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August 3, 2012

Acknowledgements
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The City of Barnwell and the Lower Savannah Council of Governments appreciate the
efforts of the stakeholders who participated in the development of this Barnwell Bike and
Walk Friendly Action Plan. Their creativity, energy, and commitment to the future of Barnwell are the driving force behind this planning effort. The Lower Savannah Council of Governments and SCDOT provided funding for this effort and the City of Barnwell provided
staff time. The following citizens, City staff, and other agency and organization members
contributed to the development of Barnwells Bike and Walk Friendly Action Plan.

LOCAL ORGANIZERS AND PARTICIPANTS

J. T. Atkinson, City Council


John S. Zawacki, City Administrator
Lynn Cox, Director, Barnwell Tourism/Comm. Devel.
Emily Randell, Director, Barnwell Parks/Recreation Dept.
Todd Gantt, Police Chief, Barnwell Police Department
CJ Washington, Barnwell Schools Transportation
Amy Boney, JDA, P.E. Teacher
Rebekah Grubbs, Anytime Fitness
Daniel Harvey, Anytime Fitness
Amber Richard, Anytime Fitness
Lisa Firmender, Generations Unlimited
Aaron Chavous, Barnwell State Park
Amanda Sievers, Lower Savannah Council of Governments
Stan Holladay, SCDOT Maintenance Office, Barnwell

ALTA PLANNING + DESIGN

Jeff Olson, Principal-in-Charge


John Cock, Project Manager
Jean Crowther, Planner
Sarah Gaskell, Planner
Jack Cebe, Planning and Design intern

WILBUR SMITH ASSOCIATES


Jeff Caroll, Planner
Martin Guttenplan, Planner

SPRAGUE & SPRAGUE

Gaye Sprague, PE, Principal

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction...................................................................................... 1-5
Project Setting......................................................................................................................................1 - 5
Plan Development Process................................................................................................................1 - 5
Benefits of Bike and Walk Friendly Communities ............................................................................1 - 6
Bike and Walk Friendly Communities: The 6 Es................................................................................1 - 7
Goals/Objectives for Bike/Walk Friendly Barnwell.........................................................................1 - 1 0
Plan Organization..............................................................................................................................1 - 1 3

Chapter 2: User Needs Analysis....................................................................... 2-15


Existing Conditions.............................................................................................................................2 - 1 5
Summary of Stakeholder Meeting Comments...............................................................................2 - 1 5
Barnwell Bike Friendly and Walk Friendly Community Audit Results............................................2 - 1 8
Safety Analysis....................................................................................................................................2 - 2 0
Bicycle and Pedestrian Suitability Analysis ....................................................................................2 - 2 4

Chapter 3: Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Network...................... 3-35


Introduction........................................................................................................................................3 - 3 5
Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Network.........................................................................3 - 3 5
Project List...........................................................................................................................................3 - 3 9
Planning Level Cost Opinions...........................................................................................................3 - 4 1

Chapter 4: Program and Policy Recommendations..................................... 4-47


Introduction........................................................................................................................................4 - 4 7
Goals of Program and Policy Recommendations.........................................................................4 - 4 8
Overview of Existing and Potential Partners...................................................................................4 - 4 8
Policy Review.....................................................................................................................................4 - 5 0
Program Recommendations and Policies......................................................................................4 - 6 6
Evaluation, Staffing, and Policy Recommendations.....................................................................4 - 7 3

Chapter 5: Strategies for Implementation...................................................... 5-77


Introduction........................................................................................................................................5 - 7 7
Priority Bikeway and Walkway Projects...........................................................................................5 - 7 8
Potential Funding Sources ...............................................................................................................5 - 8 2

Appendix A: Bike Friendly Community Action Plan Memo......................... A-97


Appendix B: Walk Friendly Community Action Plan Memo....................... B-113

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter Outline:
Project Setting
Plan Development
Process
Benefits of Bike
and Walk Friendly
Communities
Bike and Walk Friendly
Communities: The 6 Es
Goals & Objectives for
a Bike & Walk Friendly
Barnwell
Plan Organization

PROJECT SETTING

The City of Barnwell, SC, the county seat of Barnwell County, is


characterized by its rich history, and its natural and recreational
amenities. Lake Edgar Brown, a 100 acre lake within the city limits,
is located in close proximity to several regional parks and natural
features. The Savannah River Run, a major state bicycle touring
route that roughly parallels the course of the Savannah River, runs
right through the heart of Barnwell. Barnwell is included in the South
Carolina National Heritage Corridor thanks to its numerous buildings
and sites of historical significance, including those located within
the Barnwell Historic District. These features serve as attractions for
residents and visitors alike.
This document is intended to provide an action plan for the City
of Barnwell to establish a more walk-friendly and bike-friendly
community through improved safety, access/mobility, and recreation
options for walking and biking in Barnwell; and programs, policies
and improvements to the communitys bicycle and pedestrian
infrastructure. These elements provide benefits to residents across the

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spectrum of age, economic status, physical ability, neighborhood


location, and daily activity. Improved access and mobility for
pedestrians and bicyclists will offer Barnwells residents, workers,
students, and visitors new opportunities to connect, work, play, shop,
and exercise.

PLAN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

The recommendations in the plan are based upon information


provided by Barnwell stakeholders and the LSCOG prior to and
during a stakeholder workshop held in Barnwell; the analysis of local
facilities and demographics; and proposed routes that will link local
destinations with the LSCOG Regional Bikeway system.
In November 2011, the local organizers and the consultant team
facilitated a Bicycle- and Walk-Friendly Community workshop with
local stakeholders (including local institutions, local staff and other
key organizations and individuals; see the Acknowledgements page
for a complete list of participants).
Prior to the workshop, the consultant team conducted field review
of Barnwell by bicycle, on foot, and by car to develop specific
recommendations for bicycle and pedestrian improvements.

Left: On Bike and on foot field work conducted by the consultant team provided an on the ground perspective of Barnwell.
Right: In November 2011 the consultant team and local organizers conducted a stakeholder workshop to identify needs of the community and set goals for bicycling and walking in Barnwell.

Also prior to the workshop in Barnwell, the consultant team utilized


the League of American Bicyclists Bicycle Friendly Communities
(BFC) program and the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Centers
Walk Friendly Communities (WFC) program as evaluation tools for
Barnwells existing conditions. The consultant team interviewed local
and SCDOT staff and reviewed Barnwells policy and regulatory
documents to come up with a set of recommended action steps.
This action plan proposes a comprehensive system of on- and offstreet bicycle and pedestrian improvements, including greenway
trails, multipurpose trails, sidewalks, intersection improvements, bike
lanes, and bike routes. The plan also includes recommendations for
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B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

improving policies and programs that will complement infrastructure


recommendations to enhance Barnwells walking and bicycling
culture. This plan recommends that the City create a Walk/Bike
Barnwell advisory group (comprised of the stakeholder group from
the workshop [as a start] and other interested individuals), which
would tap the local social and institutional capital available in order
to implement and oversee the plan recommendations.

BENEFITS OF BIKE AND WALK FRIENDLY


COMMUNITIES

The BFC campaign is an awards program that recognizes municipalities


that actively support bicycling. The League of American Bicyclists
(LAB) administers the BFC program. Bicycle friendly communities are
places where people feel safe and comfortable riding their bikes for
fun, fitness, and transportation. A BFC provides safe accommodation
for cycling and encourages its residents to bike for transportation
and recreation. Communities that are bicycle friendly are seen as
places with a high quality of life. This often translates into increased
property values, business growth, and increased tourism. With more
people bicycling, communities experience reduced traffic demands,
improved air quality, and greater physical fitness.
The WFC campaign is an awards program that recognizes
municipalities that actively support walking. The Pedestrian and
Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) administers the WFC program.
Walk-friendly communities are places where people feel safe and
comfortable walking for fun, fitness, and transportation. A WFC
provides safe accommodation for walking and encourages its
residents to walk for transportation and recreation. Communities that
are pedestrian-friendly are seen as places with a high quality of life.
This often translates into increased property values, business growth
and increased tourism.1 With more people walking, communities
experience reduced traffic demands, improved air quality, and
greater physical fitness.

The consultant team utilized the League of American Bicyclists Bicycle Friendly Communities
(BFC) program and the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Centers Walk Friendly Communities (WFC) program as evaluation tools for Orangeburgs existing conditions. More info on
these resources can be found on the programs websites: http://www.walkfriendly.org/ and BFC:
http://www.bikeleague.org/programs/bicyclefriendlyamerica/communities/
1 http://www.ceosforcities.org/work/walkingthewalk
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BIKE AND WALK FRIENDLY COMMUNITIES: THE 6 ES

The core of the BFC and WFC programs are a balanced approach
to Engineering, Education, Encouragement, Enforcement, and
Evaluation- the Five Es. Each of these categories is scored in the
BFC and WFC program applications through a series of detailed
questions. A community must demonstrate success in each of these
areas in order to be considered eligible for an award. Communities
with significant achievements in these areas receive awards, which
are given at Bronze, Silver, Gold, and Platinum levels.
There is also an honorable mention category for communities that
do not qualify for a higher level of award but have demonstrated
progress towards future success.
For the purposes of this action plan, a sixth E, Equity, is included
in order to fulfill the goals and vision of this plan. This plan has been
developed using the 6 Es approach with an intent to provide
action steps in each arena that the community can take towards
becoming more bicycle and pedestrian-friendly. The Six Es are
discussed in detail below
Urban, rural, and suburban communities throughout the U.S. have
participated in the BFC and WFC programs. There is a growing
interest in using the application processes as benchmarking tools
for communities to enhance, develop, and manage their local
programs. Filling out the BFC or WFC application is an education in
itself, as communities see their strengths and opportunities in each of
these categories.
ENGINEERING
BFC/WFC Communities are asked about what bicycle and
pedestrian facilities have been built to promote cycling and walking
in the community. For example, questions in this category inquire
about the existence and content of a bicycle master plan, the
accommodation of cyclists and pedestrians on public roads, and the
existence of well designed bike lanes, sidewalks, and multi-use paths
in the community. Reviewers also look at
the availability of secure bike parking and
the condition and connectivity of both
the off-road and on-road bicycle and
pedestrian networks.
EDUCATION
The questions in this category are
designed to determine the amount of
education available for pedestrians,
cyclists and motorists. Education includes
teaching cyclists of all ages how to ride
safely in any area, from multi-use paths to
congested city streets, as well as teaching
motorists how to share the road safely with
cyclists. Some things that reviewers look at
are the availability of cycling education
for adults and children, the number of
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The existing levee trail provides recreation and transportation opportunities for Barnwells residents.

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

League Cycling Instructors in the community, and other ways that


safety information is distributed to both cyclists and motorists in the
community, including bike maps, tip sheets, and as a part of drivers
education manuals and courses.
ENCOURAGEMENT
This category concentrates on how the community promotes and
encourages bicycling and walking. This can be done through
Bike Month and Bike to Work Week events, as well as producing
community bike/walk maps, route finding signage, community
bike rides and walking events, commuter incentive programs, and
having a Safe Routes to School program. In addition, some questions
focus on other facilities and organizations that promote walking,
cycling or a cycling culture, such as off-road facilities, BMX parks,
velodromes, walking trails and the existence of both walking/running
and bicycling clubs.
ENFORCEMENT
The enforcement category contains questions that measure the
connections between pedestrians, cyclists and law enforcement
communities. Questions address if the law enforcement community
has a liaison with the cycling or walking community; if there are bicycle
divisions of the law enforcement or public safety communities; if the
community uses targeted enforcement to encourage pedestrians,
cyclists, and motorists to share the road safely; and the existence of
bicycling and walking related laws, such as those requiring helmets
or the use of sidepaths.
EVALUATION & PLANNING
Here, the community is judged on the systems that they have in place
to evaluate current bicycling and walking programs, and plans
for the future. Questions are focused on measuring the amount of
walking and cycling taking place in the community, the crash and

Encouragement and education programs are important tools for promoting bicycling and walking safety and awareness.
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fatality rates, and ways that the community


works to improve these numbers. Communities
are asked about whether or not they have a
bike or pedestrian plan, how much of the plan
has been implemented, and what the next
steps for improvement are.
Each of the Six Es was considered by the
project team and stakeholders in developing
the recommendations outlined in this action
plan. These recommendations can be used
to create balanced approaches to improving
the community. Over time, as these efforts
are implemented, conditions for bicycling will
improve. Where programs are not currently
available, opportunities were identified to
connect local efforts to regional programs that
can complement local efforts.
EQUITY

Enforcement, one of the 6 Es, helps promote accountability and


safety for bicyclists, pedestrians, and motorists. Having a police
force thats educated on the laws pertaining to bicyclists and
pedestrians is an important step towards building a safer community for bicycling and walking.

