grid of levels at
25m centres can be used

A.4

APPROVED SURVEY COMPANIES

The General Survey Section is responsible for


the approval of survey companies in Qatar for
cadastral survey work.
Companies undertaking topographical survey
work for road designs shall also be from the
GSS approved survey company list.
A5

SPECIFICATION FOR
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY

A.5.1

Features to be Observed

The survey contractor shall undertake a detailed


topographical survey of the subject areas. The
following features shall be observed:
Building extents (including overhangs,
walls, fences, gates and entrances)
Kerbs, bitmac edges, tracks, footpaths
and parking areas
Service posts/poles (eg. telephone,
electricity, lighting, signals)
Road signs (street names, traffic) and
billboards
Manholes, gullies, hydrants, culverts,
service boxes and markers
Overhead and buried cables/lines
Trees, plant boxes, landscaping limits
Water channels, culverts
Surface type changes (eg. between
natural ground and concrete paving)
Slopes, escarpments
Spot levels at every 25m and at:
a. Gates and entrances
b. Services covers, gullies, culverts
c. Isolated high and low points
d. Abrupt grade changes.

January 1997

In addition, the data collected and survey


procedures used shall be submitted in the
following format:

AutoCAD" .DWG or .DXF plot file of


the topographical maps

Printout of Easting, Northing, Level,


and Code of all points

Comma-delimited DOS text file of


points containing:
a. Point Number
b. Easting
c. Northing
d. Level
e. Code

Printout of raw data


topographical survey

Field
data,
computations
and
descriptions
for
new
control
stations/benchmarks

Job Report describing the work


undertaken which includes:
a. Location and project limits
b. Dates of survey

for

the

Page A/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

c.
d.

APPENDIX A

Methods and instruments used


Details
about
new
control
points/benchmarks,
where
established.

For multi-sheet drawings, sheet limits


shall be plotted with the current sheet
highlighted.

5.
All digital data shall be submitted on 3.5" floppy
disks.
AS.3

Survey Drawing

All surveyed features shall be plotted.


Lines shall be labelled when not
specifically identified in the Legend,
(Table A5.4). Point features shall be
represented by standard symbols and
annotated accordingly.

Specifications

The Contractor shall comply with the following


specifications:

Survey works shall be tied to the Qatar


National Grid and Height Datum or the
QND 95 co-ordinate system.

North point symbol and grid coordinates shall be plotted such that no
part of the drawing is written over.

Establishment of new control stations


and benchmarks shall be in accordance
with Section 2 of the "Qatar Survey
Manual". Levelling closure errors must
be better than 15mm .fK, where K is the
length of the level route in km.
Traverses
shall
have
relative
accuracies of 1/25,000 or better
Eastings, northings and levels of detail
points shall be within 10mm accuracy

For multi-sheet draWings, match lines


and appropriate notes for adjoining
sheets shall be provided.

Topographical maps shall be of the


format shown in Figure A5.1 and shall
contain the following information:

1.

Project Details

Layers shall be used in the preparation


of digital drawings. Each layer shall
contain only one feature type and shall
be appropriately named in accordance
with the typical layering given in Table
A5.5
AS.4

Checking and Verification

All works and resulting survey data shall be


subject to the checking and approval of the
CED Survey Unit.

Contractor's name, project reference


number, surveyor's name, dates of
survey, sheet contents, drawing
number, plan scale.

2.

Notes

Details relevant to the survey work


done (eg. reference system, datum,
methods and equipment used).

3.

Legend

Listing of line types, symbols and codes


used and corresponding descriptions.
Tables A5.1, A5.2 and A5.3 list
standards for CED survey drawings
while Table A5.4 is a typical legend
listing.

4.

Location/Sheet Index Map

Drawing (typically at scale 1:10,000)


showing the area surveyed, name of
major roads/streets, grid markers, coordinates and north point symbol.

January 1997

PageA/7

c..

"Tl

cO'

'c"

:l

a;

'"

Border (O.5mm. thickness)

'<

!J1

CD
CD

20mm. (min.)

:c

5mm.

::t

i5

~Neat line' (D.2mm. thickness)

-..j

::t

"Tl
0

(LOCATIONI
SHEET INOEX
MAP)

0'
~

m
(fl

i5
z

100mm. x 100mm.

--I
0

0:

'0

co
~

c:

'"

'0

::l"

o'

!!!.

s:

'"

'0
(f)

:.
E E
E
0
N

'"

5
(SURVEY DRAWING)

..

(LEGEND)

E E
E

.!i

E E
E

'" '"

..
c
'"
,s

'"

(NOTES)

0
N

'E"
E

"

(PROJECT
DETAILS)

e'"
~

'E
0
<II

5mm.

"tl

'"

to
11I

(Edge of mapsheet (841 mm. x Sg4mm.)

20mm. (min.)

;I>
"tl
"tl

m
Z
C

X
;I>

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX A

Description

Line

Use

Solid line

Standing kerb line, step, planter, concrete


paving, SIS limit and other features not
otherwise listed.

Solid line, a.25m

Cadastral plot boundary

Solid line, a.35m

Building line

Two solid lines

Wall (line separation equals thickness of wall

-----------------

Short dashes

Edge of bitmac, flush kerb, change of surface

,---------_ ... _--_ ..-

Short dashes, a.35m

Building overhang

Dots

Top/bottom of bank, change of grade

Solid line and slash

Picket fence, railing, crash barrier

Dash-dot

Road Centreline

...................

A'

it

1/

.-

_._._._.------0_"_"-,,-,,-

Long dash-short dash Overhead cable/line


Long dash-dot-dot

Underground cablelline

All lines are a.2mm, thick unless otherwise specified

Table A5.1 - Survey Map Line Types

Description

Symbol
c:=-<::J

Scaled size

Box, 1.2mm.square

Clrcle,1.2mm.diameter

'"
0

Use
Gate (length equals gate width)
U/G cable/duct marker, services and fire
hydrant covers not more than a.5m.square
Borehole, gully and circular MH cover not
more than a.5m. diameter

Solid circle,1.2mm.diam. Bollard, marker post not more than a.5m.


Solid box,1.2mm.square diameter
Triangle, 1.2mm.sides

Triangular MH, sides not more than a.5m.

Solid circle, 2mm.diam.

Services post/pole (electricity, telephone, street


lighting, traffic signal); road sign and
sign board supported by single post

Solid box, 2mm.square

Electricity junction/traffic controller box and


telephone booth not more than 1m.square

&.

Double triangle, 1.2mm. Survey control or benchmark

Scaled size

Palm tree

Scaled size

Tree, general

To be drawn using a.2mm.pen


Notes: 1. Features exceeding prescribed dimensions shall be surveyed as polygons and plotted
with solid lines a.2mm. thick.
2. Signs supported by more than 1 post shall be plotted as solid lines a.2mm. thick.

