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Reading : fill in blanks

For much of history and in many cultures, (1)enlisting

professional teachers was an option available only to a small
elite. Thus, until (2) relatively recently, the vast majority of
people were educated by parents, especially during early
childhood. The earliest (3)compulsory education in the West
began in the late 17th century and early 18th century in some
German States.

relatively inextricably


Facebook is the largest social network on the web in

terms of traffic. Primarily (1) focused on students,
Facebook has been gaining market share (2)
constantly and more significantly a supportive user
base nowadays. Since their launch in 2004, they have
been able to obtain over 20 million users in the U.S.
alone and (3) expand worldwide to other Englishspeaking countries, with more to follow in the future.
Reinforced web focused reluctantly constantly



Insects do not have (1) vision as sharp as that of mammals or birds. The insect
compound eye is more familiar to movement and so it cannot (2) precisely position
distant objects. So, insects tend to take a rather unsteady flight path to navigate to a
particular object. For example, in order to locate the caterpillar, the wasp needs to
balance the odour signals (3) received by its two antennae.
Wings received





Giant pandas are black-and-white Chinese bears that are on the verge
of (1) extinction . These large, cuddly-looking mammals have a big
head, a heavy body, rounded ears, and a short tail. Most bears' eyes
have round pupils. The (2) exception is the giant panda, whose pupils
are vertical slits, like cats' eyes, these unusual eyes (3) inspired the
Chinese to call the panda the "giant cat bear."

Inspired exception extinction dimension speculation predicted

Reading and writing: blanks

C. S. Lewis, or Jack Lewis, as he preferred to be called, was born in Belfast,

Ireland (now Northern Ireland) on November 29, 1898. He was the second
son of Albert Lewis, a lawyer, and Flora Hamilton Lewis. His older brother,
Warren Hamilton Lewis, who was known as Warnie, had been born three
years ago in 1895.
Lewis's early childhood was relatively happy and carefree. In those days
Northern Ireland was not yet plagued by bitter civil strife, and the
Lewises were comfortably off. The family home, called Little Lea, was a
large, gabled house with dark, narrow passages and an overgrown garden,
which Warnie and Jack played in and explored
together. There was also
a library that was crammed with books - two of Jack's favorites
were Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson and The Secret Garden by
Frances Hodgson Burnett.
This somewhat idyllic boyhood came to an end for Lewis when his mother
became ill and died of cancer in 1908. Barely a month after her death the
two boys were sent away from home to go to boarding school in England.
Lewis hated the school, with its strict rules and hard, unsympathetic
headmaster, and he missed Belfast terribly. Fortunately for him, the school
closed in 1910, and he was able to return to Ireland.

After a year, however, he was sent back to England to study. This time,
the experience proved to be mostly positive. As a teenager, Lewis
learned to love poetry, especially the works of Virgil and Homer. He also
developed an interest in modern languages, mastering French, German,
and Italian.


Bothered pested doubted

The roots of our modern scientific tradition can be traced back to the Babylonians
who began to predict weather from cloud formations and, more particularly, the
Ancient Greeks. As is the case in so many other fields, Aristotle is considered to
have founded the modern science of meteorology when he correctly identified
the hydrologic cycle in 350 BC. This cycle, which describes the continuous
movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth, is fundamental to
much of modern weather forecasting. However, Aristotle himself and his follower
and pupil Theophrastus largely failed to make the connection between the water
cycle and weather forecasting and their science was scarcely more reliable than the
aboriginal rain dance. Indeed, the word meteorology literally means the study of
heavenly bodies and the Greeks attempted to explain weather conditions through
heavenly signs such as colours of the sky, rings and halos.
The influence of Aristotle on weather forecasting lasted for almost 2000 years and
was only gradually eroded by a combination of a series of scientific discoveries and
advances in communication technology. One important step forward was made in
1654 when Fernando de Medici set up the first weather observation network with
meteorological stations in eleven separate European cities. When this data was
centrally collected in Florence, it became possible to analyse weather patterns on a
grander scale than ever before by allowing maps to be produced that showed
atmospheric conditions over a large area of the Earths surface. The invention of the
telegraph in 1837 allowed such observations to be collected more quickly and from a
wider region than ever before and as a consequence meteorologists were able to
identify the global nature of weather patterns.
1. Know