Equity in transportation planning refers to the


distribution of impacts (i.e. benefits and costs)
and whether that distribution is considered
appropriate. Transportation planning decisions
have significant and diverse equity impacts.
Equity in bicycle and pedestrian planning
decisions should reflect community needs
and values. Communities may choose to give
special attention to variances in age, income,
ability, gender, or other characteristics. Barnwell,
LSCOG, and their partner implementation
agencies will target outreach with a diversity of
programs and events, and ensure appropriate
geographic distribution of bike and pedestrian
facilities, and educational programs.

GOALS/OBJECTIVES FOR BIKE/WALK


FRIENDLY BARNWELL

The following goals and objectives are


comments provided by workshop participants
on issues and opportunities for making Barnwell
a more walkable and bikeable community.
The comments are organized into the five Es of
bicycle and pedestrian planning.
Additional comments related to infrastructure
opportunities were noted on maps at the
workshops. These comments are reflected
in the project recommendations. The City of
Barnwell, Barnwell County, SCDOT, LSCOG, and
local agencies (include the School District) and
partners will work collaboratively to achieve
these objectives.
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Stakeholders identified goals related to the 6 Es at the November 2011 workshop.

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GOALS & OBJECTIVES FOR A BIKE & WALK FRIENDLY BARNWELL


ENGINEERING

1. Goal: Enhance connections to schools


1.1. Objective: Tie four schools together
1.2. Objective: Use the railroad bed as rail trail: connects to schools
2. Goal: Improve connections to Barnwell parks and enhance active recreation
opportunities
2.1. Objective: Tie recreation and downtown assets together
2.2. Objective: Create safe routes to parks
2.3. Objective: Connect Fuller Park to levee trail and to future rail trail
2.4. Objective: Make Barnwell State Park (and access to it) more bicycle friendly
2.5. Objective: Create infrastructure for running
2.6. Objective: Make the airport/Veterans Park a destination (walkers already use it)
2.7. Objective: The North end of the levee trail is not used much because it is unpaved
and secluded (security issue) make it more inviting by introducing lighting,
openess and paving.
2.8. Objective: Create a parking area for a trailhead at the intersection of Highway
278 and Ellenton Street, about a mile outside of city limits. (intersection was
recently altered by DOT and has a section of road no longer used)
2.9. Objective: Establish marked biking loops around town of different varieties and
different skill levels
2.10. Objective: Provide places to bicycle with families and children
2.11. Objective: Create opportunities for the people of Barnwell to walk for fitness and
recreation
3. Goal: Improve Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety
3.1. Objective: Improve intersections for pedestrians: crossing is difficult at intersections
3.2. Objective: Make crosswalks more visible with signs (and other treatments)
3.3. Objective: Improve crossing from one levee trail to the other
3.4. Objective: Crosswalk near the CVS is great; crosswalk near the SPORTS gas station
needs to be improved.
3.5. Objective: Improve road conditions: pothole maintenance issues
3.6. Objective: Provide better lighting for pedestrians
3.7. Objective: Improve safety issues along the 5K route

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GOALS & OBJECTIVES FOR A BIKE & WALK FRIENDLY BARNWELL


4. Goal: Provide safe bike/ped access to public/social services (e.g., DHEC clinic,
Generations Unlimited, Senior Center, etc.)
5. Goal: Provide sidewalks on key corridors:
5.1. Objective: Provide sidewalk behind Lakeside Restaurant
5.2. Objective: Improve sidewalks along Jackson Street: it is busy and there are no
sidewalks
5.3. Objective: Improve bicycle and pedestrian conditions along Wellington Road: no
sidewalks, people dont slow down on the bridge or provide room for pedestrians
and cyclists
6. Goal: Develop a shade tree program

EDUCATION

7. Goal: Address health issues related to physical inactivity, especially childhood


obesity
8. Goal: Increase bicycle and pedestrian safety education and awareness
8.1. Objective: Provide helmet education for children
8.2. Objective: Improve motorists interaction and awareness of bicyclists
8.3. Objective: Educate pedestrians and cyclists about properly navigating roadways/
sidewalks

ENCOURAGEMENT

9. Goal: Build upon and expand local interest in cycling and walking
9.1. Objective: Plan for senior population who would like to walk; senior population is
increasing
9.2. Objective: Attract retirees/visitors
9.3. Objective: Make cycling attractive/visible
9.4. Objective:Beautify Barnwell
10. Goal: Prioritize Safe Routes to Schools programming
10.1. Objective: Involve schools
10.2. Objective: Establish safe bus drop off point near school to walk from
10.3. Objective: Hagood Avenue: walking school bus opportunity
11. Goal: Enhance Programming and Utilize Local Partners
11.1. Objective: Partner with ESMM local chapter: encouraging activity
11.2. Objective: Partner with Tri County Ladies of Excellence/Churches

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GOALS & OBJECTIVES FOR A BIKE & WALK FRIENDLY BARNWELL


11.3. Objective: Partner with the State Park and Recreation Walking Initiative
11.4. Objective: Potentially partner with Animal Advocates, which hosts the annual 5K
run (potential partner for advocating sidewalks, trails)

ENFORCEMENT

12. Goal: Address motorist speeding issues, especially near the lake
13. Goal: Enhance security and perception of safety of walking and biking routes
13.1. Objective: Provide for visibility on existing and future trails; eyes on the trail
14. Goal: Increase loose animal enforcement: dogs are a danger to bicyclists and
pedestrians

EVALUATION

15. Goal: Track data regarding cost of bus pickup vs. walking and bicycling to schools

PLAN ORGANIZATION

The Barnwell Bike and Walk Friendly Action Plan is organized as


follows:
Chapter 1: Introduction, provides an overview of this Bike and Walk
Friendly Action Plan and its setting, the action plan development
process, a review of bike and walk friendly community concepts,
and goals of the action plan.
Chapter 2: User Needs Analysis, provides a review of existing
conditions in Barnwell, a stakeholder meeting summary, a safety
analysis, and bicycle and pedestrian suitability analysis.
Chapter 3: Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Network,
outlines the recommended bicycle and pedestrian network, and
planning level cost estimates
Chapter 4: Program and Policy Recommendations, provides an
overview of existing and potential partners, a policy overview,
and identifies priority programs and policies
Chapter 5: Strategies for Implementation, identifies priority
projects and potential funding sources

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B I CY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Chapter 2: User Needs Analysis

Chapter Outline:
Existing Conditions
Summary of
Stakeholder Meeting
Comments
Barnwell Bike Friendly
and Walk Friendly
Community Audit
Results
Safety Analysis
Lower Savannah
Region and Barnwell,
SC
Bicycle and Pedestrian
Suitability Analysis

EXISTING CONDITIONS

The existing bicycle and pedestrian network in Barnwell includes


sidewalks along some major arterials and residential streets, as
depicted in Figure 2-7. An existing multi-use trail is located along the
southern portion of the levee that passes through Lake Brown. The
Savannah River Run State Bike Route is located along Highways US
278 and SC 64. Veterans Park, Fuller Park, and Lemon Park contain
interior trail systems.

SUMMARY OF STAKEHOLDER MEETING COMMENTS

The following are comments from the stakeholder workshop held


on November 8, 2011. The following summarizes key opportunities
and challenges for making Barnwell a more walkable and bikeable
community as identified by the workshop participants.
Opportunities
Connections to schools (Figure 2-1)
Connections to parks, recreation (Figure 2-2)
Desire among citizens and families for bicycling and walking
opportunities
Opportunity to address childhood obesity
Many existing road facilities could be improved with sidewalks
and intersection improvements (Figure 2-3)
Involve seniors, schools, citizen groups
Programming opportunities
Funding opportunities (Recreational Trails Program, Safe Routes
to Schools, Department of Transportation grants)
Challenges
Safety
Lighting, visibility (Figure 2-4)
Bicyclist safety education needed
Motorist education needed
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Maintenance of facilities (Figure 2-5)


Many existing road facilities could be made safer with sidewalks
and intersection improvements (Figure 2-6)
Making bicycling attractive and visible

Photo Inventory of Existing Barnwell Conditions

OPPORTUNITY
Figure 2-1: There are many opportunities to connect bicycle and
pedestrian facilities to Barnwell schools.

OPPORTUNITY
Figure 2-2: There are several opportunities to make bicycle and
pedestrian connections with recreational facilities throughout
Barnwell.

OPPORTUNITY
Figure 2-3: Many existing roadways could be improved for
bicyclists and pedestrians by adding sidewalks and intersection
improvements.

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CONSTRAINT
Figure 2-4: Lighing and visibility can be a safety issue for
bicyclists and pedestrians in some areas.

CONSTRAINT
Figure 2-5: Maintenance of existing facilities is neccessary in
some areas.

CONSTRAINT
Figure 2-6: Many existing roadways lack adequate facilities
for bicyclists and pedestrians.

BICYCLE AND WALK FRIE NDLY COM M U NITY AC TIO N P L AN | 2012

Figure 2-7: Existing Sidewalks in Barnwell

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Colleges
Libraries
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Rivers and Streams
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City Limits
Savannah River Site
ARTS MPO Boundary
COATS MPO Boundary
6 County LSCOG Jurisdiction

LSCOG Regional Bicycle and Pedestrian Study Observed Sidewalks


- Barnwell, SC -

0.5

2
Miles

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BARNWELL BIKE FRIENDLY AND WALK FRIENDLY


COMMUNITY AUDIT RESULTS

Part of applying for recognition as a Bike Friendly Community


involves a detailed audit of a municipalitys engineering, education,
encouragement, enforcement, and evaluation efforts as they relate
to bicycling and walking. This comprehensive inquiry is designed to
yield a holistic picture of a communitys work to promote bicycling
and walking. The following summarizes the results of Barnwells bike
friendly and walk friendly community audits. Complete memos
regarding Barnwells BFC and WFC status are included in the
appendix.

Bike Friendly Community Audit Results


Engineering
Positives
oo Bike racks in downtown area (Figure 2-8)
oo Wide local streets accommodate bicycle traffic
oo Levee trail
Negatives
oo Lack of on-street bicycle facilities and consistent
pedestrian accommodations
oo Lack of consistent street maintenance
Education
Positives

Figure 2-8: A feature in that encourages bike


riding in Barnwell are the bike racks in the
downtown area.

oo Good public distribution of information (Figure 2-9)


Negatives
oo Lack of SRTS programs and adult focused safety campaigns
Encouragement
Positives
oo Master plan in process
Negatives
oo Lack of bicycling and walking events
oo Lack of cycling events and cycling clubs
Enforcement
Positives
oo Equity in ordinances
Negatives
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Figure 2-9: There is a good public distribution of information pertaining to the benefits of
bicycling and walking in Barnwell.

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oo Lack of targeted enforcement


oo Mandatory sidepath use when facility is available
Evaluation
Positives
oo Low fatality and crash rates
oo Master plan in process
Negatives
oo Low bicycle ridership rates
oo Walk Friendly Community Audit Results
Planning
Positives
oo Public input process
oo Block length standards
Negatives
oo Lack of sidewalk policies and pedestrian-friendly parking
policies

Walk Friendly Community Audit Results


Engineering
Positives
oo Presence of crosswalks
oo Traffic calming practices required in new developments
Negatives
oo

Lack of sidewalk design guidelines

oo

Lack of sidewalk inventory

Education and Encouragement


Positives
oo Self-guided walking tour with map
oo Community walking events


Figure 2-10: The presence of crosswalks at
many intersections in Barnwell is a engineering
feature that encourages walking.