Table A5.2 - Survey Map Symbols

January 1997

PageA/9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX A

Annotation

Description

Cadastrai boundary

FH

Gully

GV

Gas valve

JB

LP

Lamp post

MH

Manhole; type unknown

RS

SIS

Electricity sub-station

SB

Sign board

TCB

Traffic controller box

TEL

Telephone booth

TP

Telephone post

B
BH
CB
EP

IC

MHO
MHS
MP
PB
PC
PPB

SC
SM
SV

TSP
TS

WT
WV

Bollard
Borehole

Electricity post
Fire hydrant

Inspection chamber
Electricity junction box

O-Tel manhole
Sewerage manhoie
Marker post
Post box
Pipe culvert
Pedestrian push button pole
Road sign (street name)

Stopcock
Underground service marker
Sluice valve

Traffic light/signal post


Traffic sign post
Water tank
Water valve

Notes: 1. Annotations shall be plotted alongside corresponding symbol, line or polygon in


the drawing area and listed with appropriate description in the legend section.
2. The following features shall be additionally annotated with heights:
-MH covers
-Top and bottom steps
-Guliies
-Pipe culverts
-Gates and entrances

Table A5.3 - Survey Map Annotations

January 1997

Page A/10

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX A

LEGEND'
Kerb line, unless otherwise specified.
(Level taken at the channel)
Cadastral plot boundary
Building line
Wall
Edge of bitmac, unless otherwise specified
Building overhang
:

,,'

Top/bottom of bank
Picket fence, railing, crash barrier
Road centreline
Overhead cable/line
Underground cable/line

c::--=:l

Jj,

o*

B
BH
CB

Gate
Survey control or benchmark
Palm tree

Tree, general
Bollard
Borehole
Cadastral boundary

EP

Electricity post

FH

Fire hydrant

GUlly

GV

Gas valve

IC
JB
LP

Inspection chamber
Electricity junction box
Lamp post

MHO

Manhole; type unknown


O-Tel manhole

MHS

Sewerage manhole

MH

MP

Marker post

PB

Post box

PC

Pipe culvert

PPB

Pedestrian push button pole

RS
SIS

Road sign (street name)


Electricity sub~station

SB

Sign board

SC
SM

Stopcock
Underground service marker

SV

Sluice valve

TCB
TEL

Traffic controller box


Telephone booth

TP

Telephone post

TSP

Traffic IighVsignal post

TS

Traffic sign post


Water tank
Water valve

WT
WV

14.55

Spot height

Table A5.4 - Typical Survey Map Legend

January 1997

Page A/11

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX A

DESCRI PTION I FEATURES COVERED

LAYER NAME
BUILDING

Buildings, houses, shops, bus shelters and corresponding levels

CADASTRL

Cadastral points and boundaries

CONTROLS

Control stations and bench marks

EX_ROAD

Kerb lines, edge of bitmac, islands and corresponding levels

EX_WORKS

Excavations, boreholes, temporary construction fences

GATES

Gates and threshold levels

IMPROVEM

Man-made features and corresponding levels not related to specific layer


e.g. steps, gardens, drinking fountains, private plant boxes, etc.

NATURAL

Trees, waterways, vegetation limits

SERVICES

Electricity, water, telephone and other services, and corresponding levels,


includes: manholes, gullies, hydrants, inspection chambers, valves,
electricity and telephone poles and lines, electricity sUb-stations,
junction boxes, postboxes, culverts, ducts, pipelines, services markers

SPOT_HT

Spot heights and levels not related to specific layer

ST_FURNI

Lamp posts, street name posts, sign boards, marker posts,

public plant boxes; and corresponding levels


TRAFFIC

Sollards, traffic signal posts, vehicle detectors, pedestrian/road

markings, crash barriers, railings; and corresponding levels


WALLS

Property walls and fences, and corresponding levels

CONTOUR 1

Major contour line

CONTOUR 2

Minor contour line

DESC_TXT

Labels and annotations not related to specific layer

GRIDSDAT

Map grid lines and coordinates

MATCHDAT

Match lines and match line symbols and texts

PLAN FORM

Drawing margins, legend, title boxes, location map, notes

ROAD_DES

Designed road IP's, center lines and reservations

Table A5.5 - Typical Layers for Topographical Survey Drawings

January 1997

PageA/12

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


APPENDIX B

B1

GUIDANCE NOTES TO PREPARE A BRIEF FOR GEOTECHNICAL SITE


INVESTIGATIONS

INTRODUCTION

This Appendix primarily is to assist the CED


Engineer in the preparation of a brief for a
geotechnical site investigation.
The guidelines within this Appendix provide a
checklist of items to be considered in the
process of preparing a brief. A flow diagram
identifying the main points is shown in Figure
B1.

Select Route

~
Locate Junctions

,J,
Locale Structures

+-

Walkover/Drive
Sites

Data Review

Review Structure
Locations

Prepare Site

Investigation

Decide on the
Information
Required to
Enable Design

~
Select the Investigation Procedures
Required 10 Provide the Information to
Enable Design

J,
Review the Scale
and Quantify the
Investigation

Finalize Site
Investigation Brief

Figure B1

January 1997

APPENDIX B

Each of the items listed in Figure B1 is


discussed in the foliowing sections.
The approach to preparing a brief for concept or
detaiied design is the same. However, the
type of information required and size of
investigation varies. The different requirements
of both concept and detaiied design are
identified in the text.
It is essential that all works and specifications
comply with the most up to date versions of the
CED approved documentation and procedures.
B2

INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Before preparing a geotechnical brief the


Engineer must consider the foliowing:
Route Selection
In Qatar it is often the case that the route
corridors are predetermined by the Planning
Department. However, the engineer should
review the selected route following good
practice and guidance given in the Qatar
Highway Design Manual. The engineer should
at this stage be confident that it is feasible to
produce a compliant road design within the
route corridor provided.
Locate Junctions
The junction locations are likely to be dictated
by one or more of the following:

Existing or proposed routes

Existing or proposed developments


such as villas, shops or petrol stations

Service equipment such as electricity


pylons, substations, pumping stations,
cables or pipelines

Geotechnical conditions.

The geotechnical investigation may reveal


ground conditions which result in moving the
junction or changing the design.
Junctions
often invoive some form of structure, for
example, a full grade separated interchange or
an ornamental structure in the middle of a
roundabout. So the geotechnical information is
quite likely to have a bearing on junction
location.

Preparing a Geotechnical Brief

Page B/1

APPENDIXB

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Locate Structures
The types of typical structures to be found on
highway works are:

B3

PREPARATION OF THE BRIEF

Following the initial considerations (refer


Section B2), the engineer must then decide on
the information required in the design process.
Details of the various methods of investigation
and testing listed below are discussed in
Section B4.

Bridges

Embankments

Cuttings

Traffic Signals, Signs and Lighting

Box Culverts

The following investigation works may be


required:

Underpasses

Desk Study

Ornamental Structures such as Arches


in
and
Feature
Structures
Roundabouts.

Geotechnical Walkover

Before preparing a geotechnical brief the


engineer should have a full understanding of
the outline design and be able to identify the
type, approximate location and scale of the
structures to be built. These are important
factor in defining and quantifying the site
investigation, as most of the investigation will
be concentrated at the location of the
structures.

Boreholes

Field Tests

Walkover/Drive Site
Having determined the route and location of the
junctions and structures, the engineer should
then visit the site. The site should be walked
over or driven through, depending on the scale
of the project. The purpose of the site visit is to
get a visual impression of the route, locate the
junctions and structures and identify any
obvious anomalies which may have a bearing
on the project. For example a drive through a
site may identify lush green vegetation in low
areas indicating possible groundwater. This
may require additional site investigation to
confirm the problem. The site investigation
report should identify such topographic features
and, as a result of the testing, advise of any
problems relating to the design and of any
difficulties which may arise during the
construction period.
Data Review
Following the site visit, the Engineer should
review the site notes and, if necessary, amend
the design accordingly. Any problem areas
should be highlighted and these notes referred
to when preparing the site investigation brief.
The location of structures should be reviewed
against the site visit notes so that if a potential
problem exists, either the location is changed,
the design of the structure is modified or the
site investigation brief increased to cover any
additional investigation works.

January 1997

B3.1

Geotechnical Investigation Works

Trial Pits

Samples

Laboratory Tests.

Each of the above works is described in Section


B4 of this Appendix.
Schedules for Geotechnical Investigations
The following
tables quantify typical
geotechnical investigations for the following
conditions:

Roads Feasibility Stage, Table B1

Roads Detailed Stage, Table B2

Structures Feasibility Stage, Table B3

Structures Detailed Stage, Table B4.

The schedules give advice on the frequency of


different methods of investigations. These
notes are merely guidelines to be used in the
preparation of a brief. Each site investigation
brief should be considered on its own merits,
taking into account the purpose of the
investigation, stage in the design process, scale
and design of the project and its location.

