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COURSETITLE:

Mods,Punks,Goths&Skaters:
AnExaminationofGlobalSubcultures

INSTRUCTOR:

CaylaDelardi

crd303@nyu.edu


TABLEOFCONTENTS

ClassDescription

Rationale&LearningObjectives,andArrangement

Page2

Reading,Viewing&Discussion

Week1,Classes1and2

Page4

Week2,Classes3and4

Page5

Week3,Classes5and6

Page6

Week4,Classes7and8

Page7

Week5,Classes9and10

Page9

Week6,Classes11and12

Page11

Week7,Classes13and14

Page12

Week8,Classes15and16

Page13

Week9,Classes17and18

Page15

Week10,Classes19and20

Page16

ClassAssignments

Overview

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WeeklyBreakdown

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WorkingClassBibliographies

Bibliography,AlphabeticalbyAuthor

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COURSE TITLE
Mods,Punks,Goths&Skaters:
An Examination of Global Subcultures

INSTRUCTOR CONTACT INFORMATION


Cayla Delardi
crd303@nyu.edu
RATIONALE FOR THIS COURSE
This course is designed to examine global youth subcultural phenomena
through four main case studies (mods, punks, goths, and skateboarders) in an
attempt to understand how people of different backgrounds conceptualize
their identities and engage in subcultural practice, a process which is often
complicated and sometimes contradictory. With the help of a variety of
theoretical, historical, and creative works, we will dissect the main schools of
thought in the field of cultural studies and use them not only to help
characterize the defining interests, tastes, styles, and views of each group, but
also to consider the extent to which they accurately reflect the lived experience
of subcultural participants. Furthermore, literature that focuses on the spread
of subcultural groups across national boundaries, or conversely, the
containment of them in specific locations will be used to help shed light on
how individual and collective experiences can vary based on geographical,
socioeconomic, racial, and other cultural factors.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES FOR THIS COURSE
By the end of this course, students will be able to identify and describe the
characteristics of each of the subcultures we have studied, and should be able
to understand the terminology used to distinguish between dominant culture
and subculture more generally. They will also be familiar with the major
schools of thought in cultural studies, which they will be able to dialogue with
their own original ideas and experiences to contribute to the ongoing
conversations in this field.
ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIAL FOR THIS COURSE

BLOCK A (week 1): An Introduction to Youth/Subculture


BLOCK B (week 2): Understanding Foundational Subcultural Theory
BLOCK C (weeks 3&4): Mods
BLOCK D (week 4&5): Skateboarders
BLOCK E (week 6&7): Goths

BLOCK G: (weeks 8 & 9): Punks


BLOCK H: (week 10): The Current State of Subcultures and
(Post-)Subcultural Theory

WEEK-BY-WEEK CLASS BREAKDOWN FOR THIS COURSE


WEEK ONE, CLASS 1
Class Title:
The Rise of the Teenager & the Emergence of Youth Markets
Class Type:
History
Class Summary:
Before we can begin to understand the definition of
subculture and its young participants, it is important to have some working
knowledge of what came before it. We will discuss the evolution of the
teenager as viable consumer market and its effect on the emergence of
subculture.
Required Readings:
Arrival of the Teenager from Jon Savages
Teenage: The Prehistory of
Youth Culture: 1875-1945
. (New York: Penguin Books, 2008).
Recommended Readings:
Palladino, G.
Teenagers: An American History
. (New York: Basic Books,
1997).
To View:
American Bandstand 7-Up Ad (1957)
Bing Crosby for Philco & Fleers Ad (1949)
Clip from
Shake, Rattle & Rock

(1956)
Questions for Discussion:
1. What factors contributed to the emergence of the teenager as a globally
recognized concept?
2. Why did it take so long for the teenage market to emerge?
3. What effect did teenagers have on culture at large in the years following
WWII?
WEEK ONE, CLASS 2:
Class Title
: What Are Subcultures?
Class Type
: History
Class Summary:
In this class we will use to establish the meaning of the term
subculture and identify some of the key groups that are classified as such.
Required Readings
Introduction from
H
aenfler, R. (2010)
Goths, Gamers, and Grrrls:
Deviance and Youth Subcultures
. New York: Oxford University Press. p.
1-17.


