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Lesson Plan Chemistry 9th Grade

Date
Teachers Name
Lesson Plan Type
Grade Level
Subject/Topic
Timeline

: April 13, 2016


: Ibrahim Ozkaya
: Direct instruction
:9
: Chemical Bonding
: 15 minutes

TEKS objectives:
Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds
Understand Formation of a Covalent Bond and Characteristics of the
Covalent Bond

Objectives and Goals


1. Define molecule and covalent bonding.
2. Explain the relationships between potential energy, distance between approaching
atoms, bond length, and bond energy.
3. State the octet rule.
Key Vocabulary:
Covalent bonds, covalent compounds, single bond, double bonds, triple bonds, octet, octet rule,
valence, valence electrons, polar, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent bond
Materials needed for this class: Computer, Projector, power point presentation of the subject,
board, and marker, Molecules set(1 set for each group), Visual Aids
Set induction: 3 min
Students watch video about: How different atoms held together? Why do elements combine
to form compounds?; How do elements combine? and Why do they stay combined?

Teaching by direct instruction (PowerPoint presentation ) 10


min
Covalent bonding and molecular compounds
-Molecular compounds
Molecule
.Neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
.Compose most living things

-Molecular compound Chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules

Chemical formula
Indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by
using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
H2O
CO2
C12H22O11

Molecular formula
Shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a
molecular compound
H2O
CO2
C12H22O11

Diatomic molecule
Molecule containing only two atoms
H2
O2
N2

Formation of a Covalent Bond


Nature favors bonding because
Puts atoms at lower potential energy
Approaching nuclei and electrons
Attracted to each
Decrease in potential energy

At the same time, both nuclei and two electrons


repel each other
Increase in potential energy

Potential energy is minimized when attractive forces are equal to the repulsive forces

: Bond Length and Stability. Bonds are most stable


When the potential energy of the bonded atoms is minimized.

Octet Rule

Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing
electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level.

Hydrogen is an exception because it is stable with 2 electron in outer shell.

The eight electrons come from the main-group energy levels being filled.
s2p6 totals 8 electrons

Multiple Covalent Bonds

Double bond
Covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two
atoms

Triple bond
Covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms

Classroom assignment.

(Checking for understanding-Monitored Independent Work) :

Modifications/Accommodations:
student in need.

Simplify and enlarge the sentences of worksheet for the

Example:
Draw the Lewis Structure for methanal, CH2O, which is also known as formaldehyde.
1. Determine the type and number of atoms in the molecule
1C
2H
1O
2. Write the electron-dot notation for each type of atom in the molecule
C
H
O
3. Determine the total number of valence electrons in the atoms to be combined
1 x 4e- = 4e2 x 1e- = 2e1 x 6e- = 6e12e-

C
H
O

4. Arrange the atoms to form a skeleton structure for the molecule. If Carbon is present, it is
the central atom. Otherwise, the least-electronegative atom is central (except for hydrogen,
which is never central). Then connect the atoms by electron-pair bonds.
5. Count the electrons in the structure to be sure that the number of valence electrons used
equals the number available. Be sure the central atom and other atoms besides hydrogen have
an octet.

Quiz. 3 question for evaluation whether topic comprehended

1. Determine the number of atoms of each element present in the molecule. The formula shows
one carbon atom, two hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom.

2. Write the electron-dot notation for each type of atom. Carbon is from Group 14 and has four
valence electrons. Oxygen, which is in Group 16, has six valence electrons. Hydrogen has only
one electron.

3. Arrange the atoms to form a skeleton structure for the molecule, and connect the atoms by
electron-pair bonds.

Closure: Wrap up questions. 2 min

1. Draw the Lewis structure for carbon dioxide, CO2.


2. Draw the Lewis structure for hydrogen cyanide, which contains one hydrogen atom, one
carbon atom, and one nitrogen atom.

Homework: work sheet

Worksheet
1. Use the concept of potential energy to describe how a covalent bond forms between
two atoms.

2. Name four elements that form compounds that can be exceptions to the octet rule.
3. Explain why resonance structures are used instead of Lewis structures to correctly
model certain molecules.

4. Bond energy is related to bond length. Use the data in the tables below to arrange the
bonds listed in order of increasing bond length, from shortest bond to longest.
Bond
HF
HI
HCl
HBr
CC

Bond Energy
(kJ/mol)
569
299
432
366
346

835
612

CC
C=C

Draw the Lewis Structures for the following:


Formula
5. SF2

6. CO3

2-

7. NO2

1-

8. N2

9. SiH4

10. SO2

11. C2Cl2

12. NBr3

13. SeF6

14. HBr

Lewis Structure