Page B/2

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Road
Dual 2-3 Lane
Single 2 Lane

APPENDIXB

Description

Notes

Trial Pits: Trial pits should be located at 1aDOrn spacing.

It is important to ensure that the proposed


road does not interfere with the hydrology of

The trial pits should not all De located solely along the
centreline but should be spread over the width of both
carriageways or the corridor. Trial pits should be

the area.

Note should be made of any

groundwater in the trial pit and any

concentrated at identifiable problem areas. Trial pits

evidence of collecting water in the area

would typically be up to 2.5m deep.

such as evaporation salts or green grass in


low areas.

Boreholes: These may be considered necessary if the


desk study reveals a problematic area. Borehole
quantities and locations should be reviewed by a
Geotechnical Engineer, however, the investigation should
be concentrated in the problematic area.

In built up, urban areas, special attention


should be given to locating the trial pits to
avoid services such as electricity, water or
Q-Tel.

Laboratory Testing: Testing should be undertaken of


samples at each trial pit and borehole. This frequency
should be reviewed by the Geotechnical Engineer on site
and the scope reduced or increased as necessary.

Table B1

Schedule of Geotechnical Investigations for Roads at Feasibility Stage

Road

Description

Notes

Dual 2-3 Lane


Single 2 Lane

Trial Pits: Trial pits should be located at 500m spacing.


The trial pits should not all be located solely along the
centreline but should be spread over the width of both
carriageways. Trial pits would typically be up to 2.5m
deep.

It is important to ensure that the proposed


road does not interfere with the hydrology of
the area. Note should be made of any
groundwater in the trial pits and any
evidence of collecting water in the area
such as evaporation salts or lush green
grass in low areas.

Boreholes:
Boreholes should be located at 1km
intervals. If the desk study reveals that consistent rock
and soil conditions are to be expected, the number of
boreholes may be reduced to suit.
Permeability Tests: Falling head or constant head
permeability tests undertaken in boreholes located at 1km
intervals or in areas of differing ground conditions where
surface water from the highway will require collection and
discharge.

In built up, urban areas, special attention


should be given to locating the trial pits to
avoid services such as electricity, water or
Q-Tel.

Dynamic Cone Penetration Tests: Where the desk study


or walkover survey reveals that soil conditions such as
sabkah or alluvium are present, then DCP testing should
be considered in these areas, typically at 200m centres.
Laboratory Testing. Testing should be undertaken of
samples at each trial pit and borehole. This frequency
should be reviewed by the Geotechnical Engineer on site
and the scope reduced or increased as necessary.

Table B2

January 1997

Schedule of Geotechnical Investigations for Roads at Detail Stage

Page B/3

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX B

Structure

Description

Notes

Interchange

Boreholes: At least one borehole to be located at each


proposed abutment position. The borehole should locate
rock head and penetrate 5m into rock. Where rock is not
present, the borehole should extend a minimum of 1.5
times the width of a shallow foundation. If piled
foundations are anticipated, the borehole should extend
to rock plus Sm.. A local geotechnical expert can advise

Trial pits alone are not sufficient for major


structures.

on anticipated depths for various locations in Qatar.

Structures in the urban location may have


the
other geotechnical
benefit of
investigations carried out in the vicinity and
so the scope of investigation works may be
reduced.

Groundwater shall be recorded if present. If groundwater


is likely to be a problem, it is recommended that the water
level is monitored over a period to allow for seasonal
variation.

Trial Pits: It is advisable that trial pits be located on


selected slip roads and tests undertaken to determine the
parameters required to design the earthworks, see
Embankment below. Trial Pits would typically be up to
2.5m deep.
Box CUlvert

Embankment
!Cutting

Trial Pits: At least one trial pit to be located at the


proposed culvert position. Trial Pits would typically be up
to 2.5m deep.
Boreholes: For embankments/cuttings 2.5m high/deep
or greater, at least one borehole to be located at the
embankment/cutting
proposed
position.
If
the
embankment/cutting is very long, boreholes should be
located every kilometre. Boreholes should extend at least
3m beneath the level of the bottom of the proposed
embankment/cutting. Boreholes should identify rock head
and record groundwater if present. Standard penetration
tests are usually recommended to determine hardness.

Usually in rural locations, it is important to

review topography and hydrology to locate


the culvert.

If the cutting is deep, the engineer should


consider the stability of the slopes.
Boreholes should therefore be staggered
across the cutting and not just follow the
road centreline. Laboratory tests should
identify parameters for slope stability and
settlement to verify that it is possible for an
embankment/cutting to be bUilt.

Trial Pits: For embankments/cuttings less than 2.5m


high, at least one trial pit to be located at the proposed
position. Trial ~its would typically be up to 2.5m deep.
For cuttings, investigations should extend a minimum of
2m below cutting base level, or to rock. As such, trial pits
may only provide information regarding the material to be

excavated.
Special
Structures

Table B3

January 1997

Site investigations for special structures such as


ornamental arches, roundabout centre pieces, gantries or
cantilevers for traffic signs will require individual
consideration depending on the size of the structure and
its location.

Schedule of Geotechnical Investigations for Structures at Feasibility Stage

Page B/4

APPENDIXB

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Structure

Description

Notes

Interchange

Boreholes: At [east four boreholes to be located at the


site of a typical interchange in addition to those taken
along the main carriageway through the interchange.

Trial pits alone are not considered sufficient


for major structures.

Boreholes should locate rock head and typically penetrate


5m into rock or 5m below formation level, whichever is the
deeper. Groundwater shall be recorded if present. If
groundwater is Ilkely to be a problem, it is recommended
that the water level is monitored over a period to allow for
seasonal variation.

Structures in the urban location may have


the
benefit of other goetechnical
investigations carried out in the vicinity and
so the scope of investigation works may be
reduced.
Depth of borehole to extend 5m below
depth of proposed foundation.

Plate Bearing Tests: Test to be carried out at foundation


level for all fou(ldation locations on the advice of the
geotechnical expert.

Permeability Tests: Falling head or constant head


permeability tests to be undertaken in boreholes.
Necessary where surface water from highways will require
collection and discharge.
Trial Pits: It is advisable that trial pits be located on each
slip road and tests undertaken to determine the
parameters required to design the earthworks, see
Embankment below. Trial Pits would typically be up to

205m deep.
Box Culvert

Trial Pits:
At least one trial pit to be located at the
proposed culvert position. Trial Pits would typically be up
to 2.5m deep.

Usually in rural locations, it is important to


review topography and hydrology to locate
the culvert.

Plate Bearing Tests: Test to be carried out at foundation


level for all foundation locations on the advice of the
geotechnical expert.
Boreholes: Depending on the findings of the Feasibility
Investigation it may be necessary to locate a borehole at
the culvert position.
Boreholes would typically be
extended to 3m below the foundation level.

Embankment
/Cutlings

Boreholes: For embankments/cuttings 2.5m high/deep


or greater, at least one borehole to be located at the
proposed
embankment/cutting
position.
If
the
embankment/cutting is very long, boreholes should be
located every kilometre.

Laboratory tests should identify parameters


for slope stability to verify that it is possible
for an embankment/cutting to be built (Bulk
Density determines air/water voids, Shear
Strength determines bearing capacity).

Boreholes should typically extend at least 3m beneath the


level of the bottom of the proposed embankment/cutting.
Boreholes should identify rock head and record
groundwater if present. Standard penetration tests are
usually recommended to determine relative density.
Trial Pits: For embankments/cuttings less than 2.5m
high, at least one trial pit to be located at the proposed
position. Trial Pits would typically be up to 2.5m deep.

Special
Structures

Site investigations for special structures such as


ornamental arches, roundabout centre pieces, gantries or
cantilevers for traffic signs will require individual
consideration depending on the size of the structure and
its location.

Note. The chOIce of borehole depth should be at least to the depth of the extent of the pressure bulb set up by the foundation.
The final decision on whether to continue the borehole further should be made by the geotechnical engineer on site.