The Field of Subcultural Studies from Ken Gelder and Sarah Thorntons
The Subcultures Reader
, p. 1-15.
Questions for Discussion:
1. What does the term subculture mean? Where did it originate?
2. What are some examples of historical subcultures?
3. What kinds of subcultures existed in your school growing up?
WEEK TWO, CLASS 3
Class Title:
Understanding Subcultural Theory I: The Chicago School
Class Type:
Theory
Class Summary:
In this class we will analyze selected works by early theorists
at The Chicago School, whose research on deviant and criminal culture served
as the foundation for the myriad of subcultural theory that exists today.
Required Readings:
Albert Cohens chapter A General Theory of Cultural Studies from Ken
Gelder and Sarah Thorntons
The Subcultures Reader
, p. 50-59.
Selections from Cloward, R.A. and Ohlin, L.E.
Delinquency and
Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs
. (London: Routledge, 1960).
Background Readings:
The Chicago School from Chris Jenks
Subculture: The Fragmentation of
the Social
. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2004. p. 51-72.
Questions for Discussion:
1. How does Cohen understand subcultures?
2. What are the implications of linking the term subculture and its
practitioners to deviant (criminal) behavior?
WEEK TWO, CLASS 4
Class Title:
Understanding Subcultural Theory II: The Birmingham CCCS
Class Type:
Theory
Class Summary:
The Birmingham Schools Center for Contemporary Cultural
Studies is regarded as the most well-known and influential school of thought in
the field. Here, we will use Hebdiges S
ubculture: The Meaning of Style
to
understand the evolution in thought between the behavioral deviance at the
focus of Cohen and his Chicago School contemporaries work and the semiotic
and sartorial forms of subcultural resistance as theorized by Hebdige.
Understanding the notion of semiotics is also of particular important for the
courses midterm presentation and final project.
Required Readings:
Chapters 6, 7 & 8 from Dick Hebdiges
Subculture: The Meaning of Style
.
(London: Methuen Young books). p. 90-117.
Background Readings:
Eco, U. (1976)
A Theory of Semiotics
. Bloomington: Indiana University
Press.


Jenks, C.
Subculture: The Fragmentation of the Social
. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications, 2004.
Recommended Readings:
Barthes, R. (1983)
Mythologies
. United States: Peter Smith Publisher.
Questions for Discussion:
1. How can we characterize Hebdiges approach to subcultural analysis?
2. What are the main differences between Hebdige and Cohens views of
subcultures?
3. What is semiotics?
4. What are some examples of objects, words, and symbols that have had
their meanings subverted or changed in cultural consciousness?
WEEK THREE, CLASS 5
Class Title:
Mods: A Case Study in Localized Subcultures I
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
This class will serve as an introduction to Mods, a working
class subculture that originated in Britain in the 1960s. M
ods: The New Religion
will help us to understand what elements characterized and shaped the culture,
while the film
Quadrophenia
and digital articles on the mod vs. rocker feud will
also help us to consider their varying representations across media, both of
which can be discussed through the lens of our theoretical readings.
Required Readings:
Selections from Anderson, P. (2014)
Mods: The New Religion
. London:
Omnibus Pr & Schirmer Trade Books.
Chapters 2, 3 & from Dick Hebdiges
Subculture: The Meaning of Style
.
(London: Methuen Young books). 52-54.
Recommended Readings:
Rawlings, T. and Barnes, R. (2000)
Mod: Clean living under very difficult
Circimstances - A Very British Phenomenon
. London: Omnibus Press.
Hewitt, P. (2008)
The Sharper Word: A Mod Anthology
. Edited by
Editor-Paolo Hewitt. United Kingdom: Helter Skelter Publishing.
Cohen, Stanley, F
olk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods
and Rockers
, (1972), London, McGibbon and Kee.
To View:
Quadrophenia
Mods v Rockers! The beach battles that rocked Britain in 1964 - and
terrified bank holiday tourists
Questions for Discussion:
1. When, where, and why did Mod culture emerge?
2. What are the sartorial, social, and economic characteristics of a typical
Mod?
3. How is does the image of the Mod change based on the outlet through
which they are portrayed? What are the consequences of this? Does it
map to any of the theory we have read so far?

