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DESIGN GUIDE
FOR
DC SYSTEM

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73/1, ST. MARKS ROAD
BANGALORE 560 001

FLOPPY NO
FILE NAME

: TCE.M6-EL-FP-DOC-006
: M6-6000.DWG

REV.NO

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R2

R3

ISSUE

INITIALS

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INITIALS

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INITIALS

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PPD.BY

CPS

Sd/-

RRN

Sd/-

RRN

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CKD.BY

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UAK

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UAK

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DATE

92-09-04

97-03-31

INITIALS

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99-03-02
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DC SYSTEM

REVISION STATUS
REV. NO

DATE

R3

99-03-02

DESCRIPTION

1.Design guides for Lead Acid


battery-(M6-EL-BT-6000 R2),NiCad
battery (M6-EL-BT-6000A R1) and
battery
Chargers(M6-EL-BC-6004
R2) have been combined to make a
composite design guide on the DC
System.
2. In addition the loads considered
for emergency lighting , auxiliary
relays and indicating lamps have
been revised.
3.Section
4.0
providing
recommendation for quantities of
batteries in different installations has
been revised.

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CONTENTS
PART-A
LEAD ACID BATTERY
SL.NO.
1.0

TITLE
SCOPE

SHEET NO.
2

2.0

TYPES OF LEAD ACID CELLS

3.0

SELECTION OF DC VOLTAGE LEVELS

4.0

QUANTITIES OF BATTERIES

5.0

AMPERE HOUR CAPACITY SIZING

6.0

INSTALLATION OF BATTERY

11

7.0

REFERENCES

13

APPENDIX-1 TYPICAL EMERGENCY LOADS

14

APPENDIX-2 RATING AND DESIGNATION

16

CAPACITIES AND DIMENSIONS OF TUBULAR CELLS

18

CAPACITIES AND FINAL CELL VOLTAGE OF HDP


TUBULAR CELLS AT VARIOUS RATES OF
DISCHARGE AT 27deg.C

19

CAPACITIES AT 27deg.C AT VARIOUS RATES OF


DISCHARGE OF TYPE II HDP CELLS (TUBULAR)

20

PERFORMANCE CURVES TYPE-II HDP CELLS


(TUBULAR)

21

CAPACITIES AND DIMENSIONS OF PLANTE CELLS

23

APPENDIX-3 BATTERY SIZING - SAMPLE CALCULATION

24

APPENDIX-4 TYPICAL BATTERY ROOM PLAN

31

SAMPLE WORK SHEET

32

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CONTENTS
PART-B
NICAD BATTERY
SL.NO.
1.0

TITLE
SCOPE

2.0

DIFFERENT TYPES OF NICAD CELLS

35

3.0

PERFORMANCE CHARECTERISTICS

35

4.0

APPLICATIONS OF NICAD BATTERIES

38

5.0

MODE OF OPERATION

39

6.0

NUMBER OF CELLS

40

7.0

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS FOR SIZING NICAD


BATTERIES

41

8.0

INSTALLATION

42

9.0

BATTERY SIZING CALCULATIONS

43

10.0

SPECIFYING THE BATTERY

44

11.0

REFERENCES

45

APPENDIX-1 CELL DESIGNATION

SHEET NO.
35

46

PREFERRED DIMENSIONS

47

DISCHARGE DATA FOR NICAD BATTERY


(L,M & H TYPE CELLS)

48

TEMPERATURE CORRECTION
FACTOR CURVES
APPENDIX-2 SAMPLE CELL SIZING CALCULATION
CELL SIZING WORK SHEET

64
67
69

APPENDIX-3 COMPARISION OF NICAD BATTERIES


WITH LEAD ACID BATTERIES

71

SAMPLE WORK SHEET

72

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CONTENTS
PART-C
BATTERY CHARGER
SL.NO.

TITLE

SHEET NO.

1.0

SCOPE

75

2.0

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

75

3.0

DISCUSSION

79

4.0

ENCLOSURES
i)
FLOAT CUM BOOST
CHARGER WITH
2 x 100% BATTERIES
ii)

iii)

TCE.M2-EL-CW-S-2631 R0

FLOAT CUM BOOST


CHARGER WITH
1 x 100% BATTERY

TCE.M2-EL-CW-S-2632 R0

FLOAT AND BOOST


CHARGER WITH
1 x 100% BATTERY

TCE.M2-EL-CW-S-2633 R0

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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

PART-A
LEAD ACID BATTERY

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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

1.0

SCOPE
This design guide outlines the recommendation for the determination
of voltage level, capacity, quantities and installation of DC battery of
lead acid storage type required for providing DC power supply to
essential services in the plant when the normal power supply fails.
This also gives consideration to the safe shut down of the plant as
well as human safety.

1.1

This section (Part A) of this guide pertains to lead acid batteries and
also includes a few recommendations applicable to NiCad batteries
also like selecting voltage levels. The sizing criteria for Nickel
Cadmium batteries are dealt in Part B of this design guide and
Part C of this guide covers details about Battery chargers .

2.0

VARIOUS TYPES OF LEAD ACID CELLS

2.1

The plante type cells are more rugged, need less maintenance and
have a life expectancy of about 15-18 years, which is 5-7 years
longer than that for tubular type. However, the plante type battery is
costlier than the tubular type. All the manufacturers make tubular
cells while very few manufacturers make plante cell.

2.2

The cells with tubular plate construction are smaller in size than the
plante type for a given AH rating.

2.3

The following types of tubular cells are available in the market in


addition to standard variety :
a)
b)
c)

High Discharge Performance (HDP)


Maintenance Free-Valve Regulated (MF-VR)
Low-Maintenance (LM) type

2.4

The capacity of HDP cells under short duration discharge conditions


are higher than that of normal tubular batteries and are comparable to
that of Plante type batteries. Hence the capacity of battery required
will be smaller than that with the standard performance cells for
applications requiring high discharge currents for short duration.
Hence these cells are preferred for power plant applications.

2.5

The MF-VR cells require minimal attention from operation /


maintenance staff and are stated to need no topping up of distilled
water and no regular equalising charges. This type is well suited in
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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

the plants where organised maintenance is infrequent. The low


maintenance cells have grids made of low-antimony lead and require
topping up only once in a year or so even at higher float voltages like
2.25 VpC. Hence this type also is well suited for plants where
organised maintenance is infrequent or standalone substations in the
distribution system or medium or small scale industries or where
battery capacity is less than 300/500 AH.
2.6

The operating experience of the MF-VR and LM type cells for large
capacities is limited and very few manufacturers make the same.
Hence the sizing of these cells is not being discussed in the present
guide and use of these cells may be decided on case to case basis.

2.7

The recommended float voltage for lead acid batteries is between


2.16 V and 2.25V/ cell. The recommended boost charging duration is
10 hours in case of smaller capacity batteries and 14 to 16 hours for
larger capacities (1000 AH and above). The recommended maximum
boost charger voltage is 2.75 V/cell. The recommended equalising
charge voltage is 2.33 VpC.

3.0

SELECTION OF DC VOLTAGE LEVELS

3.1

The voltage level selection for the plant shall consider the following
aspects :

3.2

a)

Quantum of power

b)

Individual load point power ratings, quantum of such load points


and the geographic spread of the load points

c)

Standard voltages suitable for the equipment

For the same power requirement, the battery room size, and battery
cost with higher voltage will be higher than those with lower voltage.
However, the lower voltage requires higher current for the loads and
hence to meet this current and to limit the voltage drop within limits
cable sizes will be higher than those with higher voltage. Considering
all the aspects following voltage levels are recommended.

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3.2.1 Power Plant


3.2.1.1 Large power plants (Coal based)
a)

For electrical power,


control & protection
requirements

b)

I&C system

Normally most of the I&C


vendors' systems are suitable
for +24V or 48V DC.The
voltage level shall be fixed
after I&C system requirement
is finalised.

c)

Isolated auxiliary plants

30 V DC or 110 V DC like raw


water pump house (dedicated
battery if running lengths of
cables from the main plant is
comparatively much higher)

d)

Switchyards

220 V DC (If switchyard has


got separate control building)

e)

Coal handling plant

110 V DC/220 V DC

3.2.1.2 Gas based/diesel/Hydro

110 V/220 V DC power plants


including captive power
plants

3.2.2

220 V DC

Industrial Plants
a)

Large plants with many


load points and distributed
in large area

220 V DC

b)

Small plants with


multiple load points and
outdoor substations

110 V DC

c)

Small plants with very


few switchboards / load points

30 V DC

d)

For process control

Generally 24/48V (As


required by the I&C system
design)

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4.0
4.1
4.1.1

4.1.2

QUANTITIES OF BATTERIES
Power Plants
a) In case of unit sizes upto 250 MW, each unit shall be provided
with one battery and also, a separate battery shall be provided
for the common services of these units and switchyard load. The
unit and common services batteries shall be sized to cater one
unit and station service loads so that one serves as a standby to
the other.
b)

For instrumentation and control system two 100% batteries for


each unit shall be provided.

c)

If switchyard is having a separate control building one 100%


battery shall be provided for the switchyard. In addition
switchyard DCDB will be provided with a tie feeder from station
DCDB (as a standby).

d)

One no. 100% rating battery shall be considered for coal


handling plant DC power requirements.

For large power units (500 MW and above) and nuclear power plants,
for each unit, the 220V DC unit loads shall be divided into two
categories, e.g.
a)

D.C. power loads comprising D.C. motor drives, solenoids,


emergency lighting , etc.

b)

D.C. control loads comprising tripping and closing circuits,


indicating lamps, protection and control panels, safetysupervisory systems etc.

Each category of loads will be catered to by a separate 220V battery


and battery charger system. There will be three 50% rated
batteries.Each battery is capable of catering to 50 % power loads of
unit ( since the power load requirement of 500MW unit is very huge )
and entire control load of unit. Normally two of the three batteries will
cater power loads and the third one will be catering control loads.
For switchyard load there will be a seperate 100% battery feeding
switchyard loads.It is recommended to provide a tie from DCDB of
control loads to DCDB of switchyard. One number 100% battery shall
be considered for coal handling plant DC power requirement.

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4.1.3

Gas Power Plants


The battery and charging equipment for each gas turbine is supplied
by gas turbine supplier as part of the package.It is recommended to
have each unit battrery rated to cater two gas turbine units.and a tie
feeder is provided between one unit DCDB to another unit DCDB.
The station and STG DC loads shall be catered by provision of
2X100% batteries .
If switchyard and station building is seperate from the main plant
control building a seperate 1X 100% dedicated battery shall be
recommended.
For catering I&C loads , it is recommended to have 2X 100% rated
batteries for each unit.

4.1.4

Separate batteries with chargers are required to be provided for UPS


for power plants. For details please refer to design guide M6-CL-AUG-715-6011 for UPS.

4.2

Industrial Plants and Small Power Plants


Two 1X 100% rated batteries to cater for all the emergency power,
control and protection requirements of the plant. Shall be provided.
However, it shall be firmed up based on the quantum of the load
points and their geographic location.
A separate battery may be required for instrumentation, control and
annunciation requirement for process purposes. The specific
requirements in each case shall be ascertained.
Separate batteries with chargers are required to be provided for UPS
for Industrial and Small power plants. Possibility of using the same
station battery for UPS as well may be explored on a case to case
basis.

4.3

The recommendations on quantities are included int Part C of this


design guide in Tabular form.

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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

5.0

AMPERE HOUR CAPACITY SIZING

5.1

The capacity of a cell or battery as defined in Indian standards 1651


& 1652 is expressed in Ah, at 27deg.C, attainable when the cell or
battery is discharged at the 10-hour rate to an end voltage of 1.85 V
per cell. The capacity is a function of number of positive plates per
cell.

5.2

The battery capacity is influenced by the factors listed below.


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

5.2.1

Duty cycle
End of the duty cycle voltage
Temperature correction factor
Compensation for ageing
Design margin

Duty cycle
a)

At the time of power supply failure, the battery is required to


supply D.C. power requirements of essential circuits for safe
shut down of the station, vital instrumentation, controls,
communication system, DC annunciation and emergency
lighting.

b)

In power plants and some industrial plants an emergency diesel


generator is available, which will provide a.c. power to the
battery charger after the period required to start and connect it
to the emergency AC bus. However, the battery size shall be
calculated on the assumption that the engine driven generator
may fail to start or operate satisfactorily.

c)

The duration for which each type of D.C. load will have to be
supplied by battery when the normal power supply fails is
different. The same may be continuous or for short time duration
or momentary. In a typical power plant the DC power, control &
protection loads and their classification based on duration for
which they need to be supplied are as follows.
Time duration
i)

Upto 1 minute

Loads (Amperes)
*

Trip relay / Trip coil currents of


circuit breakers.

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Starting currents of all


automatically started D.C.
motors.

DC motor operated emergency


steam stop valves.

Solenoid valves for isolation,


safety relief, minimum
recirculation etc.

Inrush currents of supervisory


safety system for fuel, turbine
and generator controls.

ii)

Upto one(1) hour

*
*
*

Emergency oil pump


Jacking oil pump
Steam generator control panels
(including FSSS, Mill panels)

iii)

Upto two(2) hours

*
*
*
*
*

D.C. seal oil pump


Scanner air fan
D.C. emergency lighting
P.A. system
Annunciation (20%)

iv)

Upto 10 hours

*
*

d)

Indicating lamps / Semaphore


indicators in switchgears/control
panels
Control room emergency lighting
Annunciation (10%)
Auxiliary relay ( which are likely
to be energized during black out
condition )

A table of loads indicating their power requirement and duration


shall be prepared and a load curve for the battery shall be
established. Appendix-1 indicates a table for typical emergency
DC loads. Appendix-3 indicates a list of equipment and their
typical D.C. loads for a 210 MW unit. It is recommended that
project specific loads for DC motors, T.G. & S.G. vendor loads
and inrush currents shall be obtained before proceeding with the
sizing.

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e)

5.2.2

I&C battery for power plant application shall be sized to cater


the loads for half hour. The loads to be considered shall be the
maximum load of I&C system at any operating condition viz
starting, running and tripping/stopping.

End of duty cycle voltage


a)

The allowable end of duty cycle voltage of a battery has a major


role in determination of the capacity of the battery. This in turn is
dependent on the limits of system voltages that can be
withstood by D.C. equipment. The D.C. equipment are generally
rated to operate between +10% and -15% of their rated value
with certain exceptions like trip coils and trip relays which can
accept lower voltages.

b)

Manufacturers recommend a float voltage ranging from 2.06V to


2.3 volts per cell, for different float voltage adopted, the required
frequency of equalising charges are given below.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Float Voltage Per Cell
Approximate
periodicity of
equalising charges
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.25
No equalising charges
2.20
12 months
2.15
3 months
2.10
1 month
2.06
2 weeks
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

c)

It is desirable to keep the float voltages as high as the D.C.


system can accept to minimise frequency of equalising charges.
It is recommended to keep a float voltage of 2.2V per cell.
However, this shall be confirmed from the battery supplier
specific to the project.
i)

ii)

Considering the above, the number cells of a battery are


selected as :
Max.allowable DC voltage - Regulation due to charger
--------------------------------------------------------------Float voltage per cell
The end of duty cycle cell voltage is determined
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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

by
Min. allowable D.C. voltage + Cable drop
------------------------------------------------No. of cells
d)
Sl.
No
1

Typical values for 220V DC system and 24V DC systems are


given in the table below:
System
Max.allow Min.allowable No.of End of duty cycle
voltage
cells
voltage
able
voltage
220V
242V
187V
108
1 min - 1.75V /
cell 1,2 HRS &
10 hours 1.85V/cell
24V
30V*
21.5V*
13
1.8V/cell

* To be ascertained on project to project basis


Note : For 110V & 30V plant DC systems, the details can be worked
out in the same manner as for 220V system above.

5.2.3

e)

The cable drop to be considered in DC system shall be 2% from


the charger/battery to Distribution board and 3% from board to
any feeder in case of 220V DC system.

f)

In case of 24V DC system to keep the voltage drop


within 5% limit, the cable sizes between DC board and I&C
cabinets are very large and sometimes impractical to terminate.
Hence for 24V system a total drop of 7.5% (2.5% between board
and charger/battery and 5% between board and individual
loads) is recommended.

Temperature correction factor


The standard temperature for stating cell capacity is 27deg.C. If the
lowest expected electrolyte temperature is below 27deg.C, a cell
large enough to have the required capacity available at the lowest
expected temperature shall be selected. The lowest electrolyte
temperature shall be considered as 10o above minimum ambient
temperature. If the lowest expected temperature is above 27deg.C,
no correction factor shall be applied. The correction factor shall be
calculated according to the formula:
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Correction factor
=
/
K
\
for the lowest
| 1 + -------- (27-T) |
expected electrolyte
|
100
|
temperature, Tdeg.C
\
/
The factor 'K' for plante cells is 0.9 and for tubular, 0.43. The
minimum electrolyte temperature (T) shall be considered as 10deg.C
higher than the minimum ambient air temperature at site.
5.2.4

Compensation for age


ANSI/IEEE STG.450-1270 recommends that a battery be replaced
when its actual capacity drops to 80% of its rated capacity. Hence a
factor of 1.25 shall be considered for ageing.