Table 84

Schedule of Geotechnical Investigations for Structures at Design Stage

Notes
1

Whilst detail design information is not usually required at the early stages, it is better to provide
as much geotechnical information as possible, as early as possible.

Care should be taken when locating boreholes and trial pits, to ensure that services are not
damaged during the investigation. This is particularly important in the urban situation.

January 1997

Page B/5

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

B3.2

Field Tests

B3.3

Field tests to determine the density, bearing or


shear strength of in situ materiai are very
valuable as they can be carried out without
disturbing the soil.
Whilst each testing programme must be tailored
to suit the particular site investigation, Table B5
gives guidelines on the frequency of testing for
the most commonly used tests.
Test

Notes

Frequency

Standard
Penetration

Cohesionless soils

1m intervals
throughout
depth of
borehole

Test
Unconfined
Compression

Gives shear stress of


soil

Test

borehole

Standpipe
Piezometer

In situ used as a

2 tests per

guide for pavement

trial pit

design. QHDM uses


laboratory CBR for
design.

Iborehole

Monitoring water
levels

I test per
borehole with

regular
monitoring

Plate Bearing

Test

Laboratory Tests

Laboratory testing will be required on the


samples taken. Table B6 lists the most
commonly used laboratory tests and gives
gUidelines on the frequency of testing. The
tests are discussed in Section B4.
Test

Notes

Frequency

Atterberg
Limits

Plasticity index,
liquid limits

2 tests per
trial pit
/borehole

Particle Size
Distribution

Used in grading
and classification
of material

2 tests per
trial pit
/borehole

California
Bearing Ratio

Used for pavement


design. Shall be
carried out in
accordance with
QCS.

2 tests per
trial pit
Iborehole

Chemical
Tests

pH. Sulphate &


Chloride, Used to
check compatibility
of materials and
aggressiveness of
ground and water
on concrete
structures,

1 tests per
trial pit
/borehole

Dry Density /
Moisture
Content
Relationship

Essential for slope


stability in
embankments/
cutting

2 tests per
trial pit
Iborehole

Moisture
Content and
Density

Essential for all


testing regimes relates sample to
liquid and plastic
limits

2 tests per
trial pit
Iborehole

Triaxial
Compression
Test

Determines shear
strength for
cohesive soils

If suitable
samples
recovered

Unconfined
Compression
Test

Gives shear stress


of soil

If suitable
samples
recovered

Point Load
Test

Determines ground
bearing pressure
(for rock only)

2 tests at
selected
boreholes

If cohesive
soils. 1m
intervals
throughout
depth of

California
Bearing Ratio

APPENDIXB

Used in foundation
design to determine

1 test at
each major

ground bearing

structure

pressure
Shear Vane

Test

Measures shear
strength of soft soils

If cohesive
soils. 1m
intervals
throughout
depth of
borehole

Permeability
Test

In Situ
Density Test

Used to determine
permeability rates for
soakaway design

3 test per
borehole

Measures density of
soils

If cohesive
soils. 1m
intervals
throughout
depth of
borehole

Note. Tests should also be mcluded at changes of strata.

Table B5

Schedule for Field Tests

Table B6

Schedule for Laboratory Tests

It may not be necessary to carry out ali the


testing listed in Table B6. The engineer
responsible for preparing the brief may decide
to reduce the scope depending on the
information he needs for the design.

The testing frequency given in Table B5 is


shown as a guideline. It is common practice for
the schedule to be revised by the geotechnical
engineer responsible forthe site investigation as
the investigation proceeds.

January 1997

Page B/6

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


B4

ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS

B4.1

Methods of Investigation

When
discussing
the
procedure for
investigation, reference was made to borings as
a means of investigation. This is perhaps the
most common method of site exploration, but
certainly not the only one. BS 5930: 1981 Code
of Practice for site investigations provides
details of investigation methods to assess
ground conditions for construction purposes.
Considering new works, from very small to very
large contracts, a general guide to exploration
would be as follows:

Small works - trial pits up to 3.0m deep

Medium to large scale works - borings


up to 30m deep, typically 20m

Very large scale works (e.g. grade


separation and dams) - a combination
of deep borings and pits.

It must be noted that the above is only a guide,


the detailed methods of exploration would
depend on the type of construction and site
involved.
Where rock is expected, borings of various
types should be used unless a number of pits
would prove more economical. In soils, the
normal method of exploration is by boring holes
(unless the loads expected are small, then
shallow pits will provide adequate samples for
testing).
The cost of setting up drilling rigs on site varies
from area to area depending on transportation
costs.
Before an estimate can be established for site
investigation work, the number of boreholes
and types of test must be determined. This will
be dependant on how much information is
already available.
B4.1.1 Trial Pits
This is the cheapest form of exploration in
shallow depths (e.g. up to 3m).
Above 3
metres deep, the cost increases rapidly
compared with boring. The main advantage is
that soils and rocks can be exposed and
examined in situ. This method shows changes
in strata much more clearly than by borings.
The pits are dug out either by local labour or by
a small tractor-mounted excavator. The plan
size of a pit depends on method of excavation,

January 1997

APPENDIX B
but approximately 1.2 x 1.2 m should be dug.
Holes should be kept well clear of the position
of actual foundations, but should be in the
vicinity of important structures such as heavilyloaded walls or columns.
Problems occur in water-bearing soils,
particularly sands, and therefore the economies
of shoring and pumping pits may outweigh the
savings gained against specialist borings. In
dry conditions, these pits are particularly
valuable since they allow hand-cut samples to
be taken, thereby minimising the disturbance of
the sample and maximising the conditions for
accurate testing.
Deeper trial pits may be used in the
investigation of rock fissures or to explore
layers of weak rock which cannot be removed
intact in normal boring operations. Such deep
pits are costly to construct and would be used
only in large scale exploration.
Trial pits are often the best method of exploring
back filled areas and sites overlain by variable
natural deposits.
B4.1.2 Boreholes
This type of exploration can be achieved by
various methods:
Hand or mechanical auger borings are
relatively cheap methods of sub-surface
exploration of soils which will stand
unsupported. Hollow stem augers can be used
to support soils in borings. Holes can be sunk
to depths up to 30 metres provided there are no
obstructions such as boulders. The diameter of
the borehole is usually>1OOmm. This allows
soil sampling tubes to be used without difficulty.
The mechanical auger is used in gravelly soil,
which involves the use of a casing to prevent
collapse of the boring.
Percussive boring is a method which can be
carried out in all types of soils, because the
borehole is lined with a thick-walled steel
casing. The boring is achieved by using open
ended shells in cohesive soils and clack valves
in cohesion less soils.
Other tools include chisel bits for breaking up
boulders. All the tools and sampling tubes are
attached to sectioned rods.

Page B/7

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


If the walls of the borehole require support, the
borehoie is lined as the hole is bored and the
section iinings screwed together and driven as
the hole deepens.
Percussion boring is the oldest method of
boring, in which the formation is broken up by
repeated biows from a bit or chisel. Water is
added to the hole as the work proceeds and the
resulting debris is removed at intervals by shell,
auger or pressure washing. Samples from this
type of boring are inevitably disturbed. A new
system using a compressed air hammer
provides a quick method of boring for
permeability tests. This method does not
faciiitate core sampiing.
Rotary coring, which is used for the exploration
of rocks, can be divided into twG categories:
Core Drilling
Core driliing is a process designed to recover
continuous cores of rock.
Water or
compressed air is jetted down the hoie through
hollow rods and returns up the annular space
carrying rock cuttings from the coring bit. For
hard rock cores, the crown of the drill is usually
tipped with industrial diamonds. The continuous
cores are laid in wooden core boxes in depth
order.

