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Isabella Ferretti

ENC 2135
Annotated Bibliography: The Effects of Social Media on Relationships

Anderson, Traci L., and Tara M. Emmers-Sommer. "Predictors of Relationship

Satisfaction in Online Romantic Relationships." Taylor & Francis Online. Florida
State University, n.d. Web. 29 Feb. 2016.
Analyzes satisfaction in relationships and the possibility of success from online
relationships. Found that trust and communication through online communication were
the biggest factors that predicted a successful or happy relationship. Also, the
relationships proved to be lasting with an average of 27 weeks. The amount of
communication, in order to maintain the relationship though, was extensive. On average
couples spent forty hours a week communicating. In addition to that, it was reported that
the people involved in these relationships felt more confident and attributed this to what
was occurring within the relationship. The article also includes tables displaying
predictors for relationship satisfaction. This article was helpful because it explained what
different factors would help or hurt a relationship. It tied in well with my other articles
and I was able to refer to it throughout the essay.

Coyne, S. M., Stockdale, L., Busby, D., Iverson, B. and Grant, D. M. (2011), I luv u
:)!: A Descriptive Study of the Media Use of Individuals in Romantic

Relationships. Family Relations, 60: 150162. doi: 10.1111/j.1741

Explains how we effectively communicate through social media. Discusses the negative
and positive effects that can occur from the online interactions and how it may affect trust
and relationship satisfaction. Found that to maintain relationship satisfaction,
communication through social media and online sources must occur, but to a healthy
extent. Social media may also hurt the relationship if not used correctly. This article was
useful while writing my essay because it tied in well with a lot of my other resources and
helped support my ideas and the ideas of other articles. I used this article when explaining
how communication between to people in a relationship should work in order for there to
be relationship satisfaction.

Herbert, Karen R., Jessica Fales, Douglas W. Nangle, Alison A. Papidakis, and Rachel L.
Grover. Linking Social Anxiety and Adolescent Romantic Relationship
Functioning. G: Indirect Effects and the Importance of Peers. Springer Link. n.d.
Web. <>.
The article linked relationships to self-esteem and social anxiety. Unsatisfactory
relationships often cause self-esteem or confidence issues, which allow an individual to
feel more social anxiety. If someone is in a relationship with high satisfaction then they
tend to be more confident and outgoing. Discusses how these factors can form or break
relationships whether they are romantic or platonic. This article helped my essay because
it showed the importance of relationship satisfaction and how it can affect ones life. It

tied in well with the other articles that talked about relationship satisfaction and
confidence. I used this article when discussing the importance of relationship satisfaction.

Fox, Jesse, and Courtney Anderegg. Romantic Relationship Stages And Social
Networking Sites: Uncertainty Reduction Strategies And Perceived Relational
Norms on Facebook. Cyberpsychology Behavior & Social Networking 17.11
(2014): 685-691. Academic Search Complete. Web. 28 Feb. 2016.
The article explains how social media is unavoidable because they have integrated into
interpersonal relationships. It explains how there is uncertainty in relationships because it
is hard to know how seriously the partner is about the commitment. There are three
strategies for addressing uncertainty within a relationship: passive, active, and interactive.
Passive involves gathering information about a subject to reach a conclusion. Active
involves seeking information about a subject without directly addressing the target.
Interactive means seeking information directly from the subject. These processes
exemplify how, in modern relationships, seeking information online is a common
process. The article also includes means and standard deviations for uncertainty reduction
strategies and how effective they were. Examples of passive include looking through their
social media. Active examples include asking their friends and family. Interactive
involves commenting or liking their social media posts or talking to them about certain
things or questions. I found this article to be helpful when I discussed how to deal with
relationship anxiety and how to make ones relationship better. I appreciated that it
confirmed that social media gives people lack of trust, which was the majority of what I
tried to explain in my essay. Also, it supported my other articles.