WEEK THREE, CLASS 6


Class Title:
Mods: A Case Study in Localized Subcultures II
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
In this class we will use Hebdiges chapters on British
immigration from the West Indies and its effect on the emergence of Mod
culture to understand the relationship between black and white cultures in the
UK during this period and why Mod, unlike many other subcultures, remained
more or less a British phenomenon. It will be important to contrast Mods
characteristics with our later case studies where the subcultural styles and
practices have been widely spread throughout the world.
Required Readings:
Continue with Hebdige & Anderson
Recommended Readings:
Rawlings, T. and Barnes, R. (2000)
Mod: Clean living under very difficult
Circumstances - A Very British Phenomenon
. London: Omnibus Press.
Hewitt, P. (2008)
The Sharper Word: A Mod Anthology
. Edited by
Editor-Paolo Hewitt. United Kingdom: Helter Skelter Publishing.
Cohen, Stanley, F
olk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods
and Rockers
, (1972), London, McGibbon and Kee.
To View:
Continue with
Quadrophenia
Questions for Discussion:
1. Why did Mod culture remain so localized?
2. What might Mod culture have looked like in other countries?
3. What additional subcultures emerged from Mod culture?
WEEK FOUR, CLASS 7
Class Title:
From Mods to Hard Mods to Skinheads
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
In this class we will look at a selection of literature on the
transformation from classic Mod to Skinhead culture that occurred in the late
1960s, and the stark changes that accompanied it. Per Hebdiges chapter, we will
consider the roots of Mod and, by extension, Skinheads in black culture, style,
and music. We will use this information coupled with the
World of Skinhead
documentary to examine how the perception of Skinheads changed from
working class youth to right-wing extremists as a subsection of them began to
openly join white supremacist movements. Again considering semiotic theory,
we will think about how certain elements of their style are immediate signifiers
of ideology and political affiliation in greater cultural consciousness, and how
these signs may be translated differently in different cities or countries.
Required Readings:


White skins, Black masks from
Dick Hebdiges
Subculture: The Meaning
of Style
. (London: Methuen Young books). 54-59.
Skinheads: The Symbolism of Style and Ritual
from Haenfler, R. (2010)
Goths, Gamers, and Grrrls: Deviance and Youth Subcultures
. New York:
Oxford University Press. p. 17-31.
Marshall, G. (1991) S
pirit of 69: A Skinhead Bible
. United Kingdom: S.T.
Publishing.
To View:
The Undisciplined (2014)
SKINHEAD: The Evolution of a Subculture and
Societys View Thereof
.
World of Skinhead
Images from Derek Ridgers S
kinheads 1979 - 1984
. United Kingdom:
Omnibus Pr & Schirmer Trade Books.
Marcus Pacheco and the Birth of Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice
Questions for Discussion:
1. Why did many young people transition from Mod to Skinhead? What
drew non-Mods to the group?
2. What were some of the sartorial and ideological changes that occurred
with the transition?
3. How did the public perception of skinheads change over time? What are
the associations made with their sartorial style today? Do they vary by
region?
4. What are some of the political sentiments that you heard in the
documentary? What have some of the skinheads featured in the film
done to try and counteract the ideology that others have perpetuated? In
what ways is that perpetuation occurring?
5. What is S.H.A.R.P.? Who created it? What was its function in skinhead
culture?
6. How can the understanding and function of a subculture as a collective
be complicated by individuals within it?
WEEK FOUR, CLASS 8
Class Title:
Skateboarding Culture From the Z-Boys to Skateistan I
Class Type:
History
Class Summary:
This class will introduce skateboarding from its roots in surf
culture to its current unstable relationship with mass media and culture,
courtesy of worldwide competitions like the X-Games, films like Lords of
Dogtown, and Tony Hawks skateboarding empire. Establishing a foundation for
the emergence of teams, competitions, hard and soft goods companies, and
aesthetic preferences within the subculture is necessary before moving further
with any of the more nuanced concepts that will come later in the week.
Required Readings:
Selections from Mortimer, S. and Hawk, T.
Stalefish: Skate Culture From
the Rejects Who Made It
. (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 2008).


Reft, R. (2010)
Recreation Revolution: Working Class Youth and the
Creation of Skate Culture
. Available at:
http://tropicsofmeta.com/2010/11/01/recreation-revolution-working-cla
ss-youth-and-the-creation-of-skate-culture/.