APPENDIXB
In boring operations, it is common practice to
obtain 'bulk' disturbed samples in order to
obtain sufficient sample for compaction and
CBR tests, together with full gradings if the soil
is granular in nature.
This is particularly
appiicable if the bore is penetrating a proposed
cutting.
Undisturbed samples: these are samples
removed by methods which preserve, so far as
practicable, the natural structure and properties
of the material. Samples in this category are
easily obtained in rock and clay, but difficult in
certain other soils. Table B1.1 show the
method employed for obtaining samples.
SAMPLING METHOOS

Disturbed

Hand samples
Auger samples
Shell samnles

Undisturbed

Hand samples
Core sam Dies

Disturbed

Sludge samples from


oercussion or rotary drills

Undisturbed

Hand samples, cores

Soil

Rocks

Table B1.1
84.2

Sampiing Methods

Testing

Mud-rotary Drilling
In mud-rotary driliing, a mud-laden fiuid is
pumped in a continuous stream down hollow
driliing rods to the rotating bit. The bit is kept in
contact with the face of the boring and the fiuid
carries the debris up the annular space
between the rods and the sides of the hole. A
steel casing to the hole is not necessary. The
cores are obtained by the use of coring tools.
This type of drilling is not normally used for site
investigation work.

For any particular location, the engineer must


first estabiish the depth and classification of
each strata of subsurface material and
compare this with what was envisaged. To do
this, a range of tests will be required.

Cone Penetration Tests


Where a significant thickness of unconsoiidated
overburden is know to exist, Static 'Dutch' Cone
Penetration tests could be conducted to a
suitably agreed depth. Methods and equipment
in accordance with BS 5930.

84.2.1 In Situ Testing

B4.1.3 Samples
There are two types of sample.
Disturbed samples: these are samples removed
from boreholes with augers or other equipment
which interfere with the natural structure of the
material. Such samples are usefui for visual
grading and determining moisture content, and
in some cases for laboratory testing. Samples
are placed in airtight jars with identifying labels.

January 1997

Having compieted the tests and reviewed the


results, the engineer should consider whether
the investigation has confirmed his initial
assumptions or whether if has introduced new
problems.

Tests to obtain the density or shear strength of


soils in situ are very valuable since they can be
carried out without disturbing the soil. Such
tests are particularly valuable in sands and
silts. The main tests are:

Standard penetration

Monitoring water levels

Unconfined compression
California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

Plate bearing test

Page B/8

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

..

Shear vane test

..

In situ density test

..

Permeability test.

Standard Penetration Test


As with all penetration tests, this consists of
measuring the resistance of the soil to
penetration under dynamic loading.
This
particular test is made by driving a 35mm
(internal diameter) split spoon sampler into the
soil at the bottom of a borehole. The sampler,
suspended on rods, is first driven 150mm into
the soil by a falling standard weight (63.5 kg
falling through a distance of 760mm). The
sampler is then driven a further 300mm and the
number of blows needed to achieve this is
recorded as the 'N' value. The test is used to
establish the relative density of soil, and for
particular soils to design foundations and gauge
settlement.
California Bearing Ratio Test
This test may be used in the design of flexible
pavements and can be carried out on site. The
test shows the load-penetration of soils relative
to a standard crushed stone sample. The test
is normally carried out on soil at least 1m below
ground level (i.e. below the level of any
seasonal moisture fluctuation) using a lorry to
obtain the necessary reaction load through a
screw jack.

The in situ CBR test provides a different result


to that obtained in the laboratory under similar
conditions of density etc. Road design is
normally carried out based on the laboratory
CBR only.
Standpipe Piezometer
Monitoring of water levels is carried out by the
use of piezometers. If a borehole is to be
constructed to obtain soil information, then
unless circumstances dictate otherwise, it
should be utilised in order to monitor the
fluctuation in ground water level. This may be
carried out for several years depending on the
time scale of the project. Such information will
be invaluable in the future once general trends
have been established.
Plate Bearing Test
This type of test was once very popular and is
still used on large engineering projects as a
means of providing in situ data on the
behaviour of soils or rocks at foundation level.
The procedure consists of excavating a pit to
the level of the proposed foundation and then
loading a steel or cast iron plate (usually 600 x
600mm in size) on the bottom of the pit. The

January 1997

APPENDIX B

load can be applied in either of two ways; the


first by loading it with increments of kentledge
(concrete blocks or steel billets); the second by
means of a hydraulic jack bearing against a
heavily loaded beam.
Failure is traditionally assumed when the
settlement reaches a depth equal to 10%
(some engineers say 15%) of the breadth of the
loading plate, this should be verified by plotting
a time/load/settlement graph. The safe load
(qs) should be taken as one-third of that load
which causes failure or the failure load divided
by the project factor of safety. For most
structures, a generally accepted maximum
allowable settlement is 25mm. Terzaghi & Peck
have proposed a relationship which enables
allowable bearing pressure to be calculated
based on a chosen allowable settlement and
the load/settlement results obtained from a
plate bearing test.
The plate bearing test is useful in stony soils
where undisturbed sampling is difficult.
However, care should be taken to ensure
enough tests are taken to be representative
where soils may be variable across a site.
The plate bearing test data can also be used to
calculate a soils modulus of subgrade reaction.
One disadvantage of this test is the lack of
simulation of "bulb pressure". The bulb
pressure from a test of this nature is usually far
smaller than the bulb pressure from the actual
foundation.
This could lead to error in
detecting settlement of a lower weak stratum.
Shear Vane Test
This test measures the shear strength of soft
cohesive soils in situ. The vane is pushed into
the soil and rotated by hand at a constant rate.
The amount of torque necessary for rotation is
measured by a spring balance on top of the
rods and the shear strength of the soil is
calculated.
In Situ Density Test
Typically sand replacement or nuclear density
tests are undertaken in the field. These
provide the field density of soils and are useful
in assessing compaction and settlement.
Permeability Test
This test enables the permeability of the soil or
bedrock to be ascertained. The most common
type of permeability test undertaken in Qatar is
the falling head test to BS 5930. However, the
type of test and the number per borehole
should be agreed with the Civil Engineering
Department.

Page B/9

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIXB

Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Test


This test utilities a hand held drop hammer
penetrometer which records cone penetration
resistance versus number of blows. Graphical
plots of results enable equivalent in situ CBR
values of the ground to be determined.
(Typically used for depths up to 2.0m). Refer to
the TRL specification for DCPT equipment and
CBR correlation relationship.
Other Tests
Other in situ tests include the
penetrometer and hand shear vane.

hand

B4.2.2 Laboratory Testing


Laboratory testing is undertaken to establish
the following characteristics of soils:
..

Identification and classification

..

Measurement of engineering properties

..

Chemical content.

Identification and Classification


This analysis involves a number of individual
tests, such as:
Visual examination
Moisture content
Liquid and plastic limits
Particle size distribution.
Visual Examinations: made to note the colour,
texture and consistency of disturbed and
undisturbed samples, these being used later to
describe the soil in the engineer's reports.
Moisture Content: important in all soil
samples, since it helps to arrange a programme
of testing (by relating samples to liquid and
plastic limits) so that no doubtful sample will be
overlooked. The higher the natural moisture
content of the soil, the greater will be its
compressibility.
Liquid and Plastic Limit Tests: made on
cohesive soils for classification purposes and
for assessing their compressibility. The liquid
limit (LL) (BS 1377 Test 3 and 4) determines
the amount of moisture content necessary to
cause the material to flow or move readily
under a given number of vibrations, whereas
the plastic limit (PL) is determined by rolling out
a 4 mm diameter thread of soil and noting the
moisture content which will allow the thread to
be rolled out still further until it breaks up due to
drying. When both liquid and plastic limits are
known, the Plasticity Index can be established
(Plasticity Index = LL-PL).