Gibbs, Jennifer L., Nicole B. Ellison, and Rebecca D. Heino. Self-presentation in online
personals the role of anticipated future interaction, self-disclosure, and perceived
success in Internet dating. Communication Research 33.2 (2006): 152-177.
This article talks about online dating success and failure. It explains how online
interactions begin through the Internet and then continue into face-to-face
communications. Cyber dating is becoming more mainstream and the demographics that
use it are growing. Because of this, the strategies for interaction change and through
online communication there is more time to construct the message. However, when
communicating online there are less social cues on how to react and therefore the
messages can change and different strategies have to form in order for the communication
to work. There is a chart for desired outcomes in face-to-face reaction.

Kweskin, Susan. Romance Its So Cold Out There. Psychiatric Times 32.4 (2015):
56. Academic Search Complete. Web. 28 Feb. 2016.
The article describes how it is easier to find out if someone in a relationship is being
dishonest or cheating because of social media. There is more evidence of cheating
because of social media because it is easy to find texts, images, and posts that can prove
their infidelity. Also, the proof stays around forever. Technology adds efficiency to
relationships through apps such as Tinder. However these things add a lack of trust to a
relationship because you are only one in several people that the person could be talking
to. Overall technology makes dating a more heartless experience because it adds
suspicion and doubts to a relationship.

Murray, Sandra L., and John G. Holmes. "A leap of faith? Positive illusions in romantic
relationships." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23.6 (1997): 586-604.
Explains how illusions occur in relationships that have to be translated into reality in
order to effectively communicate and avoid idealism. The article questions as to whether
happiness within the relationship is strong enough to make a relationship last. Reports
that relationship illusions give satisfaction as the time goes on in the relationship. It also
explains how both people in relationships and married couples experience these illusions
to idealize their relationships and this allows a smoother communication process. It
allows partners to make certain leaps of faith that would not occur if they were not
viewing the interaction in an idealized sense.

Turcotte, J., York, C., Irving, J., Scholl, R. M. and Pingree, R. J. (2015), News
Recommendations from Social Media Opinion Leaders: Effects on Media Trust
and Information Seeking. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication,
20: 520535. doi: 10.1111/jcc4.12127
This article describes how trust of media is declining and how real life friendships are
more likely to be a source of trust. This was useful when writing my article because the
majority of my essay focused on how social media affected trust and how this affected
real life relationships. I did not go into detail with this source, but instead used it to
support the other sources and explain the necessity of trust within relationships and how
social media can effectively sway a persons decision on whether or not they trust a
certain source.

Utz, S. and Beukeboom, C. J. (2011), The Role of Social Network Sites in Romantic
Relationships: Effects on Jealousy and Relationship Happiness. Journal of
Computer-Mediated Communication, 16: 511527. doi: 10.1111/j.1083
This source explained why the jealously and unhappiness that social media creates in
these relationships is a problem. The source describes the direct correlation between these
problems and how happy one is their relationship and how the social media correlates
with the jealousy and distrust that a person may feel. I used this source in my essay when
I was describing the effects of an unhealthy relationship and how it can affect quality of
life. The article was useful for this part of my essay because it describes relationship
happiness and there is another article that this ties into that explains that relationship
satisfaction correlates with quality of life and self esteem.

Yanbo Wang, Oingfei Min, Shengnan Han, Understanding the effects of trust and risk on
individual behavior toward social media platforms: A meta-analysis of the
empirical evidence, Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 56, March 2016,
Pages 34-44, ISSN 0747-5632,
Once again this article ties into the effects of trust and how it can affect how we respond
and use information. This source was useful because it tied in with other sources and
helped support the idea that social media affects behavior and how people communicate.

I used this article when describing how people use the information they receive through
social media or online to effectively communicate and build relationships. I used this
article with the article by Anderson and Sommers to support the idea that trust is key
within a relationship, especially when any information received from social media is not
necessarily true.