Recommended Readings:
Lombard, Kara-Jane. Skate and Create/skate and Destroy: The
Commercial and Governmental Incorporation of Skateboarding.
Continuum
24.4 (Aug. 2010): 475488.
To View:
Dogtown & Z-Boys
A Brief History of Skateboarding
Questions for Discussion
1. What are skateboardings roots?
2. How has the physical and cultural practice of skateboarding evolved
since its inception?
3. What is the relationship between skate culture and mainstream culture?
WEEK FIVE, CLASS 9
Class Title:
Skateboarding Culture From the Z-Boys to Skateistan II
Class Type:
History
Class Summary:
Here, we will use a series of examples of organically created
skate cultures and non-profit organizations that promote skateboarding in
non-Western countries. We will consider the translatability and adaptability of
skate culture worldwide in comparison to earlier subcultural groups like Mods,
and discuss the differences between skating in a foreign country as a tourist
and doing so as a native to the country and active participant in its daily
operations.
Required Readings:
Taylor, M.F. and Khan, U. (2011) Skate-park Builds, Teenaphobia and the
Adolescent Need for Hang-Out Spaces: The Social Utility and
Functionality of Urban Skate Parks, J
ournal of Urban Design
, 16(4), pp.
489510.
Skateboarding from China to Afghanistan with Patrik Wallner
Skateboarding on the Island of East Timor
To View:
Skateistan
Uganda Skateboard Union
Cuba's Hardcore Skateboarders Get Some Lift
China's Skateboarding Revolution
Questions for Discussion:


1. What makes skateboarding culture more easily translatable to people of
different nationalities and backgrounds than some of our other case
studies?
2. What are some of the varying elements between the non-Western skate
cultures/initiatives that we looked at this week and American skate
culture as seen in last weeks film and literature? i.e., What elements have
been adopted, abandoned, and reimagined?
3. Compare and contrast the two Jenkem features above. How would you
characterize the attitudes and viewpoints of the skaters in the From
China to Afghanistan article and video?
4. Skate companies and teams (particular Americans) often travel to other
countries to shoot video features and ads. What are some of the
complexities that can occur when you skate in a different country as a
tourist versus doing the same as a citizen of that country?
5. Do skateboarding initiatives like Skateistan have an effect on the
perceived authenticity of a citys skate culture?
WEEK FIVE, CLASS 10
Class Title:
Race and Gender in On-Screen Portrayals of Skate Culture
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
In this class we will use theoretical texts on race and gender in
subcultural experience and multiculturalism in the media as a lenses through
which we can understand how the subjects of Larry Clarks
Wassup Rockers
and in the documentary
Underexposed p
erform resistance and affiliate
themselves with skate culture. Additionally, we will discuss the effect that these
portrayals have on viewers both inside and outside of the skateboarding
community. We will also see an extension of last weeks topic of the
adaptability of skate culture, particularly how it intersects with other
subcultures in these films, and how its nature as predominantly a physical
performance allows for its practitioners to engage in other aspects of both
dominant and marginalized culture without losing a sense of authentic
membership to any of the groups.
Required Readings:
Chapter 3: Race and Gender in Subcultural Experience from W
illiams,
Patrick J.
Subcultural Theory: Traditions and Concepts
. Cambridge, UK:
Polity Press, 10 June 2011. Print.
Beal, B. (1995) Disqualifying the Official: An Exploration of Social
Resistance Through the Subculture of Skateboarding,
Sociology of Sport
Journal
, 12, pp. 252267.
Background Readings:
Chapter 1: Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism, and Media Culture from
Dines, Gail, and Jean M. Humez, eds.
Gender, Race, and Class in Media: A
Critical Reader
. 4th ed. United States: Sage Publications, 8 Apr. 2014. Print.
To View:


Clark, L. (2005)
Wassup Rockers
.
Underexposed: A Women's Skateboarding Documentary
http://www.skatelikeagirl.com/
Questions for Discussion:
1. Compare and contrast the forms of resistance performed in
Wassup
Rockers
and
Underexposed
.
2. What kinds of social, economic, and racial critiques can be found in
Wassup Rockers
?
3. How do the boys in the film understand themselves as skateboarders,
teenagers, and subcultural practitioners?
4. Apart from skate culture, what other kinds of subcultures do the films
protagonists engage in? Which do they reject? Why might that be?
5. How might these images of skateboarders in media influence those who
see them? How might this influence change if the person is already a
skateboarder themselves?
WEEK SIX, CLASS 11
Class Title:
Goth from Bauhaus to Siouxsie & the Banshees
Class Type:
History
Class Summary:
This class will serve as an introduction to the Gothic
subculture, including the trends in style, music taste, literature, film, leisure
pursuits, and socioeconomic statuses among its participants. It will position
Goth as a subculture rooted heavily in a particularly dark aesthetic with an
affinity for a group of musicians who emulate that style both sartorially and
sonically.
Required Readings:
Thompson, D. (2002)
The Dark Reign of Gothic Rock: In the Reptile
House with the Sisters of Mercy, Bauhaus and the Cure.
United Kingdom:
Helter Skelter Publishing, London.
Chapter 7: Goth--Stigma and Stigma Management from Haenfler, R.
(2010)
Goths, Gamers, and Grrrls: Deviance and Youth Subcultures
. New
York: Oxford University Press. p. 91-105.
To View & Hear:
Class presentations
Life as a Goth in 1980s Yorkshire
Bauhaus - Bela Lugosis Dead
Siouxsie and the Banshees - The Passenger
The Height of Goth: 1984: A Night at the Xclusiv Nightclub
Questions for Discussion:
1. When and where did Goth culture begin?
2. What are the general sartorial, aesthetic, sonic, and ideological
characteristics of Goth?
3. How can we characterize the ties between Goth culture and music? Who
are the major musical figures in the subculture?