Negatives
oo Lack of SRTS programs
oo Lack of adult-focused safety campaigns

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Enforcement
Positives
oo Presence of crossing guards near schools
Negatives
oo Lack of targeted enforcement for pedestrian safety
Evaluation
Positives
oo Geographic center of town is considered somewhat
walkable with Walkscore (Figure 2-11)
Negatives
oo Lack of pedestrian counts/surveys and audit tools

Figure 2-11: The geographic center of town is


considered very walkable with the walkscore.
com community rating tool.
However, most areas immediately outside the center
of town are considered
completely car dependant
using the tool.

SAFETY ANALYSIS

Safety analysis of bicyclists and pedestrians is an important part of


the Evaluation category of Bike and Walk Friendly communities.
Pedestrian and bicycle safety in the roadway environment is
governed by the behavior of all parties and the physical conditions
present. Drivers may not be paying sufficient attention to see
pedestrians and bicyclists in automobile dominated locations,
where other roadway users are not anticipated. In these locations
pedestrians and bicyclists are at higher risk to be involved in crashes
with motor vehicles.
Pedestrian traffic deaths, nationally, have been trending down since
2007. In the midst of this positive trend, South Carolina continues to
rank in the Top 15 of states in pedestrian deaths, in 2009, as depicted
in Figure 2-121.
Though bicycle and pedestrian travel currently account for 13
percent of all traffic fatalities nationally, and 12 percent of all traffic
fatalities in South Carolina, these travel modes account for only 0.6
percent of Federal Safety funds nationally, and 0 percent of South
Carolinas Federal Safety funds. Though pedestrian safety is a federal
priority funding area for these funds, South Carolina spent $134,000
1 Governors Highway Safety Association
2 -2 0 | C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

for one intersection pedestrian safety project in 2010 out


of $6,373,400. 2 In 2008, South Carolina ranked fifth in the
nation for bicycle and motor vehicle related crashes
and deaths. This same year, the state ranked eighth in
pedestrian and motor vehicle related deaths. In 2010,
South Carolina ranked 45th in the nation for levels of
bicycling and walking, yet ranked as 2nd in the nation for
bicycling and walking fatality rates (calculated based on
the number of fatalities divided by the number of persons
engaging in bicycling and walking, as determined by
Census mode share data).3

Lower Savannah Region and Barnwell, SC4


The regions performance in safety for pedestrian and
bicycle modes have not reflected the national or state
trends. While in each of these larger scales, rates have
experienced significant improvements, the regions trend
has been statistically flat during the same period. For a
detailed breakdown and analysis of region-wide trends
in bicycle and pedestrian safety, reference the LSCOG
Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan.
Locations of Identified Crashes

Figure 2-12: Pedestrian fatalities by state, 2009

Conditions or environmental factors may contribute


to the occurrence of pedestrian and bicycle crashes.
Roadways with high traffic volumes (vehicular and/or
bicyclist and pedestrian), high speed vehicular traffic,
low visibility, and inadequate facilities are typically areas
where the most conflicts occur. For example: curves
with limited sight distance and the location of adjacent
facilities to the roadway, e.g. playgrounds, schools, local
bars, are two characteristics that may go unnoticed
as part of a single crash investigation. Over a period of
time, repetitive crashes occurring at a single location
may suggest further investigation of these conditions.
In Figures 2-13 and 2-14, all crashes as reportable are
mapped by jurisdiction. A significant number of locations
are of a single occurrence; those with more than one are
recommended for further investigation.

2 South Carolinas Highway Safety and Performance Plan FFY2010, (2009) Office
of Highway Safety, SC Department of Highway Safety
3 Alliance for Bicycling and Walking. (2010). Bicycling and Walking in the United
States: 2010 Benchmarking Report.
4 All data presented has been derived from accident data provided by the SC
Department of Public Safety for Barnwell County for years 2007, 2008, 2009, and
partial year, 2010
C hapter 2 : U ser N eeds A nalysis | 2-21

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Figure 2-13: Barnwell County, Bicycle and Pedestrian Crash Locations, 2007-2009

2 -2 2 | C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis

BICYCLE AND WALK FRIE NDLY COM M U NITY AC TIO N P L AN | 2012

Figure 2-14: City of Barnwell Bicycle Crash Locations, 2007-2009

C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis | 2-23

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

A summary of bicycle and pedestrian crash data from Barnwell


County indicate that between 2007 and 2009:
3 bicycle crashes and 15 pedestrian crashes occurred; 5 of these
occurred in the City of Barnwell
Crashes resulted in:
oo 1 Bicycle Fatality
oo 2 Pedestrian Fatalities
oo 2 Bicycle Injuries
oo 13 Pedestrian Injuries
Pedestrian Crashes
oo 20% (3) due to peds not being visible (dark clothing)
oo 12% (2) due to driver distracted / inattention
Night Time Crashes Responsible for:
oo 1 Bicycle Fatalities
oo 2 Pedestrian Fatalities
All Fatalities
oo Non-Motorist under the influence

BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN SUITABILITY ANALYSIS

The Bicycle Suitability Analysis (BSA) and Pedestrian Suitability Analysis


(PSA) models were developed to evaluate current and future activity
levels in Barnwell for the Barnwell Community Action Plan.
The analyses:
Quantify factors that impact bicycle and pedestrian activity
Locate bicycle and pedestrian network gaps as potential projects
Identify potential bicycle and pedestrian corridors
Guide the development of new pedestrian and bicycle
infrastructure and programs
BSA and PSA identify areas where cyclists and pedestrians are
most likely to be. The analysis assigns weighted values to available
GIS feature datasets based on their relative impact on cycling
and walking. BSA and PSA also assign values based on distances
to features to which people are likely to bike and/or walk. This
technique assigns scores to the roadway network and can therefore
be used to prioritize projects.

2 -2 4 | C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

The metrics fall into categories of trip generators and attractors but
are further categorized into the criteria of live, work, play, and transit/
roadway quality. The metrics play key roles in influencing bicycle
and pedestrian activity. Table 2-1 describes the metrics used:
Table 2-1: PSA and BSA Metrics Overview
Category
Live
Work
Play
Transportation
and Roadway
Quality

Metric
Population density, vehicle ownership
inventory and journey to work mode
Employment density by job sector and
college enrollment density
Proximity to points of interest and schools
Roadway characteristics

The analysis, depicted in Figures 2-15 though 2-21, is based on data


obtained from the LSCOG and member communities and the
University of South Carolinas GIS Data Server. Data was selected
based on its availability and regional significance.
The composite PSA map (Figure 2-21) for Barnwell indicate that
the majority of the city streets are rank high as potentially attractive
locations for pedestrian activity based on the factors above (the
presence of sidewalks was not available data and thus was not
included in the analysis). The BSA composite map (Figure 2-20)
shows that much of Barnwell does not rank well for attractiveness for
cycling, mostly likely do the lack of on-street bicycle facilities on the
major roadways.

C hapter 2 : U ser N eeds A nalysis | 2-25

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Figure 2-15: Bicycle Suitability Analysis: Live

2 -2 6 | C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis

BICYCLE AND WALK FRIE NDLY COM M U NITY AC TIO N P L AN | 2012

Figure 2-16: Pedestrian Suitability Analysis: Live

C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis | 2-27

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Figure 2-17: Bicycle and Pedestrian Suitability Analysis: Work

2 -2 8 | C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis

BICYCLE AND WALK FRIE NDLY COM M U NITY AC TIO N P L AN | 2012

Figure 2-18: Pedestrian Suitability Analysis: Play

Bicycle Suitability Analysis


Composite "Play" Category
Bicycle Attractor Density

State Rd

ke

S-6-160

State Rd S-6-652

Ja
m

Center S
t

e
Elb

r ta

Oak Ln

a
St

State Rd S-6-64
1

Blanton Dr

St

Vaughan St

V
U

ve
a go o d A

Park St

Simms St

70

Ave

n St
ingto
Wash
St
emy
Acad

rD

wy 64 rly Ln
Beve

ma

H
Pine

Pike St

y
State H w

St
Brown
k Dr
n Par

St

Allen St

Lemo

2n
d

St

Carolina

St

Main

Gra

nt

St

Charles

Gilmore St

H
State

St

Shady Ln

Florence St

Church

Clay St

St

St

Cann
a

t
Wall S

St
u gh

St
Perr y

Barwick Rd

eD

Pine
St

St

G at

Robin Rd
Ir ving
St

ow
Will

na

R
te

S-

7
6-

d
ea

ow

l St

Ln

V
U
70

06

Ci r

ave n

BSA's "Play" category includes proximity to


schools, retail areas and other points of interest.
A regional analysis included a maximum distance of 3
miles between points. In the context of Orangeburg,
a maximum of 1 mile was used.

n
ry L

n
Wa

Der

Woodmont St

Barnwell

ir

Pa
tte

St

-6dS

at
eh

Marlboro Ave

ie
ch

n St
Richardso

Sta
te
R

lk

t
sS

t
on S

Sa

en
Ow

s
Jack

rs
on

34
0

sC
ck
Di

St

t
Dale S

Bethel St

Clinton

St

d
tron R
Amero

Mcdonald Dr

Cities

St
rry
vd
Che y S t
n Bl
r
a r to
Ber
b
n
u
St N D
way
zalea St
A
m
o
B
4th St
t
S
Rose
Ca
m
el
ia
St

e St

Bomba St

ve
ia A

l
App

Major Collector

Principal Arterial

Br
ya
n

Calhou
n

Ow
e ns

St

in
Virg

Minor Collector

Minor Arterial

on

Dr

Byrd St

n
Big

Local

al D

Rd

St
Colony West

Roadways

sp
it

on

S-6-652

Dr

nn

Ca
re
l

nR

nS

Ho

Rey
n

o ld
sR
d
Lake Dr

Libraries

gto

Jac
kso
nS
Ori
t
o le
St
Ma
l l ar
dD
r

Free Attractions

We
llin

{
n

Lake Edgar A Brown Wre


ton S
Ellen

Schools

3rd St

"

Sh
a

Briercliff

Laur
e

Deerwood Rd

Low

es

kR

St

Bla
c

Walnut St

High

V
U
64

Source: Data obtained from LSCOG


Author: Tony Salomone

LSCOG Regional Bicycle and Pedestrian Study


- Barnwell Community Action Plan: Proximity to Points of Interest -

!
I

1,000

2,000

Feet
C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis | 2-29

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Figure 2-19: Pedestrian Suitability Analysis: Play

2 -3 0 | C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis

BICYCLE AND WALK FRIE NDLY COM M U NITY AC TIO N P L AN | 2012

Figure 2-20: Bicycle Suitability Analysis: Composite

C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis | 2-31

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Figure 2-21: Pedestrian Suitability Analysis: Composite

2 -3 2 | C hapter 2: U ser N eeds A nalysis

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Page Intentionally Left Blank

C hapter 2 : U ser N eeds A nalysis | 2-33

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

3 -3 4 | C hapter 3: R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork

B I CY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Chapter 3: Recommended Bicycle and Pedestrian Network

Chapter Outline:
Introduction
Recommended
Bicycle and
Pedestrian Network
Project List
Planning Level Cost
Options

INTRODUCTION

Barnwell has potential to transform itself into a community where


walking and bicycling for transportation and recreation are popular
activities, by creating bicycle and pedestrian opportunities under
the Engineering category of Bike and Walk Friendly Communities. This
chapter lays out a priority recommended pedestrian and bicycle
network, a comprehensive system of walkways, greenways and
bikeways connecting key destinations and surrounding areas. City
staff, the stakeholder group, and consultants all worked together to
develop this recommended system. The network recommendations
build upon current and past planning efforts.
The network maps in this chapter recommend a long-term vision
plan for bicycling and walking infrastructure in Barnwell. Chapter
X, Implementation, lays out a list of priority projects based on local
goals and objectives and opportunities near term success.