5.2.5

Design margin
When the D.C. loads are more or less final at the time of battery
sizing for tender specification purposes and/or the battery sizing is
being done for a similar plant already executed, no design margin is
considered necessary. If the sizing is being done for a new type of
project or with very little confirmed loads, a design margin of 10 to
15% shall be provided over the final capacity arrived.
While sizing the battery for nuclear power plant applications, it shall
be noted that the "margins" required by IEEE STD.323-1273. 6.3.15
& 6.3.3 are to be applied during "Qualification" and are not related to
"design margin".

5.3

Calculation of Ampere Hour Capacity


The plante and tubular high discharge performance cells have better
capacity factors at the short duration discharges (1 hour, 2 hours
etc.). For durations less than one hour, the above types of cells have
higher capacity factor than the tubular standard discharge
performance cell. Hence for power plant application and for
applications where short duration loads are appreciable high
discharge performance cell shall be used.
The capacity of the battery shall then be determined in accordance
with the procedure outlined in Appendix-3.

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6.0

INSTALLATION

6.1

Battery cells shall be installed in a separate battery room, preferably


near the D.C.load. The 24V batteries shall be in the same floor as
I&C cabinets and as near as possible. Fig.4 included in design guide
TCE.M6-EL-PJ-G-SG-6602 R1 (GA of Turbine Building Electrical
Equipment & Space Organisation) indicates a typical battery Room
Plan (Copy of Fig.4 enclosed as Appendix-4 for ready reference).

6.2

The flooring shall be provided with acid resistance tiles, a dished


floor drain and drainage piping for collecting spilled acid. The spilled
acid shall be diluted before discharging to the outside storm water
drainage system.

6.3

Acid proof paint shall be provided on walls upto 2.3m height.

6.4

A wash basin shall be provided for emergency drenching of face and


body.

6.5

The total capacity of exhaust fans (suitably distributed) should be


minimum 1/10th of the total volume of the battery room per minute.
The exhaust shall be directly outside the building. However, specific
requirements shall be obtained from the battery manufacturer.

6.6

Separate cable(s) shall be provided for each polarity of the outgoing


battery leads. If the cables are unarmoured they shall be taken in
separate conduits and the conduits shall be PVC coated for
protection against corrosion. Routing of any cables in cable-trays
through battery room shall be avoided.

6.7

Adequate provision for storage of acid, distilled water, instruments,


accessories, etc. should be provided in the battery room.

6.8

During float or boost charging of the lead acid battery hydrogen gas
is generated. The volume of hydrogen gas generated depends on the
amount of charging current. Also, the float current demand of a fully
charged battery will double approximately for every 10deg.C rise
above the base temperature of 27deg.C. Each fully charged cell
produces 4.5 x 10-4 Cu.m (0.016 Cu.pt) hydrogen gas per hour per
charging amperes in an ambient of 25deg.C to 27deg.C. Hydrogen
explosive concentration is reached if the explosives mixture is three
percent of the volume of room air.

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6.9

In view of the presence of hydrogen gas, warning signs shall be


installed outside and inside the room prohibiting smoking, sparks of
flame.

6.10

Lighting fixtures shall be vapour-proof type with reflectors painted


with anticorrosive epoxy-paint. Lighting switch should be outside the
battery room.

7.0

REFERENCES

7.1

IS:1651-1991

Stationary cells and batteries,lead-acid type


with Tubular positive plates Specification.

7.2

IS:1652-1991

Stationary cells and batteries, lead-acid


type with Plante' positive plates
Specification.

7.3

IEEE Std 485-1273 :

Recommended practice for sizing large lead


acid storage batteries for Generating
Stations and Sub-stations.

7.4

IS:8320-1272

General requirements and methods of tests


for lead-acid storage batteries

7.5

IS:1885-1965

Electrotechnical vocabulary Secondary cells and batteries.

7.6

IEEE Std. 450-1270 :

Recommended practice for maintenance


testing and replacement of large lead
storage batteries for generating stations and
sub-stations.

7.7

IEEE Std. 484-1271 :

Recommended practice for Installation


design and installation of large lead storage
batteries for generating stations and substations.

7.8

IEEE Std. 323-1273 :

IEEE Standard for Qualifying class-1E


Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating
Stations.

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APPENDIX - 1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

14

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

APPENDIX-1
TYPICAL EMERGENCY LOADS

a) Bearing oil pump


b) Bearing oil pump for BFPT
c) Bearing oil pump for MBFP

STEAM TG
500MW
120MW
13kW
15kW
2x5.5kW --11kW
---

a) Seal oil pump


b) Seal water pump for BFPS

13kW
60kW

10kW
---

11kW
---

Jacking oil pump

35kW

37KW

28KW

Scanner air fan

----

4.4KW

7.5KW

Inverter for instruments

5kW

10kW

Inverter for PA system

2kW

2kW

2kW

Carrier panels

<-----------

Auxiliary relay (each)

<-----------

150watt/ --------->
panel
3watts
--------->

Auxiliary contactor (each)

<-----------

10watts

--------->

10

DC emergency lights

<-----------

Approx.
10% of
normal
lighting

--------->

11

UPS load (Incl. DAS,


transmitters, controllers)

55kVA

45KVA

30kVA

210MW
13kW
-----

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX - 1
SHEET

15

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

APPENDIX-1 (Contd)
TYPICAL EMERGENCY LOADS

500MW

STEAM TG
120MW
210MW

Continuous Loads
Annunciator window (each)

Indicating lamp (each)

-----5-10W For filament type ----


----1 W For cluster LED type type ---

Auxiliary relays (each)

<--------------------3W--------------------------

Auxiliary contactors (each)

<--------------------10W-----------------------

Semaphore indicator (each)

<--------------------3W------------------------

Control room emergency


lighting

<---------------------1kW---------------------

FSSS load

-------------------10kW---------------------

---------------------5W -----------------

NOTES:
1.

The data for 120MW and 210MW units are taken from the designed
data for GIPCL and Bhatinda units. All DC motor loads,
electromagnetic valve loads, FSSS loads, instrumentation & control,
UPS loads, other turbine generator supervisory loads should be as
far as possible ascertained from the manufacturers.

2.

When starting currents of DC motors are not available it may be


assumed as 3.5 x FL current. If step resistor starting is provided the
starting current may be assumed as 2.5 x FL current.

3.

Instrumentation and control loads and annunciation loads may be on


a separate 48 V / 24V battery.

4.

For 210 MW unit loads also refer Appendix-3.

ISSUE
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SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
SHEET

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16

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

APPENDIX-2
CELL DATA
RATING AND DESIGNATION
1

Ampere-Hour Rating
The rating assigned to the cell shall be the capacity expressed in
ampere-hours (after correction to 27deg.C) stated by the
manufacturer to be obtainable when the cell is discharged at the 10hour rate (C10) to a final voltage of 1.85 voltage.

2.

Designation
The cell shall be designated by symbols given below, arranged in the
following sequence :
Type of Positive
Plate
(See 2.1)

Ah Rating
of Cell
(See 2.2)

Type of
Container
(See 2.3)

Notes:
1.

The plates are not replaced in this type of construction


therefore, this designation does not include the number of
positive plates; and

2.

The designation of partially plated cells is not being


standardized because partial plating of cells in this type of
construction is not done.

2.1

The positive plates shall be designated by the letter 'T' for tubular
and 'P' for plante.

2.2

The capacity rating shall be indicated by a number equal to the


capacity in Ah.

2.3

The material of container shall be designated by any one of the


following letters as the case may be :
G - for glass;
H - for hard-rubber;
P - for plastics;
ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

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SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
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OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

W - for wood, lead-lined; or


F - for fibre reinforced plastics (FRP)
Example : T 400H HDP - designates a high discharge performance
cell having tubular positive plates and a capacity of 400 Ah at 10 hour
rate in hard-rubber container. SOURCE : IS 1651 & 1652 - 1991

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

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DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
SHEET

18

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

APPENDIX-2 (Contd)
CELL DATA
Capacities and Dimensions of
Tubular Cells
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capacity at
Maximum Overall Dimensions
10-Hour Rate ---------------------------------------------------------------------Length
Width
Height
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Ah
mm
mm
mm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20
105
170
365
40
105
170
365
60
140
170
365
80
165
190
365
100
190
190
450
120
190
190
450
150
190
190
550
200
265
215
550
300
320
215
550
400
380
215
550
500
390
235
550
600
390
235
715
800
515
235
715
1000
515
300
750
1500
450
400
865
2000
500
450
865
2500
650
450
865
4000
900
480
1240
5000
900
480
1240
6000
900
500
1240
7000
1100
500
1240
8000
1100
500
1240
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTES :
1.

The length and width dimensions given in this table may be


interchanged.

2.

In the case of batteries with built-in cell connectors, the height of


the interconnector shall be disregarded.
ISSUE
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SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

3.

For capacities not covered in this table, the cell dimensions shall
not exceed the dimensions of the cell of next higher size covered
by this table.
SOURCE : IS 1651 - 1991
APPENDIX - 2 (Contd)
Standard Discharge Performance Cells (Tubular)

Capacities and Final Cell Voltage


at various rates of discharge at 27deg.C
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Period of Capacity Ratio :
Capacity
Final
Discharge Ah capacity (CT)
Rating Factor
Cell
Hours (T) divided by the 10hr (KT) = (1/2)
Voltage
Rated capacity (C10)
(Volts)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
0.500
2
1.75
2
0.633
3.16
1.78
3
0.717
4.18
1.80
4
0.782
5.12
1.81
5
0.833
6.00
1.82
6
0.879
6.83
1.83
7
0.917
7.63
1.83
8
0.950
8.42
1.84
9
0.979
9.19
1.84
10
1.0
10
1.85
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source : IS 1651-1991

ISSUE
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SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

APPENDIX - 2 (Contd)
CELL DATA
Capacities at 27deg.C at various rates of discharge
Type II High Discharge Performance (HDP) Cells (Tubular)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Period of Capacity Ratio :
Capacity
Final Remarks
Discharge Ah capacity (CT)
Rating Factor Cell
Hours (T) divided by the 10hr (KT) = (1/2) Voltage
Rated capacity (C10)
(Volts)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1/60 (1 min)
0.022
0.76 1.75 } M/s Chloride
1/2 (30 min)
0.368
1.36 1.75 } India
1

0.60
0.488
0.392

1.67
2.05
2.55

1.75
1.80 } M/s Chloride
1.85 } India

0.738
0.714
0.597

2.71
2.80
3.35

1.78
1.80 } M/s Chloride
1.85 } India

0.811

3.77

1.80

0.862

4.13

1.81

0.90

5.55

1.82

0.93

6.45

1.83

0.951

7.361 1.83

0.971

8.239 1.84

0.988

9.109 1.84

10
1.0
10.0 1.85
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source : IS 1651-1991 & Capacity Rating curves from M/s Chloride India.
NOTE : The above data is applicable for plante cells also. The capacities for
Type-I HDP cells are same as above for discharge rates of 3 hour, 5
hour and 10 hours (ISS does not specify capacities at other
discharge rates for Type-I cells).

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

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TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
SHEET

21

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE CURVES (SH-1)

ISSUE
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TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
SHEET

22

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

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TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
SHEET

23

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

APPENDIX - 2 (Contd)
CELL DATA
Capacities and Dimensions: Plante Cells
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capacity at
Maximum
Overall
Dimensions
10-Hour Rate ---------------------------------------------------------Length
Width
Height
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Ah
mm
mm
mm
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------20
130
140
225
40
205
140
225
60
205
140
225
80
175
235
370
100
175
235
370
120
175
235
370
150
175
235
370
200
210
235
370
300
290
235
370
400
365
235
370
500
375
310
625
600
375
310
625
800
375
335
625
1000
385
375
635
1500
520
390
635
2000
650
390
635
2500
785
405
130
4000
1160
405
130
5000
1350
515
650
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTES :
1.

The length and width dimensions given in this table may be


interchanged.

2.

For capacities not covered in this table, the cell dimensions shall
not exceed the dimensions of the cell of next higher size covered
by this table.
Source : IS 1652-1995

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3
SHEET

24

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

BATTERY DUTY CYCLE DIAGRAM


L
4
=
9
0
0
A

L6 = 84 A

L5 = 186 A

L3 = 46A

L2 = 30A
L1 = 13 A
SECTION-1

60

120

600

SECTION-2
SECTION-3
SECTION - 4
DURATION ( MIN )

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3

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DC SYSTEM

25

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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

APPENDIX - 3
SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR SIZING OF A THERMAL POWER
STATION 220V UNIT BATTERY (210 MW)

LOAD TABULATION
Sl.
no

Load description

Qty.

Rating
Watts

1 min

1 hr.

I.

UNIT LOADS

1.

Tripping loads ( Prot. Relay + Trip Relay + CB Trip coil )

a.

6.6 kV CBs

34

300

10,200

b.

415 V CBs

250

1,750

2.

Turb. Generator

a.

E.O.P.

13,000

32,500*

13,000

b.

DC seal oil pump

11,000

27,500*

c.

Jacking oil pump

28,000

70,000*

28,000

d.

Others

2,000

2,000

Steam generator

10,000

2hrs.

10 hrs.

11,000

10,000

DC CSP (includes
FSSS, mill panel)
4.

Main steam stop


valve

4,000

10,000

5.

Scanner air fan

7,500

18,750 *

7,500

6.

Emergency lighting

5000

7.

Indicating lamps

400

1#

8.

Annunciation
windows

10

9.

Auxiliary relays

LS

LS

1000
400

100

50
600 (200
nos @ 3W
each )

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

26

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

II

STATION LOADS

1.

Tripping loads
6.6 kV CBs

70

300

21,000

415 V CBs

12

250

3,000

2.

Indicating lamps

500

1 #

3.

PA system

LS

LS

4.

Auxiliary relays

LS

LS

500
2,000
300
(100 nos
@3W
each )

TOTAL AMPS

894

232

116

13

*
#

Starting currents of motor ( 2.5 times the rated current )


Cluster LED type indicating lamps

2.0

SIZING CALCULATION

2.1

Battery duty cycle diagram in Sh.24 is constructed as detailed below


from the above DC emergency load list for a typical 210 MW unit.

2.2

Analysis of load data in Sh.25&26 indicates the distribution of loads


with duration as under :
Load

Sl.
no

Duration

0 10 hrs.

2850 W

13A

1 min. - 2 hrs.

(11000+7500) =18500W

84A

0 2 hrs.

(5000-1000) + (100- 50) +


2000 = 6500W

30A

1 min. - 1 hr.

(28000+13000) = 41000 W

186A

0 1 hr.

(51000 -(13000+28000))
=10000 W

46A

0 - 1 min.

196680 W

894A

In Watts

in Amperes

NOTE: These loads are arrived at taking care to see that loads are not
ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

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DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3
SHEET

27

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

repeated under the same time duration , for example in (0-1hr) load
duration the load would be (51000-(13000+28000))=10000,
(13000+28000) being subtracted from the total load as the same is
already considered under (1minute -1hr )load.
2.3

The cell sizing data that will be useful in filling out the cell sizing work
sheet is derived from the duty cycle diagram and tabulated as below :
Cell sizing data
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------period
Loads
Total Amperes
Duration (min)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.4

1.
L1+L2+L3+L4
983
1
2.
L1+L2+L3+L5+L6
359
59
3.
L1+L2+L6
127
60
4.
L1
13
480
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------Capacity rating factors (KT) are derived from the table for HDP, Type
II tubular lead acid cells enclosed in Appendix-2. (These can be read
from the curves enclosed in Appendix-2 also).

2.5

Sh.29 &30 shows the way in which the cell sizing work sheet and the
KT rating factor would be used to size the battery for the duty cycle
indicated.

2.6

Design margin
Considered as 1.0 since the loads for 210 MW thermal power plant
are well established.

2.7

Temperature correction factor :


Minimum ambient temperature for the installation is 7deg.C. Hence,
the lowest expected electrolyte temperature to be considered (in
accordance with cl.5.2.3) is 17deg.C (=7deg.C+10deg.C)
Temperature correction factor to be applied
0.43 (27-17)
= 1 + ----100
= 1.043

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3
SHEET

28

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

NOTES :
1.

Tubular cell type HDP-II is considered in the above sample


calculation as the duty requires the cells to deliver high discharge in
short duration (1 hr). However, the same procedure as above can be
followed for sizing the battery using HDP Type-I or standard
discharge performance cells. Data on cell capacities at varying
periods of discharge for standard discharge performance type cells &
for Type-I HDP cells is enclosed in Appendix-2.

2.

If plante cells are being sized, the data on capacities for Type II HDP
cells enclosed in Appendix-2 can be used sizing procedure also
remains same except the value of 'K' in formula for temperature
correction factor (Refer cl.5.2.3).

3.

Typical DC emergency loads for a 210 MW unit are considered for


the sample calculation above. In case the load cycle diagram for a
particular installation happens to be more complex than the one in the
sample calculation above, IEEE 485-1273 may be referred for further
guidance.

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


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SHEET

DC SYSTEM

29

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

Project :

Date :

Lowest Expected
Electrolyte Temp : 17oC

(1)

Period

(2)

Load
(Ampe
res)

Minimum 1 Min.:1.75V DC
Cell Voltage : Others: 1.85V DC

Cell Chloride
Mfg. : India

Cell Tubular
Type : HDP, Type-II Sized By : RRN

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Change in
Load
(Amperes)

Duration
of Period
(minutes)

Time to
End of
Section
(minutes)

Capacity
at T Min.
rate
K Factor
(KT)

Required Section Size or


(3)x(6B) = Rated AH

Pos Values

Neg.Value

LOAD DATA :
A1= 983 A,
M1= 1 Min;
A2 = 359 A,
A3= 127 A,
M3= 60 Min;
A4 = 13 A,
A5= A,
M5= Min; A6 = A, M6 = Min.

