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1 The diagram shows a simple mercury

barometer.

On which diver is there the greatest pressure?

5 The air trapped in a cylinder by a piston is kept


under pressure by a load, as shown in
Fig. 4.1.

If atmospheric pressure increases, what happens


to level X and to level Y?

2 A measured mass of gas is placed in a cylinder


at atmospheric pressure and is then slowly
compressed.

If the temperature of the gas does not change,


what happens to the pressure of the gas?
A It drops to zero.
B It decreases, but not to zero.
C It stays the same.
D It increases.

(a) Describe how the pressure in the cylinder is


caused by the air molecules.
(b) The load is increased.
(i) State what happens to the piston.
(ii) State what happens to the pressure in the
cylinder, and give a reason.
what happens

6 Which diagram shows the child exerting least


pressure on the ground?

3 The diagram shows an instrument used to


measure gas pressure.

What is the instrument called?


A ammeter
B barometer
C manometer
D thermometer
4 The diagrams show two divers swimming in the
sea and two divers swimming in fresh water. Sea
water is more dense than fresh water.

7 A manometer is being used to measure the


pressure of the gas inside a tank. A, B, C and D
show the manometer at different times.
At which time is the gas pressure inside the tank
greatest?

8 Driving a car raises the temperature of the tyres.


This causes the pressure of the air in the tyres to
increase.
Why is this?
A Air molecules break up to form separate atoms.
B Air molecules expand with the rise in
temperature.
C The force between the air molecules increases.
D The speed of the air molecules increases

(a) The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 and the


acceleration of free fall is 10 m/s2.
Calculate the pressure that the water exerts on
the diver.
(b) The window in the divers helmet is 150 mm
wide and 70 mm from top to bottom.
Calculate the force that the water exerts on this
window.

9 (a) A farmer has two vehicles with the same


weight and the same number of wheels.
Fig. 4.1 shows what the wheels on these two
vehicles look like.

11 The diagram shows a simple mercury


barometer. The barometer reading is hcm of
mercury

Which vehicle should the farmer use when driving


across his fields when the ground is
very soft? Give your reasons.
(b) (i) If you stepped on the point of a sharp nail
with your bare foot, it would be
extremely painful. Explain, in terms of pressure,
why this is so.
(ii) A person can lie on a bed of nail-points if
there is a large number of nails. Explain
why this is not extremely painful.

What is the pressure at S?


A approximately zero
B atmospheric pressure
C atmospheric pressure + hcm of mercury
D hcm of mercury
12 Two boys X and Y each have the same total
weight and are standing on soft ground.

10 Fig. 2.1 shows a diver 50 m below the surface


of the water.

Which boy is more likely to sink into the soft


ground and why?

13 A student places his thumb firmly on the outlet


of a bicycle pump, to stop the air coming out.

What happens to the pressure and to the volume


of the trapped air as the pump handle is pushed
in?

14 A balloon is inflated in a cold room. When the


room becomes much warmer, the balloon
becomes
larger.
How does the behaviour of the air molecules in
the balloon explain this?
A The molecules become larger.
B The molecules evaporate.
C The molecules move more quickly.
D The molecules repel each other.
15 Liquid X has a density of 1010 kg / m3. Liquid
Y has a density of 950 kg / m3.
The liquids are poured into tubes as shown.
Which tube has the greatest pressure on its base?

16 The diagram represents gas molecules


contained in a cylinder. The piston is moved
slowly
downwards and the temperature of the gas stays
the same.

Why does the pressure of the gas increase?


A The molecules collide harder with the walls.
B The molecules collide more often with the walls.
C The molecules move more quickly.
D The number of molecules increases.
17 (a) In Fig. 2.1, the sealed drum containing gas
has a mercury manometer connected to it in
order to indicate the gas pressure.

