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SECTION3

DESIGNOFPOST
TENSIONEDCOMPONENTS
FORFLEXURE
DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE
LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

NOTE:MOMENTDIAGRAM
CONVENTION
InPTdesign,itispreferabletodrawmomentdiagramsto
thetensilefaceoftheconcretesection.Thetensileface
indicateswhatportionofthebeamrequiresreinforcingfor
strength.
Whenmomentisdrawnonthetensionside,thediagram
matchesthegeneraldrapeofthetendons.Thetendons
changetheirverticallocationinthebeamtofollowthe
tensilemomentdiagram.Strandsareatthetopofthe
beamoverthesupportandnearthebottomatmidspan.
Forconvenience,thefollowingslidescontainmoment
diagramsdrawnonboththetensileandcompressiveface,
denotedby(T)and(C),inthelowerlefthandcorner.Please
deletetheslidestosuitthepresenter'sconvention.

OBJECTIVE
1hourpresentation
Flexuredesignconsiderations

PRESTRESSEDGIRDER
BEHAVIOR
1.2DL + 1.6LL

k1DL

DL

Lin and Burns, Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures, 3rd Ed., 1981

LIMITSTATES ANDPRESENTATION
OUTLINE
LoadBalancing k1DL
Minimaldeflection.
Selectk1tobalancemajorityofsustainedload.

Service DL+LL
Concretecracking.
Checktensionandcompressivestresses.

Strength 1.2DL+1.6LL+1.0Secondary
Ultimatestrength.
CheckDesignFlexuralStrength(Mn)

EXAMPLE

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

DIMENSIONSAND
PROPERTIES

SECTIONPROPERTIES

LOADBALANCING
Tendonsapplyexternalselfequilibrating
transverseloadstomember.
Forcesappliedthroughanchorages
Theangularchangeintendonprofilecausesa
transverseforceonthemember

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

LOADBALANCING
Transverseforcesfromtendonbalances
structuraldeadloads.
Momentscausedbytheequivalentloadsare
equaltointernalmomentscausedby
prestressingforce

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

EQUIVALENTLOAD

Harped Tendon can be sized and placed such that the upward
force exerted by the tendon at midspan exactly balances the
applied concentrated load
Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

EQUIVALENTLOAD

Parabolic Tendon can be sized and placed such that the upward
force exerted by the tendon along the length of the member exactly
balances the applied uniformly distributed load

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

FORMULAS(FROMPTIDESIGNMANUAL?)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

EXAMPLE LOAD
BALANCING
Determineportionoftotaldeadloadbalanced
byprestressing
wDL =0.20klf
superimposeddeadload(10psf*20ft)
wsw =2.06klf
selfweightincludingtributarywidthofslab

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

EXAMPLE LOAD
BALANCING
Including all short and long term
losses

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

EXAMPLE LOAD
BALANCING
Prestressinginthisexamplebalances~100%of
totaldeadload.
Ingeneral,balance65to100%oftheselfweight
Balancinginthisrangedoesnotguarantee that
serviceorstrengthlimitstateswillbemet.
Thesemustbecheckedseparately

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

STRESSES
Sectionremainsuncracked
Stressstrainrelationshipislinearforboth
concreteandsteel
Usesuperpositiontosumstresseffectofeach
load.Prestressingisjustanotherload.

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

CALCULATINGSTRESSES

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

STRESSES
Stressesaretypicallycheckedatsignificant
stages
Thenumberofstagesvarieswiththe
complexityandtypeofprestressing.
Stressesareusuallycalculatedfortheservice
levelloadsimposed(i.e.loadfactorsareequal
to1.0).Thisincludestheforcesimposedbythe
prestressing.