M2 = 59 Min.
M4 = 480 Min.

Section - 1: First Period only - If A2 is greater than A1, go to Section-2


1
A1=983
A1-0=983
M1=1
T=M1=1
Sec.-1

Section - 2: First Two Periods only - If A3 is greater than A2, go to Section-3


1
A1=983
A1-0=983
M1=1
T=M1+M2=60
2
A2=359
A2-A1= -624
M2=59
T=M2=59
Sec.-2

Section - 3: First Three Periods only - If A4 is greater than A3, go to Section-4


1
A1=983
A1-0=983
M1=1
T=M1+...+M3=120
2
A2=359
A2-A1= -624
M2=59
T=M2+M3=119
3
A3=127
A3-A2= -232
M3=60
T=M3=60
Sec.-3

Section - 4: First Four Periods only - If A5 is greater than A4 go to Section-5


1
A1=983
A1-0=983
M1=1
T=M1+...+M4=600
2
A2=359
A2-A1= -624
M2=59
T=M2+...+M4=599
3
A3=127
A3-A2= -232
M3=60
T=M3+M4=540
4
A4=13
A4-A3= -134
M4=480
T=M4=480
Sec.-4

Section - 5: First Five Periods only - If A6 is greater than A4 go to Section-6


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+...+M5=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2+...+M5=
3
A3=
A3-A2=
M3=
T=M3+...+M5=
4
A4=
A4-A3=
M4=
T=M4+M5=
5
A5=
A5-A4=
M5=
T=M5=
Sec.-5

0.76
Total

747
747

2.55
2.55
Sub Total
Total

2507

3.35
3.35
2.55
Sub Total
Total

3293

10
10
9.1
8.2
Sub Total
Total

9830

2507
916

3293
611

9830
544

Sub Total
Total

***
***

1591
1591
***

2090
592
2682
***

6240
2111
935
9286
***

***

Section - 6: IF LOAD CYCLE HAS MORE THAN 5 LOAD PERIODS, CONTINUE FURTHER IN SIMILAR MANNER.

ISSUE
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DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3
SHEET

30

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PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

Section - 7: Random Equipment Load only (if needed)


R
AR=
AR-0=
MR=

T=M+R=

Section - 8:
Maximum Section Size = 916

Section - 9:
Random Section Size = -

Section - 10:
Temperature Correction Factor = 1.043

Section - 11:
Design margin = 1.0

Section - 12:
Aging Factor = 1.25

Section - 13:
Uncorrected size = (8) + (9)= 916+ - = 916

Section - 14:
All capacity required = (13) x (10) x (11) x (12) = 916 x 1.043 x 1.0 x 1.25 = 1193 AH

Section - 15:
When AH capacity required is larger than the nearest standard cell, the next larger size cell is required.

Section - 16:
Therefore AH capacity of the cell = 1200 AH

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

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TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-4
SHEET

31

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

TYPICAL BATTERY ROOM LAYOUT

FOR DETAILS REFER HARDCOPY

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-4

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DC SYSTEM

32

OF 79

PART A : LEAD ACID BATTERY

Project :

Date :

Lowest Expected
Minimum
Electrolyte Temp : oC Cell Voltage :

Cell

Cell

Mfg. :

Type :

Sized By :

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Period

Load
(Amperes)

Change in
Load
(Amperes)

Duration
of Period
(minutes)

Time to
End of
Section
(minutes)

Capacity
at T Min.
rate
K Factor
(KT)

(7)
Required Section Size or
(3)x(6B) = Rated AH

Pos Values

Neg.Value

LOAD DATA :
A1=
A3=
A5=

A,
A,
A,

M1=
M3=
M5=

Min;
Min;
Min;

A2 =
A4 =
A6 =

A,
A,
A,

M2 =
M4 =
M6 =

Min.
Min.
Min.

Section - 1: First Period only - If A2 is greater than A1, go to Section-2


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1=
Sec.-1

Section - 2: First Two Periods only - If A3 is greater than A2, go to Section-3


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+M2=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2=
Sec.-2

Section - 3: First Three Periods only - If A4 is greater than A3, go to Section-4


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+...+M3=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2+M3=
3
A3=
A3A2=
M3=
T=M3=
Sec.-3

Section - 4: First Four Periods only - If A5 is greater than A4 go to Section-5


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+...+M4=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2+...+M4=
3
A3=
A3-A2=
M3=
T=M3+M4=
4
A4=
A4-A3=
M4=
T=M4=
Sec.-4

Total

***
***

Sub Total
Total

***

Sub Total
Total

***

Sub Total
Total

***

Sub Total
Total

***

Section - 5: First Five Periods only - If A6 is greater than A4 go to Section-6


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+...+M5=
2
3
4
5

A2=
A3=
A4=
A5=

A2-A1=
A3-A2=
A4-A3=
A5-A4=

M2=
M3=
M4=
M5=

T=M2+...+M5=
T=M3+...+M5=
T=M4+M5=
T=M5=
Sec.-5

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Section - 6: IF LOAD CYCLE HAS MORE THAN 5 LOAD PERIODS, CONTINUE FURTHER IN SIMILAR MANNER.

Section - 7: Random Equipment Load only (if needed)


R
AR=
AR-0=
MR=

T=M+R=

Section - 8:
Maximum Section Size =

Section - 9:
Random Section Size =

Section - 10:
Temperature Correction Factor =

Section - 11:
Design margin =

Section - 12:
Aging Factor =

Section - 13:
Uncorrected size = (8) + (9)=

Section - 14:
All capacity required = (13) x (10) x (11) x (12)

Section - 15:
When AH capacity required is larger than the nearest standard cell, the next larger size cell is required.

Section - 16:
Therefore AH capacity of the cell = AH

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1.0

SCOPE
This section outlines the Ni-Cd alkaline station storage battery
performance characteristics, usage and sizing.

2.0

DIFFERENT TYPES OF Ni-Cd BATTERIES

2.1

The most common electrode design for the nickel-cadmium batteries


is the pocket plate type designated by 'P' as per IS:10918-1274. The
active constituents are cadmium in the negative plates and nickel in
the positive plates. The active material in each electrode is enclosed
in metal pockets of finely perforated steel strips. Each plate is
insulated from the next by thin plastic separators. The electrolyte is a
solution of potassium hydroxide in de-ionised water. The resulting
electrochemical reaction produces a nominal discharge voltage of 1.2
volts per cell. The electrolyte takes no part in these reactions and
acts only as an ion conductor. The other electrode designs are
sintered plate(s) and tubular plate(T).

2.2

The cells are further classified as H,M,L and X type based on the
discharge performance of individual designs. The plate type, and the
number of such plates employed in a cell indicate the cell type and
determine its discharge characteristics.

2.3

The cell container is usually translucent polypropelene


plastic.Polypropelene has high strength, it is corrosion free and not
electrically conductive. Cells can also be supplied in stainless steel
containers, if required, to with-stand conditions of high shock and
vibrations. Steel cells are mounted on wooden racks.

3.0

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

3.1

The rated capacity C5 of any cell type is defined as available


amperehours (Ah) at 5 hours discharge rate at 27C, to an end
voltage of 1.0V/Cell after charging for 8 hours with 0.2C5 A. (In the
U.S. the Ni-Cd capacity is based on 8 hours discharge).
The standard ambient temp. specified by IS:10918 is 27C, whereas
the Ni-Cd batteries available in Indian market are rated at 20C +5C
ambient. The same is adopted in the design guide for the present.

3.2

Normal voltage is 1.2V/Cell


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3.3

Open circuit voltage is 1.28 V/Cell.

3.4

The measure of performance is not the rated Ah capacity but the


battery cell construction. H type cells have thin plates (more plate
area per amount of active material) giving excellent high rate
performance. M and L types have medium thickness plates and thick
plates respectively. For example H-type cell at 15 minutes discharge
can deliver about twice the discharge current compared to an L-type
cell of equal rated capacity.

3.5

The published discharge data for nickel-cadmium cells are most


commonly available in tabular form, in which the current, available
from each cell type, is stated for a given discharge time and end of
discharge voltage. For intermediate times and voltages, it is
necessary to interpolate between the known values (IEEE 11151992).

3.6

There are three manufacturers in India, AMCO (in collaboration with


SAFT,France), SABNIFE POWER SYSTEMS LTD., Hyderabad in
collaboration with M/s Sabnife, Sweden and Punjab Power Packs Ltd.
in collaboration with M/s Alcad Ltd. UK. The available tabulated
discharge performance data from M/s SABNIFE on different types of
cells for varying end cell voltages, is enclosed at Appendix-1.(The
cell designations of Sabnife make cells confirm to IS.S10918-1274).
More details if required, may be obtained from the manufacturers.

3.7

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
Battery optimum performance is based on cell electrolyte temperature
maintained at 20-25C. For temperatures below 20C a loss of about
0.5% of rated capacity per C is expected for Ni-Cd battery. No
increase in capacity is to be considered above 20C. The derating
curves enclosed in Appendix-1 can be used for arriving at the
derating factors appropriate to the lowest expected electrolyte
temperature for the individual installation.
Example:
Cell Type
Cell end Volt
Discharge time
Min. Ambient temperature
Lowest expected electrolyte temp.

: KPM100P
: 1.1 V
: 30 mins
: 0C
: 0+10C ( Ref. Clause 5.2.3
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of Part A of this design guide )


: 0.925

Temp. derating factor


(From enclosed curves)
Available current at 10C = 101A

(Data from performance table


at 20-25C) x 0.925 = 93.425A

3.7.1

Life of the battery is shortened when temperatures are above the


reference temperature of 25C. Generally it has been estimated that
Ni-Cd battery loses approximately 15% of its life for every 8-10C
electrolyte temperature above 25C.

3.8

CHARGING REQUIREMENTS
To fully charge, a cell will require an Ah input, from the charger to the
battery, of 160% of the capacity. For example a 100Ah cell requires
160 Ah to fully charge it from a fully discharged state. If the charger
can supply 20A then the time for charging will be 160/20 i.e. 8 hours.

3.9

Cell Data :
Type-L

Type-M

Type-H

a) D C internal resistance,
ohms

0.20x(1/C5) 0.15x(1/C5) 0.06x(1/C5)

b) Maximum Short circuit


current, A

10xC5

15xC5

25xC5

3.10

The electrolyte specific gravity (S.G.) is not an indication of the state


of charge in Ni-Cd cells since it does not change appreciably during
charge or discharge. The acceptable limits to be maintained in normal
service (of the electrolyte S.G) are 1.17-1.19 at a reference
temperature of 20 at the specified level line of the cell.

3.11

Indian Standard 10918-1274 specifies the general requirements and


methods of test for Ni-Cd batteries. This is derived from IEC Pub 6231978.

4.0

APPLICATIONS OF Ni-Cd BATTERIES


Some typical applications of different battery (Cell) types (X,H,M,L)
are mentioned herewith for their optimum usage.
Applications of very high rates of discharge batteries (Type X) are to
deliver very large currents (>7C5) for very short durations (1 Sec-15
min).

4.1

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4.2

Applications of High rate (H type) batteries are to deliver high


currents (>3.5C5 A) for very short discharge times of 20 mins and
less. Typical uses are
- Engine starting (gen-sets, fire pumps, locomotives, vehicles)
- Some applications of Uninterruptible power supply (UPS).
- Switch closing, electromagnets.
In such cases the capacity of the battery is not so important as the
ability to deliver high current.

4.3

Medium rate (M type) applications are load duties having discharge


times between 3 hours to 30 min, for examples:
- UPS for A.C process control
- Electric train control
- Off-shore applications
- Combined discharge cycle like switchgear operation, standby
pumps and emergency lighting.(Typically medium rate of discharge
usage is between 0.5C5A and 3.5C5A).

4.4

Low rate (L type) applications are of power requirements for an


extended discharge time of 3 hours and longer.
Example are:- Telecommunications and signalling
- Scada/Computer system
- General standby applications for power stations/ industrial projects,
i.e. load cycle duty of switch trippings, emergency oil pumps,
emergency lighting, protection/controls annunciation, communication.
(Typically low rate of discharge usage is between less than 0.5C5A to
C5A).

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4.5

For applications where adverse conditions of usage prevail, (like


extremes of temperature, on regular routine maintenance and nonavailability of a separate battery room), Ni-Cd batteries are most
suitable for use because of their following special features.
a)

Tolerance of extremes of temperature. The manufacturers claim


the range from -50C to +55C. It is of advantage to use Ni-Cd
battery for cold temperature performance.

b)

Maintenance requirements are very low for pocket plate Ni-Cd


batteries when operated as mentioned in clause 5.0 within the
range of 15C to 25C.

c)

Overcharging even for a prolonged period is tolerated. Also,


these batteries can be left in discharged/partially discharged
conditions without damage.

d)

Gases given off by Ni-Cd batteries are not corrosive and normal
building materials/room can be used and therefore the battery
can be kept in the electrical/mechanical equipment room, if it
becomes necessary to do so. However, adequate ventilation is
necessary as stated under installation (Clause 7.0).

5.0

MODE OF OPERATION

5.1

In the standby battery usage for continuous parallel operation with


rectifier, with occasional battery discharge, the recommended
charging values are as follows:
Charging in service:
a)

Float charge

1.4 - 1.42 V/Cell H,M,L

b)

High rate (Boost)


charge

1.53-1.67 V/Cell for H type


1.54-1.69 V/Cell for M type
1.55-1.7 V/Cell for L type

c)

Trickle charging current of :


fully charged cell

1.5 mA per Ah

d)

Boost charging standard

0.4C5A for 8 hours,H,M,L

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e)

Fast recharging

0.5C5A for 2.5 Hours followed


by 0.2C5A for 2.5 hours.

f)

With float charging at 1.4-1.42 V/Cell and where the load


temporarily exceeds the
charger rating, it is beneficial to
apply an equalising charge every 6 to 12 months (depending
on use) to keep the battery up to a fully charged condition.

5.2

For use of batteries without any boost charge, the float charge
voltage is 1.47-1.5V pC for L type, 1.46-1.49V pC for M type and
1.45-1.47V pC for H type.

6.0

NUMBER OF CELLS
For the usual standard system voltages, the recommended number of
cells is as follows:

6.1
Nominal System Voltage
24
No. of Cells
For continuous operation with 19
float charging

48

110

220

37-38

84-86

168-172

6.2

The number of cells to be used for a specific project should be


checked considering the nominal system voltage, voltage tolerances,
charging voltage (i.e. mode of operation) and type of load (i.e.
discharge currents / time for given cell end - voltage). Based on these
factors the number of cells may vary from the number given above.

6.3

Recommendations on selection of voltage level and quantities of


batteries cells are provided at Clause 3.0 & 4.0 of Part A of this
design guide.

6.4

Example :
a)

Nominal system voltage 110V

b)

All equipments are specified to operate satisfactorily at 80-110%


of rated DC voltage, except the DC motors which work
satisfactorily upto 85% of rated voltage.

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c)

No. of cells 'n'


Allowable max. voltage for DC system = 110% of 110V = 121
volts
Float voltage to be selected = 1.4 to 1.42 V/Cell
With float voltage of 1.42 V pC and system voltage limit of 121
volts.

d)

No. of cells required of 110V rated DC system


121
= ---- = 85.2 or 85 cells.
1.42
Cell end voltage :
Allowable min. voltage for DC system
85% of 110V at equipment terminals = 93.5 volts.
Considering a max. voltage drop of 5% in the system,
Allowable min. voltage at battery terminals = 90% of 110V = 99
volts.
99
Thus permissible cell end voltage =---- = 1.16 volts
85

7.0

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS FOR SIZING Ni-Cd BATTERIES


In addition to the above factors, factors like design margin, ageing
factor also influence the final size of the battery selected.

7.1

Design Margin :
This is to allow for unforeseen additions to the dc systems and less
than optimum operating conditions of the battery due to improper
maintenance, recent discharge or ambient temperatures lower than
anticipated. This shall be decided on case to case basis. The cell
size calculations for a specific application will seldom match a
commercially available cell exactly and it is normal procedure to
select the next higher size cell. The additional capacity obtained thus,
can be considered part of the design margin. While sizing battery for
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Nuclear power plant applications, it may be noted that the "margins"


required by IEEE Std. 323-1273, 6.3.1.5 and 6.3.3 are to be applied
during "qualification" and are not related to "design margin".
7.2

Ageing Factor :
Capacity decreases gradually during the life of the battery, with no
sudden capacity loss being encountered. Since the rate of capacity
loss is dependent upon such factors as operating temperature,
electrolyte sp.gravity, and depth and frequency of discharge, an
ageing factor should be chosen based on required service life. The
choice of ageing factor is, therefore, essentially an economic
consideration. IEEE recommends a factor of 1.11 for batteries used
for UPS wherein the discharges are for a short time and 1.43 for
applications involving continuous high temperatures and/or frequent
deep discharges.

7.3

State of Charge Factor :


When the batteries are subjected to discharge and then charge, they
get charged gradually. The state of charge at any point depends on
the initial state of charge, the recharge voltage, the charge current
limit and the charging voltage. The state of charge factor can be
determined by consulting the charging curves provided by Battery
manufacturers and shall be considered if the selected float charge
voltage is 1.47-1.50V (Ref. item 5.2 above).