RECOMMENDED BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN


NETWORK

Figures 3-5 and 3-6 depict existing and proposed bicycle and
pedestrian facilities. The recommendations included in the figures
are based on the types of bikeways and off-street shared facilities
described below.
Greenways are multi-use paths with exclusive right of way. For
the purposes of this plan, the terms trail and greenway are
considered interchangeable (Figure 3-1).
A sidewalk is a path for pedestrians adjacent to a street and
within the street right of way. Adult bicyclists are generally not
permitted to use sidewalks
A side path is a two-way trail on one side of the road that is
located within the road right-of-way (Figure 3-2).
A connector is a narrow shared-use or pedestrian-only facility
that provides local access to a larger greenway trail or key
destination, usually by connecting a residential area and a larger
trail or park.
C hapter 3 : R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork | 3-35

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Bike lanes safely accommodate bicycle travel by providing


separated space on corridors with current or anticipated high
traffic volumes, providing direct connections to greenway trails,
commercial corridors, and other key destinations.
Shared roadways are indicated by shared lane arrows and are
intended to prioritize safe and convenient bicycle travel on
streets that do not have space for bike lanes (Figure 3-3).
Bicycle routes (or bicycle boulevards) can include traffic calming
measures and other treatments on low-speed and residential
streets, which are generally comfortable for cycling without
special bicycle facilities (Figure 3-4).

Figure 3-1 Greenways: multi-use paths with exclusive right


of way.

Figure 3-2 Side path: a two-way trail on one side of the road
that is located within the road right-of-way.

Figure 3-3 Shared roadway: indicated by shared lane arrows and are intended to prioritize safe and convenient bicycle
travel on streets that do not have space for bike lanes.

Figure 3-4 Bicycle route: can include traffic calming measures and other treatments on low-speed and residential streets,
which are generally comfortable for cycling without special
bicycle facilities

3 -3 6 | C hapter 3: R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork

BICYCLE AND WALK FRIE NDLY COM M U NITY AC TIO N P L AN | 2012

Figure 3-5: Barnwell, SC Existing and Proposed Bicycle Facilities

C hapter 3: R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork | 3-37

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Figure 3-6: Barnwell, SC Existing and Proposed Pedestrian Facilities

3 -3 8 | C hapter 3: R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

PROJECT LIST

Table 3-1 lists each bicycle and pedestrian facility recommended in


the action plan, along with each facilitys type and mileage.
Table 3-1: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility recommendations
Proposed
Greenways/Shared
Use Paths
Corridor
East West Rail Trail
Greenway
Carolina Ave.
Ammie Ave. Path
Jackson St.
Marlboro Ave. Path
West of Jackson St.
Greenway
Clinton St. Path

Lake Edgar A Brown


Greenway
Jackson St.

Ellenton St. Path


Wellington Rd. Path

Senior Center
Ellenton St.

From
Dunbarton Blvd.

To
City Limits

Mileage
3.51

East West Rail Trail


Greenway
City Limits

Carel Dr.

0.79

Hagood Ave.

South of East West


Trail Greenway
East West Rail Trail
Greenway
W Wellington Rd.
Lake Edgar A. Brown
Greenway
Black Rd.

0.8

0.66

Total

10.15

To
Calhoun St.
Marlboro Ave.
Palmetto St.
Wellington Rd.
Reynolds Rd.
Hospital Dr.
Reynolds Rd.
Lemon Park Dr.
Bush St.
Allen St.
Oak Ln.
City Limits
Colony W St.
W Wellington Rd.
Veterans Park
Ellenton St.

Side of Road
North
West
North
East
North
West
North
East
South
East
North
Both (mi x2)
Both (mi x2)
West
East
West

Lake Edgar A. Brown Wellington Rd.


Greenway
New Sidewalks
Corridor
Solomon Price Rd.
Calhoun St.
Church St.
Palmetto St.
Wellington Rd.
Marlboro Ave.
Hospital Dr.
Park St.
Lemon Park Dr.
Bush St.
Main St.
Main St.
Ellenton St.
Ellenton St.
Ellenton St.
Colony W St.
Colony W Ln. Lake
Dr.

From
Forest Dr.
Carolina Ave.
Calhoun St.
Church St.
Palmetto St.
City Limits
Marlboro Ave.
Hagood Ave.
Park Dr.
Lemon Park Dr.
Carolina Ave.
Oak Ln.
Dunbarton Blvd.
Lemon Rd.
Wellington Rd.
Ellenton St.

1.26
0.66
0.47

Mileage
0.66
0.82
0.14
0.09
0.36
0.52
0.27
0.27
0.03
0.1
0.43
1.32
0.86
0.34
0.29
0.41

C hapter 3 : R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork | 3-39

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Wellington Rd.
Clinton St.

Jackson St.
Camelia St.

Reynolds Rd.
Black Rd.

Hospital Dr.
Reynolds Rd.

Proposed Bike Lanes


Corridor
Main St. Allen St.
Dunbarton Blvd.
Marlboro Ave.
Patterson St.
Jackson St.
Dunbarton Blvd.
Ellenton St.
Proposed Shared
Lane Markings
(Sharrows)
Corridor
Hagood Ave.
Main St.
Reynolds Rd.
Proposed
Designated Bike
Routes
Corridor
Rosewood Dr.
Florence St. Galilee
Rd. Huntington Dr.
Westfield St.
Forest Dr. Solomon
Price Rd. Calhoun
St.
Ammie Ave. Old
Castle Rd. Pine
St. Barnwell Elem.
Shannon Dr.
Church St. Oil
St. Jones St.
Wellington Rd. W
Wellington Rd.
Black Rd.

From
City Limits
Ellenton St.
City Limits North
City Limits
Marlboro Ave.
Main St.

Over Bridge
East West Rail Trail
Greenway
Black Rd.
Lake Brown
Greenway

South
West

0.26
0.2

East
North

0.09
0.15

Total

7.61

To
Dunbarton Blvd.
Harris Rd.
City Limits South
Jackson St.
Main St.
City Limits

Mileage
2.11
1.76
3.6
1.38
1.59
1.79

Total

12.23

From
Main St.
Allen St.
Main St.

To
Burr St.
Allen St.
City Limit
Total

Mileage
1.48
1.11
1.38
3.97

From
Hagood Ave.

To
Main St.

Mileage
0.88

Main St.

Oil St.

1.83

Calhoun St.

Reynolds Rd.

1.25

Calhoun St.

Fuldner Rd.

1.48

Reynolds Rd.

Lake Edgar A. Brown 0.31


Greenway

3 -4 0 | C hapter 3: R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Jackson St.
Gilmore St. Bryan
St. Lake Dr.
Church St.
Park St. Lemon
Park Dr. Bush St.
Allen St. Center St.
Main St. Jefferson
St. Washington St.
Vaughan St. Lee St.
Franklin St.
Richardson St.
Jackson St. Clinton
St. Camelia St.
Begonia St.
Apple St. Corley
Heights Richardson
Rd. Virginia Ave.
Georgia Ave.
Georgia Ave.
Virginia Ave.
Fuldner Rd.
Airport Rd. (loop
road)
Dale St. Bethel St.
Amerotron Rd.

Wellington Rd.

Wellington Rd.

1.33

Jones St.

0.11

Hagood Ave.

Greenway
connector
Ammie St.

0.63

Fuller Park

Park St.

1.08

Hagood Ave.
Marlboro Ave.

Allen St.
Dunbarton Blvd

0.35
2.29

Dunbarton Blvd

Ellenton St.

0.78

Ellenton St.

0.38

W Wellington Rd.
Ellenton St.

Greenway
connector
Airport Rd.
Ellenton St.

0.42
0.41

Jackson St.

Marlboro Ave.

0.51

Total

14.04

PLANNING LEVEL COST OPINIONS

The cost of greenway and bikeway facilities significantly varies by


facility type. Some of the variations in cost difference between
facilities may be partially explained by the level of physical separation
intrinsic to a given facility type. For example, the addition of shared
lane marking (sharrows) to an existing roadway requires few changes
to the existing roadway, but provides no exclusive space for bicycle
use. This can be compared to the development of a multi-use path
that provides a greater level of separation from the roadway, but at
a greater fiscal burden.
Methodology
All costs are fully-burdened and include: construction engineering
and administration (20%), mobilization (15%), A and E (architect
and engineer) fees (20%), and contingency (40%). Costs are based
on recent costs incurred by projects throughout the region. Final
costs may be higher or lower based on costs of labor and materials
at the time of construction. Costs for each facility type include
accompanying pavement markings and signage, based on number
of amenities required per mile, divided to arrive at an estimate per
foot (two-way) for each facility type.
C hapter 3 : R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork | 3-41

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Cost Summary
The implementation cost of the projects identified in the Barnwell
Bike and Walk Friendly Action Plan is provided in Table 3-2. Land
acquisition costs are not included within this cost summary table.
Costs are based on recent costs incurred by projects throughout the
region. Final costs may be higher or lower based on costs of labor
and materials at the time of construction. Costs for each facility type
include accompanying pavement markings and signage, based
on number of amenities required per mile, divided to arrive at an
estimate per foot (two-way) for each facility type.
Table 3-2: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility recommendations
Proposed Greenways/
Shared Use Paths
Corridor
East West Rail Trail
Greenway
Carolina Ave. Ammie
Ave. Path
Jackson St. Marlboro Ave.
Path
West of Jackson St.
Greenway
Clinton St. Path
Ellenton St. Path
Wellington Rd. Path
Lake Edgar A. Brown
Greenway
Total

Mileage Est. Cost @


$800,000/mi
3.51
$2,808,000
0.79

$632,000

$1,600,000

0.8

$640,000

1.26
0.66
0.47
0.66

$1,008,000
$528,000
$376,000
$528,000

10.15

$8,120,000

3 -4 2 | C hapter 3: R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

New Sidewalks
Corridor
Solomon Price Rd.
Calhoun St.
Church St.
Palmetto St.
Wellington Rd.
Marlboro Ave.
Hospital Dr.
Park St.
Lemon Park Dr.
Bush St.
Main St.
Main St.
Ellenton St.
Ellenton St.
Ellenton St.
Colony W St. Colony W
Ln. Lake Dr.
Wellington Rd.
Clinton St.
Reynolds Rd.
Black Rd.
Proposed Bike Lanes
Corridor

Main St. Allen St.


Dunbarton Blvd.
Marlboro Ave.
Patterson St.
Jackson St.
Dunbarton Blvd. Ellenton
St.
Total

Side of
Road

Mileage
0.66
0.82
0.14
0.09
0.36
0.52
0.27
0.27
0.03
0.1
0.43
1.32

Est. Cost w/o curb


& gutter install @
$211,000/mi
$139,260
$173,020
$29,540
$18,990
$75,960
$109,720
$56,970
$56,970
$6,330
$21,100
$90,730
$278,520

Est. Cost w/ curb


& gutter install @
$790,000/mi
$521,400
$647,800
$110,600
$71,100
$284,400
$410,800
$213,300
$213,300
$23,700
$79,000
$339,700
$1,042,800

North
West
North
East
North
West
North
East
South
East
North
Both (mi
x2)
Both (mi
x2)
West
East
West

0.86

$181,460

$679,400

0.34
0.29
0.41

$71,740
$61,190
$86,510

$268,600
$229,100
$323,900

South
West
East
North
Total

0.26
0.2
0.09
0.15
7.61

$54,860
$42,200
$18,990
$31,650
$1,605,710

$205,400
$158,000
$71,100
$118,500
$6,011,900

Mileage Est. Cost @


$8,000/mi
(coordinated
with repaving
project)
2.11
$16,880
1.76
$14,080
3.6
$28,800
1.38
$11,040
1.59
$12,720
1.79
$14,320

Est. Cost @
$15,000/mi

$31,650
$26,400
$54,000
$20,700
$23,850
$26,850

12.23

$183,450

$97,840

C hapter 3 : R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork | 3-43

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Proposed Shared Lane


Markings (Sharrows)
Corridor
Hagood Ave.
Main St.
Reynolds Rd.
Total
Proposed Designated Bike
Routes
Corridor

