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CC BI TON MU MINH HA CHO HNH HC

GII TCH 2 CHIU


(Vit s th t bi ton theo cc ton dng trong Demo)
Lp bi ton 1
I. Cc bi ton c bn (1 19);
1.
Cho vecto u v v (1, 2) u vung gc vi vecto n. Vit phng trnh
ng thng qua M(0,1) v c vecto ch phng l u.
p s: 2x y + 1 = 0
2.
Cho 2 im A(1,2), B(0,1). Tnh:
a) Trung im cua AB
b) Vecto BA
c) Khong cch gia 2 im A, B
p s : TRUNGDIEM(A,B) = [1/2, 3/2]
VECTO(B,A) = [1, 1]
KHOANGCACH(A,B) = 2^(1/2)
3.
Cho 2 ng thng (d1) x+y+9 =0, (d2) 2*x + 3*y 5 =0.
a) Tnh giao im ca d1, d2.
b) Gc gia d1, d2
p s : GIAODIEM(d1,d2) = [-32, 23]
GOC(d1,d2) = arccos(5/26*2^(1/2)*13^(1/2))
4.

Cho 2 vecto a = [6,-3],

b = [6,3]. Tnh gc gia 2 vecto.

p s: GOC(a,b) = arccos(3/5)

5.

Cho 3 im A=[-4,1],

B=[2,4],

C=[2,-2] . Tnh gc gia

vecto AB v vecto AC.


p s: GOC(VECTO(A,B),VECTO(B,C)) =
arccos(1/5*5^(1/2))
6.

7.

Bi 35/30

PPGT HHGT HVC - (H Vn Lang B -

1997)
Cho ng thng d: 3x + 4y - 12 = 0. P, Q l ta giao im ca d vi Ox,
Oy
a) Xc nh trung im PQ.
b) Tm ta tnh chiu H ca gc O ln d.
c) Vit phng trnh d i xng vi d qua O.
p s: TRUNGDIEM(P,Q) = [2, 3/2]
H = [36/25, 48/25]
8.
Cho A (1,2), (d) x 2*y +1 =0. Tnh
a) Hnh chiu ca A xung d
b) im i xng ca A qua d
c) Khong cch t A n d
9.
10.

Bi 27/22 - HDGT HGT12 NGT

Cho 3 im A(-1, 2), B(2, 3), C(6, 2). Tm phng trnh ca ng thng d
qua A v song song vi BC.
p s: (d): x + 4y + 9 = 0
11.

Bi 57/46 PPGT HHGT HVC HQG TPHCM 1997

Cho M(3,3), (d) : 2x + y -4 = 0. V MK vung (d) (K thuc d). Gi P l


im i xng ca M qua K. Tm P.
p s : P = (-1, 1)
12.

Bi 16/21 HDGT HHGT HVC - H GTVT 1997

Tm ta trc tm H ca tam gic ABC, bit A(-1,2), B(5, 7), C(4,-3)


p s: H(-1/11,21/11)
13.
14.

Bi 44/41 HDGT HGT 12 - NGT

Tnh gc nhn to bi hai ng thng d1: x + 2y + 4 = 0, d2: x - 3y + 6 =


0
p s: 450
15.

Bi 72/66 - HDGT HGT12 NGT

Cho im B(2,3) v ng thng (d): 2x y + 3 = 0.


Tm B l im i xng ca B qua d.
p s: B(-6/5, 23/5).
16.

Bi 73/66 - HDGT HGT12 NGT

Cho 2 ng thng (d1): 3x + y -1 = 0 v (d2): 2x y = 0.


Vit phng trnh ng thng (d) i xng ca (d1) qua (d2).
p s: (d): x 3y + 1 = 0

17.

Bi 74/66 - HDGT HGT12 NGT

a. Vit phng trnh ng thng (d) qua A(2,-2) v cch B(3,1) mt on


bng 3.
b. Vit phng trnh ng thng (D) qua I(2,2) v cch u 2 im C(1,1)
v D(3,4).
p s: Cu a: (d) : y + 2 = 0 hay 3x +4y +2 = 0
Cu b: (D): 3x 2y 2 = 0 hay x 2 = 0 (cha nhp
)
18.

Bi 71/66 - HDGT HGT 12 - NGT

Vit phng trnh ng thng d qua A(-4, 8) v ct cc trc ta theo


cc on chn bng nhau
p s: (d) x - y + 12 = 0; (d) x + y - 4 = 0 (cha nhp )
19.

