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# ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

FIELD MANUAL
FIELD WORK NO.2
TAPING ON LEVEL AND ON
UNEVEN GROUND
COURSE AND SECTION: CE120-0F / B2
SUBMITTED BY:
NAME: SIBUG, MARY QUEENIE M.
GROUP NO. 01

SUBMITTED TO:

## PROFESSOR: ENGR. IRA BALMORIS

I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES AND INSTRUMENTS
PROCEDURES AND COMPUTATION
QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS
PRELIMINARY DATA SHEET
FINAL DATA SHEET
RESEARCH AND DISCUSSIONS
CONCLUSION
FIELD WORK PEER ASSESSMENT

I.

INTRODUCTION
In surveying, that under most circumstances, all distance are presumed to be
horizontal distances. This dictates that every field measurements taken be either
measured horizontally, or if not, reduced to a horizontal distance mathematically.
Distance between points can be also determined using geometric or trigonometric
computations working with related distance and angle measurements. In this field
work, Surveyors use meter tape to measure a specific distance. Pacing is only
used when the surveyors forgot a measuring instrument, taping has more precision
than pacing. Taping is the linear measurement of the horizontal distance between
two points using a surveyors tape. Observation of horizontal distances by taping
consists of applying the known length of a graduated tape directly to line a number
of times. In many instances, it is easiest to simply measure the horizontal distance
by keeping both ends of the chain (steel tape) at the same elevation. This is not
difficult if there is not over long distance or so of elevation change between points.
Taping requires a minimum of two people. Using range poles, the line to be
measured should be marked at both ends (in a vertical position), and at
intermediate points where necessary, to ensure the unobstructed sight lines. The
forward tapeperson is lined in by the rear tapeperson. Directions are given by vocal
and signals. If the ground is not level, one or both surveyors must use a plumb
bob. Normally, the only occasion when both surveyors have to use plumb bobs is
when the ground rises or obstacles exist between two surveyors. If the ground is
not level, one or both surveyors must use a plumb bob. Normally, the only
occasion when both surveyors have to use plumb bobs is when the ground rises or
obstacles exist between two surveyors.

II.

## OBJECTIVES AND INSTRUMENTS

1. To develop the skills of taping the distance on a level ground where the
tape is fully supported by the ground.
2. To acquire the skills of taping the distance on an uneven ground where the
tape is only supported at the ends.
INSTRUMENTS USED:
2 RANGE POLES
CHALK
2 PLUMB BOBS
50 METER TAPE
1 Range Poles

2 Chalk/s

3 Plumb Bob

4 50 Meter Tape

INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTIONS:
RANGE POLESSurveying instrument consisting of a straight rod painted in bands of alternate
red and white each one foot wide; used for sightings by surveyors
CHALK- Used to mark each distances measured by an instrument.
PLUMB BOB- A cone-shaped metal weight, hung from a string, used to
establish a vertical line or as a sighting reference to a surveyor's transit.
50 METER TAPE- Is an instrument used for measuring the ground or specific
area not exceeding 50 meters.
III.

## 1. The professor assigns the accessible and unobstructed course to be

measured by the student on a level ground by about 300-400paces.
2. The Chief of Party marks the end points by a chalk if it is on a
pavement or by a 3 common wire nail (c.w nail) if it is on soft ground
and designates it as end points A and B.
3. A range pole man holds the pole vertically and steadily during the
entire taping procedure at B to keep the complete taping process
aligned and straightened.
4. A 10-meter tape is stretched out on the ground on the straight path
along A to B where the 0-end is held ahead. (Note: 0-end is nearer B
than A). The rear tape man is responsible for giving the signal to the
front tape man if his path is straight while the front tapeman is
responsible to pull the tape taut once the tape is aligned already.
5. The front tapeman gets a pin and sticks it vertically in the ground
exactly opposite the 0-meter mark of tape.
6. Rear tapeman holds 1 pin and the rest of the pins (10 pins) are held
by front tapeman.
7. Both the front and the rear tapeman lift simultaneously the tape and
move forward along the line AB to measure the next tape length. By
now the rear tape man holds 1 marking pin which signifies one tape
length.
8. The procedure 4-6 is repeated to complete the next tape length
measurement. Make sure that the rear tapeman pulls the pin before
lifting the tape to move on the next tape length. The rear tapeman
holds 2 marking pins to connote 2 tape lengths have been measured.
9. Repeat the same process until all the pins being held by the front
tapeman have been used up which signifies one tally (1 tally=10 tape

## lengths). After a tally has been accomplished, the rear tapeman

returns all the 10 pins to the front tapeman to proceed in measuring
the length of the course. (it is suggested that the rear tapeman or the
recorder tallies in the field computation sheet provided the number of
one complete round) Note: One round is when all the ten pins are now
being held by the rear tapeman).
10. Repeat the same procedure if more than one tally is needed.
11. Upon reaching point B the partial length must be measured accurately
up to centimeters by the rear tapeman while the front tapeman is
holding the 0-mark at B and both of them are holding the tape taut.
12. The number of small pebbles in the rear tapemans pocket now
indicates the number of tallies made and the number of pins in his
possession indicates the number of additional tapelenghts. This is
recorded in the field computation sheet provided.
13. The course is measure back and forth to the complete the number of
trials required by the professor.