For convenience, gas pressure is often expressed


in mm of mercury.
The gas pressure is 781 mm of mercury and air
pressure is 760 mm of mercury.
(i) State the difference in height between levels A
and B on the manometer.
difference in height = ...mm
(ii) The temperature of the gas rises.
State what happens to
1. the gas pressure,
2. the level A,
3. the level B.
(b) The air in part (a) is also pressing on a large
window pane in the wall of the room where
the drum is situated.
(i) State how the air pressure on the window pane
compares with the air pressure on
the mercury surface at B in Fig. 2.1.
(ii) State how the force exerted by the air on the
window pane compares with the force
exerted by the air on the mercury surface at B.

18 Fig. 2.1 shows a reservoir that stores water.

(a) The valve in the exit pipe is closed. The


density of water is 1000 kg/m3 and the
acceleration of free fall is 10 m/s2.
Calculate the pressure of the water acting on the
closed valve in the exit pipe.
(b) The cross-sectional area of the pipe is 0.5m2.
Calculate the force exerted by the water on the
closed valve.
(c) The valve is then opened and water, originally
at the surface of the reservoir, finally

flows out of the exit pipe. State the energy


transformation of this water between the
surface of the reservoir and the open end of the
pipe.

22 An experiment is set up as shown.

19 A water manometer is used to measure the


pressure of a gas supply to a house. It gives a
reading of h cm of water.

What does the pressure gauge show as the air in


the flask becomes hotter?
A a steady pressure
B a decrease in pressure
C an increase in pressure
D an increase and then a decrease in pressure
Why is it better to use water rather than mercury
in this manometer?
A h would be too large if mercury were used.
B h would be too small if mercury were used.
C The tube would need to be narrower if mercury
were used.
D The tube would need to be wider if mercury
were used.

23 (a) On a hot day, a child drinks all the water in


a plastic bottle. She then screws the cap
back tightly on the bottle, so that the bottle
contains only air.

20 A farmer has two carts. The carts have the


same weight, but one has four narrow wheels and
the other has four wide wheels.

In rainy weather, which cart sinks less into soft


ground, and why?

21 A measured mass of gas is placed in a cylinder


at atmospheric pressure and is then slowly
compressed.

The temperature of the gas does not change.


What happens to the pressure of the gas?
A It drops to zero.
B It decreases, but not to zero.
C It stays the same.
D It increases.

She throws the bottle into a waste basket, where


the Sun shines on it.
After a while in the Suns rays, the air in the bottle
is much hotter than before.
(i) State what has happened to the pressure of the
air in the bottle.
(ii) In terms of the behaviour of the air molecules,
explain your answer to (a)(i).
(b) Also in the waste basket is a broken glass
bottle containing a small quantity of water, as
shown in Fig. 5.2.

As the Sun shines on it, the volume of water


slowly decreases.
(i) State the name of the process causing this
decrease.

(ii) In terms of the effect of the Suns rays on the


water molecules, explain your answer
to (b)(i).

27 Fig. 3.1 shows a pond that is kept at a constant


depth by a pressure-operated valve in the
base.

24 The diagram shows a mercury barometer.

Which distance is used to calculate the pressure


of the atmosphere?
A 25 cm B 75 cm C 80 cm D 100 cm
11 Four blocks, each weighing 10 N, rest on a
horizontal table.
Which block applies the greatest pressure on the
table?

25 (a) Fig. 3.1 shows two examples of footwear


being worn by people of equal weight at a
Winter Olympics competition.

Which footwear creates the greatest pressure


below it, and why?
(b) Drivers of high-sided vehicles, like the one in
Fig. 3.2, are sometimes warned not to
drive when it is very windy.

Suggest why they receive this warning.


26 Fig. 3.1 shows a pond that is kept at a constant
depth by a pressure-operated valve in the
base.

(a) The pond is kept at a depth of 2.0 m. The


density of water is 1000 kg/m3.
Calculate the water pressure on the valve.
(b) The force required to open the valve is 50 N.
The valve will open when the water depth
reaches 2.0 m.
Calculate the area of the valve.
(c) The water supply is turned off and the valve is
held open so that water drains out
through the valve.
State the energy changes of the water that occur
as the depth of the water drops from
2.0 m to zero.
28 Fig. 5.1 shows a way of indicating the positions
and direction of movement of some
molecules in a gas at one instant.