Bi 70/66 - HDGT HGT 12- NGT

Cho 3 im A(-2,1), B(1,4), C(3,-2). Vit phng trnh ca


a) ng thng d qua A v song song vi BC
b) Trung tuyn AM ca tam gic ABC
c) ng thng qua trng tm G ca tam gic ABC v vung gc vi AC
p s: (chy chm > 500)

Lp bi ton 2
II. Cc bi ton gii phng trnh (20 49)
20. Bi 53/47 - HDGT HGT12 - NGT
Cho P(2, 5) v Q(5,1). Lp phng trnh ng thng (d) i qua P, sao cho
khong cch t Q n (d) bng 3.
p s: (d): x - 2 = 0; (d): 7x + 24y - 134 = 0

21. Bi 26/24 - PPGT HHGT HVC (H Nng-1998)


Cho P(3,0) v hai ng thng d1: 2*x y 2 = 0, d2: x + y + 3 = 0. Gi d
l ng thng qua P v ct d1, d2 ti A, B sao cho PA = PB. Vit phng
trnh ng thng d.
p s : (d) : 8x y 24 = 0
(d) : x-5/4*y-3 = 0
22. Bi 31/28 PPGT HHGT HVC (H Hu - 1998)
Vit phng trnh cc ng thng song song vi d v cch d mt khong
bng 1
p s: (d1): 3x 4y + 6 = 0, (d1): 3x 4y 4 = 0

23. Bi 33/29 PPGT HHGT HVC - (H Hng Hi - 1998)


Cho A(1, 1), B(-1, 3) v ng thng (L): x + y + 4 = 0. Tm trn (L) im
C cch u 2 im A, B.
p s : C (-3 , -1)
24. Bi 70/55 - PPGT HHGT - HVC - H Khi B 2004
Cho A(1, 1), B(4,-3), ng thng (d): x 2y 1 = 0. Tm ta im C
nm trn (d) sao cho khong cch t C n on AB l 6.
p s: C(7, 3); C(-43/11, -27/11)

25. Bi 36/30 - HDGT HGT12 - NGT


Cho 2 im A(-4,0), B(0,6). Vit phng trnh ng thng (d) i qua trung
im I ca AB v (d) chn trn hai trc Ox, Oy hai on thng c di
bng nhau.
p s: (d): x - y + 5 = 0, (d) x + (2/3)y = 0, (d) x + y - 1 = 0

26.
Vit phng trnh ng thng i qua giao im hai ng thng (d1) 2x +
7y 8 = 0 ; (d2) 3x + 2y + 5 = 0 v hp vi ng thng (d3): 2x + 3y -7 =
0 mt gc 450.
p s: (d): 9x + 5y + 17 = 0; (d): 5x - 9y + 33 = 0

27. Bi 45/41 - HDGT HGT12 - NGT


Cho A(2, 1), (d1) 2*x + 3*y + 4 = 0. Vit phng trnh ng thng d2 qua
A v to vi d1 mt gc 450.
p s : (d2): 5x + y - 11 = 0; (d2): x - 5y +3 = 0;
28. Bi 52/46 - HDGT HGT12 - NGT
Cho ng thng d: 8x + 15y -17 = 0. Vit phng trnh ng thng (d1)
song song vi d v cc d mt khong bng 2.
p s: (d1) 8x + 5y + 17 = 0; (d2) 8x + 5y - 51 = 0;
29. Bi 54/48 - HDGT HGT12 - NGT
Vit phng trnh ng thng (d) qua A (1,1) v cch u 2 im K(-2,-1)
v J(2,-3).
p s: (d): x + 2y -3 = 0; (d): 3x - y - 2 = 0
30. Cho A(1, -2). Tm trn trc honh mt im M sao cho ng trung
trc ca on AM i qua O.
p s: M(sqrt(5),0); M(-srqt(5),0)
31. Bi 71/78 HDGT HHGT Luyn thi HVC - (H DL Cng Ngh 1999)

Vit pt ng thng qua M(-2, 3) v cch u hai im A(-1, 0), B(2, 1).
p s: (d): x 3y + 11 = 0; (d) x + y 1 = 0
32. Bi 71/56 - PPGT HHGT - HVC - H Khi A 2005
Trong mt phng Oxy cho 2 ng thng
(d1): x - y = 0
(d2): 2x + y - 1 = 0
Tm ta cc nh ca hnh vung ABCD bit rng nh A thuc (d1), C
thuc (d2), v nh B, D thuc trc honh.
p s: A(1, 1), B(0, 0), C(1, -1), D(2, 0)
A(1, 1), B(2, 0), C(1, -1), D(0,0) (cha nhp )
33. Bi 59/47 HDGT HHGT - HVC - H khi A 2006
Trong mt phng Oxy, cho 3 ng thng :
(d1): x + y + 3 = 0
(d2): x - y - 4 = 0
(d3): x - 2y = 0
Tm ta im M nm trn ng thng d1 sao cho khong cch t M
n d2 bng 2 ln khong cch t M n d3
p s: M(-22, -11), M(2, 1) (cha nhp )
34. Bi 49/45 HDGT HGT 12 NNT
Tm khong cch gia 2 ng thng song song
(d1): 3x + 4y 50 = 0 v (d2): 3/2 x + 2y 1 = 0
p s: 48 / 5
35. Bi 52/46 HDGT HGT 12 NNT
Vit phng trnh ng thng (d) song song vi (a): 8x + 15y -17 = 0 v
cch (a) mt khong bng 2.

