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# Statistics'Activity

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This!activity!has!two!parts.!The!first!part!involves!matching!statistical!analyses!terms!and!
definitions!from!Chapters!19!&!20.!!The!second!part!involves!problem!solving!of!basic!
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Part!I!
Matching.!!Match!the!term!on!the!left!with!a!definition!from!the!right.!!
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Chapter!19!
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Term!

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1.!Range!

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2.!Mode!

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3.!Variance!

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4.!Mean!

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5.!Type!I!error!

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6.!Statistic!

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7.!Type!II!error!

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8.!Interquartile!range!

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9.!Dispersion!

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10.!Descriptive!Statistics!

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11.!Associational!Statistics!

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12.!Parametric!Statistics!

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13.!Median!

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14.!Standard!Deviation!

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15.!NonZParametric!Statistics!

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16.!Confidence!Interval!

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17.!Inferential!Statistics!

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18.!Levels!of!Significance!!

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Definition!
A.!!failing!to!reject!the!null!hypothesis!when!it!is!false!
B.!mathematical!formulas!that!test!the!hypotheses!based!on!
three!assumptions:!1)!samples!come!from!populations!
that!are!normally!distributed,!2)!there!is!homogeneity!of!
variance,!and!3)!data!generated!from!the!measures!are!
interval!level!
C.!!rejecting!the!null!hypothesis!when!it!is!true!
D.!estimate!range!of!values!in!which!an!unknown!
population!parameter!is!likely!to!exist!
E.!point!in!a!distribution!at!which!50%!of!the!cases!fall!
above!and!50%!below!
F.!number!derived!from!a!mathematical!procedure!as!part!
of!the!analytical!process!in!experimentalZtype!research!
parameters,!based!on!findings!from!a!sample!
H.!difference!between!the!highest!and!lowest!observed!
value!in!a!collection!of!data!
I.!!set!of!procedures!designed!to!identify!relationships!
between!multiple!variables!
J.!distribution!of!values!for!a!given!variable!and!the!number!
of!times!each!value!occurs!
and!then!dividing!the!sum!by!the!number!of!objects!or!
items.!
L.!indicator!of!the!average!deviation!of!scores!around!the!
mean!
M.!summary!measure,!such!as!range!or!standard!deviation,!
that!describes!distribution!of!observed!values!
N.!probability!that!defines!how!rare!or!unlikely!the!sample!
data!must!be!before!the!researcher!can!reject!the!null!
hypothesis!
O.!value!that!occurs!most!frequently!in!a!data!set!
P.!formulas!used!to!test!hypotheses!when!1)!normality!of!
variance!in!the!population!is!not!assumed,!2)!
homogeneity!of!variance!is!not!assumed,!3)!data!
generated!from!measures!are!ordinal!or!nominal,!and!4)!
sample!sizes!may!be!small!
Q.!procedures!used!to!reduce!large!sets!of!observations!into!
more!compact!and!interpretable!forms!
R.!descriptive!statistic!for!interpreting!variability;!derived!
by!squaring!the!difference!between!each!score!from!the!
mean,!which!are!then!summed!

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19.!Sum!of!Squares!

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S.!reflects!the!mean!or!average!of!the!sum!of!squares!

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20.!Frequency!Distribution!

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21.!Confidence!Level!

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T.!usually!represented!as!percentage,!the!probability!value!
associated!with!a!confidence!interval!
U.!measure!of!variability!in!experimentalZtype!research!that!
refers!to!the!range!of!scores!that!compose!the!middle!
50%!of!subjects,!or!the!majority!of!the!responses!

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Chapter!20!

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1.!triangulation!

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2.!constant!comparison!

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3.!categories!

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4.!truth!value!

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5.!taxonomic!analysis!

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6.!interpretation!

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7.!saturation!

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8.!credibility!

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9.!theme!

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A.!!term!used!in!naturalistic!inquiry!to!refer!to!the!accuracy!
of!interpretation!or!how!closely!the!analytical!scheme!
reflects!the!natural!context!or!focus!of!the!investigation!
B.!use!of!multiple!strategies!or!methods!as!a!means!to!
strengthen!credibility!of!an!investigator’s!findings!
related!to!the!phenomenon!under!study!
C.!truthfulness!and!accuracy!of!findings!in!naturalistic!
inquiry!
D.!naturalistic!data!analysis!technique!in!which!each!datum!
is!compared!and!contrasted!with!previous!information!
to!fit!all!the!pieces!together!inductively!into!a!bigger!
puzzle!!
E.!analytical!process!used!in!naturalistic!inquiry!in!which!
the!investigator!identified!patterns!and!topics!from!
which!a!theme!is!derived!
F.!point!at!which!an!investigator!has!obtained!sufficient!
information!from!which!to!obtain!an!understanding!of!
the!phenomena!
G.!analytical!step!in!naturalistic!inquiry!in!which!the!
investigator!examines!the!derived!categories!and!themes!
and!develops!a!conceptual!understanding!of!the!
phenomenon.!
H.!naturalistic!data!analysis!technique!in!which!the!
researcher!organizes!similar!or!related!categories!into!
larger!categories!and!identifies!differences!between!sets!
of!subcategories!and!larger!or!overarching!categories!
I.!basic!analytical!step!used!in!naturalistic!inquiry!in!which!
the!investigator!groups!phenomena!according!to!
similarities!and!labels!the!groups!

Part!II!
Problems!Solving.!!

