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Homework Assignment 5

Due Date: April 24, 2016

IE 673 Total Quality Management (eLearning)

1. Explain what is QFD, (Quality Function Deployment)?

According to the textbook Quality Function Deployment is an effective system for
collecting customer input and factoring that input into the design of process. Its a
mechanism for putting into operation the concept of building in quality process. It
makes customer feedback a normal part of the product development process,
thereby improving customer satisfaction. This is a specialized quality tool method
for making customers needs/wants important components of the design and
production or service. Give the customer a real voice in the design and production
of the organizations products.

2. Explain the WHATs in a QFD matrix

The WHATs in a QFD matrix are the reasons that make the company improve the
products or services. According to the textbook refining the customer needs inputs
to create affinity diagrams and tree diagrams. Those are list of customer needs
and then use this make changes/improvement and/or design new product that
satisfy the customer needs.

3. Explain the HOWs in a QFD matrix

According to the textbook the technical requirements are generated by the QFD
team through discussion and consultation with the Customer Needs and Planning
matrix used as guidance. HOQ states how the company intends to respond to each
of the customers needs/wants. They state at the outset that the technical
requirements are not the design specifications of the product or service. Rather,
they are characteristics and features of a product that is perceived as meeting the
customer needs. They can be measurable by weight, strength, speed, and so on.
Others by a simple yes or no.

4. Explain the 1, or 3, or 9 interrelationship values in a QFD matrix

According to the text book interrelationship values in a QFD matrix links the
HOWs and the WHATs. At each intersection cell of the interrelationship matrix the
team must assess the degree of relationship between the WHAT and the
corresponding HOW. 1, or 3, or 9 are values to scale of significance. 9 is strongest
relationship, 3 is medium and 1 weak.
5. Explain how you calculate the technical priorities in the design target matrix
To determine the relative importance, or priorities, of each of the stated Technical
Requirements (HOWs) in meeting the Customer Needs (WANTs), the QFD team
simply multiplies each of the interrelationship ratings of the technical requirement
(0, 1, 3, or 9) from the Interrelationship matrix, times the corresponding customer
needs Overall Weighting value in the Planning matrix; and then sums the columns.

Starting with the technical requirement for a new and responsive set of
Authoring/Editing Guidelines, we find that the Interrelationship matrix is a 9.
( )
= #

There are three more Interrelationship values for the Authors/Editors Guide
technical requirement, so a total of four multiplications must be done and then
= 9 6.6 = 59.4
= 9 9 = 81.0
= 9 5 = 45.0
= 3 2 = 6.0
= 59.4 + 81.0 + 45.0 + 6.0 = 191.4
The value of 191.4 is entered in the Technical Priorities row of the Technical
Targets matrix under the column for the Authors/Editors Guide.
The technical priorities row is completed by repeating the process for each of the
other Technical Requirements.

The meaning of the resulting technical priorities numbers like 191.4 and 42.3 does
not jump out at you like a percentage does. For that reason, some QFD users
translate the priority values into a percentage scale. This is done, of course, by
dividing the individual technical priority values by the sum of all the priority values,
and multiplying by 100.
% =


In the case of the Authors/Editors Guide technical requirement,

% =

100 = 38%
191.4 + 75.6 + 42.3 + 63.6 + 19.8 + 9 + 53.1 + 49.5

The rest of the % of Total Priority values sum should equal 100.

6. Define statistical process control

According to the textbook statistical process control (SPC) is a statistical method
of separating special-cause variation from natural variation. The reason is to
eliminate the special causes and to establish and maintain consistency in the
process, enabling process improvement. SPC elevate the quality of products and
services, while lowering costs, to compete successfully in the worlds markets.

7. Explain control charts for variables, with a simple mathematical example


= ( ) ( )

= + 2
= 2

8. Explain control charts for attributes, with a simple mathematical example

= + 3
= 3

9. Discuss and explain various continual quality improvement methods and tools
Continual improvement of processes requires that special causes be eliminated
first. Process improvement narrows the shape of the processs bell curve, resulting
in less variation. This is the most important element of SPC and total quality.
Elimination of waste is another key element of SPC. SPC can help improve product
quality, while reducing product cost. The control chart as a tool provide alerts when
special causes are at work in the process, and they prompt investigation and
correction. When the initial special causes have been removed and the data stay
between the control limits, work can begin on process improvement. This process
is in statically control all the time.

10. Explain the way control charts could be used for quality improvements
According to the textbook control charts will either ratify the improvement or reveal
that the anticipated results were not achieved. Whether the anticipated results
were achieved is virtually impossible to know unless the process is under control.
This is because there are special causes affecting the process; hence, one never
knows whether the change made to the process was responsible for any
subsequent shift in the data or if it was caused by something else entirely.
However, once the process is in statistical control, any change you put into it can
be linked directly to any shift in the subsequent data. You find out quickly what
works and what doesnt. Keep the favorable changes, and discard the others. In
that way control charts help for quality improvements all the time.

Goetsch, David L.; Davis, Stanley (2012-06-19). Quality Management for
Organizational Excellence: Introduction to Total Quality. Pearson Education.
Kindle Edition.

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