7.4

Float Charge Factor :


When batteries are expected to remain in continuous float charge for
prolonged periods without boost charge, they exhibit a dip in
performance depending on end voltage and duration of discharge.
The cells float charged at 1.4-1.42V pC (Ref item 5.1 of above) are
not expected to lose much charge if the schedule for equalising
charges is adhered to. Hence no provision is made for float charge
factor in cell sizing calculations.

8.0

INSTALLATION

8.1

Ni-Cd battery can be installed in a separate room or in the same room


as the electrical/mechanical equipment since the gases given off are
not corrosive. However, a separate room specially for large size
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batteries would be preferable. The typical battery room layout is


enclosed in Part A of this design guide for information.
8.2

Though Ni-Cd batteries are tolerant of extremes of temperature, it is


preferable to operate within the range of 15C to 25C to optimise
efficiency. Direct sunlight and heat on cells should be avoided.

8.3

Hydrogen and oxygen evolved from a battery during charge can form
an explosive mixture. For this reason adequate ventilation is to be
provided to keep the hydrogen content to a low value. The maximum
gas evolution occurs at end of charge or on overcharge. Since
hydrogen is lighter than air, openings/grilles to take away the gas
mixture should be located as high as possible in the room.
Following formula is given by the Manufacturers for a mean hydrogen
concentration of 1%.
Air changes required
per hour

1.47xFinal charge(amps)xNo. of cells


Room air Vol.in Cu.ft

If forced ventilation is found necessary to obtain the required air


changes per hour, the air should be drawn from a high location in the
room. When calculating air changes in confined spaces it will be
necessary to deduct the volume of other apparatus and the battery.
9.0

BATTERY SIZING CALCULATIONS


The method to be used for sizing Ni-Cd battery is same as explained
in PARTA of this DC System Design guide .

9.1

The duty cycle profile (the load currents and the durations for which
the battery is to be sized) shall be prepared.

9.2

The factor KT related to the specified end cell voltage and load
duration is readily available for lead-acid cells. But for Ni-Cd cells,
this shall be computed from the discharge data tables (enclosed at
Appendix-1). Wherever the required data is not available, it can be
interpolated/extrapolated from the known values (Refer item 3.5
above).
Select the cell type most suited to the duty profile required (Ref. item
4.0).

9.3

Add 10C to the min. ambient temperature specified to obtain


expected minimum electrolyte temperature and read the temperature
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correction factors corresponding to the cell type selected and specific


discharge duration, for the above temp, from the relevant curves
enclosed in Appendix-1.
9.4

Divide the load currents specified by the temperature correction


factors corresponding to the specified duration to obtain the load
currents corrected to 25C.

9.5

Select the cell size, looking at the discharge tables, that can meet the
short duration load current requirements.

9.6

Crated
Calculate the capacity rating factors ( KT = ------- ; t = duration )
It
for different load currents & corresponding durations as above, from
the discharge tables.

9.7

Follow the worksheet (Blank form enclosed in Appendix-3) and


determine the cell size. Apply ageing factor, design margin etc. (in
accordance with item 7.0 above) to arrive at final cell size.

9.8

Sample cell sizing calculation is included in Appendix-2.

10.0

SPECIFYING THE BATTERY


It is observed that the discharge data available from different
manufacturers for a given type and AH rating of cells differs
considerably at durations other than nominal duration (5 hours).
Hence it is recommended that while specifying the battery, the
following may be noted.

10.1

Load profile, required end cell voltage, factors to be considered and


other data shall be provided to the bidder and the bidder is allowed to
offer cell size other than the one indicated (determined by TCE
through cell sizing calculations as above) providing the supporting
calculations.

10.2

Bidder may be allowed to offer cell type other than the one indicated,
if the offered cell type & size meets the load cycle duty requirements
satisfactorily (bidder to establish the same through supporting
calculations). This is being recommended as many a time the load
profile consists of mixed type of loads (ie. of different durations) and
thus more than one type (but with different ratings) can meet the
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requirements satisfactorily.
11.0

REFERENCES

11.1

TCE.M6-EL-718-6000 'Station battery- Lead Acid' Design Guide.

11.2

IS:10918-1274 Specification for vented type Ni-Cd batteries.

11.3

Technical Data from M/s SABNIFE.

11.4

IEEE 1115-1992 IEEE Recommended Practice for sizing NickelCadmium Batteries for Stationary applications.

11.5

IEEE : 1106-1277 IEEE Recommended practice for maintenance,


testing and replacement of Nickel-Cadmium storage batteries for
Generating Stations and Substations.

11.6

IEEE : 323-1273 IEEE Standard for qualifying class IE equipment for


Nuclear Power Generating Stations.

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APPENDIX-1
CELL DESIGNATION
Vented nickel cadmium prismatic rechargeable cells shall be
designated by the letter 'K' followed by a second letter referring to the
positive plates:
T for cells with tubular plates,
P for cells with pocket plates, and
S for cells with sintered plates.
The second letter shall be followed by a third letter:
L for low rate of discharge (below 0.5 C5),
M for medium rate of discharge (between 0.5 C5 and 3.5 C5),
H for high rate of discharge (between 3.5 C5 and 7 C5), and
X for very high rate of discharge (above 7 C5).
The group of three letters shall then be followed by a group of figures
indicative of the capacity of the cell in ampere-hours, for example
KSH 185. Cells in cases of plastic material shall be marked with the
letter "p" after the figures, for example KSH 185 P.
Source : IS:10918-1274

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APPENDIX-1 (contd)
PREFERRED DIMENSIONS
TABLE :

THESE DIMENSIONS ARE VALID FOR OPEN NICKEL


CADMIUM PRISMATIC CELLS IN STEEL CONTAINERS AND
PLASTIC CONTAINERS

STEEL CONTAINERS
PLASTIC CONTAINERS
Max. Width. (b)in Max. Height (h) in Max. Width. (b) Max. Height (h) in
mm
mm
mm
in
mm
81
291
62
178
105
350
81
241
131
409
87
273
148
409
123
273
157
409
138
273
188
409
147
285
--165
406
--173
375
--195
406
NOTE 1 --

The dimensions, given in Table 1, represent preferred values.

NOTE 2 --

The widths relate to the overall width dimension of the cell


excluding the thickness of the lug flanges.

NOTE 3 --

The maximum height relates to the total height dimensions over


terminals or closed cell valves. The data for heights given in
table are maximum values, no lower limits being stated.

NOTE 4 --

It is not possible to make proposals for length dimensions (d) at


this stage.

NOTE 5 --

The dimensions shown in Table 1 are not coupled to particular


cell capacities. The apply to all kinds of open prismatic nickelcadmium cells, such as L,M,H, and X types.

Source : IS:10918-1274

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KPL RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.

AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.00 VOLT PER CELL

CELL
TYPE

CAP
(Ah)

SECONDS

MINUTES

HOURS

10

60

10

30

60

90

10

KPL5P
KPL11P
KPL19P
KPL29P
KPL39P
KPL49P
KPL60P
KPL70P
KPL75P
KPL90P
KPL100P
KPL130P
KPL155P
KPL190
KPL220P
KPL250P
KPL280P
KPL320P
KPL350P
KPL380P
KPL410P
KPL440P
KPL480P
KPL500P

5
11
19
29
39
49
60
70
75
90
100
130
155
190
220
250
280
320
350
380
410
440
480
500

11.8
25.9
44.7
68.3
93.6
120
138
157
177
204
231
283
337
389
440
486
531
579
628
675
723
750
805
916

9.7
21.4
37
56.5
76.8
96.6
115
131
150
171
193
236
282
327
373
413
453
496
539
581
624
654
713
808

8
17.7
30.5
46.6
62.9
80
96.5
111
118
137
156
192
213
258
308
346
377
409
442
473
505
570
615
676

6.6
14.5
25
38.1
51.3
67.7
81.8
90.5
94.9
108
123
150
182
230
244
274
300
326
351
378
406
483
525
566

5.9
12.9
22.3
34
45.5
59.8
72.5
79.4
82.8
93.1
105
131
158
186
214
241
265
290
315
339
363
443
482
514

4.6
10
17
26.7
35.9
45.1
55.2
61.7
65
74.8
85.7
108
124
147
172
197
222
246
271
296
321
368
400
428

3.5
7.7
13.3
20.3
27.3
34.3
42
48.3
51.7
61.
71.4
89.6
107
129
150
171
193
215
236
258
279
297
323
352

2.8
6.2
10.6
16.2
21.8
27.4
33.6
38.6
42
49.5
57.1
71.7
87.9
106
124
141
159
177
194
212
230
243
254
278

2.3
5
8.6
13.1
17.6
22.1
27
31.1
34.2
40.1
45.9
57.6
70.7
85.1
99.5
113
128
142
156
171
185
199
216
227

1.6
3.5
6.1
9.3
12.5
15.7
19.2
22.1
24.3
28.5
32.6
41
50.2
60.5
70.7
80.6
90.9
101
111
121
132
141
154
162

1
2.2
3.8
5.8
7.8
9.8
12
14
15
18
20
26
31
38
44
50
56
64
70
76
82
88
95
100

0.6
1.4
2.4
3.7
4.9
6.2
7.6
8.7
9.5
11.2
12.9
15.1
19.8
23.8
27.8
31.8
35.8
39.8
43.7
47.8
51.8
55.4
61.2
64.4

0.5
1.1
1.9
2.9
3.9
4.9
6.1
7
7.7
9
10.3
12.9
15.9
19.1
22.3
25.3
28.7
31.9
35
38.3
41.5
45.5
49.4
52

KPL580P
KPL655P
KPL730P
KPL810P
KPL885P
KPL960P
KPL1100P
KPL1210P
KPL1320P
KPL1440P

580
655
730
810
885
960
1100
1210
1320
1440

1030
1150
1270
1390
1500
1610
1900
2080
2250
2410

914
1020
1120
1230
1330
1420
1690
1840
1992
2140

768
860
955
1050
1140
1230
1430
1570
1710
1840

644
722
801
880
966
1050
1200
1320
1450
1570

596
678
743
808
886
964
1090
1210
1330
1440

490
552
612
672
736
800
912
1010
1100
1190

400
448
494
540
594
646
729
810
891
969

319
360
402
446
487
528
605
666
726
792

261
295
329
365
398
432
495
545
594
648

186
210
234
259
283
307
352
387
422
461

116
131
146
162
177
192
220
242
254
288

74
83.5
93.1
103
113
122
140
154
168
184

59.7
67.5
75.2
83.4
91.2
98.9
113
125
136
148

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

49

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPL RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.

AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.02 VOLT PER CELL

CELL
TYPE

CAP
(Ah)

10

60

10

30

60

90

10

KPL5P
KPL11P
KPL19P
KPL29P
KPL39P
KPL49P
KPL60P
KPL70P
KPL75P
KPL90P
KPL100P
KPL130P
KPL155P
KPL190
KPL220P
KPL250P
KPL280P
KPL320P
KPL350P
KPL380P
KPL410P
KPL440P
KPL480P
KPL500P

5
11
19
29
39
49
60
70
75
90
100
130
155
190
220
250
280
320
350
380
410
440
480
500

11.1
24.4
42.2
64.3
88
113
130
147
167
192
218
267
318
367
415
453
500
546
592
637
683
706
757
875

9.2
20.2
34.9
53.3
72.2
91
108
124
140
160
181
222
264
307
350
388
425
463
502
540
578
628
674
762

7.5
16.6
28.7
43.8
58.9
75.2
90.5
104
112
128
145
182
215
251
288
322
351
383
414
445
476
537
579
638

6.2
13.5
23.4
35.7
48.4
63.5
76.7
84.8
88.9
101
115
139
169
198
227
255
279
304
331
354
380
452
491
532

5.5
12.1
20.9
32
43.4
56.5
68.1
74.4
77.5
86.9
98.6
122
147
173
199
224
247
272
298
321
344
416
452
482

4.4
9.7
16.6
25.7
34.8
43.9
53.5
59.4
62.4
71.3
81.8
102
119
142
165
188
211
235
259
282
306
351
381
406

3.4
7.5
13
19.8
26.7
33.5
41
47.2
49.9
58.7
68.1
85.5
103
123
144
164
185
206
227
247
268
286
311
337

2.7
6
10.4
15.9
21.4
26.9
32.9
37.8
41
48.2
55.5
69.6
85.4
103
120
137
154
172
189
206
224
237
258
271

2.2
7.9
8.4
12.9
17.3
21.8
26.6
30.6
33.7
39.5
45.3
56.8
69.7
83.9
98.1
112
126
140
154
168
182
196
213
223

1.6
3.5
6
9.2
12.4
15.5
19
21.9
24.1
28.2
32.3
40.6
49.7
59.9
70
79.8
90
100
110
120
130
139
151
159

1
2.2
3.8
5.7
7.7
9.7
11.9
13.9
14.8
17.8
19.8
25.7
30.7
37.6
43.6
49.5
55.4
63.4
69.3
75.2
81.2
87.1
95
99

.6
1.4
2.4
3.6
4.9
6.1
7.5
8.6
9.5
11.1
12.8
16
19.7
23.7
27.7
31.6
35.5
39.5
43.4
47.5
51.5
56.5
60.9
64.1

0.50
1.1
1.9
2.9
3.9
4.9
6
6.9
7.6
8.9
10.2
12.9
15.8
19
22.2
25.3
28.5
31.7
34.8
38.1
41.3
45.3
49.2
51.8

KPL580P
KPL655P
KPL730P
KPL810P
KPL885P
KPL960P
KPL1100P
KPL1210P
KPL1320P
KPL1440P

580
655
730
810
885
960
1100
1210
1320
1440

979
1086
1198
1310
1412
1514
1792
1960
2118
2266

862
964
1060
1162
1254
1344
1594
1740
1883
2020

724
810
899
988
1073
1158
1346
1478
1610
1735

603
675
750
826
904
982
1124
1236
1354
1470

554
627
693
760
832
904
1030
1138
1246
1352

462
519
581
642
702
759
872
963
1050
1134

382
426
474
522
576
621
709
784
859
932

311
349
391
435
474
513
591
649
708
771

257
290
323
359
391
424
487
536
584
638

183
206
230
255
279
302
347
381
416
454

115
130
145
160
175
190
218
240
261
285

73.5
83.1
92.5
103
112
122
140
154
163
183

59.5
67.1
74.8
83
90.7
98.4
113
124
135
143

SECONDS

MINUTES

HOURS

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

50

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPL RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.

AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.02 VOLT PER CELL

CELL
TYPE

CAP
(Ah)

10

60

10

30

60

90

10

KPL5P
KPL11P
KPL19P
KPL29P
KPL39P
KPL49P
KPL60P
KPL70P
KPL75P
KPL90P
KPL100P
KPL130P
KPL155P
KPL190
KPL220P
KPL250P
KPL280P
KPL320P
KPL350P
KPL380P
KPL410P
KPL440P
KPL480P
KPL500P

5
11
19
29
39
49
60
70
75
90
100
130
155
190
220
250
280
320
350
380
410
440
480
500

11.1
24.4
42.2
64.3
88
113
130
147
167
192
218
267
318
367
415
453
500
546
592
637
683
706
757
875

9.2
20.2
34.9
53.3
72.2
91
108
124
140
160
181
222
264
307
350
388
425
463
502
540
578
628
674
762

7.5
16.6
28.7
43.8
58.9
75.2
90.5
104
112
128
145
182
215
251
288
322
351
383
414
445
476
537
579
638

6.2
13.5
23.4
35.7
48.4
63.5
76.7
84.8
88.9
101
115
139
169
198
227
255
279
304
331
354
380
452
491
532

5.5
12.1
20.9
32
43.4
56.5
68.1
74.4
77.5
86.9
98.6
122
147
173
199
224
247
272
298
321
344
416
452
482

4.4
9.7
16.6
25.7
34.8
43.9
53.5
59.4
62.4
71.3
81.8
102
119
142
165
188
211
235
259
282
306
351
381
406

3.4
7.5
13
19.8
26.7
33.5
41
47.2
49.9
58.7
68.1
85.5
103
123
144
164
185
206
227
247
268
286
311
337

2.7
6
10.4
15.9
21.4
26.9
32.9
37.8
41
48.2
55.5
69.6
85.4
103
120
137
154
172
189
206
224
237
258
271

2.2
7.9
8.4
12.9
17.3
21.8
26.6
30.6
33.7
39.5
45.3
56.8
69.7
83.9
98.1
112
126
140
154
168
182
196
213
223

1.6
3.5
6
9.2
12.4
15.5
19
21.9
24.1
28.2
32.3
40.6
49.7
59.9
70
79.8
90
100
110
120
130
139
151
159

1
2.2
3.8
5.7
7.7
9.7
11.9
13.9
14.8
17.8
19.8
25.7
30.7
37.6
43.6
49.5
55.4
63.4
69.3
75.2
81.2
87.1
95
99

.6
1.4
2.4
3.6
4.9
6.1
7.5
8.6
9.5
11.1
12.8
16
19.7
23.7
27.7
31.6
35.5
39.5
43.4
47.5
51.5
56.5
60.9
64.1

0.50
1.1
1.9
2.9
3.9
4.9
6
6.9
7.6
8.9
10.2
12.9
15.8
19
22.2
25.3
28.5
31.7
34.8
38.1
41.3
45.3
49.2
51.8

KPL580P
KPL655P
KPL730P
KPL810P
KPL885P
KPL960P
KPL1100P
KPL1210P
KPL1320P
KPL1440P

580
655
730
810
885
960
1100
1210
1320
1440

979
1086
1198
1310
1412
1514
1792
1960
2118
2266

862
964
1060
1162
1254
1344
1594
1740
1883
2020

724
810
899
988
1073
1158
1346
1478
1610
1735

603
675
750
826
904
982
1124
1236
1354
1470

554
627
693
760
832
904
1030
1138
1246
1352

462
519
581
642
702
759
872
963
1050
1134

382
426
474
522
576
621
709
784
859
932

311
349
391
435
474
513
591
649
708
771

257
290
323
359
391
424
487
536
584
638

183
206
230
255
279
302
347
381
416
454

115
130
145
160
175
190
218
240
261
285

73.5
83.1
92.5
103
112
122
140
154
163
183

59.5
67.1
74.8
83
90.7
98.4
113
124
135
143

SECONDS

MINUTES

HOURS

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

51

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPL RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.

AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.05V PER CELL

CELL
TYPE

CAP
AH

SECONDS
1
10

KPL5P
KPL11P
KPL19P
KPL29P
KPL39P
KPL49P
KPL60P
KPL70P
KPL75P
KPL90P
KPL100P
KPL130P
KPL155P
KPL190
KPL220P
KPL250P
KPL280P
KPL320P
KPL350P
KPL380P
KPL410P
KPL440P
KPL480P
KPL500P

5
11
19
29
39
49
60
70
75
90
100
130
155
190
220
250
280
320
350
380
410
440
480
500

10.1
22.2
38.3
58.4
79.6
102
118
133
151
175
199
244
289
335
378
416
453
496
539
581
624
640
685
814

8.3
18.4
31.7
48.4
65.4
82.7
97.9
113
125
143
162
201
238
277
315
351
382
414
447
478
510
573
615
692

6.8
15
25.9
39.5
52.8
67.9
81.5
94
102
114
129
166
193
225
258
286
313
343
373
403
432
487
526
580

5.5
12.2
21
32.1
44
57.3
69
76.1
79.6
90.2
102
123
149
175
201
225
248
271
301
317
342
406
440
480

KPL580P
KPL655P
KPL730P
KPL810P
KPL885P
KPL960P
KPL1100P
KPL1210P
KPL1320P
KPL1440P

580
655
730
810
885
960
1100
1210
1320
1440

902
990
1090
1190
1280
1370
1630
1780
1920
2050

786
880
970
1060
1140
1230
1450
1590
1720
1840

658
736
806
896
974
1050
1220
1340
1460
1580

542
604
674
744
812
880
1010
1110
1210
1320

60

MINUTES
5
10

HOURS
2
3

30

60

90

5
11
18.9
28.9
40.2
51.5
61.5
66.9
69.6
77.7
89
108
130
153
176
198
220
245
272
294
316
375
407
434

4.2
9.2
15.9
24.3
33.1
42.2
51
56
58.5
66
76
94.5
112
133
154
174
195
217
242
262
284
325
352
373

3.3
7.3
12.5
19.1
25.7
32.3
39.6
45.5
47.1
55.2
63.2
79.4
97.3
115
134
153
173
193
213
232
251
270
292
314

2.7
5.8
10.1
15.4
20.7
26
31.8
36.6
39.5
46.3
53
66.6
81.6
98.3
115
131
148
164
180
197
214
228
248
262

2.2
4.8
8.3
12.6
17
21.3
26.1
30
33.1
38.7
44.4
55.7
68.3
82.2
95.1
110
124
137
151
165
179
191
208
217

492
550
619
688
750
814
939
1030
1120
1220

420
470
534
596
650
697
813
894
975
1050

354
394
445
496
540
584
678
744
810
876

300
333
375
418
455
491
570
625
680
740

250
282
315
350
380
412
475
523
568
622

10

1.5
3.4
6.9
9
12.2
15.3
18.7
20.5
23.7
27.8
31.7
39.9
49.8
59.8
69
78.5
88.5
98.6
108
113
123
149
152
160

1
2.2
3.7
5.7
7.6
9.5
11.8
13.7
14.7
17.6
19.6
25.5
30.4
37.2
43.1
49
54.9
62.7
68.6
74.5
80.4
86.2
94.1
98

0.6
1.4
2.4
3.6
4.8
6.1
7.4
8.6
9.4
11
12.5
15.9
19.5
23.4
27.4
31.2
35.2
39.2
43
47
51
55.8
60.6
63.7

0.5
1.1
1.9
2.9
3.9
4.9
6
6.9
7.6
8.9
10.1
12.7
15.6
18.8
22
25.1
28.3
31.4
34.5
37.7
40.9
45.1
48.9
51.5

183
207
232
256
281
306
346
383
418
456

114
128
143
159
173
188
216
237
259
282

73.2
82.7
92.1
102
112
121
139
153
167
182

59.1
56.8
74.4
82.6
90.2
97.9
112
123
135
147

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

52

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPL RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.10V PER CELL
CELL

CAP

TYPE

AH

SECONDS
1

10

MINUTES
60

HOURS

10

30

60

90

10

KPL5P

8.3

6.9

5.6

4.6

4.4

3.8

3.2

2.6

2.1

1.5

0.5

0.5

KPL11P

11

18.4

15.2

12.3

10.1

9.6

8.4

6.9

5.6

4.6

3.4

2.1

1.3

1.1

KPL19P

19

31.7

26.3

21.3

17.5

16.1

13.5

11.5

9.5

5.8

3.7

2.3

1.9

KPL29P

29

48.4

40.2

32.5

26.7

25.3

22.2

18.3

14.8

12.2

8.9

5.6

3.5

2.8

KPL39P

39

65.1

53.8

43.6

36.3

35

30.4

24.5

19.9

16.4

12

7.5

4.8

3.8

KPL49P

49

82.6

68.1

55.1

47.3

45

39

31

25

20.6

15

9.5

5.9

4.8

KPL60P

60

97.4

81

66.6

57.3

54

46.5

37.5

30.6

25.2

18.4

11.6

7.3

5.9

KPL70P

70

111

93.3

76.6

61.9

58

50.6

41.7

35.2

29

21.2

13.5

8.4

6.8

KPL75P

75

128

106

81.2

64.2

60

52.5

43.8

36.1

30.4

22.3

14.5

9.3

7.4

KPL90P

90

147

119

94.7

71

66

58.8

50

42.3

35.6

26.7

17.4 10.9

8.7

KPL100P

100

166

135

106

82

75

66.9

57

48.5

40.8

30.8

19.3 12.4

10

KPL130P

130

202

166

130

99

92

83.1

71

60.8

51.2

38.4

25.1 15.5

12.5

KPL155P

155

240

199

158

117

110

101

87

74.6

62.8

47.1

29.9 19.2

15.4

KPL190

190

278

231

182

140

133

121

105

89.8

75.6

56.7

36.7 23.1

18.5

KPL220P

220

313

262

206

160

151

140

122

105

88.4

66.3

42.5

21.7

KPL250P

250

346

289

230

179

169

158

139

120

101

75.6

48.3 30.7

24.7

KPL280P

280

380

317

254

202

192

177

156

135

114

85.2

54.1 34.5

27.8

KPL320P

320

417

349

281

225

215

197

174

150

126

94.8

61.8 38.6

31

KPL350P

350

455

382

308

253

238

218

192

165

139

104

67.6 41.3

34

KPL380P

380

492

413

334

275

258

238

210

180

152

114

73.4 45.2

37.1

KPL410P

410

529

445

361

298

279

258

225

195

164

123

79.2 49.7

40.3

KPL440P

440

546

476

401

333

309

275

235

203

175

133

85

55.2

44.6

KPL480P

480

582

514

435

360

335

297

255

220

190

144

92.7

61

48.5

KPL500P

500

690

578

472

384

363

321

273

233

199

152

96.6 63.4

KPL580P

580

770

654

540

440

410

361

310

267

230

174

112

80

58.5

KPL655P

655

850

730

608

496

455

407

350

303

262

197

126

89

66.1

KPL730P

730

935

803

670

552

510

453

388

335

290

219

141

98

73.7

KPL810P

810

1020

876

732

608

565

506

430

370

320

243

156

109

81.8

KPL885P

885

1090

952

802

665

618

550

470

405

350

266

171

119

89.3

27

51

KPL960P

960

1160

1030

870

720

670

594

510

440

380

288

185

128

96.9

KPL1100P

1100

1400

1200

1000

828

765

680

582

503

435

338

212

149

111

KPL1210P

1210

1530

1310

1100

912

848

759

645

555

480

363

234

165

122

KPL1320P

1320

1640

1430

1200

990

927

825

705

608

525

395

255

179

133

KPL1440P

1440

1740

1540

1300

1080

1000

891

765

660

570

432

278

195

145

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

53

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPL RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.14V PER CELL
CELL

CAP

TYPE

AH

SECONDS
1

10

MINUTES
60

10

HOURS
30

60

90

10

KPL5P

6.9

5.8

4.6

3.7

3.3

2.8

2.3

1.7

1.3

0.9

0.6

KPL11P

11

15.2

12.8

10.2

8.2

7.2

6.2

5.1

4.3

3.7

2.9

1.3

0.5
1

KPL19P

19

26.3

22.1

17.6

14.2

12.5

10.7

8.8

7.4

6.3

5.2

3.4

2.2

1.8

KPL29P

29

40.2

33.7

25.9

21.7

19.1

16.3

13.4

11.3

9.7

7.6

5.2

3.4

2.7

KPL39P

39

53.1

44.4

36.7

29.8

25.9

21.7

18

15.2

13

10.2

4.5

3.6

KPL49P

49

67.2

56.5

46.4

38.6

33.7

27.8

22.7

19.2

16.3

12.8

8.7

5.7

4.6

KPL60P

60

80.7

67.5

54.7

46.5

40.6

33.6

27.5

23.5

20

15.7

10.7

5.6

KPL70P

70

92.6

78.2

63.8

50.6

44.1

35.4

29.3

25.1

23

18.3

12.5

6.5

KPL75P

75

107

85.7

66.7

52.7

45.9

36.3

30.2

27

23.2

19.4

13.4

8.8

7.1

KPL90P

90

123

98.1

77

58.8

51.2

38.9

32.9

29.4

27.1

22.7

16.1

10.3

8.3

KPL100P

100

139

111

87.5

66.9

58.2

44.2

37.7

33.7

31.1

25

17.8

11.8

9.5

KPL130P

130

170

136

108

82.8

72.3

55.1

47.4

42.2

39

32.5

23.2

14.8

12

KPL155P

155

200

163

129

100

88.1

66.7

58.1

51.8

47.9

40

27.7

18.2

14.7

KPL190

190

231

189

150

118

103

80.7

69.9

62.4

57.6

48.2

33.9

21.9

17.7

KPL220P

220

260

214

171

135

118

93

81.8

72.9

67.4

56.4

39.3

25.6

20.7

KPL250P

250

288

238

191

151

133

105

93.2

83.2

76.9

64.3

44.6

29.2

23.6

KPL280P

280

312

263

211

168

148

118

105

93.7

86.6

72.4

50

32.9

26.6

KPL320P

320

338

290

233

184

163

130

117

104

95.4

80.5

57.1

36.7

29.5

KPL350P

350

365

311

254

201

178

143

128

115

106

88.5

62.5

40.3

32.4

KPL380P

380

400

343

275

218

193

156

140

125

116

95.5

67.8

44

35.4

KPL410P

410

437

370

297

236

207

169

152

136

125

105

73.2

47.7

38.4

KPL440P

440

460

395

330

273

245

201

172

150

138

118

78.5

54.7

44.2

KPL480P

480

490

428

357

296

265

218

186

162

149

129

85.7

59.4

48

KPL500P

500

594

488

406

316

286

236

198

176

160

135

89.2

62.5

50.5

KPL580P

580

662

544

456

362

328

266

224

200

182

155

103

71.7

57.9

KPL655P

655

730

600

506

408

370

296

250

224

204

175

117

81

65.4

KPL730P

730

795

661

556

452

409

332

282

249

228

196

130

90.3

72.9

KPL810P

810

860

722

606

496

448

368

314

274

252

217

145

100

80.9

KPL885P

885

920

790

660

544

490

402

344

300

276

237

158

109

88.4

KPL960P

960

980

856

714

588

530

436

372

329

298

257

171

119

95.9

KPL1100P

1100

1190

992

834

678

609

501

426

372

342

295

196

136

110

KPL1210P

1210

1290

1080

909

744

672

552

471

411

378

324

216

150

121

KPL1320P

1320

1380

1180

990

815

735

603

516

450

414

354

236

163

132

KPL1440P

1440

1470

1280

1070

890

795

654

558

486

447

356

257

178

144

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

54

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPM RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.00V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP

SECONDS

AH

60

MINUTES

HOURS

10

15

30

60

90

KPM

11 P

11

40.5

28.7

24

21.1

18.9

14.9

9.3

6.6

5.1

3.5

2.2

1.4

KPM

18 P

18

69.1

49.4

39.2

34.6

31

24.3

15.3

10.8

8.4

5.8

3.6

2.2

KPM

25 P

25

101

71.5

55.2

48

43

33.8

21.3

15

11.7

8.1

3.2

KPM

32 P

32

125

89

69.8

61.4

55

43.2

27.2

19.2

15

10.3

6.4

4.1

KPM

39 P

39

149

106

82.8

73

65.4

51.3

32.3

22.8

17.8

12.3

7.8

4.8

KPM

45 P

45

174

124

98.1

86.4

77.4

60.8

38.3

27

21.1

14.5

5.9

KPM

55 P

55

199

142

116

102

91.2

71.6

45.1

31.8

24.9

17.1

11

6.7

KPM

60 P

60

229

164

129

113

101

79.7

50.2

35.4

27.7

19.1

12

7.5

KPM

80 P

80

270

204

166

154

141

112

70.6

50.2

38.9

26.8

16

10.5

KPM

100 P

100

325

248

202

187

172

136

85.9

61.1

47.4

32.5

20

12.8

KPM

120 P

120

377

290

236

218

201

159

100

71.4

55.3

38.1

24

15

KPM

145 P

145

457

340

276

254

239

189

120

87

68

46.8

29

18.4

KPM

165 P

165

507

390

320

292

276

217

139

100

78.3

53.9

33

21.2

KPM

190 P

190

556

440

359

331

312

246

157

113

88.6

61

38

24

KPM

210 P

210

594

475

401

369

348

274

175

127

99

68.2

42

26.8

KPM

230 P

230

679

533

441

406

383

302

193

139

109

74.9

46

29.5

KPM

250 P

250

741

590

483

445

419

330

211

152

119

82

50

32.3

KPM

275 P

275

801

635

524

483

455

359

229

166

129

89.1

55

35.1

KPM

300 P

300

843

675

566

522

492

387

247

179

140

96.3

60

37.8

KPM

320 P

320

890

720

606

558

526

415

265

191

150

103

64

40.5

KPM

340 P

340

935

755

648

597

563

443

283

205

160

110

68

43.3

KPM

360 P

360

1060

810

657

607

575

451

295

213

166

116

72

45.3

KPM

380 P

380

1110

853

703

650

616

483

315

228

178

124

76

48.5

KPM

410 P

410

1170

895

749

693

656

514

336

243

190

132

82

51.8

KPM

450 P

450

1450

1050

833

770

729

572

374

270

211

147

90

57.4

KPM

500 P

500

1570

1170

925

855

810

635

415

300

235

164

100

58.8

KPM

555 P

555

1700

1280

1030

949

899

705

461

333

260

181

111

70.8

KPM

600 P

600

1820

1390

1120

1030

980

768

502

363

284

198

120

77.1

KPM

655 P

655

1970

1500

1210

1120

1060

832

544

393

307

214

131

83.5

KPM

710 P

710

2120

1620

1310

1210

1150

902

589

426

333

232

142

90.5

KPM

760 P

760

2230

1700

1410

1300

1230

965

631

456

356

249

152

96.9

KPM

810 P

810

2350

1790

1500

1380

1310

1030

672

486

380

265

162

103

KPM

830 P

830

2550

1920

1540

1420

1350

1060

691

500

390

272

166

106

KPM

910 P

910

2730

2090

1680

1550

1470

1150

753

545

426

297

182

116

KPM

985 P

985

2950

2250

1820

1630

1590

1250

815

590

461

321

197

125

KPM

1060 P

1060

3180

2430

1970

1820

1720

1350

884

639

499

348

212

135

KPM

1140 P

1140

3350

2550

2110

1950

1850

1450

946

684

535

373

228

145

KPM

1220 P

1220

3520

2630

2250

2080

1970

1540

1010

729

570

397

244

156

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

55

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPM RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.05V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP

