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Q: What are some different levels of SCADA

machines and systems?
A: SCADA machines have several different forms. You can have field level
devices such as sensors. You can have remote terminal units (RTUs), a main
controller or master station, or you can have a simple computer system
interface that displays data for the user.

2. Q: Why do companies use SCADA?

A: SCADA is a methodology that defines performance and protection of data for
the plant or communication center. It helps improve productivity for employees
and helps the economy save energy.

3. Q: What voltage does an RTU operate with?

A: A remote terminal unit operates at 110V/240V.

4. Q: Why would a company want to use a PLC over

an RTU?
A: A programmable logic controller (PLC) is much cheaper and more flexible with
programming. PLCs have been replacing RTUs because they are also easier to
troubleshoot and have more sophisticated controls than RTUs.

5. Q: What is an HMI?
A: An HMI (human machine interface) is the system that connects to a SCADA
database that displays data for the user. The HMI allows the operator to review
diagnostic data and trending graphs.

6. Q: What is DDE?
A: DDE is the acronym for dynamic data exchange. DDE provides a
communication protocol that allows devices to send and receive communication
signals. This protocol was developed by Microsoft, so if the shop is a Microsoft
shop, you will probably need to know some things about DDE and how devices

7. Q: What are some advantages of SCADA over

other protocols?
A: SCADA allows users to create object-oriented graphs, they can offer trending
graphs to review data in real-time. SCADA also deals with big data, so you can
develop a database system that displays trends over a number of years. This
allows the business quick access to important data that can be used for future
growth and enhancements.

8. Q: How does SCADA handle data?

A: SCADA systems gather data and send them to a central machine that
processes the data. The SCADA software is used to manage the data and display
it to the user. SCADA also logs information about who runs reports and the data
that is used.

9. Q: How does SCADA handle issues?

A: SCADA has an alarm or alert system that interfaces with personnel to send
them a warning when a system is not working properly.


Q: What is the Historian in SCADA?

A: The historian is the name given to the software service that collects events
and logs them into the database for future use.
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Different Levels of SCADA?

Answer: Different levels are SCADA systems are:

1. Field level devices and instruments eg: Sensors

2. Remote Terminal Units (RTUs)

3. Communication system present between the RTUs and Main Station

4. Main Control Station or Master Station
5. Computer systems pertained to processing the data for displaying to operator

Why SCADA systems are Implemented?

Answer: Some of the reasons or advantages why SCADA systems are implemented are:

1. SCADA systems improves the performance of the operation of the plant

2. SCADA systems provides better protection to the equipment of the plant
3. SCADA systems improves productivity of the personnel
4. Information receives very fast, process the information and display it to opertor in graphs and
plots. Hence helps the operator to take the decisions fast.
5. Provides better energy savings and saves economy.

What is the capacity of CPU of Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)?

Answer: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) contain generally microprocessor having 16 bit or 32 bit (eg:
68302 or 80386)
What is the Power Supply provided to the RTU?
Answer: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) are operated from 110V/240V + or - 10% and 50Hz or 12/24/48V
+ or - 10% DC Voltage
What are advantages of PLCs over RTUs?
Answer: Advantages of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are they can be used for general
purpose can easily set for verity of functions. Some of the advantages of PLCs over RTUs are: PLCs are
reliable, cheap, flexible compared to RTUs, sophisticated control and troubleshooting in PLC is easier.

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