Mileage Est. Cost @


$6,500/mi
1.48
$9,620
1.11
$7,215
1.38
$8,970
3.97
$25,805

Mileage Est. Cost @


$2,000/mi
Rosewood Dr. Florence St. 0.88
$1,760
Galilee Rd. Huntington
Dr. Westfield St.
Forest Dr. Solomon Price
1.83
$3,660
Rd. Calhoun St.
1.25
$2,500
Ammie Ave. Old Castle
Rd. Pine St. Barnwell
Elem. Shannon Dr.
$2,960
Church St. Oil St. Jones 1.48
St. Wellington Rd. W
Wellington Rd.
Black Rd.
0.31
$620
Jackson St. Gilmore St.
1.33
$2,660
Bryan St. Lake Dr.
Church St.
0.11
$220
Park St. Lemon Park Dr. 0.63
$1,260
Bush St. Allen St. Center
St.
Main St. Jefferson St.
1.08
$2,160
Washington St. Vaughan
St. Lee St.
Franklin St.
0.35
$700
Richardson St. Jackson St. 2.29
$4,580
Clinton St. Camelia St.
Begonia St.
Apple St. Corley Heights
0.78
$1,560
Richardson Rd. Virginia
Ave. Georgia Ave.
Georgia Ave. Virginia
0.38
$760
Ave.
Fuldner Rd.
0.42
$840
Airport Rd. (loop road)
0.41
$820
Dale St. Bethel St.
0.51
$1,020
Amerotron Rd.
Total
14.04
$28,080

3 -4 4 | C hapter 3: R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork

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C hapter 3 : R ecommended B icycle and P edestrian N etwork | 3-45

B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

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Chapter 4: Program and Policy Recommendations

Chapter Outline:
Introduction
Goals of Program
and Policy
Recommendations
Overview of Existing
and Potential Partners
Policy Review
Program
Recommendations
and Policies
Evaluation,
Staffing, and Policy
Recommendations

INTRODUCTION

Research has shown that a comprehensive approach to bicycleand walk-friendliness is more effective than a singular approach that
would address infrastructure issues only.1 Marketing, education, and
evaluation programs and local policies are an essential complement
to bicycle and pedestrian facilities planning, and they address the
Education, Encouragement, and Evaluation, and Enforcement
categories of Bike and Walk Friendly communities. These activities
help to raise the profile and public understanding of facilities
investments, increase walking and bicycling mode share and public
support, and help to create a local culture that values walking and
bicycling.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a set of programmatic and
policy recommendations for education, marketing, and evaluation
efforts that will support the goals of the Barnwell Walk and Bike
Friendly Action Plan. These initiatives can be undertaken by local
agencies and community organizations.
Program concepts were developed by the technical team and
were based on:

Right: Numerous
regional partners,
particularly in the
health arena, could
assist with developing and implementing a Walk and
Bike for Health
campaign, including the local hospital
and medical groups
and the East Smart
Move More Coalitions.

knowledge about existing programs in the community and the


state;
a review of local policies and ordinances;
stated community needs and concerns (as communicated
through the stakeholder workshop);
and the consultant teams knowledge about national model
programs and best practices.
For each program, we have provided a description of the basic
approach and, wherever possible, links to model programs. Specific
action steps for the City of Barnwell are also provided. They City and
interested regional and local partners and stakeholders should work
together to develop priority programs based on available resources
and mutually shared objectives.

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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

GOALS OF PROGRAM AND POLICY


RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on input received from Barnwell Stakeholders, programs were


selected to accomplish the following overall goals:
Address health issues related to physical inactivity, especially
childhood obesity
Increase bicycle and pedestrian safety education and awareness
Build upon and expand local interest in cycling and walking
Prioritize Safe Routes to Schools programming
Enhance programming and utilize local partners
Enhance security and perception of safety of walking and biking
routes
Emphasize connections between destinations and existing trails,
sidewalks, and bike-friendly streets

OVERVIEW OF EXISTING AND POTENTIAL PARTNERS

Key Partners

Eat Smart Move More SC (www.eatsmartmovemoresc.org)


A statewide coalition that offers resources to local groups.
Palmetto
Conservation
Foundation
(http://www.
palmettoconservation.org/) A statewide foundation
whose primary role in the LSCOG region is management of
the Palmetto Trail sections that pass through the area.
Palmetto Cycling Coalition (http://www.pccsc.net/) A
statewide coalition that supports local efforts in South
Carolina to promote and protect the rights of bicyclists. The
organization connects communities with national resources,
such as League of American Bicyclist certified instructors,
bicycle skills training courses, and educational materials.
South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental
Control (http://www.scdhec.gov/) This regional office of a
statewide agency offers SCORES, which is an online system
for tracking information/data related to healthy eating and
active living campaigns. Barnwell is within the jurisdiction of
SC DHEC Region 5.
South Carolina Department of Transportation (http://www.
scdot.org/) SCDOT will necessarily be involved in any
project on state-owned facilities, and can be a strong
partner for trainings related to active transportation. They
can also work with local jurisdictions to install Share the
Road signs and help to host an event to unveil the signs
and disseminate information about rights and responsibilities
related to bicycling.

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B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism (http://


www.scprt.com/) This statewide agency manages the official State
Bike Routes project, as well as Barnwell State Park.
Safe Routes to School Resource Center (http://scsaferoutes.org/)
SCDOT will soon launch a statewide SRTS Resource Center, with three
different coordinators working in three state regions. The Midlands
SRTS Resource Center will interface directly with communities of the
Lower Savannah region.
Thoroughbred Country Tourism District (http://www.tbredcountry.
org/) This program, sponsored by LSCOG, is to market the fourcounty region as a tourism destination.
Other Partners
City of Barnwell Community Development and Tourism Department
This group may be interested in supporting initiatives that bring
visitors to the region.
Barnwell County Chamber of Commerce This group may be
interested in supporting initiatives that bring residents and visitors to
the downtowns and business districts.
Generations Unlimited More and more organizations that
work with seniors are interested in projects that help their
clients live active, healthy lives.
Running or Cycling clubs and fitness providers Clubs and
local fitness providers (such as Anytime Fitness) may be
able to provide volunteer support for walking and bicycling
programs.
School districts School districts and schools are natural
partners for Safe Routes to School efforts as well as for
education programs related to student safety.
Parent Teacher Associations (PTAs) PTAs can be effective
partners in implementing Safe Routes to School efforts and
other school-oriented traffic safety initiatives.
City of Barnwell Police Department Law enforcement
professionals can help support safety campaigns through
strategic enforcement and educational events.
City of Barnwell Parks and Recreation Department Parks
and Recreation departments are natural partners for public
events and classes such as organized walks.
Senior centers and retirement communities More and more
organizations that work with seniors are interested in projects
that help their clients live active, healthy lives.

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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Hospitals and private health professionals Private sector partners


with an interest in promoting health and wellness can serve as local
champions and funders of education and awareness campaigns.
Fitness professionals can help to implement and evaluate
recommendations that will help residents increase daily physical
activity.

POLICY REVIEW

The following assessment of the City of Barnwells bicycling and


walking related ordinances and regulations guided the policy
recommendations of this Plan.
Table 4-1: Barnwell Code and Ordinance Review
Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

1.1. Does Street


definition include
pedestrian and
cyclist reference?

Makes reference to
pedestrian traffic: A
public thoroughfare for
vehicular and pedestrian
travel which provides the
principal means of access
to abutting property, but
not including an alley.
(City Zoning Ordinance
(CZO) p. 1-7) Needs
Improvement

References FHA definition:


Local streets are
separated from other
types because they
carry significant volumes
of foot and bicycle
traffic and are used by
children. (County Zoning
Ordinance (CZO) p. 5-4)
Needs Improvement

Definition of a street
should include
consideration for
pedestrian and bicycle
traffic and safety.

1.2 Definition of
Sidewalk

Sidewalk. The term


None
sidewalk means
Inadequate
any portion of a street
between the curbline,
or the lateral lines of a
roadway where there is
no curb and the adjacent
property line intended for
the use of pedestrians.
(Section 1-5 City Code
of Ordinances (CO))
Inadequate

Sidewalks have a
hard, smooth surface
(e.g., concrete), with
separation from the
roadway typically
consisting of a curb and/
or planter strip.1

1.3 Definition of
Bicycle

None

None

Inadequate

Inadequate

Bicycles should be
defined as a type of
vehicle requiring its own
specialized facilities
and regulations for safe
operation.

1. DEFINITIONS

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Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

Consideration
for Pedestrian
accommodations
included in Large-scale
development regulations
(p. 5-27, CZO)

Pedestrian travel is
accommodated and
enhanced by walkways,
traffic signals, crosswalks,
curb ramps, and
amenities such as lighting,
landscaping, and places
to rest (e.g. benches).1

2. STREET ELEMENTS AND CONFIGURATION


2.1. Pedestrian
accommodations
(sidewalks,
crosswalks,
etc) required
during new or
redevelopment

Only mentions mid-block


crosswalks for Blocks
over 600ft. (City Land
Development Regulations
(LDR), p. 8-5) Inadequate

2.2. Bike
accommodations
(bike lanes,
shoulders, racks,
etc) required
during new or
redevelopment

No

No

Inadequate

Inadequate

Pedestrian crosswalks,
not less than ten (10) feet
wide, may be required
in blocks longer than
six hundred (600) feet
to provide reasonable
circulation or access to
schools, playground,
shopping centers,
transportation, and other
community facilities.
(p. 8-5, County Land
Development Regulations
(LDR)) Inadequate

Generally, as traffic
volumes exceed 3,000
vehicles per day and
traffic speeds exceed
25mph, facilities to
separate bicycle and
motor vehicle traffic are
recommended. Multilane roads are typically
more dangerous for
all users because of
the increased traffic
volume, the potential for
higher speeds, and the
additional number of
conflict locations due to
turning vehicles.1
In addition, bicycle
parking helps to promote
bicycling as a viable
transportation option.

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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

2.3. Sidewalks
or bike
accommodations
required by
roadway type

No

No

Inadequate

Inadequate

A better standard would


be one that requires or
provides sidewalks on
both sides of all collector
and arterial streets and on
at least one side of local
streets where warranted
by density and/or system
connectivity.

2.4. New
sidewalks, bike
lanes, greenways,
etc., connect to
existing facilities

No

No

Inadequate

Inadequate

2.5. CrossAccess between


adjacent land
parcels

No

No

Inadequate

Inadequate

2.6. Block size

Size requirements for


residential blocks: Blocks
for residential use shall not
be longer than twentyfour hundred (2,400) feet,
and shall not be less than
four hundred (400) feet in
length, measured along
the road centerline of the
block. (LDR 8-5)

Yes, Blocks for residential


use shall not be longer
than twenty-four hundred
(2,400) feet, and shall
not be less than four
hundred (400) feet in
length, measured along
the road centerline of the
block., Blocks should be
of sufficient width to allow
for two (2) tiers of lots of
appropriate depth. (LDR,
8-5) Inadequate

Needs Improvement

4 -5 2 | C hapter 4: P rogram and P olicy R ecommendations

Connectivity is an
important consideration
when trying to improve
walking and biking
conditions. New
development should be
required to connect to or
extend existing facilities
bicycle and pedestrian
facilities.
Requiring cross-access
between adjacent
parcels of land is a
great tool for reducing
the amount of traffic
on major roads while
increasing connectivity
for pedestrians, bicycles,
and cars.
Development density
should determine the
length of a block, with
shorter blocks being
more appropriate in
areas of higher density.
Maximum block length in
any situation should not
exceed 800-1000 feet. In
areas with blocks as long
as 800 feet or greater, a
pedestrian and bicycle
path of 6-8 feet in width
should be required, with
an easement of 15-20
feet wide.1

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

2.7. Dead end


streets

Proposed streets shall


be coordinated with
the street system in
the surrounding area
and provide for the
continuation of principal
streets. (LDR, p. 8-2)

Cul-de-sac - Dead end


streets designed to be
permanently terminated
shall not exceed six
hundred (1,200) feet in
length, except where no
other access is practical
due to topographic
reasons. Such streets
shall be provided at
the end with a circular
turnaround. A minimum
turnaround shall have a
radius of not less than fifty
(50) feet at the property
line and not less than forty
(40) feet at the curb line.
(LDR p. 8-3) Inadequate

Dead end streets or Culde-sacs, while good at


limiting vehicular traffic
in an area are a severe
hindrance to connectivity
for pedestrian and
bicycle users. Consider
requiring other traffic
calming measures that
allow for connectivity
and improve the
pedestrian and biking
environment such as
street trees, narrow street
width standards, and T
intersections.