(a) (i) Describe the movement of the molecules.


(ii) Explain how the molecules exert a pressure
on the container walls.
(b) When the gas in the cylinder is heated, it
pushes the piston further out of the cylinder.
State what happens to
(i) the average spacing of the molecules,
(ii) the average speed of the molecules.
(c) The gas shown in Fig. 5.1 is changed into a
liquid and then into a solid by cooling.
Compare the gaseous and solid states in terms of
(i) the movement of the molecules,
(ii) the average separation of the molecules.
29 (a) For a special parade, the guest of honour is
to sit on a chair whilst the parade passes
by. Unfortunately the ground beneath the chair is
soft, so the parade organisers put the
chair on a large flat board, as shown in Fig. 1.1.

Explain why the board prevents the chair from


sinking into the ground.
(b) At the parade, some air-filled balloons are
used as decorations, as shown in Fig. 1.2.

(i) State what happens to the balloons when the


Sun makes them hotter.
(ii) In terms of molecules, explain your answer to
(b)(i).
(c) A pump is used to pump up the balloons in (b).
A valve in the pump becomes blocked,
as shown in Fig. 1.3.

(i) The piston of the pump is pushed in. State


what happens to the pressure of the air
trapped in the pump.
(ii) In terms of molecules, explain your answer to
(c)(i).
30 To prevent a cement mixer sinking into soft
ground, the mixer is placed on a large flat board.

Why does this prevent the mixer sinking?


A The large area decreases the pressure on the
ground.
B The large area increases the pressure on the
ground.
C The large area decreases the weight on the
ground.
D The large area increases the weight on the
ground.
31 The diagram shows a simple mercury
barometer.

The atmospheric pressure increases.


Which distance increases?
A VW B WY C XY D XZ
32 A pressure is measured using a manometer as
shown in the diagram.

The water in the manometer is replaced with a


liquid which is more dense.
How does the value of h change?
A It becomes zero.
B It decreases, but not to zero.
C It stays the same.
D It increases.
32 A cylinder is filled with a gas and then sealed,
so that the gas has a fixed volume.

The gas molecules are given energy so that their


average speed increases.
What happens to the pressure and to the
temperature of the gas in the cylinder?

34 Fig. 2.1 shows a steam safety valve. When the


pressure gets too high, the steam lifts the
weight W and allows steam to escape.

33 (a) Fig. 6.1 shows how the pressure of the gas


sealed in a container varies during a period
of time.
(a) Explain, in terms of moments of forces, how
the valve works.
(b) The moment of weight W about the pivot is 12
N m. The perpendicular distance of the
line of action of the force of the steam on the
valve from the pivot is 0.2 m.
The area of the piston is 0.0003 m2.
Calculate
(i) the minimum steam force needed for the steam
to escape,
(ii) the minimum steam pressure for the steam to
escape.
Which of the following statements could explain
this variation of pressure?
Tick two statements.

35 The diagram shows a simple mercury


barometer, used to measure atmospheric
pressure.

(b) Fig. 6.2 shows some gas trapped in a cylinder


with a movable piston.
Atmospheric pressure increases.
What happens to the level L and to the pressure
at P?

The temperature of the gas is raised.


(i) State what must happen to the piston, if
anything, in order to keep the pressure of
the gas constant.
(ii) State your reasons for your answer to (b)(i).

36 The gas in a container is heated but is kept at


constant volume.
Why does the gas pressure increase?
A The molecules expand.
B The molecules increase in mass.
C The molecules move further apart.

D The molecules move more rapidly.


37 Fig. 3.1 shows a simple mercury barometer,
drawn 1/10 full size.

Which statement is correct?