p s: 8x + 15y + 17 = 0
8x + 15y 51 = 0
36. Bi 54/48 HDGT HGT 12 NNT
Vit phng trnh ng thng (d) qua A(1,1) v cch u 2 im B(-2, -1)
v C(2,-3).
p s: 3x y 2 = 0, x + 2y 3 = 0
III. Cc bi ton gii tam gic.(50 69): chy tt
50.

Bi 49/45 HDGT HGT - NGT

Tnh din tch tam gic ABC bit A(-1,-1), B(2, -4),C(4, 3)
p s: S = 27/2
51.
Cho tam gic ABC vi A(2,5), B(5,1), C(0,-3). gc A = pi/4, gc B + 2*
gc C = 5*pi/12. Tnh gc B, gc C, din tch tam gic.
52.
Cho tam gic ABC c cnh BC bng cnh AC v GocA-3*(O1.GocC)=Pi/2. Tnh cc gc trong tam gic ABC.
53.
Cho tam gic ABC c AC = 3, BC = AC + AB/2, AB = (BC + p)*4/11. Tnh
din tch tam gic ABC.
54.
Cho tam gic ABC vi A(4,0), B(2,7), C(-3,-8) v gc B = 2* gc C, gc A
= 3* gc C. Tnh cc gc v din tch ca tam gic.

55.
Cho tam gic ABC c a2 = b2 + c2 v gc A = 2* gc B. Tnh cc gc trong
tam gic ABC v din tch tam gic.
56.
Cho di 3 cnh tam gic ABC l BC = 35, AC = 10, AC = 21. Tnh gc
A.
57.
Cho tam gic MNP vi M(1,0), N(-3,3), P(2, -5), c gc NMP = Pi/4, gc
PNM = Pi/3. Tnh gc MPN v trng tm ca tam gic.
58.
Cho tam gic ABC l na tam gic u. Tnh din tch tam gic ABC.
Cha chy c v cha c d liu tam gic u
59.

Bi 31/26 HDGT HGT 12 NGT

Cho tam gic ABC c A(-2,1),

B(4,3),

C(2,3)

a) Vit pt ng thng cha cnh BC


b) Tm pt ng trung tuyn v ng cao xut pht t A ca tam gic
ABC
p s: (d) : y 3 = 0
(AM): 2x 5y + 9 = 0
(AH) : x + 2 = 0 (chy chm)

60.

IV. Cc bi ton gii phng trnh trong tam gic.(70 99)

Bi 24/23 PPGT HHGT _ H Vn Chng- H

70.

Y_D_H C Nhn 1997


Cho tam gic ABC c M(0,4) l trung im cnh BC, hai cnh kia c
phng trnh 2x + y 11 = 0, x + 4y - 2 = 0.
a) Xc nh ta nh A.
b) Gi C l nh nm trn ng thng x + 4y 2 = 0. N l trung im AC.
Tm im N ri tm ta C,B.
p s: A(6,-1), N(2,0), C(-2,1), B(2,7)
Bi 36b/30 PPGT HHGT _ H Vn Chng

71.

Xc nh ta cc nh B v C, nu bit A(-1,-3), ng trung trc ca


AB l 3x + 2y -4 = 0 v ta trng tm G(4,-2) ca tam gic.
p s : B(5,1), C(8,-4) (d nghim)
72.

Bi 31/26 HDGT HGT 12 - NGT.

Cho tam gic ABC vi A(-2,1), B(4,3), C(2,3).


a). Vit phng trnh ca on BC.
b). Vit phng trnh ng trung tuyn v ng cao xut pht t A ca
tam gic ABC.
p s: (BC): y 3 = 0
(Trung tuyn): 2x 5y + 9 = 0
(ng cao): x + 2 = 0 (ng trung tuyn cha gii c)
73.

Bi 32/26 HDGT HGT 12 - NGT.

Cho tam gic ABC c A(2,2).


Lp phng trnh cc cnh ca tam gic bit rng 9x 3y - 4 = 0 v x + y
2 = 0 l phng trnh cc ng cao k t B, C.
p s: (AC): x + 3y 8 = 0
(AB): x y = 0
(BC): 7x + 5y 8 = 0

74.