SECONDS

MINUTES

AH

60

10

15

30

HOURS
60

90

KPM

11 P

11

35.2

24.4

19.5

16.8

15.6

13

8.6

6.3

3.5

2.2

1.2

KPM

18 P

18

61

41.6

31.9

27.5

25.6

21.2

14.2

10.4

8.2

5.7

3.6

2.2

KPM

25 P

25

87

60

45

38.3

35.5

29.5

19.8

14.5

11.5

7.9

3.1

KPM

32 P

32

108

75

56.6

49

45.4

37.8

25.3

18.6

14.7

10.1

6.3

KPM

39 P

39

128

89

67.3

58.1

54

44.8

30

22

17.4

12

7.7

4.7

KPM

45 P

45

149

104

79.7

68.9

63.9

53.1

35.6

26.1

20.7

14.4

8.9

5.8

KPM

55 P

55

170

120

93.8

81.1

75.3

62.5

41.9

30.7

24.3

16.8

10.9

6.7

KPM

60 P

60

195

134

104

90.3

83.8

69.6

46.6

34.2

27.1

19

11.9

7.4

KPM

80 P

80

233

171

141

127

118

97.9

65.6

48.1

33.1

26.3

15.8

10.4

KPM

100 P

100

278

210

172

155

143

119

79.8

58.6

45.4

32

19.8

12.7

KPM

120 P

120

322

245

201

181

168

139

93.2

68.4

54.2

37.4

23.8

14.8

KPM

145 P

145

392

294

236

218

202

168

115

84.1

56.6

45.9

28.7

18.2

KPM

165 P

165

438

327

272

251

232

194

132

96.9

76.7

52.9

32.7

21

KPM

190 P

190

476

364

308

284

263

219

149

110

86.8

59.8

37.6

23.8

KPM

210 P

210

515

393

344

317

293

245

167

122

96.5

67

41.6

26.5

KPM

230 P

230

587

450

378

348

322

269

183

135

106

73.4

45.5

29.2

KPM

250 P

250

643

492

414

381

353

295

201

147

117

80.4

49.5

31.9

KPM

275 P

275

694

531

450

414

384

320

218

160

127

87.4

54.5

34.7

KPM

300 P

300

728

563

486

447

414

346

235

173

137

94.3

59.4

37.5

KPM

320 P

320

765

595

520

479

443

370

252

185

146

101

63.4

40.1

KPM

340 P

340

801

625

556

512

474

396

269

198

157

108

67.3

42.9

KPM

360 P

360

931

690

565

522

483

408

280

206

162

112

71.3

44.8

KPM

380 P

380

971

723

595

559

517

437

300

220

174

120

75.2

48

KPM

410 P

410

1010

755

625

595

551

466

320

235

185

128

81.2

51.2

KPM

450 P

450

1260

903

700

662

612

518

356

261

206

142

89.1

56.8

KPM

500 P

500

1370

1000

778

735

680

575

395

290

228

158

99

63.1

KPM

555 P

555

1480

1100

873

816

755

638

438

322

254

175

110

70.1

KPM

600 P

600

1600

1200

968

889

823

696

478

351

276

191

119

76.4

KPM

655 P

655

1730

1290

1040

963

891

753

517

380

299

207

130

82.7

KPM

710 P

710

1860

1380

1130

1040

956

817

561

412

324

224

141

89.6

KPM

760 P

760

1940

1440

1190

1120

1030

874

600

441

347

240

150

95.9

KPM

810 P

810

2020

1510

1250

1190

1100

932

640

470

3B0

256

160

102

KPM

830 P

830

2230

1650

1310

1220

1130

957

658

483

380

263

164

105

KPM

910 P

910

2400

1800

1450

1330

1230

1040

717

526

415

287

180

115

KPM

985 P

985

2590

1930

1560

1440

1340

1130

776

570

449

311

195

124

KPM

1060 P 1060

2790

2070

1690

1570

1450

1220

841

618

486

337

210

134

KPM

1140 P 1140

2910

2160

1780

1680

1550

1310

901

661

531

360

225

144

KPM

1220 P 1220

3030

2260

1870

1790

1650

1400

960

705

555

384

242

154

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

56

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPM RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.10V PER CELL

CELL TYPE

CAP
AH

SECONDS

MINUTES

60

10

HOURS
15

30

60

90

KPM

11 P

11

29.5

20.1

15.8

14

12.8

11

4.7

3.3

2.1

1.3

KPM

18 P

18

52.5

34.1

27

22.9

20.9

18

13.1

9.9

7.8

5.5

3.5

2.2

KPM

25 P

25

73.6

50.2

38

32.3

29

25

18.3

13.8

10.9

7.6

4.9

3.1

KPM

32 P

32

91.2

63.7

48.5

40.6

37.1

32

23.4

17.6

13.9

9.8

6.2

3.9

KPM

39 P

39

107

76

58.5

48.3

44.1

38

27.7

20.9

16.5

11.7

7.6

4.7

KPM

45 P

45

125

87.3

68.2

57.2

52.2

45

32.9

24.8

19.6

13.8

8.7

5.7

KPM

55 P

55

142

98.5

77.9

67.3

61.5

53

38.7

29.2

23.1

16.3

10.7

6.6

KPM

60 P

60

161

111

88

75.5

68.4

59

43.1

32.5

25.7

14.1

11.6

7.3

KPM

80 P

80

196

142

113

99.6

94.6

83

60.6

45.7

36.1

25.5

15.5

10.3

KPM

100 P

100

232

174

137

123

115

101

73.7

55.6

43.9

31

19.4

12.6

KPM

120 P

120

270

204

161

142

135

118

86.1

64.9

51.3

36.2

23.3

14.7

KPM

145 P

145

326

246

195

165

157

138

103

79.8

63.1

44.5

28.1

18

KPM

165 P

165

370

272

220

190

180

159

119

91.9

72.6

51.2

32

20.8

KPM

190 P

190

400

305

245

215

204

180

134

104

82.2

58

36.9

23.5

KPM

210 P

210

428

330

268

241

228

200

150

116

91.8

64.7

40.8

26.3

KPM

230 P

230

501

378

298

264

251

220

165

128

101

71.2

44.6

28.9

KPM

250 P

250

546

413

326

290

274

241

180

140

110

77.9

48.5

31.6

KPM

275 P

275

589

446

352

315

298

262

196

152

120

84.7

53.4

34.4

KPM

300 P

300

615

468

382

340

322

283

212

164

130

91.4

58.2

37.1

KPM

320 P

320

640

500

408

364

345

303

226

175

139

97.9

62.1

39.7

KPM

340 P

340

664

518

437

389

368

324

242

188

148

105

66

42.4

KPM

360 P

360

770

572

461

405

375

330

249

192

154

109

69.9

44.4

KPM

380 P

380

806

599

485

426

393

345

266

205

165

116

73.7

47.5

KPM

410 P

410

841

625

505

446

410

364

284

219

176

124

79.6

50.7

KPM

450 P

450

1080

750

562

490

444

390

315

243

196

138

87.3

56.2

KPM

500 P

500

1170

836

638

560

506

450

350

270

218

153

97

62.5

KPM

555 P

555

1270

922

714

630

573

505

389

300

241

170

108

69.3

KPM

600 P

600

1360

1000

790

690

635

560

424

327

263

185

116

75.6

KPM

655 P

655

1450

1070

856

745

695

610

459

354

285

200

127

81.8

KPM

710 P

710

1540

1140

922

810

750

660

497

383

309

217

138

88.7

KPM

760 P

760

1610

1190

969

851

785

690

532

410

331

233

147

95

KPM

810 P

810

1680

1250

1010

892

820

728

567

437

352

248

157

101

KPM

830 P

830

1900

1380

1070

945

860

758

583

450

362

255

161

104

KPM

910 P

910

2040

1510

1180

1030

953

840

635

490

395

278

177

114

KPM

985 P

985

2170

1610

1280

1120

1040

915

688

531

427

301

191

123

KPM

1060 P

1060

2310

1710

1380

1210

1120

990

746

575

463

325

206

132

KPM

1140 P

1140

2410

1790

1450

1280

1180

1030

798

616

496

349

221

142

KPM

1220 P

1220

2520

1870

1510

1340

1230

1090

851

656

529

372

237

152

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

57

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPM RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.14V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP
AH

SECONDS

MINUTES

60

10

15

30

HOURS
60

90

KPM

11 P

11

25.2

16.9

13.2

11.3

10.5

8.4

6.4

5.1

4.2

3.2

2.1

1.3

KPM

18 P

18

45.4

28.7

22.4

19.2

17.1

13.9

10.6

8.4

5.5

3.4

2.1

KPM

25 P

25

63

42.2

33

27

23.8

19.3

14.8

11.8

9.7

7.2

4.7

KPM

32 P

32

78

54

41.3

34.4

30.4

24.6

18.9

15

12.5

9.3

3.8

KPM

39 P

39

90.1

64.5

49.3

41.5

36.1

29.3

22.4

17.9

14.8

11

7.3

4.5

KPM

45 P

45

105

73.7

57

48.4

42.8

34.7

26.6

21.2

17.5

13.1

8.5

5.5

KPM

55 P

55

119

82.8

64.7

55.3

50.4

40.8

31.3

24.9

20.6

15.4

10.3

6.4

KPM

60 P

60

132

92

73.5

63

56.1

45.4

34.8

27.7

23

17.2

11.3

7.1

KPM

80 P

80

166

118

93.3

83

74.7

63.9

49

39

32.3

24.1

15

10

KPM

100 P

100

197

145

114

101

90.9

77.8

59.6

47.5

39.3

29.4

18.8

12.2

KPM

120 P

120

228

172

134

116

106

90.9

69.6

55.5

45.9

34.3

22.6

14.2

KPM

145 P

145

275

210

163

142

130

110

85.6

68.2

56.4

42.2

27.3

17.5

KPM

165 P

165

314

231

183

160

148

127

98.5

78.5

65

48.5

31

20.1

KPM

190 P

190

339

260

203

179

166

144

112

88.8

73.6

54.9

35.7

22.8

KPM

210 P

210

363

280

221

196

186

160

124

99.2

82.1

61.3

39.5

25.5

KPM

230 P

230

426

321

246

218

204

176

137

109

90.3

67.4

43.3

28

KPM

250 P

250

462

350

268

237

224

193

150

119

98.9

73.8

47

30.6

KPM

275 P

275

500

379

290

255

241

210

163

130

107

80.2

51.7

33.3

KPM

300 P

300

523

396

314

277

262

226

176

140

116

86.6

56.4

36

KPM

320 P

320

538

423

335

297

281

242

188

150

124

92.7

60.2

38.5

KPM

340 P

340

552

436

359

321

300

259

201

160

133

99.1

64

41.1

KPM

360 P

360

655

482

370

332

306

264

208

167

138

101

67.7

43.9

KPM

380 P

380

682

501

389

349

321

277

221

179

148

108

71.5

47

KPM

410 P

410

708

519

408

366

339

297

234

190

158

115

77.1

50.2

KPM

450 P

450

943

629

472

404

365

320

263

212

176

128

84.7

55.7

KPM

500 P

500

1020

704

530

460

414

360

292

235

195

142

94.1

61.3

KPM

555 P

555

1090

779

588

516

467

410

321

261

216

158

104

63.6

KPM

600 P

600

1170

854

646

572

520

445

355

284

235

172

113

74.5

KPM

655 P

655

1240

909

693

618

566

485

383

308

255

186

123

81

KPM

710 P

710

1310

964

740

664

612

527

416

334

277

202

134

87.3

KPM

760 P

760

1360

1000

778

698

650

567

442

357

296

216

143

94

KPM

810 P

810

1410

1040

816

722

672

594

468

381

316

230

152

100

KPM

830 P

830

1640

1160

882

774

701

607

482

391

324

236

156

103

KPM

910 P

910

1760

1280

969

858

780

670

530

427

355

258

171

113

KPM

985 P

985

1860

1360

1040

927

849

735

575

462

384

280

185

122

KPM

1060 P

1060

1960

1440

1110

996

918

790

624

501

413

301

199

131

KPM

1140 P

1140

2040

1500

1160

1040

963

840

663

536

445

324

214

141

KPM

1220 P

1220

2120

1550

1220

1090

1020

891

702

571

476

346

229

151

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

58

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPH RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 0.65V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP (Ah)

SECONDS
1

10

30

60

90

KPH

11 P

11

187

173

161

140

124

112

KPH

14 P

14

254

235

218

190

169

153

KPH

18 P

18

321

296

276

240

214

193

KPH

22 P

22

404

373

347

302

269

243

KPH

26 P

26

470

434

404

352

314

283

KPH

34 P

34

601

554

516

450

401

353

KPH

38 P

38

665

613

571

499

445

403

KPH

46 P

46

810

746

695

608

543

492

KPH

50 P

50

889

819

763

668

596

540

KPH

60 P

60

1010

934

870

763

682

613

KPH

65 P

65

1150

1060

989

869

777

705

KPH

85 P

85

1440

1320

1230

1090

975

888

KPH

95 P

95

1570

1440

1350

1190

1060

971

KPH

100 P

100

1700

1560

1460

1290

1160

1050

KPH

110 P

110

1830

1680

1570

1390

1250

1140

KPH

130 P

130

2100

1920

1790

1590

1430

1310

KPH

140 P

140

2220

2030

1900

1690

1520

1390

KPH

150 P

150

2360

2160

2020

1800

1620

1490

KPH

170 P

170

2660

2430

2270

2030

1840

1690

KPH

190 P

190

2930

2670

2510

2250

2040

1880

KPH

210 P

210

3200

2910

2740

2470

2240

2070

KPH

245 P

245

3580

3240

3050

2780

2530

2340

KPH

255 P

255

3700

3350

3160

2860

2630

2440

KPH

265 P

265

3820

3450

3250

2970

2720

2520

KPH

290 P

290

2630

2610

2590

2520

2430

2340

KPH

320 P

320

2880

2860

2840

2770

2660

2550

KPH

355 P

355

3220

3200

3180

3100

2980

2880

KPH

410 P

410

3730

3710

3680

3580

3450

3330

KPH

470 P

470

4240

4210

4180

4070

3920

3780

KPH

525 P

525

4760

4720

4690

4570

4400

4240

KPH

580 P

580

5250

5220

5180

5050

4850

4672

KPH

635 P

635

5750

5710

5670

5520

5320

5140

KPH

700 P

700

6340

6300

6250

6090

5870

5660

KPH

785 P

785

7110

7060

7010

6830

6580

6350

KPH

870 P

870

7880

7830

7770

7570

7290

7030

KPH

955 P

955

8650

8590

8530

8310

8000

7700

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

59

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPH RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 0.85V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP (Ah)

SECONDS
1

10

30

60

90

KPH

11 P

11

135

124

116

101

91.3

84.7

KPH

14 P

14

184

169

157

138

124

115

KPH

18 P

18

232

213

198

174

157

146

KPH

22 P

22

292

268

250

219

197

183

KPH

26 P

26

340

312

290

255

230

213

KPH

34 P

34

435

399

371

326

294

273

KPH

38 P

38

482

442

411

361

326

302

KPH

46 P

46

586

537

500

439

396

368

KPH

50 P

50

643

590

549

482

435

404

KPH

60 P

60

734

672

626

550

497

461

KPH

65 P

65

835

764

712

626

566

525

KPH

85 P

85

1040

954

889

783

708

656

KPH

95 P

95

1140

1040

971

856

773

717

KPH

100 P

100

1230

1120

1050

928

838

777

KPH

110 P

110

1330

1210

1130

998

902

837

KPH

130 P

130

1520

1380

1290

1140

1030

959

KPH

140 P

140

1610

1460

1370

1210

1090

1010

KPH

150 P

150

1710

1560

1460

1290

1160

1080

KPH

170 P

170

1930

1750

1640

1450

1310

1220

KPH

190 P

190

2130

1930

1810

1600

1450

1340

KPH

210 P

210

2320

2100

1970

1760

1590

1470

KPH

245 P

245

2600

2340

2210

1970

1780

1650

KPH

255 P

255

2690

2420

2280

2040

1850

1710

KPH

265 P

265

2770

2500

2350

2100

1910

1770

KPH

290 P

290

1930

1920

1900

1840

1760

1690

KPH

320 P

320

2120

2100

2090

2020

1930

1850

KPH

355 P

355

2400

2380

2360

2290

2190

2090

KPH

410 P

410

2770

2750

2730

2640

2530

2420

KPH

470 P

470

3150

3120

3100

3000

2870

2750

KPH

525 P

525

3520

3490

3470

3350

3210

3070

KPH

580 P

580

3900

3870

3830

3710

3560

3400

KPH

635 P

635

4270

4240

4200

4070

3900

3730

KPH

700 P

700

4740

4700

4660

4510

4320

4140

KPH

785 P

785

5300

5260

5220

5050

4840

4630

KPH

870 P

870

5860

5820

5770

5580

5350

5120

KPH

955 P

955

6420

6370

6320

6120

5860

5610

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

60

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPH RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.00V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP
AH