Dead end streets


designed to be
permanently terminated
shall not exceed six
hundred (600) feet in
length, except where no
other access is practical
due to topographic
reasons. Such streets
shall be provided at
the end with a circular
turnaround. A minimum
turnaround shall have a
radius of not less than fifty
(50) feet at the property
line and not less than forty
(40) feet at the curb line.
(LDR, p. 8-3) Inadequate

Make the maximum


length for Cul-de-sacs
250-300 feet to limit their
use in new development.

3. PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY BUILDING AND SITE DESIGN STANDARDS


3.1. Off-street
motorized vehicle
parking is behind
or to side of
buildings

No
Inadequate

No, except encouraged


in Limited Development
Districts (CZO, 4-16)
Inadequate

Having buildings close


to the street instead of
parking lots creates a
more pedestrian friendly
environment by bringing
building entrances
closer to the sidewalk. It
also creates a humanscaled street thats more
pleasurable for walking
for example: consider
the differences in the
walking environment of a
downtown versus that of
a strip shopping area.

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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

3.2. Maximum
automobile
parking
requirements
defined

No

No

Inadequate

Inadequate

Requiring parkinglot maximums and


reducing the number
of required off-street
parking spaces for new
development creates a
more pedestrian friendly
environment, prevents
overbuilt and unsightly
parking lots, and reduces
parking construction
costs.
Tie parking standards
to transect/land use
context. For example,
fewer spaces may
be required in CBD
and other pedestrian
oriented areas. Parking
maximums only should
be considered in such
districts.1

3.3. Bicycle
parking
requirements

No

No

Inadequate

Inadequate

Bicycles should receive


equal consideration when
calculating parking needs
with specific calculations
provided for determining
the amount of bicycle
parking provided by
district type. Design and
location standards for
bicycle parking should be
clearly stated to provide
for safe and convenient
access to all commercial
areas. Furthermore,
different standards of
bicycle parking are
needed for short-term
visitors and customers and
for longer term users like
employees, residents, and
students.1
Good standards for
bicycle parking can
be found through the
Association of Pedestrian
and Bicycle Professionals
Website (www.apbp.org)

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Topic

City of Barnwell

3.4. Other placeNo


supportive parking
Inadequate
regulations (Onstreet parking,
shared parking,
pricing, employer
incentives/
programs, etc.)

3.5. Form-based
or design-based
codes are used

Permitted in Planned
Development District
(CZO, p. 4-39) Needs
Improvement

Barnwell County

Recommendation

Yes, shared parking.


Up to fifty (50) percent
of the parking spaces
required for (1) theaters,
public auditoriums,
bowling alleys, dance
halls, clubs, churches and
religious institutions may
be provided and used
jointly by (2) financial
institutions, offices, retail
stores, repair shops,
service establishments,
and similar uses not
normally open, used,
or operated during the
same hours as those listed
in (1); provided however,
that written agreement
assuring their retention
for such purposes shall
be properly drawn and
executed by the parties
concerned, approved
as to form and content
by the county attorney,
and shall be filed with the
application for a building
permit. (CZO, p. 5-34,
5-35) Needs Improvement

Shared parking is a good


start. Other policies
that reduce the need
for parking and have
economic benefits are
parking pricing (such as
parking meters), allowing
on-street parking spaces
to count towards parking
requirements, and
promoting employee
carpool programs.

Yes and No, Limited


Use District limits types
of development and
states Overall design
should be harmonious
in terms of landscaping,
relationships of buildings
and structures, and traffic
movement, but little else
is specified (CZO, p. 4-13)
Needs Improvement

Integrating form-based
codes into the building
code and zoning
ordinance allows a
city to define the type
of development they
would like to see in their
community.
This can be a powerful
tool that allows residents
to shape their cities as
they see fit.

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Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

3.6. Pedestrian
entrances
required on
street frontage
(regardless of
parking location)

Yes, under General


Provisions 3-101 Street
access required. Except
as otherwise specifically
provided, no building
shall be located, used
or occupied on a lot
without direct vehicular
and pedestrian access
to a publicly dedicated,
accepted or maintained
street with a right-of-way
of not less than fifty (50)
feet. (CZO, p. 3-1) Good

Yes, under General


Provisions 3-101. Street
access required. Except
as otherwise specifically
provided, no building
shall be located, used
or occupied on a lot
without direct vehicular
and pedestrian access to
a public street. (CZO, p.
3-1) Good

These are good


standards; buildings
should have direct access
to the street and sidewalk
to promote pedestrian
connectivity.

3.7. Setback
or build-to
requirements

Single family residential


development 35
standard, neighborhood
commercial development
25 minimum, highway
and core commercial
development 50
minimum. (CZO, Ch. 4)
Inadequate

30 minimum for all land


uses except Industrial/
Warehouse, which is a
50 minimum. If higher
density is specified in a
planned development,
it can be as low as
10 (CZO, p. 4-3, 4-4)
Inadequate

Large setback minimums


reduce the walkability
of neighborhoods and
commercial areas.
Consider reducing
minimums for residential
areas to 10-15 ft. and
allowing 0 ft. setbacks
for commercial
development.

3.8. Buffer
requirement
between
adjacent
buildings or uses

Yes, for many conflicting


land-uses (CZO, p. 5-11)

Yes, in section 5-103.


However, standards are
vague and self-described
as flexible (CZO)
Inadequate

In general, bufferyard
and street buffer
requirements are a
characteristic of autooriented development
the presence of buffers
severely reduces access
for pedestrians and
bicyclists. Alternatives
such as minimizing
street and land-use
buffer size, allowing
commercial buildings
with 0 ft. setbacks, and
allowing development
without buffers between
compatible land uses
promotes pedestrian and
bicycle connectivity.

Inadequate

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B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

3.9. Mixed use


buildings and
blocks

No specific guidelines
except mixed use
permitted in Planned
Development District
and on upper levels of
Commercial Core zoned
buildings. (CZO, p. 2-2,
2-3) Good, but could use
improvement

No specific guidelines
provided

Mixed use should be


encouraged in most
zoning districts. This
increases the number of
destinations that can be
reached by walking or
biking.

3.10. Active
ground floor uses
with engaging
architecture

No specific guidelines

No specific guidelines

Inadequate

Inadequate

3.11. Site
Amenities for
Cyclists and
others (Showers,
Changing areas,
etc)

No

No

Needs Improvement

Needs Improvement

3.12. Human-scale
lighting (< 15 tall)
required along
paths and in
parking areas

Lighting required in
parking areas, but
no maximum height
requirements (CZO, p.
5-13)

Lighting required in
parking areas, but
no maximum height
requirements (CZO, p.
5-34)

Needs Improvement

Needs Improvement

Inadequate

Setting standards for


ground floor uses and
engaging architecture
helps support
economically successful
and pedestrian friendly
commercial districts.
Examples of this are
requiring commercial
uses on the ground floor,
as well as pedestrian
accommodations such
as building awnings and
large storefront windows.
This can be an effective
method of promoting
cycling in a community,
especially in areas with
hot climates.
Pedestrian-scale lighting
should not exceed
eighteen (18) feet in
height over the sidewalk
and should be located
at key intersections or
crossings and along
preferred pedestrian
routes. Pedestrian-scale
lighting also enhances
the illumination of bicycle
facilities since the lighting
is located closer to the
sidewalk and roadway.1

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Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

No specific guidelines

No specific guidelines

Inadequate

Inadequate

Despite the current lack


of enforceable standards,
public and private
entities that design and
construct sidewalks and
trails are still obligated
under ADA to make
them accessible to and
usable by people with
disabilities.1

4. PEDESTRIAN FACILITY DESIGN


4.1. ADA
Standards

A good guideline is a
report developed by
the Public Rights of Way
Access Committee called
Accessible Public Rights
of Way: Planning and
Designing for Alterations.
A copy can be found
through the Access
Boards website: (http://
www.access-board.
gov/prowac/alterations/
guide.pdf)
4.2. Minimum
sidewalk width by
context

No specific guidelines

No specific guidelines

Inadequate

Inadequate

4 -5 8 | C hapter 4: P rogram and P olicy R ecommendations

Five foot wide sidewalks


along local streets and six
foot wide sidewalks along
collectors and arterials
are preferred widths
and should be required
along both sides of the
roadway. Five feet is the
minimum width required
for two adults to walk
side-by-side. In areas
of higher density and
mixed-use development,
the minimum required
width for sidewalks should
be six feet or more. The
land use context and
density of development
necessitates a greater
level of requirement for
sidewalk specifications. In
areas such as downtown
with buildings at the
back of the sidewalk
and ground level retail,
sidewalks should be as
wide as 10-18 feet wide.1

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

4.3. Street Trees

No specific guidelines

No specific guidelines

Inadequate

Inadequate

In addition to their
aesthetic value, street
trees can slow traffic
and improve safety for
pedestrians. Trees add
visual interest to streets
and narrow the streets
visual corridor, which
may cause drivers to slow
down.1

Pedestrian crosswalks,
not less than ten (10) feet
wide, may be required
in blocks longer than
six hundred (600) feet
to provide reasonable
circulation or access to
schools, playground,
shopping centers,
transportation, other
community facilities,
or where deemed
necessary. (LDR, p. 8-5)
Needs Improvement

Yes, Pedestrian
Crosswalks - Pedestrian
crosswalks, not less than
ten (10) feet wide, may
be required in blocks
longer than six hundred
(600) feet to provide
reasonable circulation
or access to schools,
playground, shopping
centers, transportation,
and other community
facilities.(CLDR, p. 8-5)

4.4. Mid-Block
Crossings

Also, under large-scale


projects: Pedestrian
access, where provided,
shall be safe and
convenient routes. Where
there are crossings or
pedestrian ways and
vehicular routes at edges
of the project, such
crossings shall be safely
located, marked and
controlled; and where
such ways are exposed
to substantial automotive
traffic, safeguards
including fencing may
be required to prevent
crossings except at
designated points.
(CZO, p. 5-28) Needs
Improvement

According to the
ADA: The use of Mid
Block Crossing shall be
discouraged and used
only when diversion to
other crosswalks is unlikely.
The elimination of existing
Mid Block Crossings
shall be a priority of the
designer, since nonintersection pedestrian
crossings are generally
unexpected by the
motorist and unprotected
by a signal or stop
control.2
A better standard is to
reduce the maximum
allowed block-size and
provide pedestrian
crossing provisions at
street intersections,
reducing the need for
mid-block crossings.

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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

Only mention greenways


as an acceptable
option for fulfilling open
space requirements:
c. Greenways are
linear greenbelts linking
residential areas with
other open space
areas. These greenways
may contain bicycle
paths, footpaths,
and bridle paths.
Connecting greenways
between residences
and recreational areas
are encouraged.
Maintenance is limited to
insuring that there exists
no hazards, nuisances,
or unhealthy conditions.
(CZO, p. 5-3)

Need to define bicycle


facilities and require
certain facility types
based on street size,
speed, and traffic
volume.

5. BICYCLE FACILITY DESIGN


5.1. Types of
No guidance found
Facilities Specified
Inadequate
or Allowed

Inadequate
5.2. Minimum
Shoulder Width

No guidance found

No guidance found

Inadequate

Inadequate

4 -6 0 | C hapter 4: P rogram and P olicy R ecommendations

Roadway shoulders
often serve as pedestrian
routes in rural areas. On
roadways with low traffic
volumes (e.g., less than
3,000 Average Daily
Traffic (ADT) volumes),
roadway shoulders
may be adequate
for pedestrian travel.
Also used as shoulder
bikeways, these facilities
should be wide enough
to accommodate both
pedestrians and bicyclists.
Because of typical cross
slopes, however, these
facilities do not typically
meet ADA standards.1

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

5.3. Bicycle
accommodations
at intersections

No guidance found

No guidance found

Inadequate

Inadequate

Defining how cyclists


should move through
busy intersections is
an important safety
consideration. Good
intersection design
guidelines can be found
in the NACTO Urban
Bikeway Design Guide:
(http://nacto.org/citiesfor-cycling/design-guide/)

6. FACILITY MAINTENANCE
6.1. Sidewalk
maintenance
policy

No specific guidelines

No specific guidelines

Inadequate

Inadequate

6.2. Trail and


greenway
maintenance
policy

No specific guidelines

In required common
open space, upkeep of
landscaped areas and
removing obstacles from
greenways is required.
(CZO, p. 5-3)

Inadequate

Sidewalk surfaces that


have settled or heaved
over time can be a
significant barrier for
pedestrians. Surfaces that
are smooth when newly
installed may not stay that
way, particularly where
masonry units are installed
without an adequate sub
base. Knowledgeable
design, wise material
selection, good
construction practices,
and regular maintenance
procedures can help
ensure that differences in
level between adjacent
units do not exceed
the limits of usability.
Surface provisions for
an accessible route
limit allowable vertical
differences in level
between abutting
surfaces.1
In addition, these
guidelines should include
considerations for repair
when trail or greenway
surfaces become
damaged with age.