WEEK SIX, CLASS 12


Class Title:
Goth Culture and Identity
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
In this class we will use Dunja Brills chapter in
Youth Cultures:
Scenes, Subcultures, and Tribes
and the 3 stories from Goths: Latinos on the
Dark Side to think of the goth subculture in terms race and gender, and how a
practitioners identification and participation within the subculture changes
based on these factors.
Required Readings:
Miklas, S. and Arnold, S.J. (1999) The Extraordinary Self: Gothic Culture
and the Construction of the Self,
Journal of Marketing Management
,
15(6), pp. 563576.
Gender, Status, and Subcultural Capital in the Goth Scene from
Hodkinson, P. and Deicke, W. (eds.) (2007)
Youth Cultures: Scenes,
Subcultures and Tribes
. New York: Taylor and Francis(Routledge). p.
111-128.
Recommended Readings:
Hodkinson, P. and Virgili, F. (2002) G
oth: Identity, Style and Subculture
.
8th edn. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
To View & Hear:
Class presentations
Goths: Latinos on the Dark Side
Photo Collections from Harriman, A. and Bontje, M. (2014)
Some wear
leather, some wear lace: The Worldwide Compendium of Postpunk and
Goth in the 1980s
. United Kingdom: Intellect Books.
Questions for Discussion:
1. How do goths understand their identity? Given some of the idealized
aesthetics of the goth subculture, does this conceptualization change
based on the participants ethnic background?
2. How is gender and sexuality performed in the goth subculture?
WEEK SEVEN, CLASS 13
Class Title:
Global Goth
Class Type:
History
Class Summary:
Here, we will use a selection of readings from Harrimans
Some Wear Leather, Some Wear Lace to think now in terms of nationality, and
how a nations history influences the ways in which its people conceptualize
their identities and how political, social, and economic factors sometimes draw
people to find a home for themselves in a subcultural style.
Required Readings:
Phillips, M. (2007) The Gothic Subculture in Germany.


Japan, The Netherlands, Behind the Iron Curtain, Grufti Nation, and
Scandinavia from Harriman, A. and Bontje, M. (2014)
Some wear leather,
some wear lace: The Worldwide Compendium of Postpunk and Goth in
the 1980s
. United Kingdom: Intellect Books.
Selections from Issitt, Micah L.
Goths: A Guide to an American
Subculture
. United States: Greenwood Pub Group, 2 Feb. 2011. Print.
To View:
Class presentations
Photo Collections from Harriman, A. and Bontje, M. (2014)
Some Wear
Leather, Some Wear Lace: The Worldwide Compendium of Postpunk
and Goth in the 1980s
. United Kingdom: Intellect Books.
Questions for Discussion:
1. How has goth been understood in different ways across the globe?
2. What characteristics of goth do you notice in some parts of the world but
not in others?
WEEK SEVEN, CLASS 14
Class Title:
Conflicting Histories: An Introduction to Punk Style & Music
Class Type:
History
Class Summary:
This class will look at the defining characteristics of punk style
and music and will also attempt to set the record straight on the the
mythologized beginnings of the subculture. Did it start in the US? The UK? A
cinema in Peru? These are all questions that we will consider using in-class
examples and readings like Jon Savages
Englands Dreaming
and the BBCs
Brief History of Punk
Required Readings:
Selections from Henry, Tricia.
Break All Rules!: Punk Rock and the
Making of a Style
. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International,
1989. Print.
Selections from
Savage, Jon.
Englands Dreaming: The Sex Pistols and
Punk Rock
. London: Faber and Faber, 8 June 1992. Print.
Background Readings:
Heylin, Clinton.
From the Velvets to the Voidoids: A Pre-Punk History for
the Post-Punk World
. London: Penguin Books, 24 June 1993. Print.
Recommended Readings:
Kristal, Hilly. C
BGB and OMFUG: Thirty Years from the Home of
Underground Rock
. United States: Abrams, Harry N., 12 Aug. 2005. Print.
McNeil, Legs, and Gillian McCain.
Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral
History of Punk
. 10th ed. New York: Grove Press / Atlantic Monthly Press,
13 Apr. 2006. Print.
To View & Hear:
Class presentations
Where Did Punk Begin? A Cinema in Peru
A Brief History of Punk