SECONDS
1

MINUTES

30

60

10

HOURS

15

30

60

90

KPH

11 P

11

99.9

88

71.5

65.5

53.2

46

34

27

16.8

9.5

6.6

3.5

2.2

KPH

14 P

14

136

120

97.2

89

71.8

62.5

46.3

36.2

21.8

12

8.4

4.5

2.8

KPH

18 P

18

171

151

123

112

90.7

79

58.5

45.8

27.6

15.5

10.8

5.8

3.6

KPH

22 P

22

215

190

154

141

114

99.5

73.7

57.8

34.8

18.9

13.2

4.4

KPH

26 P

26

250

221

180

164

133

116

85.8

67.5

40.6

22.4

15.6

8.3

5.2

KPH

34 P

34

319

282

229

210

170

148

110

86.8

52.2

29.2

20.4

10.9

6.8

KPH

38 P

38

353

312

254

232

188

164

122

96.4

58

32.7

22.8

12.2

7.6

KPH

46 P

46

429

379

309

282

229

200

149

118

71.1

39.6

27.6

14.7

9.2

KPH

50 P

50

471

415

339

310

251

219

164

130

78.3

43

30

16

10

KPH

60 P

60

536

473

387

353

287

249

185

144

88.7

49.9

34.8

18.6

12

KPH

65 P

65

609

537

439

401

327

283

210

165

102

57.6

40.2

21.4

13

KPH

85 P

85

757

669

548

500

408

357

268

210

129

73.1

51

27.2

17

KPH

95 P

95

825

729

598

546

446

390

293

231

142

80

55.8

29.8

19

KPH

100 P

100

892

788

648

591

483

423

319

252

154

87.7

61.2

32.6

20

KPH

110 P

110

958

846

696

635

520

456

344

273

167

95.5

66.6

35.5

22

KPH

130 P

130

1090

965

796

725

596

523

396

317

194

110

76.8

41

26

KPH

140 P

140

1150

1020

842

767

631

554

420

338

207

118

82.2

43.8

28

KPH

150 P

150

1220

1080

897

817

673

588

445

356

222

126

88.2

47

30

KPH

170 P

170

1370

1210

1010

917

759

667

510

408

254

144

101

53.8

34

KPH

190 P

190

1500

1330

1110

1010

838

737

566

453

285

163

114

60.8

38

KPH

210 P

210

1630

1440

1210

1100

916

807

623

497

318

181

127

67.5

42

KPH

245 P

245

1800

1600

1340

1220

1020

906

705

573

366

210

146

78.1

49

KPH

255 P

255

1860

1650

1390

1260

1060

940

733

599

383

218

152

81.3

51

KPH

265 P

265

1910

1700

1430

1300

1090

969

759

624

399

228

159

84.8

53

KPH

290 P

290

1420

1410

1330

1260

1070

991

824

695

450

258

180

95.1

58

KPH

320 P

320

1560

1550

1460

1380

1180

1090

905

764

493

283

197

104

64

KPH

355 P

355

1770

1750

1660

1560

1330

1230

1030

866

552

317

221

117

71

KPH

410 P

410

2040

2020

1910

1800

1540

1430

1190

1000

639

367

255

135

82

KPH

470 P

470

2320

2300

2170

2050

1750

1620

1350

1140

725

417

290

154

94

KPH

525 P

525

2590

2570

2430

2290

1960

1820

1510

1280

814

467

326

172

105

KPH

580 P

580

2870

2840

2690

2530

2170

2010

1670

1410

899

516

360

190

116

KPH

635 P

635

3140

3120

2950

2780

2380

2210

1840

1550

984

565

394

208

127

KPH

700 P

700

3490

3460

3270

3080

2640

2450

2040

1720

1080

623

434

230

140

KPH

785 P

785

3900

3870

3660

3450

2950

2730

2270

1910

1220

699

487

257

157

KPH

870 P

870

4320

4280

4050

3810

3250

3020

2510

2120

1350

774

539

285

174

KPH

955 P

955

4730

4690

4430

4180

3580

3310

2750

2330

1480

850

592

313

191

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

61

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPH RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.05V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP

SECONDS

MINUTES

HOURS

AH

30

60

10

15

30

60

90

KPH

11 P

11

85.7

74.8

61.6

55.8

45.1

39.5

30.5

24.9

15.8

9.1

6.4

3.5

2.2

KPH

14 P

14

116

102

68.7

75.8

61.3

53.5

39.9

31.8

20.2

11.6

8.2

4.4

2.8

KPH

18 P

18

147

128

106

95.7

77.5

67.5

51.2

40.9

25.9

14.9

10.5

5.7

3.6

KPH

22 P

22

185

161

133

120

97.5

83.7

62.4

49.9

31.7

18.3

12.9

5.9

4.4

KPH

26 P

26

215

188

155

140

113

98.6

73.7

59

37.4

21.6

15.2

6.2

5.1

KPH

34 P

34

274

240

198

179

145

126

96

77.2

49

28.2

19.9

10.7

6.7

KPH

38 P

38

303

265

219

198

161

140

107

86.3

54.7

31.5

22.2

12

7.5

KPH

46 P

46

369

323

266

241

196

170

129

104

66.2

38.2

26.9

14.5

9.1

KPH

50 P

50

404

354

292

264

215

187

140

114

72

41.5

29.3

15.8

9.9

KPH

60 P

60

461

404

333

310

245

213

160

129

81.8

48.1

33.9

18.3

11.9

KPH

65 P

65

523

459

379

343

279

243

183

148

94.5

55.6

39.2

21.1

12.9

KPH

85 P

85

651

572

472

427

349

305

232

187

120

70.6

49.7

26.8

16.8

KPH

95 P

95

710

624

516

466

382

337

257

207

131

77.2

54.4

29.3

18.8

KPH

100 P

100

768

675

558

505

414

363

278

226

144

84.7

59.7

32.1

19.8

KPH

110 P

110

825

725

600

543

445

393

304

247

157

92.1

64.9

35

21.8

KPH

130 P

130

940

828

686

620

510

453

348

284

180

106

74.9

40.3

25.7

KPH

140 P

140

994

876

726

656

541

481

371

303

193

114

80.1

43.2

27.7

KPH

150 P

150

1050

933

773

699

577

507

390

318

204

122

86

46.3

29.7

KPH

170 P

170

1180

1040

869

785

650

575

443

360

234

133

98.3

52.9

33.7

KPH

190 P

190

1300

1150

956

863

718

637

497

404

264

158

111

59.9

37.6

KPH

210 P

210

1410

1250

1040

941

786

695

540

445

293

175

123

66.5

41.6

KPH

245 P

245

1560

1390

1160

1050

881

788

628

520

339

203

143

76.9

48.5

KPH

255 P

255

1610

1440

1200

1080

913

817

655

541

353

211

149

80

50.5

KPH

265 P

265

1660

1480

1230

1110

941

845

677

562

368

220

155

83.5

52.5

KPH

290 P

290

1270

1260

1170

1090

921

848

720

631

431

252

177

94

57.4

KPH

320 P

320

1400

1380

1290

1200

1010

931

791

693

472

277

194

103

63.4

KPH

355 P

355

1580

1560

1450

1350

1150

1060

897

787

529

310

217

115

70.3

KPH

410 P

410

1830

1810

1680

1560

1330

1220

1040

911

612

358

251

133

81.2

KPH

470 P

470

2080

2050

1910

1770

1510

1390

1180

1030

695

407

285

152

93.1

KPH

525 P

525

2320

2300

2130

1980

1691

1560

1320

1160

780

457

320

170

104

KPH

580 P

580

2570

2540

2360

2190

1872

1720

1460

1280

861

505

354

188

115

KPH

635 P

635

2820

2780

2590

2400

2054

1890

1600

1410

943

552

387

206

126

KPH

700 P

700

3130

3090

2870

2670

2280

2100

1780

1560

1040

589

427

227

139

KPH

785 P

785

3500

3460

3210

2980

2540

2330

1980

1740

1170

683

479

254

155

KPH

870 P

870

3870

3820

3550

3300

2810

2580

2190

1920

1290

757

531

282

172

KPH

955 P

955

4240

4190

3890

3620

3080

2840

2410

2110

1420

831

583

309

189

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

62

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPH RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.10V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP
AH

SECONDS

MINUTES

HOURS

30

60

10

15

30

60

90

KPH

11 P

11

71

62.7

51.7

45.7

36.3

32.1

25.5

21.5

14.3

8.7

6.2

3.4

2.2

KPH

14 P

14

96.5

85.2

70.3

62.1

49.5

43.5

34.2

28.2

18.5

11.1

7.9

4.4

2.7

KPH

18 P

18

122

108

88.7

78.4

63

55.7

43.9

36.3

23.8

14.2

10.2

5.6

3.5

KPH

22 P

22

153

135

112

98.6

79.2

69.6

53.7

44.3

29

17.4

12.4

6.9

4.3

KPH

26 P

26

178

157

130

115

92.4

81.2

63.4

52.4

34.3

20.5

14.7

8.1

5.1

KPH

34 P

34

228

201

166

147

119

105

83

68.5

44.9

26.9

19.2

10.6

6.7

KPH

38 P

38

252

223

184

162

132

117

93

76.6

50.2

30

21.5

11.9

7.5

KPH

46 P

46

307

271

223

198

162

142

112

92.7

60.7

36.3

26

14.4

KPH

50 P

50

337

297

245

217

178

157

122

101

66

39.5

28.3

15.6

9.8

KPH

60 P

60

384

339

280

248

193

169

135

113

76

45.8

32.8

18.1

11.8

KPH

65 P

65

437

386

318

282

220

194

155

131

87.8

52.9

37.9

20.9

12.7

KPH

85 P

85

545

481

397

352

280

248

197

166

111

67.2

48

26.5

16.7

KPH

95 P

95

595

526

433

384

306

270

216

181

122

73.5

52.5

29

18.6

KPH

100 P

100

644

569

469

416

332

295

237

199

134

80.6

57.6

31.8

19.6

KPH

110 P

110

693

612

504

447

361

320

258

216

145

87.7

62.7

34.6

21.6

KPH

130 P

130

792

700

576

512

415

370

297

250

168

101

72.3

39.9

25.5

KPH

140 P

140

838

740

610

542

442

395

318

267

179

108

77.4

42.7

27.5

KPH

150 P

150

893

789

649

578

445

395

320

273

187

116

83.1

45.9

29.4

KPH

170 P

170

1000

887

730

650

501

448

366

312

213

133

94.9

52.4

33.3

KPH

190 P

190

1100

976

803

717

563

503

414

353

241

150

107

59.3

37.3

KPH

210 P

210

1200

1060

876

783

627

560

460

392

268

167

119

65.8

41.2

KPH

245 P

245

1340

1180

977

875

722

645

532

454

310

193

138

76.1

48

KPH

255 P

255

1390

1230

1010

906

756

675

554

472

323

201

144

79.2

50

KPH

265 P

265

1430

1260

1040

933

787

703

578

493

337

209

150

82.7

52

KPH

290 P

290

1130

1120

1020

921

747

699

624

560

406

247

175

93.7

56.9

KPH

320 P

320

1240

1230

1110

1010

821

766

684

614

445

270

192

103

62.7

KPH

355 P

355

1410

1390

1260

1150

931

858

765

687

498

303

215

115

69.6

KPH

410 P

410

1630

1610

1460

1330

1080

993

886

795

577

350

249

133

80.4

KPH

470 P

470

1850

1820

1660

1510

1220

1130

1010

903

655

398

283

151

92.2

KPH

525 P

525

2070

2040

1850

1690

1370

1260

1130

1010

735

446

318

170

103

KPH

580 P

580

2290

2260

2050

1870

1510

1400

1250

1120

812

493

351

187

114

KPH

635 P

635

2510

2470

2250

2040

1660

1530

1360

1230

889

540

384

205

125

KPH

700 P

700

2780

2740

2500

2270

1840

1690

1500

1350

980

595

424

226

137

KPH

785 P

785

3110

3070

2790

2540

2060

1890

1690

1510

1100

667

475

254

154

KPH

870 P

870

3440

3390

3090

2810

2280

2100

1870

1680

1220

740

526

281

171

KPH

955 P

955

3770

3720

3380

3080

2490

2300

2050

1840

1340

812

578

308

187

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

63

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

KPH RANGE
TYPICAL CELL PERFORMANCE DATA ( 20o C + 5o C )
Discharge data is for full charged cells after 1 hour open circuit and allowing for voltage losses associated with connectors.
AMPERES ON DISCHARGE TO 1.14V PER CELL
CELL TYPE

CAP
AH

SECONDS

MINUTES

HOURS

30

60

10

15

30

60

90

KPH

11 P

11

59.4

52.3

42.9

37.4

28.6

24.8

19.8

17.1

12.3

5.9

3.4

2.1

KPH

14 P

14

80.8

71

58.3

50.9

39

33.8

27

22.8

15.7

10.2

7.6

4.3

2.7

KPH

18 P

18

102

89.7

73.6

64.3

49.4

42.8

34.2

29.3

20.2

13.1

9.7

5.5

3.5

KPH

22 P

22

128

113

92.7

80.9

62.4

54

43.2

35.9

24.6

16

11.9

6.7

4.3

KPH

26 P

26

149

131

108

94.1

72.8

63

50.4

32.4

29.1

18.9

14

7.9

KPH

34 P

34

191

168

138

120

93.6

81

64.8

55.4

38.1

24.7

18.4

10.4

6.6

KPH

38 P

38

212

186

153

133

104

90

72

61.9

42.6

27.6

20.5

11.6

7.4

KPH

46 P

46

258

226

186

162

127

110

88.2

75

51.5

33.4

24.8

14

8.9

KPH

50 P

50

283

249

204

178

140

122

97.2

81.5

56

36.3

27

15.3

9.7

KPH

60 P

60

323

284

232

204

154

135

105

88.2

63.8

42.1

31.3

17.7

11.7

KPH

65 P

65

368

323

264

232

177

154

121

102

73.7

48.6

36.2

20.4

12.6

KPH

85 P

85

460

403

330

290

224

195

153

129

93.5

61.6

45.9

25.9

16.5

KPH

95 P

95

503

441

360

317

247

215

168

141

102

67.4

50.2

28.4

18.4

KPH

100 P

100

546

477

390

344

269

234

194

155

112

74

55.1

31.1

19.4

KPH

110 P

110

587

513

420

370

291

254

199

169

122

80.5

59.9

33.9

21.4

KPH

130 P

130

673

588

480

425

339

295

231

195

141

92.8

69.1

39

25.2

KPH

140 P

140

713

623

508

450

361

315

247

208

151

99.3

74

41.8

27.2

KPH

150 P

150

761

664

541

480

367

323

261

222

162

107

79.4

44.8

29.1

KPH

170 P

170

859

748

609

542

421

368

299

254

185

122

90.7

51.2

33

KPH

190 P

190

948

825

671

599

472

416

336

287

209

138

103

58

36.9

KPH

210 P

210

1040

901

732

656

526

464

374

319

232

153

114

64.4

40.8

KPH

245 P

245

1160

1010

817

736

606

534

431

368

268

177

132

74.4

47.5

KPH

255 P

255

1200

1040

846

763

635

559

451

384

279

184

137

77.5

49.5

KPH

265 P

265

1240

1070

871

787

660

582

469

400

292

192

143

80.8

51.5

KPH

290 P

290

1020

1000

854

772

650

576

473

427

334

226

169

92.8

56.3

KPH

320 P

320

1120

1090

938

848

714

633

519

469

366

248

185

102

62.1

KPH

355 P

355

1270

1240

1060

961

809

718

589

532

409

278

208

114

68.9

KPH

410 P

410

1460

1430

1230

1110

937

832

682

616

474

321

240

132

79.6

KPH

470 P

470

1660

1630

1400

1260

1060

945

775

700

538

365

273

150

91.3

KPH

525 P

525

1860

1820

1570

1420

1190

1060

868

784

604

410

306

168

102

KPH

580 P

580

2060

2010

1740

1570

1320

1170

961

868

667

452

338

186

113

KPH

635 P

635

2260

2210

1900

1720

1450

1280

1050

952

730

495

370

203

123

KPH

700 P

700

2500

2450

2110

1910

1610

1430

1170

1060

805

546

408

224

136

KPH

785 P

785

2800

2740

2350

2120

1790

1590

1300

1180

903

612

458

251

152

KPH

870 P

870

3100

3030

2600

2350

1980

1760

1440

1300

1000

679

507

278

169

KPH

955 P

955

3390

3320

2860

2580

2170

1930

1580

1430

1100

745

557

306

185

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1
SHEET

64

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

TYPICAL TEMPERATURE DERATING CURVES FOR L-TYPE CELLS

FOR GRAPH PLEASE REFER TO THE HARD COPY

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1
SHEET

65

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

TYPICAL TEMPERATURE DERATING CURVES FOR M-TYPE CELLS

FOR GRAPH PLEASE REFER TO THE HARD COPY

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-1
SHEET

66

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

TYPICAL TEMPERATURE DERATING CURVES FORH-TYPE CELLS

FOR GRAPH PLEASE REFER TO THE HARD COPY

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
SHEET 67

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

APPENDIX-2
SAMPLE CELL SIZING CALCULATION
1.0

The same load profile as in part A of this Design Guide is


considered. The discharge currents and durations are :

2.0

Since the battery backup is required for more than 4 hours, the low
rate discharge type (L) cell is to be considered. As per catalog of
Sabnife they do not have any cell which delivers 983 A for one minute
in the KPL type of cells. Hence KPM type cell is considered.

3.0

For temperature derating factors and the discharge data for


calculating the capacity rating factors, the data of M/s SABNIFE (for
KPM type) included in Appendix-1 is considered.

4.0

The end cell voltage selected is 1.16 volts (Ref. item 6.4 of Part B
in this Design guide).

5.0

Min. expected electrolyte temperature is 17C (Ref. Part A of this


Design guide). The temperature derating factors corresponding to the
above temp. applicable for KPM type cells and as read from the
curves included in Appendix-1 are
1 min = 0.96
1 hour = 0.97
2 hours/1 hr. 59 min = 0.98
8-10 hrs = 1.0
Hence the load currents as referred to the rated temperature of 25C
are
983
359
I1 = --------- = 1024A, I2= ------ = 370A
0.96
0.97
127
I3 = ------- = 131A,
0.97

13
I4 = ------ = 13A
1.0

6.0

The published discharge data from manufacturers does not indicate


discharge ratings at the required end cell voltage of 1.16 volts. Hence
these need to be extrapolated from the data available.