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

PLAINCONCRETE

(T)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

PLAINCONCRETE

(C)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

CONCENTRICPRESTRESSING

(T)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

CONCENTRICPRESTRESSING

(C)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

ECCENTRICPRESTRESSING

(T)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

ECCENTRICPRESTRESSING

(C)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

ECCENTRICPRESTRESSING
STRESSESATSUPPORT

(T)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

ECCENTRICPRESTRESSING
STRESSESATSUPPORT

(C)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

VARYTENDONECCENTRICITY
Harped Tendon follows
moment diagram from
concentrated load

Parabolic Drape follows


moment diagram from
uniformly distributed load

(T)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

VARYTENDONECCENTRICITY
Harped Tendon follows
moment diagram from
concentrated load

Parabolic Drape follows


moment diagram from
uniformly distributed load

(C)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

STRESSESATTRANSFER MIDSPAN
Including friction and elastic
losses

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

STRESSESATTRANSFER
FULLLENGTH
Stress in top fiber
Stress in bottom fiber

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

STRESSESATSERVICE MIDSPAN
Including all short and long term
losses

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

STRESSESATSERVICE FULL
LENGTH
Stress in top fiber
Stress in bottom fiber
Transition (7.5 root fc)
Cracked (12 root fc)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

FLEXURALSTRENGTH(MN)
ACI 318 indicates that the design moment strength of flexural
members are to be computed by the strength design procedure
used for reinforced concrete with fps is substituted for fy

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

ASSUMPTIONS

Concretestraincapacity=0.003
Tensionconcreteignored
Equivalentstressblockforconcretecompression
Straindiagramlinear
Mildsteel:elasticperfectlyplastic
Prestressingsteel:straincompatibility,orempirical
Perfectbond(forbondedtendons)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

fps STRESSINPRESTRESSINGSTEEL
ATNOMINALFLEXURALSTRENGTH
Empirical(bondedandunbondedtendons)
Straincompatibility(bondedonly)

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

EMPIRICAL BONDEDTENDONS

270 ksi
prestressing
strand

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

EMPIRICAL BONDEDTENDONS
NOMILDSTEEL

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

BONDEDVS.UNBONDED
SYSTEMS

Steel-Concrete force transfer is uniform


along the length
Assume steel strain = concrete strain
(i.e. strain compatibility)
Cracks restrained locally by steel
bonded to adjacent concrete

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

BONDEDVSUNBONDED
SYSTEMS

Steel-Concrete force transfer occurs at


anchor locations

Strain compatibility cannot be assumed


at all sections
Cracks restrained globally by steel strain
over the entire tendon length
If sufficient mild reinforcement is not
provided, large cracks are possible

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

SPANTODEPTH35ORLESS

SPANTODEPTH>35

Careful with units for fse (psi)


Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

COMBINEDPRESTRESSINGAND
MILDSTEEL

Assumemildsteelstress=fy
BothtensionforcescontributetoMn

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

STRENGTHREDUCTION
FACTOR
Appliedtonominalmomentstrength(Mn)to
obtaindesignstrength( Mn)
rangesfrom0.6to0.9
Determinedfromstraininextremetension
steel(mildorprestressing)
Sectionisdefinedascompressioncontrolled,
transition,ortensioncontrolled

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

STRENGTHREDUCTION
FACTOR

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

DETERMINEFLEXURAL
STRENGTH
Iseffectiveprestresssufficient?
Determinefps
Useequilibriumtodetermine:
Depthofstressblocka
NominalmomentstrengthMn

Determinedepthofneutralaxisandstrainin
outsidelayerofsteel(et)
Determine
ComputeMn
Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

fps OFBONDEDTENDON

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

a and

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

MN BONDEDTENDON

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

REINFORCEMENTLIMITS
Memberscontainingbondedtendonsmust
havesufficientflexuralstrengthtoavoidabrupt
failurethatmightbeprecipitatedbycracking.
Memberswithunbondedtendonsarenot
requiredtosatisfythisprovision.

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

REINFORCEMENTLIMITS

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

fps UNBONDEDTENDON

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

Mn UNBONDEDTENDON

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

MIN.BONDEDREINF.
Memberswithunbondedtendonsmusthavea
minimumareaofbondedreinf.
Mustbeplacedasclosetothetensionface
(precompressedtensilezone)aspossible.
As =0.004Act
Act areaofsectionintension

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

ASMINIMUM

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength

Mn UNBONDEDTENDON
INCORPORATEMILDSTEEL

Load Balancing > Service Stresses > Design Moment Strength