A The pressure at P is atmospheric pressure.
B The pressure at P is nearly zero.
C The pressure at Q is lower than the pressure at
P.
D The pressure at Q is nearly zero.
40 A brick with rectangular sides rests on a table.

(a) On Fig. 3.1, use your rule to make an


appropriate measurement, and then use it to
calculate the atmospheric pressure.
(b) State what occupies the space in the tube
above the mercury.

The brick is now turned so that it rests on the


table on its smallest face.

12 A manometer is used to indicate the pressure


in a steel vessel, as shown in the diagram.

What value does the liquid manometer give for the


pressure in the vessel?
A It is zero.
B It is between zero and atmospheric pressure.
C It is equal to atmospheric pressure.
D It is greater than atmospheric pressure.
38 Four glass tanks contain water.
In which tank is the pressure of the water on the
base greatest?

39 The diagram shows a simple mercury


barometer used to measure atmospheric
pressure.

How has this change affected the force and the


pressure exerted by the brick on the table?

41 The pressure of a fixed mass of gas in a


cylinder is measured. The volume of the gas in
the
cylinder is then slowly decreased.
Which graph could show the change of pressure
of the gas during this process?

mercury in both tubes.


Which labelled position on the right-hand tube
could show the mercury level in that tube?

42 Fig. 6.1 shows two mercury barometers


standing side by side. The right-hand diagram is
incomplete. The space labelled X is a vacuum.

(a) On the left-hand barometer, carefully mark the


distance that would have to be measured
in order to find the value of the atmospheric
pressure. [2]
(b) A small quantity of air is introduced into X.
(i) State what happens to the mercury level in the
tube.
(ii) In terms of the behaviour of the air molecules,
explain your answer to (b)(i).
(c) The space above the mercury in the righthand barometer is a vacuum.
On Fig. 6.1, mark the level of the mercury surface
in the tube.
(d) The left-hand tube now has air above the
mercury; the right-hand tube has a vacuum.
Complete the table below, using words chosen
from the following list, to indicate the
effect of changing the external conditions.
rises falls stays the same

43 The diagrams show two mercury barometers


standing side by side. The right-hand diagram
shows a tube of bigger diameter, but the diagram
is incomplete. There is a vacuum above the

44 A student fills two containers with water


(density 1.0 g / cm3) and two with oil (density 0.8 g
/ cm3),
as shown in the diagrams.
In which container is the pressure on the base the
greatest?

45 A piston traps a certain mass of gas inside a


cylinder. Initially the piston is halfway along the
length of the cylinder.
The piston is now moved towards the open end of
the cylinder. The temperature of the gas
remains constant.

How are the density and the pressure of the gas


affected by moving the piston?

46 Fig. 4.1 shows a manometer, containing


mercury, being used to monitor the pressure of a
gas supply.

The mercury in the manometer is replaced with a


liquid which is less dense.
How does the value of h change?
A It becomes zero.
B It decreases, but not to zero.
C It stays the same.
D It increases.

(a) Using the scale on Fig. 4.1, find the vertical


difference between the two mercury levels.
(b) What is the value of the excess pressure of
the gas supply, measured in millimetres of
mercury?
(c) The atmospheric pressure is 750 mm of
mercury.
Calculate the actual pressure of the gas supply.
(d) The gas pressure now decreases by 20 mm
of mercury.
On Fig. 4.1, mark the new positions of the two
mercury levels.

49 (a) Fig. 4.1 shows end views of the walls built


by two bricklayers.

47 (a) A man squeezes a pin between his thumb


and finger, as shown in Fig. 6.1.

Which wall is the least likely to sink into the soil,


and why?
(b) Fig. 4.2 shows two horizontal squares P and
Q.

The finger exerts a force of 84 N on the pinhead.


The pinhead has an area of 6.0 105 m2.
(i) Calculate the pressure exerted by the finger on
the pinhead.
(ii) State the value of the force exerted by the pin
on the thumb.
(iii) Explain why the pin causes more pain in the
mans thumb than in his finger.
48 The pressure of a gas is measured using a
manometer as shown in the diagram.