January 1997

Particle Size Distribution: of particular


importance when assessing problems of
excavation in permeable soils below the water
table. It is also useful for assessing the value
of non-cohesive soils for use as aggregates
and construction materials. The first part of the
test is achieved by sifting dried samples
through BS 410 sieves. In the case of cohesive
soils, a wet analysis is used, employing a
hydrometer. The range of particle sizes is
compared with a standard chart. PSD is also
useful for identification purposes and
assessment of material suitable for use as fill.
Measurement of Engineering Properties
The foregoing tests give some indication of the
engineering properties of a sailor rock, but
there are also specific tests which yield more
definite information relating to:
Bulk density of soil
Shear strength of soil
Consolidation of soil
Laboratory CBR
Laboratory compaction
Point load testing
Unconfined
compression
(+deformation modulus)

testing

Bulk Density: the weight of material per unit


volume, including the weight of air or water in
the voids. This information is essential in the
design of retaining works, where the weight of
a stratum is an important factor (e.g. stability of
slopes, formation of earth dams, earth pressure
of retaining walls etc). Dry density (weight of
solids per unit voiume) is used for the
determination of optimum compaction in earth
dams, embankments and other soil structures,
and in the laboratory CBR test.
Typically cone-cutter and sand replacement
tests are carried out to determine bulk density.
Shear Strength: can be used directly to
calculate a soil's bearing capacity and also to
calculate the pressure on supports in
excavations. There are several tests available
for ascertaining shear strength, but the most
popular is the triaxial compression test. Triaxial
compression tests are suitable for cohesive
soils only. Where cohesion less soils have to
be tested, the shear box test is used. A
sample of soil is subjected to a standard load
under which a horizontal force is applied to the
lower half of the box until the sample shears.

Page B/10

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


The Triaxial Compression Test can be carried
out using any of three different methods:

Undrained

Consolidated undrained

Drained.

In principle, the test consists of subjecting a


cylindrical sample of undisturbed soil (75 mm
long x 38 mm diameter) to lateral hydraulic
pressure in addition to a vertical load. This is
achieved by placing the sample in a specially
designed plastic cylinder which is subsequently
filled with water. Both vertical and lateral loads
can be increased as required in order to
simulate the in situ stresses. Measurement of
the forces needed to shear the sample is used
in the calculation of bearing capacity. In the
undrained triaxial test (often referred to as the
quick test) the sample, encased in a rubber
sheath, is capped with non-porous end plates to
prevent the pore water escaping and allow axial
loading of the ends. Three tests are carried
out, one each on three samples (all cut from the
same large sample ), each being subjected to a
higher hydraulic lateral pressure before axial
loading is applied. The results are then plotted
in the form of Mohr's circles.
The consolidated undrained triaxial test allows
the sample to drain while applying the hydraulic
pressure, thereby allowing the sample to
consolidate. After consolidation the sample is
stressed without further drainage.
In the drained test, the axial load is applied so
slowly that the pore water can drain off.without
building up any pressure in the sample. The
drainage continues throughout the test and the
amount of water drained oft is measured. In
both cases, where drainage is achieved, the
water passes through porous discs at the ends
of the sample and then through ducts in the
apparatus.
The consolidated undrained test and the
drained test have particular application to the
behaviour of soil in earth dams and
embankments, and also to stability problems in
general.
Consolidation test: used to calculate the
magnitude and rate of consolidation of a
particular soil. This is very important in
calculating the movement of soil under
foundations. The apparatus used is called an
'Oedometer'. The test consists of placing a
cylindrical sample (75 mm diameter x 18 mm
thick) in a metal ring and capping with porous
discs. The sample is placed in a water-filled

January 1997

APPENDIXB
tray and subjected to load. The load is
increased every 24 hours and a timesettlement curve is plotted. Again, this is only
suitable for cohesive soils.
Laboratory CBR: shows the load-penetration
of soils relative to a standard crushed stone,
(see Clause B4.1.3). The test is carried out in
a controlled laboratory situation and is of great
importance as it is laboratory CBR values that
are referred to in QCS and Section 9 Pavement
of QHDM, and which construction materials
and subgrade should meet.
Laboratory Compaction: provides the
optimum moisture content for a soil sample.
Successive samples of soil are progressively
wetted and compacted in a mould. The dry
density/moisture content of these successive
samples is then plotted to find the optimum
moisture content. Typically, the Proctor test is
carried out (in accordance with BS 1377)
though the modified AASHTO and vibrating
hammer techniques are also commonly used.
The value of optimum moisture for the soil is
usefui for preparing a soil prior to site
compaction in order to ensure minimum
compactive effort and specification compliance.
Results achieved are also used in other
laboratory tests such as the CBR test.
Point Load Testing on Rock: involves the
determination of failure strength of rock core
samples either by loading axially, diametrically
or irregularly. Refer to BS 1377 or ISRM
(International Society for Rock Mechanics).
Unconfined Compression Testing (plus
measurement of Deformation Modulus on
Rock): involves measurement of failure
strength and deformation characteristic of
prepared samples. This test can be used either
in the site laboratory or in the field, since the
apparatus is very portable. This method is
therefore particularly useful where a large
number of samples are required to be tested.
Rock samples 75mm long and 38mm diameter
are placed in the apparatus and an axial load
applied. The sample is sheared under load
and the shear stress is automatically recorded
on a chart fixed to the apparatus. Refer to BS
1377.
Sedimentation Test: used to assess whether
material is a silt or a clay. Refer to BS 1377.
Laboratory Permeability: used to determine
permeability of reconstituted samples, ego
subgrade or roadbase materials.
Page B/11

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Miniature Shear Vane: carried out on borehole
samples of cohesive material. Commonly used
when samples are not suitable for other testing.
Chemical Content: a chemical analysis of
soils, rocks and groundwater is carried out to
assess the effects, if any, which their
composition might have on any material to be
used in the proposed works. The tests mainly
cover sulphate and chloride content and pH
val ue, although bacteriological analysis may
also be required for works in tidal mud flats.
B4.3

Earthworks

Earth moving for roads takes place over a


relatively narrow band of terrain and a balance
of cut and fill is often difficult to achieve.
Constraints to the profile are imposed by the
need to provide required clearances for bridges
under or over existing roads or to cross them at
their existing level.
Earthworks should be designed to provide an
adequate safety factor for shear failure and to
ensure that any deformation is within
acceptable limits. The information required
before the cross section of the embankment
can be designed includes:

Ultimate width of top of embankment


including median, shoulder and verge

Loading on top of embankment

Geotechnical properties of foundation


and fill materials

Reservation width
Special considerations, ego tidal area,
sound barriers, services etc.

In the design of approach embankments to


bridges
and
other
structures,
the
superstructures, substructures and associated
earthworks should be designed as a whoie and
not individually. For further reference on
earthworks refer to British Standard 6031, Code
of Practice for Earthworks. The road design
should attempt to minimise earthworks. The
aim shouid be to balance cut and fill
requirements, allowing for rejection of
unsuitable material, bUlking and compaction
factors. This will avoid having to dispose of, or
obtain large quantities of material.
All imported fill material for a CED scheme
must be provided using the services of the
Qatar National Transport Office. The selection
of such material and its placing and compaction

January 1997

APPENDIXB
shall all be in accordance with the Qatar
Construction Specification.
The Ground Investigation Report should
identify the rock horizon for areas of cut, should
suggest methods of excavating the material,
and should identify whether the material is
likely to be suitable for use as a fill material.
B4.4

Retaining Structures

Where sufficient land width is not available to


accommodate the full width of the base of the
embankment, the provision of earth retaining
structures has to be considered. Below is a list
of some of the different types of earth retaining
structures commonly used.

Gravity walls in mass concrete,


brickwork or stone masonry

Reinforced
concrete
counterfortlbuttress

Diaphragm walls

walls,

Piling walls
Crib walls
Gabions
Reinforced earth walls.