The Sex Pistols - God Save the Queen
Questions for Discussion:
1. Where and when did punk begin?
2. What kinds of sartorial elements make up the punk style?
3. What is punks connection to music?
4. Who are the main bands associated with punk?
WEEK EIGHT, CLASS 15
Class Title:
Punk Politics and Ideologies
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
This class will unpack punk as a countercultural movement .
and will help us consider how gender performance in the subculture was
essentially an act of meta-resistance.
Required Readings:
Moore, Ryan. Postmodernism and Punk Subculture: Cultures of
Authenticity and Deconstruction.
The Communication Review
7.3 (July
2004): 305327. Web.
Selections from Leblanc, Lauraine.
Pretty in Punk: Girls Gender
Resistance in a Boys' Subculture
. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University
Press, 31 May 1999. Print.
Recommended Readings:
Introduction from Nehring, Neil.
Popular Music, Gender, and
Postmodernism: Anger Is an Energy
. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications, Apr. 1997. Print.
McNeil, Legs, and Gillian McCain.
Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral
History of Punk
. 10th ed. New York: Grove Press / Atlantic Monthly Press,
13 Apr. 2006. Print.
Bag, Alice.
Violence Girl: East L.A. Rage to Hollywood Stage: A Chicana
Punk Story
. N.p.: Feral House, 27 Sept. 2011. Print.
To View & Hear:
Shes A Punk Rocker
The Punk Photographs of Sheila Rock
X - Johnny Hit and Run Paulene
The Bags - All Bagged Up
Questions for Discussion:
1. What is postmodernism?
2. How would you describe the punk attitude as it is generally
understood?
3. What kinds of social, economic, and political standards is punk rebelling
against? How do its practitioners do this?
4. What, for LeBlanc, was the female punk experience like?
5. How do female punks perform multiple layers of resistance within the
subculture?


WEEK EIGHT, CLASS 16
Class Title:
Anarchy in the UK, USA, and Pretty Much Everywhere Else: Punk
Goes Global
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
Here, we will use selections from
White Riot
and 2
documentary films: Punk in Africa and The Punks are Alright to discuss the
global spread of punk, and the variations within the culture that occur based on
the participants location, history, ethnicity, and other cultural factors. In a
broader scope, punks evolutionary history is perhaps the strongest testament
to the variable and sometimes contradictory nature of subcultural groups
ideologies, presentations, and behaviors on a collective (both in national and
international terms) and individual level.
Required Readings:
The Evolution of Punk in Russia, Im So Bored With the USA (and the
UK Too), from
Duncombe, Stephen, and Maxwell Tremblay, eds. W
hite
Riot: Punk Rock and the Politics of Race
. United Kingdom: Verso Books, 11
July 2011. Print.
Listen:
Radiolab - Los Frikis
Background Readings:
Bleached Roots: Punks and White Ethnicity from Dick Hebdiges
Subculture: The Meaning of Style
. (London: Methuen Young books).
62-72.
To View:
Punk in Africa
The Punks Are Alright
Portraits of Japanese Punk Culture from the 80s
Portraits of Yugoslavian 80s Punk Culture
Hanging Out with the Godmother of the Cuban Punk Scene
Questions for Discussion:
1. What locations did punk culture spread to?
2. What are the distinct characteristics of punk in these various locations?
3. How does punk culture in these locations engage with race? Politics?
4. How can we characterize Cubas frikis? Who were their influences?
How did their culture evolve over time? Why did they inject themselves
with HIV infected blood? What were the effects of this phenomenon
ideologically? How did the state react?
WEEK NINE, CLASS 17
Class Title:
Punk Is Dead: An Introduction to Post-Subcultural Theory
Class Type:
Theory
Class Summary:
In this class we will use
Punk Rock, So What?
, Bennetts article,
and the Mets 2013 exhibit titled, Punk: Chaos to Couture to understand the
prevailing legacy and cultural significance of punk. Then, we will discuss a