2. astrology



3. teacher






5. condition




Trinity College was 1) founded by Sir Thomas Pope in 1555. A

devout catholic with no surviving children, Thomas Pope saw
the Foundation of an Oxford college as a means of 2) ensuring
that he and his family would always be remembered in the
prayers and masses of its members. He came from a family of
small 3) landowners in Oxfordshire, trained as a lawyer, and
rose rapidly to prominence 4) under Henry VIII. As Treasurer of
the Court of Augmentations he handled the estates of the
5)dissolved at the Reformation, and
amassed a considerable personal 6)fortune. Pope was a
discreet and trusted privy counsellor of Mary Tudor, and it was
from Mary and Philip that he 7) received Letters Patent and
royal approval for his new foundation. Pope died in 1559.
Although his religious 8)ideals were never fully realised Elizabeth I had succeeded her sister and England 9) returned to
the Protestant faith - nonetheless the memory of his name, like
his college, has endured the fluctuating fortunes of over 400
years. His wife, Lady Elizabeth Pope, was a particularly
influential 10) figure in Trinity's early years. Pope's foundation
was for a President, twelve Fellows and twelve scholars, all
supported by the income from his 11) generous endowment of
lands, and for up to twenty undergraduates. The Fellows, all
men, were required to take Holy Orders and remain unmarried.
The College Statutes set out rules for a simple monastic life of
religious observance and study. The Garden was an informal
grove of trees, mainly elms, amongst which the members of the
College could 12)walk and meditate.


a) founded

a) securing

a) owners

b) landowners

a) with


a) ideals

b) wealth

a) outline

a) prowl

b) walk

d) withered

d) money

c) belief

c) returned

b) generosity

d) mistresses

c) crumbled

b) received

b) symbol

d) verifying

d) because

b) rich

b) examples
b) repeated

a) generous

c) under

b) conferred

a) rejoined

c) freeholders

b) on

a) fortune

d) starting

c) clinching

b) disintegrated

a) inherited

c) begin

b) ensuring

a) dissolved

b) set

c) shape

d) excepted
d) value
d) reinstated
d) figure

c) bounty

c) promenade

d) teeming
d) yomp

1) a) founded 2) b) ensuring 3) b) landowners 4) c) under 5) a) dissolved 6) a) fortune 7) b) received 8) a) ideals 9) c) returned
10) d) figure 11) a) generous 12) b) walk

The Pitcairn Islands are

in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway


Peru and New Zealand. The larger island of Pitcairn was

2) ____________

in 1767 by the British and settled in 1790 by the mutineers from the English
3) _____________

ship 'Bounty' and their Tahitian companions. Pitcairn was the

4) _____________

island to become a British colony (in 1838) and today

the last vestige of

5) _____________

the British empire in the South Pacific. The population of about 50 are the

of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian wives. English is the official
6) _____________

language, but many islanders communicate in Pitcairnese (a pidgin language comprising of elements
of 18th century English and a Tahitian dialect).

of this tiny island exist on fishing, subsistence farming, handicrafts,

7) ______________

and postage stamps. The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide

8) _____________

fruits and vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans. Bartering
is an
part of the economy. The major sources of revenue are the sale
9) ________________

of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of handicrafts to passing

. It has
10) _______

no port or

harbour; and supplies must be transported by rowed

11) ______________

longboat from larger ships stationed

12) ______________

a) located


a) middle

a) uncovered



b) premiere

c) beginning

b) remnant

b) tenants


a) crucial
a) cars

d) close

c) created

a) different

c) centre

c) spare

b) descendants

a) dwellers

d) settled

b) discovered

a) remains

a) ancestors

c) stationed

b) between

a) opening


b) sited

b) important

b) planes

a) natural
a) offshore

b) pure

c) heir

c) types

d) successor

c) motor-boats

b) inshore

d) public

d) diversity

c) major

c) native

d) first

d) residue

c) inhabitants

b) variety

d) invented

d) vital
d) ships

d) creation

c) shore

d) coast

How has weather forecasting evolved in the past 20 years? There have been a
number of influences and perhaps the most visible is the use of satellite technology.
It is almost impossible to watch a forecast on television nowadays without seeing a
satellite picture showing where the areas of high pressure and low pressure are and
how the weather is likely to develop. Indeed, a whole new industry of nowcasting
has developed, telling us what the weather is like now and what we could expect to
see if we could be bothered to look out of the window. A less evident, but equally
relevant, innovation has been the application of the comparatively new science of
mathematical modelling to weather forecasting. This involves using the massive
computational powers of supercomputers to process all the different variables so as
to provide some likely forecasts of what will happen next with the weather. Even
here, however, the science is by no means complete and the weather experts still
need to choose between different possible forecasts. How do they do that?
Experience and judgment not perhaps that different from the ancient Babylonians
who decided if it was going to rain by
looking at the shape of the cloud.



composed involves