Gravity Walls
Gravity walls are suitable if the soil in the lower
part of the cutting can be cut back steeply to a
temporary slope to allow the wall to be
constructed. Any space between the back of
the wall and the temporary slope is then
backfilled.
Reinforced Concrete Walls
Reinforced concrete walls are suitable if the
soil in the lower part of the cutting can be cut
back steeply to a temporary slope to allow the
wall to be constructed. Any space between the
back of the wall and the temporary slope is
then backfilled. Alternatively, these walls can
be constructed in a timbered trench, the soil in
front of the wall being removed after completing
the retaining structure.
Diaphram Walls
Diaphragm walls, continuous bored pile walls
and secant bored piles are suitable for weak,
unstable or heaVily water-bearing soils where a
temporary steep slope cannot be formed or
where construction in a trench would cause
problems of support or loss of ground.

Page 8/12

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Piling Walls
Steel sheet piling may be used as a permanent
retaining wall if consideration is given to some
measure of protection against corrosion where
a very long life is required. Usually, however,
sheet piling is used as a temporary support
during the construction period.
Crib Walls
Precast concrete block walls or crib walls are a
form of gravity section and may be economical
for sites where suitable broken rock or gravel is
available as a fill material for the cribs.
Gabion Walls
Gabions are suitable for sites where broken
rock, boulders or large gravel are available for
filling the wire mesh baskets and where space
is available to arrange the baskets in tiers to
form a stepped-back retaining wall. A very long
life is not possible with gabion walls, but plasticcovered galvanised wire mesh can provide
many years of useful support. The flexibility of
a gabion retaining wall is advantageous for
sites where appreciable deformation of a slope
may occur as a result of stress relief.

Gabions
are
partiCUlarly suitable
for
construction in conditions where earth slopes
are temporarily or permanently flooded and
subjected to scour from flowing water.
Reinforced Earth Walls
Reinforced earth retaining walls can be formed
in the lower part of a cutting siope by
excavating at the toe to form a temporary steep
slope, then replacing the excavated soil in
compacted layers of essentially granular
material, each layer being reinfQrced by
horizontai metal or plastic ties (refer to Clause
B5.3). The steeply inclined face of the retaining
wall is protected by metal, reinforced concrete
or plastic cladding elements. Reinforced earth
retaining walls have the advantage of flexibility
and are suitable for soil conditions where
appreciable forward movement or heaving of a
cutting is anticipated as a consequence of
stress relief.

Consideration may also be given to the use of


ground anchors or rock bolts. Information on
methods of design and construction of the
above types of wall can be found in the British
Standard publications, BS 8002 Code of
Practice for Earth Retaining Structures and BS
8004 Code of Practice for Foundations.
In all cases and for all types of retaining walls
attention should be given to drainage at the
back of the wall in order to prevent hydrostatic
pressure on the retaining structure and to avoid
a general rise in pore pressure in the soii or
rock mass behind the wall.
January 1997

APPENDIX B
B4.5

Geosynthetics

Geosynthetics are extremeiy versatile and may


be used in the following instances:
..

Reinforcement for subgrade and subbase materials in roads


Line drainage facilities, ego wrapping
aggregate around soakaways to
prevent loss of fine materials, to
separate materials of different grade or
placed behind a retaining wall to act as
a drainage medium

..

Reinforcement for soil slopes (cutting


or embankment)

..

Provide a capillary barrier against


rising ground moisture.

In all cases the engineer shall refer to the


manufacturers technical literature and check
the suitability of a geosynthetic for the particular
application.
There are a number of different trade names of
geosynthetics available and the usage and
design of such materiais is dealt with within
their own respective technical literature.
B5

SAMPLE
PRO
FORMA
FOR
QUANTIFYING
GEOTECHNICAL
SITE INVESTIGATIONS

The following five pages show a sample pro


forma Bill of Quantities to be used when
quantifying a site investigation (with notes).
The testing programme shown may be reduced
or expanding according to the type of
investigation required.
It is important to identify each element of work

required in a schedule in as much detail as


possible. This serves two purposes. Firstly, it
acts as a checklist and enables the engineer to
list precisely the requirements of the brief.
Secondly, a detailed list with item descriptions
enables the brief to be priced by the tenderers
on an even basis and reduces the probability of
hidden extra costs.
The pro forma has been split into three
sections with notes:
..

Fieidwork

..

Laboratory work

Reporting.

Page B/13

OATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX 8

Scope Of Works for Geotechnical Investigation

I Project Code
Project Title
SECTION 1 - FIELDWORK
Ref

Item Description

F1

Walkover/Desk
Study

F2

Boreholes

F2.1

Mobilisation

Notes

Oty

Unit

Including all permits, and reporting.


Available data from existing geotechnical
mapping and any other sources shall be
combined with a geological walkover survey
of the site. The combined survey shall
identify such areas as rock outcrop,
sabkah, water courses, water collection
areas etc. The results are to be marked on
topographical plans of 1:2000 scale or
1:500 scale as directed. One copy of the
results are to be submitted to the Engineer
as part of the Site Investigation Report
(refer R1).

Item

All items associated with all mobilisation for


boreholes including location of boreholes.
The approximate location of all boreholes,
trial pits and surface samples shall be
indicated on the contract drawings. The
precise positions shall be agreed with the

Item

Rate
(OR)

Total
(OR)

Engineer prior to commencement on site.

F2.2a

Drilling of Boreholes

Light cable percussion and rotary core


drilling to 20m, including hand dig for
services as required, liaison with utilities,
moves between boreholes, photographs,
borehole iogs, reinstatement of boreholes
and reporting. The Contractor shall provide
full information on the strata and the
engineering properties of all soils and rock
encountered. See Notes 5, 7, 8, 9, 14.

F2.2b

Additional Drilling

Addifional drilling depth rate per m below


20m b.g.1.

F2.3

SPT in Borehole

In situ SPTs shall be made on all


cohesionless and non-cemented strata, in
accordance with QCS Section 3 Part 4 Soil
Sampling.

Nr

F2.4

Standpipe in
Borehole

Installation and monitoring of standpipe in

Nr

Rate

borehole.

F2.5a

Rotary Open .Drilling

Rotary open drilling 100mm diameter,


including collection and logging of chipping
samples to depths of 30m b.g.l., including
reinstatement.

F2.5b

Additional Drilling

Additional rotary open drilling depth, rate


per m below 30m b.g.1.

F2.6

Permeability Test in
Borehole

Falling head test to BS 5930.

January 1997

Nr

Nr

Rate

m
Nr

Page 8/14

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL


Ref

APPENDIX B
Notes

Item Description

Qty

Unit

Item

F3

Trial Pits

F3.1

Mobilisation

All items associated with mobilisation for


trial pits.

F3.2a

Excavation of Trial
Pit
Hand Excavation

Excavation to 1.2m, including liaison with


utilities, moves between trial pits,
photographs, trial pit logs and reporting.
See Notes 6, 7, 8, 9,14.

Nr

F3.2b

Excavation of Trial
Pit
Machine Excavation

Excavation to 3.0m including liaison with


utilities, moves between trial pits,
photographs, trial pit logs and reporting.
See Notes 6, 7, 8, 9,14.

Nr

F3.3

Reinstatement of
Trial Pit

Trial pits shall be backfilled and compacted


in accordance with QCS. All materials shall
comply with QCS.

Nr

F3.4

Soakaway and
permeability Test

See Note 17.

Nr

F4

Additional Methods

F4.1

Pavement Coring

Cores shall not be less than 150 mm


diameter and shall be taken through the full
thickness of the asphalt pavement, such
that the underlying, unbound material is
exposed.
All core holes shall be backfilled with fme
cold asphalt mixture or similar approved,
placed and compacted in layers using a
suitable tamper such as a plate attached to
vibrating hammer. Backfilling shall take
place immediately upon completion of
testing.

Nr

F4.2

Dynamic Cone
Penetrometer Testing
on Pavements

DCP testing in accordance with TRL


Information Note at core locations shall be
carried out immediately upon completion of
coring and the hole is then sponged dry. A
profile of the bearing capacity to a depth of
800mm below the road surface or until
resistance to penetrate is such that for 30
blows less than 5mm of penetration is
achieved. The DCP plot and profile shall
be provided at each location. See Note 10.