chapter in David Muggletons
Post-Subcultures Reader
that regards punk as the
last subculture, which is a perfect introduction to the body of post-subcultural
theory literature that we will read next week.
Required Readings:
Selections from Sabin, Roger, ed.
Punk Rock, So What? The Cultural
Legacy of Punk
. New York: Routledge, 27 May 1999. Print.
Clark, Dylan. 2003. The Death and Life of Punk, The Last Subculture, pp.
223-36, from David Muggleton and Rupert Weinzierl (eds.),
The
Post-Subcultures Reader. O
xford: Berg.
Bennett, A. Punks Not Dead: The Continuing Significance of Punk Rock
for an Older Generation of Fans.
Sociology
40.2 (1 Apr. 2006): 219235.
Web.
Background Readings:
What is Post-Subcultural Studies Anyway? from Muggleton, David, and
Rupert Weinzierl.
The Post-Subcultures Reader
. Oxford: Berg, 2003.
Print.
To View:
Punk: Chaos to Couture
Destroy and Create: The Legacy of Punk
Questions for Discussion:
1. What impact did punk have on culture at large? Was this impact
different in the locations where the culture has its roots?
2. Does punk culture still exist today? Why or why not?
3. Why does Clark argue that both punk and the notion of the subculture
have died?
4. What does Clarks theory suggest about the state of subcultures more
generally? Do you agree?
WEEK NINE, CLASS 18
Class Title:
Modern Theory and the Post-Subculture Argument
Class Type:
Theory
Class Summary:
This class will essentially pan out from last weeks literature on
punk as the last authentic subculture and look at a more generalized selection
of theory from the postmodern and post-subcultural points of view. These
works will allow us to compare and understand the direction that subcultural
studies is currently heading in. This is particularly important for week 10, where
we will look at some examples of modern subcultures and discuss our own
thoughts on what theoretical points of view most accurately reflect their
current states.
Required Readings:
Postmodern Subcultures and Aesthetic Modernity and Distinctive
Individuality and Subcultural Affiliation from Muggleton, David.
Inside

Subculture: The Postmodern Meaning of Style


. Oxford: Bloomsbury
Publishing PLC, 1 Apr. 2000. Print.
Youth Culture and the Internet: A Subcultural or Post-Subcultural
Phenomena? from The Subcultures Network, ed.
Subcultures, Popular
Music and Social Change
. United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars
Publishing, 1 July 2014. Print.
Bennett, Andy. The Post-Subcultural Turn: Some Reflections 10 Years
on.
Journal of Youth Studies
14.5 (Aug. 2011): 493506. Web.
Background Readings:
What is Post-Subcultural Studies Anyway? from Muggleton, David, and
Rupert Weinzierl.
The Post-Subcultures Reader
. Oxford: Berg, 2003.
Print.
Recommended Readings:
Nwalozie, Chijioke. Rethinking Subculture and Subcultural Theory in the
Study of Youth Crime A Theoretical Discourse.
Journal of Theoretical
and Philosophical Criminology
7.1 (Jan. 2015): 1-16.
To View:
Youth Subcultures: Where Have They Gone?
Questions for Discussion:
1. What do these theories say about the nature of subcultures today?
2. What are some points of similarity and difference between this weeks
readings?
3. How do these theories diverge from the theories we read at the
beginning of the semester (Birmingham & Chicago)? Are any of these
diversions explicit?
4. Do you agree with the post-subcultural argument? Why or why not?
WEEK TEN, CLASS 19
Class Title:
The Current State of Subcultures I
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
This class will focus on some of the subcultural groups that
exist today, including some that we have studied previously in this course.
Using the current subcultural literature from last week, we will discuss whether
they are in fact subcultures at all. These brief case studies will provide concrete
examples that students can use to make their own judgements about the nature
of subcultures in the contemporary world.
Required Readings:
Continue with Muggleton and Bennett readings.
Recommended Readings:
Horst, Friedrichs. I
m One: 21st Century Mods
. Prestel, Feb. 2013. Print.
To View:
The Young 21st Century Mods of London
Goth Appropriation and the Demise of Subcultures
Rebels With A Cause: Botswanas Heavy Metal Heads