Needs Improvement

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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

6.3. Vegetation
management
(trimming,
pruning, mowing,
etc)

No guidelines or
regulations found

In required common
open space, upkeep of
landscaped areas and
removing obstacles from
greenways is required.
(CZO, p. 5-3)

This is a good standard.

Inadequate

Good
6.4. Street
sweeping
schedule

As needed

As needed

This should include


clearing of bike lanes as
well. Impediments such
as rocks, glass, and sand,
which generally dont
affect motorists, can be
huge obstacles for skinny
bike tires. Often these
impediments get swept
off of car lanes and into
bike lanes.

Needs Improvement

Needs Improvement

6.5. Pothole
maintenance

Covered by SCDOT for


state roads

Covered by SCDOT for


state roads

Regular maintenance
of roads is important for
pedestrian, bicycle, and
vehicular safety.

No specific guidelines

No specific guidelines

Inadequate

Inadequate

The National Complete


Streets Coalition provides
great guidelines for
designing streets that
cater to all users: (http://
www.completestreets.
org/resources/completestreets-best-practices/).

7. SUPPORTING POLICIES AND MANUALS


7.1. Complete
Streets Policy

A complete streets policy


allows cities to work
towards creating a street
network that encourages
pedestrian and bicycle
travel.
7.2. Design
No specific guidelines/
Manual for
references
Pedestrian and/or
Inadequate
Bicycle Facilities

No specific guidelines/
references
Inadequate

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This is an important
step in creating a more
pedestrian and bicycle
friendly community. A
design manual will give
guidelines for bicycle and
pedestrian consideration
in new development.

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

7.3. Complete
No specific guidelines
Street Design
Inadequate
Guidelines for a
variety of contexts

No specific guidelines

The National Complete


Streets Coalition provides
great guidelines for
designing streets that
cater to all users: (http://
www.completestreets.
org/resources/completestreets-best-practices/).

7.4. General
and Pedestrian
Connectivity
Requirements

Proposed streets shall


be coordinated with
the street system in
the surrounding area
and provide for the
continuation of principal
streets. (LDR, p. 8-2)
Good start, but needs
Improvement

Proposed streets shall


be coordinated with
the street system in
the surrounding area
and provide for the
continuation of principal
streets. (LDR, p. 8-2)
Good start, but needs
Improvement

Inadequate

Connectivity is a key
component of a
pedestrian and bike
friendly environment.
Its benefits include:
decreased traffic on
arterial streets, continuous
and more direct routes
for travel by walking
and biking, greater
emergency vehicle
access, Improved utility
connections, easier
maintenance, and
more efficient trash and
recycling pick up.3
Limiting block size and
requiring a minimum
connectivity index are
two tools that can be
employed to promote
connectivity. More info
on these measures can
be found here: (http://
congestion.kytc.ky.gov/
connectivity/WSDOT%20
Connectivity%20
Model%20Ordinance.pdf)

7.5. Existence of
street hierarchy
plan by context

The Land Development


Regulations define
different street typologies
by context, but no
reference to pedestrian
uses is made. However,
streets are defined
primarily in terms of
vehicular circulation. (LDR
2-2) Needs Improvement

The Land Development


Regulations define
different street typologies
by context, but no
reference to pedestrian
uses is made. (LDR 2-2)
Needs Improvement

Streets should be defined


in terms of pedestrian and
bicycle levels of service
as well.

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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

7.6. Existence
None cited
of bicycle and
pedestrian plan(s) Inadequate

None cited

A bike and pedestrian


plan will create a
roadmap for moving
towards a more bike
and pedestrian friendly
community.

7.7. Consideration
of pedestrian and
bicycle concerns
in Site Planning

No specific guidelines

No specific guidelines

Inadequate

Inadequate

7.8. Consideration
of pedestrian and
bicycle concerns
and Level of
Service (LOS) in
Traffic Impact
Analyses and
other engineering
studies

No specific guidelines

No specific guidelines

Inadequate

Inadequate

7.9. Traffic
Calming
programs,
policies, and/or
manuals

When referring to the new


construction of residential
streets: Residential streets
shall be laid out so their
use by through traffic
will be discouraged in
that 3-way intersections
(T intersections) shall
be used as much as
possible. (LDR, p.
8-2) Good Standard,
additional measures
needed as well

When referring to the new


construction of residential
streets: Residential streets
shall be laid out so their
use by through traffic
will be discouraged in
that 3-way intersections
(T intersections) shall
be used as much as
possible. (LDR, p.
8-2) Good Standard,
additional measures
needed as well

The National Complete


Streets Coalition provides
good guidelines for traffic
calming through their best
practices manual: (http://
www.completestreets.
org/resources/completestreets-best-practices/).

7.10. Access
management
program or policy

None cited

None cited

Inadequate

Inadequate

Requiring cross-access
between adjacent
parcels of land is a
great tool for reducing
the amount of traffic
on major roads while
increasing connectivity
for pedestrians, bicycles,
and cars.

Inadequate

4 -6 4 | C hapter 4: P rogram and P olicy R ecommendations

Requiring pedestrian and


bicycle concerns in site
planning is an important
step towards achieving a
more bike and pedestrian
friendly community.
Consideration of bicycle
and pedestrian levels of
service assure adequate
facilities for bicyclists
and pedestrians. This
also helps promote
walking and bicycling
as a legitimate means of
transportation.

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Topic

City of Barnwell

Barnwell County

Recommendation

7.11. Sidewalk
retrofit/infill
program or policy

None cited

None cited

Inadequate

Inadequate

Orangeburg and
Barnwell should consider
developing sidewalk
infill and maintenance
program where City staff
periodically inventory
the street network to
identify sidewalk gaps,
and develop strategies,
project prioritization
criteria and funding
for completing these
gaps. Potential project
prioritization criteria
include filling gaps along
key pedestrian routes,
near major pedestrian trip
generators like schools,
and along streets with
high vehicle volumes.1

GUIDELINES AND
REGULATIONS

GUIDELINES AND
REGULATIONS

8. ITEMS REVIEWED
8.1. Names of
Resources

Barnwell County
City of Barnwell Land
Development Regulations Comprehensive Plan
(2007)
(2010)
Barnwell, SC CBD Master
Plan (2006)
City of Barnwell Zoning
Regulations (2009)

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
Easley, SC Pedestrian
and Bicycle Master Plan:
http://www.bikeeasley.
com/Pedestrian-BikePlan/

Barnwell County Land


Development Regulations ADA guidelines for MidBlock Crossings: http://
(2007)
www.sha.state.md.us/
Barnwell County Zoning
Index.aspx?PageId=122
Ordinance (2007)
Commonwealth of
Kentucky Congestion
Toolbox: MODEL
STREET CONNECTIVITY
STANDARDS
ORDINANCE. http://
congestion.kytc.ky.gov/
connectivity/WSDOT%20
Connectivity%20
Model%20Ordinance.pdf

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PROGRAM RECOMMENDATIONS AND POLICIES

The following program recommendations reflect the needs and


interests identified by community stakeholders. Additionally, they
are based on three key strengths of the Barnwell community:
the leadership of the local School Districts, the enthusiasm and
knowledge of the local fitness community, and the commitment of
the Citys Community Development and Tourism Department.

Safe Routes to School


Purpose: Promote physical fitness and health by helping
children walk and bicycle to school; improve school
traffic safety through physical improvements and
programs; reduce school transport costs.
Audience: School-aged children and their parents;
school administrators, faculty, and staff
Partners: School district, parent-teacher associations,
City of Barnwell, health partners, community members,
local Eat Smart Move More Coalitions, LSCOG, SCDOT
SRTS Resource Center
Safe Routes to School programs use a 5 Es
approach (Engineering, Education, Encouragement, Safe Routes to School programs make it easier and
Enforcement, and Evaluation) to improve safety and safer for children to walk and bike to school.
encourage children to walk and bicycle to school.
The programs are usually run by a partnership of city
government, school and school district officials and
teachers, parents and students, and neighbors.
For example, in a Park and Walk campaign, children are dropped off
at a pre-determined location (such as a park) near the school, and
then walk with parent volunteers and/or school staff the remaining
distance to school. The Parks & Recreation Department of Columbia,
SC currently promotes its parks as Park and Walk locations for the
first day of school and the City grants employees two-hours off of
work on the first day of school to encourage parent participation.
Park and Walk campaigns can reduce congestion and improve
traffic safety near schools while increasing youth physical activity.
Teachers also report that children who walk to school arrive awake
and ready to learn. Likewise, a Safe Routes to Bus Stops program
can help children safely access bus transportation by walking.
International Walk to School Day in October can be an excellent
annual event that offers all families and children the opportunity to
participate in healthy school transportation. Spartanburg County,
SC has one of the highest Walk to School Day participation rates in
the state and offers a local Golden Shoe Award for schools that
create a model Walk to School Day event that promotes year-round
physical activity. The campaign is led by an ongoing partnership
between a public health nonprofit, school districts, PTAs, and other
agencies.
Youth bicycle and pedestrian safety education can be taught in
schools or as after-school programs. One resource would be the
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Palmetto Cycling Coalition, which may be able to make connections


to League-Certified Instructors (LCIs),who can offer the League of
American Bicyclists Kids I and Kids II training courses.
A major next step towards creating safer active travel opportunities
for schoolchildren would be creating a Safe Routes to School Plan for
each school in Barnwell. This will necessarily be a coalition effort that
may be eligible for grant funding through the SCDOT Safe Routes
to School program, though because of the uncertain outlook for
this federal funding program, it is recommended that other regional
and local funding sources be researched as well. As the South
Carolina Safe Routes to School Resource Center begins to roll out
their services and resources, they will offer support services such as
trainings, consulting, and print-ready materials for interested schools.

Sample Programs:
Partners for Active Living Walk to School Day Program
(Spartanburg, SC): http://www.active-living.org/Walk-toSchool-Day.html
Atlanta Charter Middle School Safe Routes Travel Plan
(Atlanta, GA): http://www.atlantachartermiddle.com/
content/safe-routes-school.php
Walking School Bus and Park and Walk Programs (Windsor, VT):
http://www.saferoutesinfo.org/data-central/success-stories/
windsor-vermont-parent-volunteers-lead-walking-schoolbuses-forward
http://www.saferoutesinfo.org/data-central/success-stories/
windsor-vermont-parent-volunteers-lead-walking-schoolbuses-forward
Ira B. Jones School Walking to School Program (Asheville, NC):
http://www.saferoutesinfo.org/data-central/success-stories/
asheville-north-carolina-encouraging-walking-and-wheelingschool-wide

Bicycle Tourism Opportunity Analysis


Purpose: Create and promote opportunities for bicycle-oriented
tourism in Barnwell; support communities as they seek to define
themselves as a good place for bicycle tourism. Capitalize on the
SC Bike Tour Route that goes through Barnwell.
Audience: Bicycle tourists
Partners: Thoroughbred Country Tourism District, towns and cities,
tourism agencies, business groups, PCC, PCF, Adventure Cycling;
bicycle clubs, events, and organizations
More and more small towns and rural communities are looking to
tourism as a priority within their economic development plans, and
cycle tourism is a popular and growing niche. Small communities
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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

often have unique assets to offer to visitors, as bicyclists seek open


spaces, lightly traveled roads and the intimate experience that only
small towns can provide. Efficiently identifying opportunities and
creating targeted marketing plans can help a rural town or county
become a bicycling destinations and reap the benefits of this lowimpact, sustainable tourism segment.
Barnwell could complete an opportunity analysis and action plan
for fostering cycle tourism; the Thoroughbred Country Tourism District
would be a natural lead agency to assist in this effort. The plan
should analyze a) current assets, b) current challenges, c) potential
improvements, and d) current and potential partners. Finally, an
action plan should be created to prioritize efforts that will make
the biggest difference, followed by a media outreach strategy to
market the region to potential bicycle tourists.