Measures!of!Central!Tendency!
1. Retailers!who!sell!travel!packages!want!to!know!the!average!age!at!
which!people!get!married.!Travel!professionals!believe!that!couples!
who!are!older!when!they!marry!spend!significantly!more!on!
honeymoons!than!those!who!marry!younger,!therefore!they!will!
create!more!elaborate!packages!if!the!average!age!of!marriage!is!
getting!higher.!The!following!ages!of!bridal!couples!were!gathered!in!
an!unscientific!sampling!at!a!bridal!show.!
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Find!the!mean,!median,!and!mode!for:!
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a. women:! Mean!______;!Median!______;!Mode!______!
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b. men:!
Mean!______;!Median!______;!Mode!______!

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Find!the!mean,!median,!and!mode!BP!for:!
a. Caucasian!women!
b. Caucasian!men!
c. AfricanZAmerican!women!
d. AfricanZAmerican!men!
e. Latino!women!
f. Latino!men!
g. All!women!combined!
h. All!men!combined!
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Note:!In!some!cases!there!may!be!no!mode.!Also,!depending!on!the!text/instructor,!a!data!set!may!be!
viewed!as!having!no!mode!(rather!than!2!modes)!since!no!single!solitary!number!was!replicated!
more!often!than!any!other.!With!no!consensus!on!the!correct!definition!of!mode,!we!will!use!‘no!
mode’!for!any!data!set!with!2!modes.!!

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Race/Gender!

Age!
Range!

Systolic!
BP!

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Race/Gender!

Age!
Range!

Systolic!
BP!

Caucasian!Women!
Caucasian!Women!
Caucasian!Women!
Caucasian!Women!
Caucasian!Women!
Caucasian!Women!
AfricanZAmerican!Women!
AfricanZAmerican!Women!
AfricanZAmerican!Women!
AfricanZAmerican!Women!
AfricanZAmerican!Women!
AfricanZAmerican!Women!
Latino!Women!
Latino!Women!
Latino!Women!
Latino!Women!
Latino!Women!
Latino!Women!

30Z39!
40Z49!
50Z59!
60Z69!
70Z79!
80Z89!
30Z39!
40Z49!
50Z59!
60Z69!
70Z79!
80Z89!
30Z39!
40Z49!
50Z59!
60Z69!
70Z79!
80Z89!

110!
116!
125!
130!
129!
127!
126!
132!
141!
147!
155!
160!
122!
125!
130!
136!
145!
151!

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Caucasian!Men!
Caucasian!Men!
Caucasian!Men!
Caucasian!Men!
Caucasian!Men!
Caucasian!Men!
AfricanZAmerican!Men!
AfricanZAmerican!Men!
AfricanZAmerican!Men!
AfricanZAmerican!Men!
AfricanZAmerican!Men!
AfricanZAmerican!Men!
Latino!Men!
Latino!Men!
Latino!Men!
Latino!Men!
Latino!Men!
Latino!Men!

30Z39!
40Z49!
50Z59!
60Z69!
70Z79!
80Z89!
30Z39!
40Z49!
50Z59!
60Z69!
70Z79!
80Z89!
30Z39!
40Z49!
50Z59!
60Z69!
70Z79!
80Z89!

141!
152!
158!
173!
179!
175!
156!
161!
172!
183!
188!
187!
146!
150!
159!
167!
172!
172!

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Measures!of!Variability!
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3. Find!the!range!for!the!following!sets!of!data'in'problem'#2:!
State!the!range!with!low!to!high!values!and!the!difference!(e.g.!109!–!125,!16)!
a. Caucasian!women!
b. Caucasian!men!
c. AfricanZAmerican!women!
d. AfricanZAmerican!men!
e. Latino!women!
f. Latino!men!
g. All!women!
h. All!men!
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4. Sum!of!the!Squares!–!finding!the!sum!of!the!squares!is!an!interim!step!to!finding!the!
standard!deviation.!Use!the!test!score!data!sets!below!and!find!the!sum!of!the!
squares.!Remember,!you!must!first!find!the!mean,!then!subtract!the!mean!from!each!
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Set!I!
Mean!
Sum!
Squared! !
Set!II!
Mean!
Sum!
Squared!
94!
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98!
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76!
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94!
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52!
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88!
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98!
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90!
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80!
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84!
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78!
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86!
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5. Standard!Deviation!–!using!the!sum!of!the!squares!from!question!4,!find!the!
standard!deviations!for:!
a. Set!I!
b. Set!II!
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6. Find!the!standard'deviation'for!the!following!sets!of!data!representing!the!number!
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a. Class!I!
b. Class!II!
c. Class!III!
d. Class!IV!
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7. ZZscores:!!Z!scores!translate!data!from!numbers!specific!to!a!data!set!to!a!score!that!
represents!where!that!number!would!fall!on!a!normal!curve!that!represents!the!data!
set.!The!zZscore!is!the!distance,!in!standard!deviations,!from!the!mean.!ZZscores!can!
be!negative,!the!number!is!less!than!the!mean,!or!positive,!more!than!the!mean.!The!
closer!the!zZscore!is!to!0!the!closer!the!number!is!to!the!mean.!
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Using!the!data!for!Class'I'in'question'6,!find!the!zZscores!for!the!16!scores.!
a. Score!=!4,!z!=!!!
b. Score!=!1,!z!=!!
c. Score!=!10,!z!=!
d. Score!=!7,!z!=!!
e. Score!=!6,!z!=!
f. Score!=!2,!z!=!
g. Score!=!11,!z!=!!
h. Score!=!6,!z!=!
i. Score!=!22,!z!=!
j. Score!=!5,!z!=!
k. Score!=!8,!z!=!
l. Score!=!10,!z!=!
m. Score!=!3,!z!=!
n. Score!=!4,!z!=!
o. Score!=!9,!z!=!
p. Score!=!6,!z!=!!
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