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Augmented Reality

E D C I 750

What is Augmented Reality (AR)?

Augmented reality is the integration of digital
information with the user's environment in real
Unlike virtual reality, which creates a totally artificial
environment, augmented reality uses the existing
environment and overlays new information on
top of it. (Rouse, 2016)

What is Augmented Reality (AR)?

The way how augmented reality works is to
superimpose graphics, audio and other sensory
enhancements over a real-world environment in
real time (Bonsor, n.d.).
Image recognition establish linkage between the
image and the designated information/action when
the image is shown and recognized, delivering
designated information/action(s).
Rely heavily on image recognition, motion sensor
capability and computation speed so as to deliver
information and action in a real-time manner.

History of AR concept/application:

History of AR concept/application:

Arguably the first HUD device was

the reflector sight, invented in 1900
by Sir Howard Grubb, an Irish optics

Ivan Sutherlands work at MIT

starting in 1966 led to the first headmounted display (HMD) exhibited in

The world's first mass-market HUD,

which GM offered as an option for the
1988 Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme.


What is Augmented Reality (AR)?

The word augmented reality was
coined by Thomas P. Caudell, former
Senior Principal Scientist in Research
and Technology at the Boeing Company,
now the professor of Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering at
University of New Mexico, in 1992 when
he worked for Boeing (Clemens,
Raphael, & Lukas, 2015).

Why using Augmented Reality (AR)?

The word "augmented reality was originally in
reference to a head-mounted display Boing used
to guide workers as they put together electrical
wiring harnesses for aircraft equipment.

Why using Augmented Reality (AR)?

Nowadays augmented reality and immersive
training/learning environment are commonly used
for military/commercial training purposes such as
flight and vehicle simulators.

Why using Augmented Reality (AR)?

These technologies are also used for training
soldiers and law enforcement officers how to
locate and engage potential armed suspects,
training firefighters how to effectively and safely
put out a fire in different scenarios.

Why using Augmented Reality (AR)?

Augmented reality is also used for medical training
and practice purpose so paramedics, nurses, and
doctors can sharpen their professional skills and
better conduct specific procedure or complex
operation on patients.

AR is part of our daily life:

Augmented reality is already widely used in all
kinds of ball games and other sport events in order
to provide audience more game-related
information in real time.

Using AR for educational purpose:

Language arts: real-time phonetic scanner
& translator;
Design: fashion clothes design, interior
design, space arrangement;

Demonstration of planets of solar system,
cycle of the moon and lunar eclipse.
When focusing on the picture of an insect,
it will illustrate the three body parts of an
insect (i.e., abdomen, thorax, and head)
and the main feature of insects that they
have six legs.

When focusing on a picture of butterflies,

it will demonstrate the information and
pictures of metamorphosis and molting on

Using AR for educational purpose:

App example: Creation/ Commercial/Marketing

Using AR for educational purpose:

App example: Chemistry
Element 4D

Using AR for educational purpose:

App example: Biology
Anatomy 4D

Issues/limitation of using AR:

Technical limitation:
(e.g., computation speed, Information accuracy,
screen is too small, wearable devices with AR
technology is not fully matured yet);
Possibility of User overwhelmed by too much
information provided;
Data security, privacy concerns.

The development of augmented reality and other
emerging technologies such as:
wearable devices,
virtual reality and immersive learning/training environments, and
learning analytics

are bound to merge together.

Thanks to the emerging innovative technologies including

AR, we will be seeing a world with:
1. more intuitive learning and instructional environment, and;
2. much easier access to information and contents for learners
and instructors of this generation and beyond.

Thank you!


Bonsor, K. (n.d.). How Augmented Reality Works. Retrieved from

Clemens, A., Raphael, G., & Lukas, G. (May 6, 2015). The history of mobile augmented reality: Developments in mobile AR over the last almost
50 years (Technical Report ICGTR2015-001). Retrieved from Institute for Computer Graphic and Vision at Graz University of Technology in
Austria website:

Cognizant. (2014). Augmented Reality: A new workforce mobilization paradigm. Retrieved from:

Mink, J. (January 23, 2014). MIT seeks to enable the ultimate heads-up display for war and peace. Retrieved from:

Minock, D. (June 1, 2014). New update to DAQRI's Anatomy 4D app-the heart target. Retrieved from:

Morgan, S. (April 11, 2013). Aurasma iPad app tutorial. Retrieved from:

Petro, D. (February 28, 2014). Using the Element 4D app. Retrieved from:

Red Cross Australia (October 22, 2014). New technology for the blood service. Retrieved from:

Rouse, M. (February, 2016). Augmented reality (AR). Retrieved from:

TED. (June, 2012). Matt Mills: Images recognition that triggers augmented reality. Retrieved from:

Wikipedia. (April 20, 2016) Augmented Reality. Retrieved from