Walking/Running/Bicycling Maps and Tours

Bicycling and trail maps encourage walking and biking by providing route and facility information and highlighting walking and bicycling destinations. These should be kept up to date and made readily available to the public.

Purpose: Encourage walking and biking by providing route and facility


information and highlighting walking and bicycling destinations.
Audience: General public, tourists
Partners: Barnwell, business and tourism groups, walking, running,
and bicycling clubs and groups, Anytime Fitness and other fitness
providers
One of the most effective ways of encouraging people to walk is
through the use of maps and guides to show where you can walk,
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B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

and to guide people to enjoyable routes and destinations for


walking. One or more maps should be developed for Barnwell to
show the location of existing safe and enjoyable biking and walking
routes. Maps should be printed as needed and actively distributed to
residents and visitors; they should also be updated on a regular basis
as new facilities are implemented (every five years or less). An online
map (PDF or other format) should also be posted, and information
about it disseminated through municipalities, social media, and
biking and walking clubs.
Local partners could collaborate with Barnwells existing historic
walking tour map to highlight historic destinations and other points of
interest, including Barnwell State Park. Statewide nonprofits, such as
Palmetto Conservation Foundation and Palmetto Cycling Coalition,
may be appropriate partners for publicizing guided tours broadly. If
tours occur on State Bike Routes, South Carolina Parks Recreation &
Tourism Department may assist in publicizing the events.

Sample Guided Walks and Maps:

Walking Route Maps (Wilsonville, OR): http://www.ridesmart.


com/Index.aspx?page=190
Bedford County Walking Tours (Bedford, PA): http://www.
visitbedfordcounty.com/walkingtours.html

Cycling Skills Training & Positive Media Campaign


Purpose: Educate children, teenagers and adults on safe bicycling
skills; encourage bicycling.
Audience: General public
Partners: City of Barnwell Parks and Recreation department, Palmetto
Cycling Coalition, cycling clubs in the region
Most bicyclists do not receive any training on safe bicycling practices,
the rules of the road, and bicycle handling skills. Cycling skills courses
can address this education gap. The most common program is
the League of American Bicyclists courses (including Traffic Skills
101, Traffic Skills 201, and Commuting), taught by League Certified
Instructors (LCIs). There are currently 22 LCIs in South Carolina (the
updated list can be found here: http://www.bikeleague.org/
programs/education/). Courses cover bicycle safety checks,
fixing a flat, on-bike skills, crash avoidance techniques, and traffic
negotiation. At least one course per year in Barnwell would be an
excellent starting place. As a relatively bikeable small town, Barnwell
could host courses for interested individuals from around the region.
Barnwell and its LSCOG partners may choose to seek sponsorships
to defer costs and offer courses at no expense to the student.
LSCOG could also choose to offer scholarships to a select number of
participants. This may reduce barriers to participation and increase
the diversity of the audience.

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Palmetto Cycling Coalitions Safe Streets Save Lives campaign


offers free resources for communities seeking to educate residents
about safe bicycling practices, including professionally developed
Public Service Announcements.

Sample programs:

League of American Bicyclists, USA: http://bikeleague.org/


programs/education/courses.php
Safe Streets Save Lives: www.safestreetssavelives.org

Walk/Run and Bike for Health Campaign


Purpose: Increase physical activity.
Audience: General public
Partners: Eat Smart Move More Coalition, public health agencies,
Parks and Recreation department, the hospital and private health
professionals, walking and bicycling clubs and groups, Anytime
Fitness, and many others
Walking and bicycling for transportation are still challenging in
the LSCOG region, both because of the rural character of much
of the community and because on-street facilities have not yet
been implemented across the region. For that reason, encouraging
people to walk and bicycle for health and recreation may be a
more realistic starting place for LSCOG communities, rather than
directly encouraging non-motorized commuting. Numerous regional
partners, particularly in the health arena, could assist with developing
and implementing a Walk and Bike for Health campaign, including
the local hospital and medical groups and the East Smart Move
More Coalitions. The campaign can be publicized through social
media, local newspapers, and local radio.

Sample program:

Lets Move is an U.S. marketing campaign aimed at


improving national rates of obesity by providing common
sense programs and resources for parents, children, schools,
and others. Launched by Michelle Obama, the program
includes a Get Active campaign to promote healthier
lifestyles through fun, exciting, and challenging opportunities
for increased physical activity. More information: http://www.
letsmove.gov/get-active

Police Officer Bicycle Training


Purpose: Educate law enforcement officers on bicycle laws and
safety.
Audience: Police officers

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B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

Partners: Barnwell police and sheriffs departments,


Palmetto Cycling Coalition
Most law enforcement professionals do not receive
training specific to bicycle laws or safety. Police
education courses can help officers improve public
safety and enforce existing laws more effectively by
providing them with the training they need. These courses
should include comprehensive information about laws
and statutes pertaining to bicycling; information about
common crash types and causes, and how to prevent
and enforce against the most serious offenses; knowing
options for enforcement and education (e.g., when
a citation vs. warning should be issued, diversion class
options, and safety materials that can be handed out
during a traffic stop or public event).
Because Chief Davis of the Orangeburg, SC Police
Department is already well versed in cycling issues and
laws, it is suggested that the first training be hosted in
Orangeburg, but invitations should be extended to all
law enforcement professionals in the LSCOG region.
Police training on bicycling issues can create safer
streets and raise the community profile of bicycling
After the first program, the training should be offered
as a legitimate form of transportation
annually, hosted in different communities each year.
Palmetto Cycling Coalition may serve as a key partner in
providing clarification of South Carolina law as it relates to bicyclists.
Additionally, the organization maintains a close relationship with
Bikelaw.com, a consortium of lawyers based in South Carolina
that provides training programs for law enforcement personnel, in
addition to providing pro-bono legal services to cyclists and cycling
clubs.

Sample program:

The Wisconsin Pedestrian and Bicycle Law Enforcement


Training Course includes curriculum on how bicycle and
pedestrian crashes happen, laws relating to walking and
bicycling, effective enforcement, crash reporting best
practices, etc. The course is open to all law enforcement
entities for a fee, which covers instruction and materials. More
information:
http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/enforcement/
training.cfm

Achieve Walk- and Bicycle-Friendly Community Status


Purpose: Recognize accomplishments towards improving walking
and bicycling conditions.
Audience: Elected officials, media
Partners: City of Barnwell, LSCOG, cycling clubs, advisory committees
The League of American Bicyclists leads the Bicycle Friendly
Communities (BFC) award program. The award is designed to
recognize progress that has been made, as well as assist communities
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in identifying priority projects to improve bicycling conditions.


Receiving the award is a media-worthy event, and may give
elected officials the opportunity to receive media coverage
for the positive work they are doing. The Pedestrian and
Bicycle Information Center recently launched a sister
program for Walk Friendly Communities (WFC) that has
recognized 11 communities around the nation. Usually cities
or towns apply for designation, but in some cases counties
have successfully applied and received recognition.
As part of this action plan effort, Barnwells existing conditions
were measured against the BFC and WFC application
questions. This is a great starting point for measuring future
progress and establishing priorities. The application can be
completed by local agency staff with the support of LSCOG,
particularly if a Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee
is formed and/or if a Pedestrian and Bicycle Coordinator
position is created.

More Information:

Bicycle Friendly Communities Program: http://www.


bicyclefriendlycommunities.org

Communities receive Bicycle Friendly Community awards by demonstrating their commitment to bicycling

Walk Friendly Communities Program: http://www.


walkfriendly.org/

Speed Limit Enforcement


Purpose: Reduce vehicle speeding
Audience: Speeding drivers
Partners: City of Barnwell Police, Barnwell County Sherriffs
Department
Speeding vehicles endanger people walking and biking.
Targeted speed enforcement activities can address both of
these issues. Law enforcement agencies can enforce speed
limits on designated bikeways, near schools, and in response
to cyclist complaints. These campaigns are ideal for a Safe
Routes to School Program (see above).
One component of speed limit enforcement can be a speed
reader board program whereby neighborhood associations
and schools can request deployment. The boards should
be mounted temporarily (e.g. for two weeks) and then be
moved to another location to keep motorists from becoming
inured to the speed reader board effect.

4 -7 2 | C hapter 4: P rogram and P olicy R ecommendations

Speed reader boards can help to reduce speeding vehicles

B ICY CLE AND W ALK FRI ENDLY COMMU NI TY ACTI ON PLAN | 2012

EVALUATION, STAFFING, AND POLICY


RECOMMENDATIONS

Revise Zoning and Development Standards to be More


Pedestrian and Bicycle Friendly
Purpose: Gather important benchmarking information about walking
and bicycling rates.
Audience: Agency staff, local and regional stakeholders
Partners: City of Barnwell, advisory committees, cycling clubs
*See table 4-1 earlier in this chapter for a full review of zoning and
development ordinances for the City of Barnwell.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Counts Program


Purpose: Gather important benchmarking information
about walking and bicycling rates.
Audience: Agency staff, local and regional stakeholders
Partners: City of Barnwell, advisory committees, cycling
clubs
In order to determine this plans success at helping
Barnwell residents walk and bicycle more, it is necessary
to establish an annual data collection program. At
a minimum, this program should tally the number of
pedestrians and bicyclists at key locations around the
community (particularly at pinch points, in downtown,
near schools, and on trails); the same locations should be
counted in the same manner annually.

Conducting robust pedestrian and bicycle counts


will provide a mechanism for tracking trends in
Barnwell over time.

If major walking or greenway infrastructure projects are


planned, baseline and post-construction user counts can
be performed through this coordinated annual count
process for maximum efficiency. This will provide Barnwell
and partner agencies with information about growth of
walking and bicycling rates.

It is recommended that the data collection program use


methodology developed by the National Bicycle and Pedestrian
Documentation Project (NBPDP). Counts should be performed in the
second week in September; one weekday count (from 5-7 PM on a
Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday) and one Saturday count (noon
2 pm) should be completed. Counters can be volunteers or agency
staff, as long as proper training and support is provided.
If desired, surveys can also be included in the data collection effort
to learn more about walking and bicycling demographics, trip
origin/destinations, etc. The NBPDP website includes count and
survey instructions, forms, and participant training materials: http://
bikepeddocumentation.org.

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B A RN W E L L | S O U TH C A R O L I N A

Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee


Purpose: Advise the City on walking and bicycling issues; provide
residents with an opportunity to contribute to improving their
communities.
Audience: Citizen advocates, including the stakeholder group for
this plan
Partners: City of Barnwell, stakeholder participants for this plan
Many communities have Citizen Advisory Committees to comment
on walking and bicycling priorities and budgets. The consultant
team recommends that Barnwell establish a permanent Bicycle and
Pedestrian Advisory Committee (BPAC) in order to reap the benefits
of this type of citizen involvement. Establishing a BPAC emphasizes
the commitment to making bicycling safer and more appealing, and
has the potential to assist Barnwell in securing funding for bicycle and
pedestrian projects. Having an established BPAC is also desirable for
receiving Bicycle-Friendly Communities (BFC) designation.
The charges of the BPAC may include some or all of the following:
Review and provide citizen input on capital project planning
and design as it affects walking, bicycling, and trails (e.g.,
corridor plans, street improvement projects, signing or signal
projects, and parking facilities)
Review and comment on changes to zoning, development
code, comprehensive plans, and other long-term planning and
policy documents
Participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation
of pedestrian and/or bicycle master plans and facility standards
Provide a formal liaison between local government, staff, and
the public
Develop and monitor goals and indices related to walking and
bicycling
Promote walking and bicycling, including safety and education
Because BPAC members are volunteers, it is essential to have
strong staffing resources supporting the committee in order for it to
be successful. A staff member should be assigned to take charge
of managing the application process, managing agendas and
minutes, scheduling meetings, bringing agency issues to the BPAC,
and reporting back to the agency and governing body about
the BPACs recommendations and findings. The committee should
be created through an enacting resolution that calls it into being
and defines the committees charge, responsibilities, member
composition, how members are chosen or appointed, what the
decision-making structure is, and how often the committee meets.

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