The atmosphere is pressing down on both P and


Q.
(i) Name two quantities that would need to be
known in order to calculate the
atmospheric pressure on square P.
(ii) The area of P is four times that of Q.
Complete the following sentences.

1. The atmospheric pressure on P is


the
atmospheric pressure on Q.
2. The force of the atmosphere on P is
the
force of the atmosphere on Q.

at constant temperature, and the other shows how


the pressure varies with temperature at
constant volume.
The pressure axis has been labelled in each case.

4 What is a simple mercury barometer designed


to measure?
A the pressure beneath a liquid
B the pressure of a gas supply
C the pressure of car tyres
D the pressure of the atmosphere
50 A sealed gas cylinder is left outside on a hot,
sunny day.
What happens to the average speed of the
molecules and to the pressure of the gas in the
cylinder as the temperature rises?

(i) On the appropriate graphs, label one horizontal


axis volume / m3 and the other horizontal
axis temperature / C .
(ii) On one of the graphs, mark, with the letter X,
the pressure of the gas at the ice point.
53 During a period of hot weather, the
atmospheric pressure on the pond in Fig. 3.1
remains constant.
Water evaporates from the pond, so that the
depth h decreases.

51 The diagram shows two mercury barometers.


Barometer 1 is measuring atmospheric pressure
on day 1.
Barometer 2 is measuring atmospheric pressure
on day 2.

Which statement is true?


A The atmospheric pressure on day 1 is less than
the atmospheric pressure on day 2.
B The atmospheric pressure on day 1 is the same
as the atmospheric pressure on day 2.
C The pressure at point X is less than the
pressure at point Y.
D The pressure at point X is the same as the
pressure at point Y.
52 A fixed amount of dry gas is exerting a
pressure on its container.
(a) In terms of molecules, explain what causes the
pressure.
(b) One of the sketch graphs in Fig. 2.1 shows
how the pressure of the gas varies with volume

(a) Study the diagram and state, giving your


reason, what happens during this hot period to
(i) the force of the air on the surface of the pond,
(ii) the pressure at the bottom of the pond.
(b) On a certain day, the pond is 12 m deep.
(i) Water has a density of 1000 kg / m3.
Calculate the pressure at the bottom of the pond
due to the water.
(ii) Atmospheric pressure on that day is 1.0 105
Pa.
Calculate the total pressure at the bottom of the
pond.
(iii) A bubble of gas is released from the mud at
the bottom of the pond. Its initial volume is
0.5 cm3.
Ignoring any temperature differences in the water,
calculate the volume of the bubble as
it reaches the surface.
(iv) In fact, the temperature of the water is
greater at the top than at the bottom of the pond.
Comment on the bubble volume you have
calculated in (b)(iii).

54 Fig. 5.1 shows a gas contained in a cylinder


enclosed by a piston.

pressure gauge, is 300 kPa. The area of crosssection of the cylinder is 0.12 m2.
(a) (i) Describe the motion of the molecules of the
gas.
(ii) Explain how the molecules exert a force on
the walls of the cylinder.
(iii) Calculate the force exerted by the gas on the
piston.
(b) The piston is moved so that the new length of
cylinder occupied by the gas is 50 cm. The
temperature of the gas is unchanged.
(i) Calculate the new pressure of the gas.
pressure =
(ii) Explain, in terms of the behaviour of the
molecules, why the pressure has changed.

(b) The value of h taken using this barometer is


0.73 m. The density of mercury is 13 600 kg / m3.
Calculate the value of the atmospheric pressure
suggested by this measurement.
Use g = 10 m / s2.
(c) Standard atmospheric pressure is 0.76 m of
mercury. Suggest a reason why the value of h in
(b) is lower than this.

55 A chair is placed on protective cups to prevent


damage to the carpet underneath it.