Nr

F4.3

Dynamic Cone
Penetrometer Testing

DCP testing in unconsolidated material to a


depth of 2m or until resistance to penetrate
is such that for 30 blows less than 5mm
penetration is achieved. The DCP plot and
profile shall be provided at each location.

Nr

F4.4

Plate Bearing Test

Test to be carried out at foundation or


formation level. Plate to be approximately
600mm sq, loading details to be suitable for
project requirements. Contractor to supply
reaction load.

Nr

F4.5

Shear Vane Test

Test shall be in soft sensitive clays. Vane


to consist of four blades 75mm x 150mm.

Nr

F4.6

In Situ Density Test

Tests shall be by core cutter, sand


replacement or nuclear density metre as
appropriate to the soil type.

Nr

F4.7

In Situ CBR

Tests in accordance with BS 5930.

Nr

January 1997

Rate
(QR)

Total
(QR)

Page B/15

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX B

SECTION 2 LABORATORY WORK


Ref

Notes

Item Description

Qty

Unit

L1

Atterberg Limits

See Note 12.

Nr

L2

Particle Size
Distribution

See Note 12.

Nr

L3

CSR

See Note 12.

Nr

L4

Chemical Tests

pH, Sulphate and Chloride. See Note 12.

Nr

L5

Dry Density / Moisture


Content Relationship

See Note 12.

Nr

L6

Moisture Content and


Density

See Note 12.

Nr

L7

Triaxial Test

See Note 12.

Nr

L8

Point Load Test in


Rock

See Note 12.

Nr

L9

Unconfined
Compression Test
(with Modulus of
Deformation on Rock)

See Note 12.

Nr

L10

Sedimentation Test

See Note 12.

Nr

L11

Laboratory
Permeability Test

See Note 12.

Nr

L12

Miniature Shear Vane


Test

See Note 12.

Nr

Rate
(QR)

Total
(QR)

SECTION 3 - REPORTING
R1

Site Investigation
Report

Comprehensive factual and interpretative


Geotechnical
Report,
including
photographs, the number of copies to be as
specified. See Note 13.

Item

NOTES
1

These notes apply to Field Work, Laboratory Work and Reporting. It is assumed that the rates
for the above items include for the requirements of these notes.

The purpose of a geotechnical investigation is to provide information to determine parameters


sufficient for concept or detailed design, as required. The investigations should enable the
Consultant to advise the Engineer on the requirements necessary for further investigation work
that will enable quantification of the project.

All works shall be carried out in accordance with QCS Section 3 Ground Investigation.

The Contractor shall exercise the greatest possible care to ensure that both field and laboratory
work are of the highest quality.

The measurement of the depth of the trial pits and boreholes shall be taken from the level at
which the pit or bore enters the ground. The positions of all boreholes and trial pits shall be
recorded to within an accuracy of 1m together with the ground levels to the nearest 50mm,
related to the Qatar National Datum (refer to QCS Section 3). This-information shall be recorded
on the plans and submitted to the Engineer as part of the Report.

January 1997

Page B/16

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIX 8

Trial pits shall be excavated to rock level or otherwise to the limit of the mechanical excavator,
nominally a depth of 2.5 m. The depth of boreholes may be varied by the Engineer subject to
the strata encountered on site. Bed rock in boreholes shall be proved for a minimum depth of
5m. In cuttings remote from structural foundations, the depth of boreholes shall be 3m below
proposed formation level.

All excavations shall be logged by a fully qualified geotechnical engineer or engineering


geologist and such logs shall form part of the Report. Refer to QCS Section 3 Clause 1.6.7.

The equipment used for excavation, boring, sampling and testing shall be subjected to the
approval of the Engineer. Under no circumstances shall water be used to assist boring through
clay.

If any object, natural or artificial, obstructs either setting up or progress of excavating and boring
the matter shall be reported to the Engineers Representative, who may direct the excavation or
borehole to another location to avoid the obstacle.

10

DCP testing shall be in accordance with the UK Transport Research Laboratory (TRL)
Information Note, Operating Instructions for the TRL Dynamic Cone Penetrometer, 1991.
Analysis of the DCP reading shall be made using the latest version of the TRL DCP computer
programme based on the folloWing relationship between penetration resistance and estimated
in situ CBR:
Log,o (CBR) = 2.48 - 1.057 Log,o (Strength)
It should be noted that this formula may not be applicable to Qatar conditions and results
obtained should be treated with caution.
The analysis shall account for the effect of water used in the coring process on the aggregate
layers.

11

All rotary core samples shall be retained for a period of six months at the offices of the
Contractor for the purpose of inspection. All core samples shall be colour photographed and
postcard size prints inserted in each copy of the report. Photographs are to be taken at a
distance from core samples to enable a detailed study of the core.
Small disturbed samples shall be taken at changes of strata and at approximately 1.0m intervals
within each type of material.
Bulk disturbed samples of at least 80 kg weight shall be taken in cohesive materials as directed
by the Engineer at a change of strata and not greater than 1.0m intervals within each type of
material. One small disturbed sample shall be taken between each two successive bulk
disturbed samples. The samples shall be sealed, transported, protected and stored such that
no change in moisture content and soil structure occurs.
Surface samples shall be bulk disturbed samples of at least 80 kg weight and these shall be
taken in accordance with the recommendations given in BS 5930.
Samples of groundwater of at least one litre shall be taken, and the level at which water is struck
and standing water levels shall be observed and recorded

12

All laboratory testing shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant procedures given in BS
1377: 1990, Testing of Soils, save that the method for both compaction tests and recompaction
of samples of the CBR test, which shall be in accordance with Central Materials Laboratory
method of test CML 12-97 and CML 10-97.
Soil and groundwater samples shall be analysed for the following:

..
..
January 1997

sulphates
chlorides
pH
grading / classification (as appropriate)

Page 8/17

QATAR HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPENDIXB

For each trial pit and borehole, soil samples shall be tested at each change in strata, with a
minimum of 2 tests in the overburden above the rock.
Detailed engineering logs shall be submitted, in accordance with QCS Section 3.
13

The Contractor shall submit daily allocation sheets and preliminary iogs and test resuits in
accordance with QCS Section 3 Clauses 1.6.1, 1.4.1 and 1.4.3.
As soon as possible after the completion of the Laboratory Testing, the Contractor shall submit
5 copies of his factual and interpretative report, prepared in accordance with QCS Section 3
Ciause 1.4.5.

14

The Contractor shall take all reasonable precautions to safeguard all existing on-site services.
The Contractor will be held liable for any damage to such services which may be attributable to
his negligence. Refer to QCS Section 3 Clause 1.6.6.

15

The Contractor will be expected to carry out the on-site works expeditiously and in one visit.

16

The Contractor shall give a minimum of 48 hours notice, in writing, to the Engineer, before he
commences any work on site.
The Contractor is to carry out the works to the entire satisfaction of the Engineer, and is to work
in such a way that no inconvenience is caused to other contractors, statutory undertakers or the
general pUblic who may be in the locality.
The responsibility for obtaining Road Opening Permits and the like shall be upon the Consultant,
who shall adhere to all the requirements of any authority.
The Consultant shall allow in his fee submission for all requirements of QCS Section 3 Clause
1.6.1 including hand excavation to determine the presence of utility lines prior to the
commencement of mechanical excavation.

17

In selected trial pits, the Consultant shall undertake tests to determine the suitability of the
substrata to dissipate water. The results of these tests shall be reported and utilised in the
design of stormwater soakaways, positive drainage systems or water ground relief systems. The
design of soakaways shall be in accordance the current CED design practice and BRE Digest
365, modified as appropriate for local conditions.

18

The location of utility lines el'lcountered in the excavation shall be logged and their condition
noted. When trial pits are specified in the Project Brief for utilities location and condition
surveys, the Consultant shall ensure that a representative of each utility company is present to
confirm the responsibility of the apparatus encountered.

January 1997

Page B/18