Questions for Discussion:
1. How do the Mods of today compare to the original Mods of the 1960s?
2. What factors allowed for the preservation and continuation of Mod
culture in England?
3. How can we examine current subcultures through more modern
theoretical lenses?
4. Do you agree with the post-subcultural argument? Why or why not?
WEEK TEN, CLASS 20
Class Title:
The Current State of Subcultures II
Class Type:
History/Theory
Class Summary:
This class will be a continuation of the previous class, with
some additional resources on current subcultural groups. Keeping all of the
theoretical literature from the course in mind, we will discuss whether they are,
in fact, subcultures at all. These brief case studies will provide concrete
examples that students can use to make their own judgements about the nature
of subcultures in the contemporary world.
Required Readings:
Continue with Muggleton and Bennett readings.
To View:
The State of Black Subcultures in 21st Century America
2014: The Year of Internet Fashion Subcultures
A Guide to the Fashion Subculture of Japan
Questions for Discussion:
1. According to the readings and examples, what kinds of subcultures are
said to exist today?
2. How has the internet changed subcultural expression and identification?
3. How can we examine current subcultures through more modern
theoretical lenses?
4. Do you agree with the post-subcultural argument? Why or why not?
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS
Types of assignments for this class
:
Class Blog Posts & Comments:
Students will be required to contribute one post
to our class blog on a bi-weekly basis. Each post should fall into one of the
following categories:
1. Response: Responding to the appropriate weeks readings and case studies.
2. Personal Narrative: Dialoguing with the course readings to describe an
experience with or connection to a particular subculture. You may choose
groups which are outside the scope of this course, which is why it is especially
important to connect it back to our literature in some way.


3. Media write-up: Reviewing, researching, and/or reporting on
subculture-related news stories, articles, or documentaries.
You may choose to write all of your posts on one of the above categories, or try
out all 3, its completely up to you. If you have any other ideas for posts youd
like to write that seem relevant to the coursework, you may email them to me
for approval.
To ensure that the blog remains active, students will be randomly divided into
two groups (A & B) at the beginning of the semester, who will take turns writing
posts each week. During the weeks that your group is not writing posts, you
should be leaving thoughtful, substantial comments on at least
2
of your
classmates posts.
Final Paper Presentation:
In weeks 6-7, each student will be required to
conduct a 5-minute presentation on their proposed final paper topic and
methodology. Although the information is subject to change, this will help you
articulate your interest and focus early on, as well as get valuable feedback from
myself and your classmates. The presentation should include images, text, and a
working bibliography at the end. You may also include a short video clip,
though it should only be about 30 seconds to a minute long, nothing more. I
will be handing out a sign-up sheet during the second week of class where you
will be able to choose your presentation date.
Final Paper:
Using the required and recommended sources from our class
bibliography as well as your own additional research, choose and analyze a
subcultural object in terms of its history, appropriation/adaptation by the
subcultural group, the subsequent subversion of its meaning and new semiotic
significance. Although you have the option of choosing an object from a group
that is outside the scope of the course, you must explicitly reference at least 3

pieces of material from our syllabus. You may also draw a comparison between
two objects if you wish.
Your analysis can either take a traditional essay form spanning 8-10 pages in
length, or it can be presented creatively through film, a magazine article, an
encyclopedia entry, or a piece of art. Again, I am open to ideas here, but they
need to be clearly articulated to me for approval before your midterm
presentation. If you choose a creative form, you must also submit a written
document of 1-2 pages explaining your object, your creative choices, and a brief
analysis of the object that directly references the course material, if your chosen
medium did not allow you to do so.
Grading Parameters:
CLASS BLOG POSTS & COMMENTS: 30%
MIDTERM PRESENTATION: 20%


FINAL PAPER: 45%
ATTENDANCE AND PARTICIPATION: 5%
WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT BREAKDOWN WITH DUE DATES
WEEK ONE
- Write class blog post (Group A), Comment on 2 blog posts (Group B)
WEEK TWO
- Write class blog post (Group B), Comment on 2 blog posts (Group A)
WEEK THREE
- Write class blog post (Group A), Comment on 2 blog posts (Group B)
WEEK FOUR
- Write class blog post (Group B), Comment on 2 blog posts (Group A)
WEEK FIVE
-Write class blog post (Group A), Comment on 2 blog posts (Group B)
WEEK SIX
- Final Paper Presentations (NO BLOG POSTS)
WEEK SEVEN
- Final Paper Presentations (NO BLOG POSTS)
WEEK EIGHT
- Write class blog post (Group B), Comment on 2 blog posts (Group A)
WEEK NINE
- Work on final project (NO BLOG POSTS)
WEEK TEN
- Final project due (NO BLOG POSTS)

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