4 A sealed balloon containing some helium gas is


released and rises into the upper atmosphere. As
the balloon rises the temperature of the helium
falls and the balloon expands.
Explain, in terms of atoms,
(a) the effect of the fall in temperature on the
helium pressure,
(b) the effect of the expansion of the balloon on
the helium pressure.

How do the cups change the area of contact with


the carpet and the pressure on it?

4 A soldier wears boots, each having an area of


0.016 m2 in contact with the ground.
The soldier weighs 720 N.
(a) (i) Write down the equation that is used to find
the pressure exerted by the soldier on the
ground.
(ii) Calculate the pressure exerted by the soldier
when he is standing to attention, with both
boots on the ground.
(b) The soldier is crossing a sandy desert.
Explain, stating the relevant Physics, why this
soldier is at an advantage over another soldier
who has the same weight but smaller feet.
(c) The soldiers unit is sent to a cold country, and
on one occasion he has to cross a frozen lake.
Suggest one way that the soldier can reduce the
risk of the ice breaking under his weight.

56 (a) Complete Fig. 4.1 to show a simple


mercury barometer. Insert the correct labels in the
boxes. Label with the letter h the measurement
required to calculate the pressure of the
atmosphere.

2 Fig. 2.1 shows a simple mercury barometer


alongside a mercury manometer that contains
some trapped gas.

Which distance is used to calculate the pressure


of the atmosphere?
A 25 cm B 75 cm C 80 cm D 100 cm
3 Fig. 3.1 shows a manometer being used to
measure the pressure of some gas in a container.
The container is connected to the manometer by a
length of rubber tubing.

From Fig. 2.1 find


(a) the pressure of the atmosphere,
(b) the pressure of the trapped gas.
(c) The atmospheric pressure increases.
State what happens to the levels of mercury in the
manometer.
left-hand level
right-hand level
4 Fig. 4.1 represents part of the hydraulic braking
system of a car.

The force F1 of the drivers foot on the brake pedal


moves piston X. The space between
pistons X and Y is filled with oil which cannot be
compressed. The force F2 exerted by the oil
moves piston Y. This force is applied to the brake
mechanism in the wheels of the car.
The area of cross-section of piston X is 4.8 cm2.
(a) The force F1 is 90 N. Calculate the pressure
exerted on the oil by piston X.
(b) The pressure on piston Y is the same as the
pressure applied by piston X. Explain why
the force F2 is greater than the force F1.
(c) Piston Y moves a smaller distance than piston
X. Explain why.
(d) Suggest why the braking system does not
work properly if the oil contains bubbles of air.
8 The diagram shows a mercury barometer.

(a) State whether the pressure of the gas in the


container is greater than, the same as, or
less than the pressure of the atmosphere.
(b) From Fig. 3.1, deduce the difference between
the gas pressure and the atmospheric
pressure.
mercury
(c) The atmospheric pressure is 752 mm of
mercury.
Calculate the actual pressure of the gas in the
container.
(d) State how the vertical height difference of the
two mercury surfaces changes, if at all, if
a mercury manometer made from a narrower tube
is used.
4 (a) Fig. 4.1 shows some gas contained in a
cylinder by a heavy piston. The piston can move
up and down in the cylinder with negligible friction.

There is a small increase in the pressure of the


atmosphere above the piston.
(i) On Fig. 4.1, draw a possible new position for
the lower face of the piston.
(ii) Explain, in terms of the molecules of the gas
and the molecules of the atmosphere,
your answer to (a)(i).
(b) The pressure of the atmosphere above the
piston returns to its original value, and the
piston returns to its original position, as shown in
Fig. 4.2.

The gas, piston and cylinder are now heated to a


much higher temperature.
(i) On Fig. 4.2, draw a possible new position for
the lower face of the piston.
(ii) Explain, in terms of the molecules of the gas
and the molecules of the atmosphere,
your answer to (b)(i).

IGCSE PHYSICS ON 2002 TO ON 2012