COMPUTATIONS
A.) Computation of an unknown distance.
The number of tallies equivalent to the number of chalk marks being held by the
rear tape-an, and the number of chalk marks is the number of tape lengths.
Multiply the number of tallies by ten (10) and add it to the number of pins. The
sum is then multiplied by the length of one tape length and then added to the last
partial tape length to get the length of course AB.

. = (. )10+.
= ( )( )+

IV.

## 1.) What are the different sources of taping errors?

Personal Errors.

Temperature

Tension

2.) Discuss the different ways to lessen them or fully eliminate taping errors.

The Surveyors must mark the ground correctly to guide them and to form a
straight and consistent measuring.

The weather has a great effect on this field work, be sure to choose an
average temperature.

Ask someone to guide you when measuring a distance so that, it will lessen
taping errors.

3.) What is the total length of the course XY if the rear tape-man holds exactly holds
9 pebbles and 3 pins after measuring the course XY? Assume that one tape
length is equivalent to 30m?
9 pebbles = 9 tallies
1 tally = 10
Total number of Tapelengths = 9(10)+3 = 93
Length of course = 93(30) = 2,790 m

V.

VI.

FIELD WORK 2

## TAPING ON LEVEL AND ON UNEVEN GROUND

DATE: OCT 8, 2015
GROUP NO: 1
TIME: 7:30am 12:00nn
LOCATION:
th
MIT West Bldg. 5 Floor
WEATHER: CLOUDY
PROFESSOR:
Engr. Ira Balmoris
1. TAPING ON LEVEL GROUND

2. COMPUTATIONS
Trial 1: 10(3) + 2(3) + 1.31 = 37.31

Mean=

37.31+37.2+37.325
3

37.318
Trial 2: 10(3) + 2(3) + 1.32 = 37.32
Trial 3: 10(3) + 2(3) + 1.325 = 37.325 .
3. TAPING ON AN IRREGULAR GROUND

4. COMPUTATIONS
T. #1: 10(3) + 2(3) + 1.13 = 37.13
# 2: 10(3) + 2(3) + 1.22 = 37.22
# 3: 10(3) + 2(3) + 1.19 = 37.19

M . D=

37.13+37.22+37.19
=37.18
3

5. SKETCH

Photo no. 1 All members are trying to maintain a straight horizontal line.

Photo no. 2 Members are measuring a specified distance in the field work manual.

Photo no. 3 Members are doing the other part of their field work.

VII.

## RESEARCH AND DISCUSSIONS

THE PRINCIPLE:
The precision obtained depends upon the degree of refinement with
which the measurements are taken. Ordinarily, taping over flat, smooth
ground with a steel tape or chain, divided in hundredths of a foot, provides a
precision of one in three thousand to one in five thousand.

## The precision taking a measurement of a distance by tape is better than

taking a measurement using pacing, taping has lesser errors than pacing. In
taping uneven or sloping ground, it is standard practice to hold the tape

## horizontally and use a plumb-bob at one or perhaps both ends. On steeper

slopes, where a full length of tape cannot be held horizontally without
plumbing from above shoulder level, shorter distances are measured and
accumulated to total a full tape length. This procedure is called as breaking
tape. Taping downhill is preferable to measuring uphill for two reasons. First;
in taping downhill, the rear point is held steady on fixed object while the other
end is plumbed. In taping uphill, the forward point must be set while the other
end is wavering somewhat. Second, if breaking tape necessary, the head
tapeperson can more conveniently use the hand level to proceed downhill a
distance, which renders the tape horizontal when held comfortably at chest
height. In some cases, it becomes impractical to break chain. When the slope
becomes so steep that frequent chaining (tape) points are required, a vertical
surface must be measured across, or intermediate chaining (tape) points are
not readily accessible, it may be more desirable to determine the horizontal
distance indirectly. The most frequently used method is "slope chaining
(tape)", where the distance along the slope is measured, the slope rate is
determined, and the horizontal distance calculated.

VIII.

CONCLUSION
This field work is all about taping a desirable distance, this will only be
effective and efficient if the surveyors know the location. Location meaning,
the weather is good and not crowded because taping a specific distance in a
huge area is pretty serious. Errors may also appear in this field work not only

in pacing, finding the desirable distance with the use of taping needs an
instruments and right procedures. I learned that taping in a location with
leveled and unleveled ground may get its distance using the skills of the
surveyors and with the use of the tech-equipment. Doing this field work, you
may require more than 2 surveyors to guide and help you leveling and
maintaining a horizontal line measuring the distance, you can assign people
as the recorder, tapeman, and the chainman. We notice some errors in this
field work its the tension, personal errors and sagged. Tension, while a
certain amount of tension is desirable to help offset the sag effect, it will also
stretch the tape. Steel will still stretch to some degree if tension is applied.
Personal errors are from incorrect of setting pins, holding and reading the
equipment. Lastly the sag, when a tape is suspended from each end and not
supported along its length, the weight of the chain causes it to sag and pull
the two ends toward each other. I would recommend that when the tape is
checked against a known distance; the applied tension should be controlled,
personal errors are common but be sure to check the sets of the equipment
before recording or setting the pins, lastly sagging, It is impossible to exert
enough outward force to fully overcome the sag. For all measurements,
adequate tension should be applied to minimize the effective shortening of
the tape.