You are on page 1of 15


Moment Distribution
Prepared By : Eng. Ali Jahami

Introduction :
The method of analyzing beams and frames using
moment distribution was developed by Hardy Cross, in 1930.
At the time this method was first published it attracted
immediate attention, and it has been recognized as one of
the most notable advances in structural analysis during the
twentieth century
The moment-distribution method is a displacement
method of
analysis that is easy to apply once certain elastic constants
have been
The method begins by assuming each joint of a structure
is fixed. Then, by unlocking and locking each joint in
succession, the internal moments at the joints are
distributed and balanced until the joints have rotated to
their final or nearly final positions.

Sign Convention :
Clockwise moments that act on the member are considered
positive, whereas counterclockwise moments are negative

Fixed-End Moments (FEMs) :

The moments at the walls or fixed joints of a loaded member are

called fixed-end moments. These moments can be determined from
the next figure.

Member Stiffness Factor :

Can be defined as the amount of moment M required to
rotate the end A of the beam A = 1 rad

Joint Stiffness Factor :

The total stiffness factor at the joint is the sum of the
member stiffness factors at the joint.

Distribution Factor (DF) :

If a moment M is applied to a fixed connected joint, the
connecting members will each supply a portion of the
resisting moment necessary to satisfy moment equilibrium
at the joint. That fraction of the total resisting moment
supplied by the member is called the distribution factor (DF)

Carry-Over Factor :
The carry-over factor
represents the fraction of M
that is carried over from
the pin to the wall. Hence, in
the case of a beam with the
far end fixed, the carry-over
factor is 0.5. The plus sign
indicates both moments act in
the same direction.

Note that the carry-over

factor is zero, since the pin at
B does not
support a moment


Determine the reactions at the supports. Assume A is fixed and

B and C are rollers that can either push or pull
on the beam. EI is constant.


Distribution Factor (DF) :

Joint A :
DF (fix) = 1

Joint C :

DF (AB) = 0

DF (CB) = 1

Joint B :
Kab = 4EI/L = (4/5)EI = 0.8EI
Kbc = 3EI/L = (3/2.5)EI = 1.2EI
D.F (BA) = (0.8/0.8+1.2) = 0.4
D.F (BC) = (1.2/0.8+1.2) = 0.6

Moment distribution :

Reactions :

Xa = 0
Ya = 33 KN
Yb = 27 + 6 = 33 KN
Ma = -30 KN.m
Mb = -15 KN.m
Mc= 0

Yc = -6 KN