6.1

As per catalog of Sabnife they do not have any cell which delivers
ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
SHEET 68

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

1024 A for one minute in the KPL type of cells. Hence select KPM
type. Consider cell KPM 830P : Rated discharge current of KPM830P
cell at 1 min is 1160A at an end cell voltage of 1.14 volts.
6.2

The extrapolated discharge data for KPM 830P cell comes to,
1 Min.
1 hr.
2 hrs.
8 hrs.
9 hrs.
10 hrs.

7.0

1050A
431.5A
305A
102.5A
91.1A(by interpolation)
82A

The performance factors (KT) are,


1 Min.
1 hr.
2 hrs.
8 hrs.
9 hrs.
10 hrs.

8.0

830/1050
830/431.5
830/305
830/102.5
830/91.1
830/82

=0.79
= 1.923
=2.721
= 8.097
= 9.109
=10.122

The cell sizing worksheet is filled up using the above data and the
required cell size is 898 AH. determined as enclosed.

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-2

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET 69

DC SYSTEM

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

Project :

Date :

Lowest Expected
Electrolyte Temp : 17oC

(1)

Per
-iod

(2)

Load
(Amperes)

Minimum
Cell Voltage : 1.16V DC

(3)
Change in
Load
(Amperes)

(4)
Duration
of Period
(minutes)

Cell
Mfg. : SAB NIFE

(5)
Time to End
of Section
(minutes)

(6)
Capacity
Rating
factor at
T Min.
rate
(KT)

Cell
Type : KPL 1440P

(7)
Temperatu-

re
Derating
factor for
T min. Tt

Sized By : RRN

(8)
Required
Section Size or
(3)x(6)x(7) =
Rated AH

Pos.
Value

Neg.
Value

LOAD DATA :
A1= 983 A,
M1= 1 Min;
A2 = 359 A,
A3= 127 A,
M3= 60 Min;
A4 = 13 A,
A5= A,
M5= Min; A6 = A, M6 = Min.

M2 = 59 Min.
M4 = 480 Min.

Section - 1: First Period only - If A2 is greater than A1, go to Section-2


1
A1=983
A1-0=983
M1=1
T=M1=1

Section - 2: First Two Periods only - If A3 is greater than A2, go to Section-3


1
A1=983
A1-0=983
M1=1
T=M1+M2=60
2
A2=359
A2-A1= -624
M2=59
T=M2=59

Section - 3: First Three Periods only - If A4 is greater than A3, go to Section-4


1
A1=983
A1-0=983
M1=1
T=M1+...+M3=120
2
A2=359
A2-A1= -624
M2=59
T=M2+M3=119
3
A3=127
A3-A2= -232
M3=60
T=M3=60

Section - 4: First Four Periods only - If A5 is greater than A4 go to Section-5


1
A1=983
A1-0=983
M1=1
T=M1+...+M4=600
2
A2=359
A2-A1= -624
M2=59
T=M2+...+M4=599
3
A3=127
A3-A2= -232
M3=60
T=M3+M4=540
4
A4=13
A4-A3= -114
M4=480
T=M4=480

0.79
Sec.-1

1/0.96=1.042
Total

809
809

1.92
1.92
Sec.-2

1/0.97=1.031
1.031
Sub Total
Total

1946

2.72
2.72
1.92
Sec.-3

1/0.985=1.015
1.015
1.031
Sub Total
Total

2714

10.12
10.12
9.11
8.10
Sec.-4

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Sub Total
Total

9948

Sec.-5

Sub Total
Total

1946
711

2714
532

9948
596

***
***

1235
1235
***

1723
459
2182
***

6315
2114
923
9352
***

Section - 5: First Five Periods only - If A6 is greater than A4 go to Section-6


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+...+M5=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2+...+M5=
3
A3=
A3-A2=
M3=
T=M3+...+M5=
4
A4=
A4-A3=
M4=
T=M4+M5=
5
A5=
A5-A4=
M5=
T=M5=
***

Section - 6: IF LOAD CYCLE HAS MORE THAN 5 LOAD PERIODS, CONTINUE FURTHER IN SIMILAR MANNER.

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-2
SHEET 70

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

Section - 7: Random Equipment Load only (if needed)


R
AR=
AR-0=
MR=

T=M+R=

Section - 8:
Maximum Section Size = 809

Section - 9:
Random Section Size = -

Section - 10:
Design margin Factor = 1.0

Section - 11:
Aging Factor = 1.11

Section - 12:
Uncorrected size = (8) + (9)= 809+ - = 809

Section - 13:
All capacity required = (10) x (11) x (12) = 1.0 x 1.11 x 809 = 898 AH

Section - 14:
Select the next higher standard size of the cell.

Section - 15:
Therefore AH capacity of the cell = 910 AH

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

71

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

APPENDIX-3
COMPARISON OF Ni-Cd BATTERIES WITH LEAD ACID BATTERIES
Some technical details of lead-acid and Ni-Cd battery cells are compared.
Lead-Acid

Ni-Cd

a) Nominal voltage

2.0

1.2

b) Open Circuit voltage

2.05

1.28

c) Float charge voltage

2.15-2.3

1.4-1.5

d) Boost charge voltage

2.4-2.75

1.55-1.7

e) Final discharge voltage

1.75-1.85

1.00-1.16

f) Ah Efficiency

85-90%

Approx. 70%

g) Watt-hour Efficiency

68-75%

50-60%

h) SG

1.215+.01 at 27CDRL

1.17-1.19 at 20C

i) Maintenance
Interval months :

3-12

6-12

j) Optimum battery room


temperature

27CDRL

20-25C

k) Loss of rated capacity


per oC

For temp below 25C Approx:


: 0.43%

For temp below


20C 0.5%

l) Life-Years:

a) Lead - antimony 14-18


years

m) Loss in life for every 810Cincrease in electrolyte


temp:above 25C

b) Lead-Calcium: 20years

25 years

c) Plante : 20-25 years


50%

15%

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SHEET

DC SYSTEM

72

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

Project :

Date :

Lowest Expected
Electrolyte Temp :

(1)

Per
-iod

Minimum
Cell Voltage :

Cell
Mfg. :

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Load

Change in
Load
(Amperes)

Duration
of Period
(minutes)

Time to
End of
Section
(minutes)

(Amperes)

(6)
Capacity
Rating
factor at T
Min. rate
(KT)

Cell
Type :

(7)
Temperatu
re
Derating
factor for
T min. Tt

Sized By :

(8)
Required
Section Size or
(3)x(6)x(7) =
Rated AH
Pos
Value

Neg.
Value

LOAD DATA :
A1=
A3=
A5=

A,
A,
A,

M1=
M3=
M5=

Min;
Min;
Min;

A2 =
A4 =
A6 =

A,
A,
A,

M2 =
M4 =
M6 =

Min.
Min.
Min.

Section - 1: First Period only - If A2 is greater than A1, go to Section-2


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1=
Sec.-1

Total

***
***

Sec.-2

Sub Total
Total

***

Sub Total
Total

***

Sub Total
Total

***

Sub Total
Total

***

Section - 2: First Two Periods only - If A3 is greater than A2, go to Section-3


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+M2=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2=

Section - 3: First Three Periods only - If A4 is greater than A3, go to Section-4


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+...+M3=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2+M3=
3
A3=
A3-A2=
M3=
T=M3=
Sec.-3

Section - 4: First Four Periods only - If A5 is greater than A4 go to Section-5


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+...+M4=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2+...+M4=
3
A3=
A3-A2=
M3=
T=M3+M4=
4
A4=
A4-A3=
M4=
T=M4=
Sec.-4

Section - 5: First Five Periods only - If A6 is greater than A4 go to Section-6


1
A1=
A1-0=
M1=
T=M1+...+M5=
2
A2=
A2-A1=
M2=
T=M2+...+M5=
3
A3=
A3-A2=
M3=
T=M3+...+M5=
4
A4=
A4-A3=
M4=
T=M4+M5=
5
A5=
A5-A4=
M5=
T=M5=
Sec.-5

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
APPENDIX-3
SHEET

73

OF 79

PART B : NICAD BATTERY

Section - 6: IF LOAD CYCLE HAS MORE THAN 5 LOAD PERIODS, CONTINUE FURTHER IN SIMILAR MANNER.

Section - 7: Random Equipment Load only (if needed)


R
AR=
AR-0=
MR=

T=M+R=

Section - 8:
Maximum Section Size =

Section - 9:
Random Section Size =

Section - 10:
Design margin =

Section - 11:
Aging Factor =

Section - 12:
Uncorrected size = (8) + (9)=

Section - 13:
All capacity required = (10) x (11) x (12)= AH

Section - 14:
When AH capacity required is larger than the nearest standard cell, the next larger size cell is required.

Section - 15:
Therefore AH capacity of the cell = AH

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
FACING SHEET
SHEET

74

OF 79

PART C : BATTERY CHARGER

PART-C
BATTERY CHARGER

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
WRITEUP
SHEET

75

OF 79

PART C : BATTERY CHARGER

1.0

SCOPE
This section outlines the recommendations for the selection of types,
rating & scheme for Battery Charger for stationary lead acid and
Nickel Cadmium batteries used in power plants, industrial plants and
chemical plants.

2.0

RECOMMENDED PRACTICE

2.1

Type

2.1.1

Static type Battery Chargers shall be used.

2.1.2

Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) type battery chargers are


provided for both float and boost chargers.

2.2

Scheme

2.2.1

The charging equipment shall be suitable for charging each battery in


float as well as in boost mode. The float charger should be provided
with Automatic Voltage Regulator to maintain the output voltage
within +1% of the set value under all load conditions and for an input
voltage variation of +10% and frequency variation of +5%. Boost
charging mode should have current control and limiting facility. The
boost charger shall be provided with automatic constant current
regulator to maintain the current output within +2% of the set value
for AC input voltage and frequency variation of +10% and +5%
respectively. The load limiting feature shall be provided for the
chargers.

2.3

Type and quantity of chargers

2.3.1

Wherever 2x100% capacity batteries are provided for each service,


2x100% combined float cum boost charger shall be provided (For ex.
battery chargers for I&C systems). Typical scheme of battery and
charger connection is shown in sketch no. TCE.M2-EL-CW-S-2631
R0.

2.3.2

Wherever individual battery is provided for each service/system


following chargers shall be provided.
(a)

In a multiple unit power stations, battery charger with separate


float and boost charging units shall be provided for each battery.
ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SECTION:
WRITEUP
SHEET

DC SYSTEM

76

OF 79

PART C : BATTERY CHARGER

Typical scheme of battery and charger connection is shown in


sketch no. TCE.M2- EL-CW-S-2633 R0.
(b)

2.3.4

For unit loads of each gas turbine, coal handling plant,


switchyard etc. one battery, 2x100% combined float cum boost
charger shalls be provided. Typical scheme of battery and
charger connection is shown in sketch no. TCE.M2-EL-CW-S2632 R0.

Type and Quantity of chargers


The requirement of type and standby chargers based on different
types of plants and unit sizes are presented in Table below:

Sl.No
.

Type of Plant

1.0

Coal/lignite based
power plant
Unit upto
250MW.
Unit Load

1.1
1.1.1

Station Load
1.1.2
1.1.3

Coal handling
plant(CHP)
I & C System

1.1.4

Switchyard

1.2
1.2.1

500MW Unit
Unit loads

1.2.2

Control loads

1.2.3

Station loads

1.2.4

Coal handling
plant(CHP)
I & C System

1.2.5

Quantity of
Batteries
Provided

Quantity of
Main
Chargers

Type of
Charger

Quantity of
Standby
Chargers

Remarks

1X100% for
each unit

One per
battery

Float &
Boost

One common
float charger for
unit load
&station load

Float charger
sizing-One unit
load+stati-on
load

1x100% for
station load
1X100%

One per
battery
One per
battery
One per
battery
One per
battery

Float &
Bbost
Float cum
Boost
Floot cum
Boost
Float cum
Boost

Float cum Boost


- 1no
NIL.

CHP loads

One per
battery

Float &
Boost

Float & Boost1no

Unit power
loads

One per
battery
One per
battery
One per
battery
One per

Float &
Boost
Float &
Boost
Float cum
Boost
Floot cum

Float & Boost1no


Float & Boost1no
Float cum
Boost- 1no
NIL.

Unit control
loads
Station loads

2x100%
1x100%

2X50% for
power &
control loads
but feeding
only power
loads.
1X50% for
control loads
1X100%
1X100%
2x100%

Float cum
Boost- 1no

I&C system
loads
Swyd. load

CHP loads
I&C system
ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SECTION:
WRITEUP
SHEET

DC SYSTEM

77

OF 79

PART C : BATTERY CHARGER

battery
One per
battery

Boost
Float cum
Boost

One per
battery
One per
battery
One per
battery

Float cum
Boost
Float cum
Boost
Float cum
Boost

Float cum
Boost- 1no
Nil

1X100%

One per
battery

Float cum
boost

Float cum
boost- 1no

Complete unit
+station loads

2X100%
Batteries for
a group of
DG Sets (in
one block)
1x100%

One per
battery

Float cum
Boost

Nil

Complete DG
Set loads in one
block

One per
battery

Float cum
Boost

Float cum
Boost- 1no

Station loads

2X100% for
complete
plant

One per
battery

Float cum
Boost

Nil

Complete Unit
& Station loads

2X100% for
complete
plant

One per
battery

Float cum
Boost

Nil

Complete Plant
loads.

1.2.6

Switchyard

1x100%

2.0

Gas Turbine
power plant.
For all unit sizes
Unit loads

1x100%

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3

STG loads &


Station loads
I & C System

3.0
3.1

DG Plants
Unit size upto 20
MW

3.1.1

Unit & Station


loads
DG Power plant Independent
Power Plant (IPP)
Unit loads in one
block

3.2

3.2.1

3.2.2

Station loads

4.0

Hydro Power
Plants
All Unit Sizes

4.1

5.0
5.1
5.1.1

Industrial Plants
All Types of
Plants
Complete Plant
Loads

2X100%
2x100%

Float cum
Boost- 1no

NIL.

loads
Swyd. load

two unit loads


STG loads
+Station loads
I&C system
loads

2.4

Capacity

2.4.1

Float charger

2.4.2

The float charger for DC power and control supply system of plant
shall be capable of meeting the following load requirements.

ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

DC SYSTEM

SECTION:
WRITEUP
SHEET

78

OF 79

PART C : BATTERY CHARGER

(a)

Float charger current of the associated battery.

(b)

Continuous load of the DC system :

Continuous load of the DC system is obtained from the battery sizing


calculations made as per Design Guide for Battery, Part A and
Part B. It shall be recognised that 10 hour rating indicated in battery
sizing does not consider the continuous load of the excitation system,
boiler DC control panels, etc. As such the DC loads which exist
during the normal running of the plant shall also be considered over
and above the 10 hour loads indicated for the battery.
(c)

Largest DC motor current.

(d)

25% margin shall be considered over and above loads.

2.4.3

The float charger for I&C system battery shall be capable of meeting
the highest of the I&C system loads which will occur during the
starting or tripping/shut down or running of the unit/plant.

2.5

Boost charger
The rating of the Boost charger should be adequate to charge the
battery after the battery is completely discharged within a period of 10
hours for lead acid and 8 hours for Nickel-Cadmium batteries. The
boost charging voltage for lead acid battery will be between 2.40 to
2.75 V/cell and for nickel cadmium it will be between 1.53 V to 1.67 V
for high discharge type (H), 1.54V to 1.69V for medium discharge
type (M) and 1.55V to 1.7V for low discharge type (L). During boost
charging of battery, the load is fed by the float charger. During boost
charging the battery, the battery shall be disconnected from the load
to avoid uneven charging of the battery bank).

3.0

DISCUSSION

3.1

The spare charger unit wherever provided should have facilities for
connection to the DC distribution board. Drawing no. TCE.M2-ELCW-S-2633 R0 shows typical spare charger connection. The design
of the leads from the spare charger should be such that chance of
wrong connection (reversal of polarity) is totally eliminated.

3.2

The leads interconnecting the Battery, Charger and DC distribution


board should be single core, armoured cables. The cable size should
ISSUE
R3
FORM NO. 120 R1

TATA CONSULTING ENGINEERS


TCE.M6-EL-7186000

SECTION:
WRITEUP
SHEET

DC SYSTEM

79

OF 79

PART C : BATTERY CHARGER

be rated for the emergency loads (2 hour or 1 hour of battery). The


armouring of the cable should be of aluminium.
3.3

The cables shall be sized considering the voltage drop within


acceptable limits of 5% from the battery to load terminal.

3.4

The Blocker diodes connected between the end cell Tap and the DC
bus should be rated to carry the 1 min. output of the battery. Two
diodes in series are preferred to safeguard the D.C system against
short circuiting of one diode.

3.5

The ripple content of the DC output nominal voltage of the Float and
Boost charger shall be within +1% of the nominal output voltage when
battery is disconnected.

3.6

The transformer rating of the float & boost charger offered by the
Vendor shall be checked for it's suitability by asking the sizing
calculation from the charger supplier.

4.0

ENCLOSURES
i.

Float cum boost charger


with 2x100% batteries

TCE.M2-EL-CW-S-2631 R0

ii.

Float cum boost charger


with 1x100% battery

TCE.M2-EL-CW-S-2632 R0

iii.

Float and boost charger


2633 R0
with 1x100% battery

TCE.M2-EL-CW-S-

ISSUE
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FORM NO. 120 R1