Bi 33/27 HDGT HGT 12 NGT

Cho tam gic ABC bit:


Cnh (AB): 4x + y -12 = 0.
ng cao (BH) : 5x 4y 15 = 0
ng cao (AH): 2x + 2y 9 = 0.
Vit phng trnh 2 cnh cn li v ng cao th 3.
p s: (AC): 4x + 5y 20 = 0
(BC): x y 3 = 0
(CH): x 4y - 12 = 0 (chy sai)
75.

Bi 33a/28 HDGT HGT 12 NGT

Cho tam gic ABC c M(-1,1), N(1,9), P(9,1) ln lt l trung im cc


cnh BC, AC, AB.
a). Vit phng trnh cc ng trung trc ca cc cnh tam gic ABC.
b). Tm ta cc nh tam gic ABC.
p s: x - y = 0; 5x + y 14 = 0; x + 5y 14 = 0
A(11,11), B(7,9), C(-9,7)
76.

Bi 34/29 HDGT HGT 12 NGT

Cho tam gic ABC cn ti A v c trng tm G(1,2), cnh (BC): 2x + y +1


= 0. Tm A.
p s: A(5,4) (chua giai dc)
77.

Bi 35/29 HDGT HGT 12 NGT

Vit phng trnh ng thng d c h s gc -3/4 v to vi 2 trc ta


Ox, Oy thnh 1 tam gic c din tch 24.
p s: (d): 3x + 4y - 24 = 0, (d): 3x + 4y + 24 = 0
78.

Bi 46/42 - HDGT HGT 12- NGT

Cho tam gic ABC cn ti A, (BC) : 3x - y + 5 = 0 v cnh bn AB: x + 2y


- 1 = 0. Lp pt cnh AC bit n i qua M(1, -3)

p s: AC: 2x + 11y + 31 = 0 (du mot nghiem)


79.

Bi 38/32 PPGT HHGT HVC (H Ti chnh k ton

HN 1996)
Cho tam gic ABC c M(-2,2) l trung im ca cnh BC, 2 cnh cn li c
phng trnh l (AC): x - 2y - 2 = 0 v (AB): 2x + 5y +3 = 0.
Xc nh to cc nh ca tam gic v vit phng trnh cnh BC.
p s: A(4/9, -7/9) , C(40/9, 11/9), B(-76/9, 25/9)
BC : x+58/7y-102/7 = 0

80.

Bi 38/32 HDGT HGT 12 NGT.

Cho tam gic ABC c A(1,3) v 2 ng trung tuyn c phng trnh x


2y + 1 = 0, y -1 = 0. Lp phng trnh cc cnh tam gic.
p s: AC: x + 2y - 7 = 0
AB: x- y + 2 = 0
BC : x- 4y - 1= 0 (chy sai)
81.

Bi 25/24 PPGT HHGT-HVC (DHQG TPHCM 1998)

Cho tam gic ABC c trng tm G(-2,-1), (AB): 4x + y + 15 = 0, (AC): 2x


+ 5y + 3 = 0.
a). Tm A v trung im M ca BC.
b). Tm B v vit phng trnh on thng BC.
p n: A(-4,1), M(-1,-2), B(-3,-3), (BC): x-2y-3=0.
82.

Bi 27/25 PPGT HHGT-HVC (HV Ngn hang TPHCH

D/2000)
Cho tam gic ABC c C(-2,-4), trng tm G(0,4). M(2, 0) l trung im
cnh BC. Tm B, A.

p n: A(-4, 12), B(6,4).


83.

Bi 65/60 HDGT HGT 12 NGT

Cho tam gic ABC vi A(2, -4), B(0,-2) v trng tm G thuc ng thng
(d): 3x y + 1 = 0. Hy tm ta im C bit rng din tch tam gic ABC
bng 3.
p s: C (-5, 0), C(-7/2, 9/2)
84.

Bi

Cho tam gic ABC c B(3, 0), ng cao (AH): -4x + 3y = 0 v trung tuyn
(CM): 4x + y+ 1 =0. Tnh din tch tam gic ABC.
p s : S = 247/16
85.

Bi 31/39 HDGT HHGT _ HVC (H Cn Th _ 1995)

Cho A(2, -3), B(3, -2). Trng tm G ca tam gic ABC nm trn ng
thng : 3x y 8 = 0. Din tch tam gic ABC bng 3/2. Tm C.
p s: C(1, -1), C(-2, -10)
86.

Bi 30/38 HDGT HHGT_ H Vn Chng (H

GTVT_1998)
Cho A(-1,2), B(3,4). Tm C nm trn ng thng x 2*y + 1 = 0 sao cho
tam gic ABC vung ti C.
p s: C(3, 2) ; C(3/5, 4/5)
87.

Bi 68/55 - HDGT HHGT - HVC - h Khi B 2003

Trong mt phng Oxy cho tam gic ABC c AB = AC, gc BAC = 900. Bit
M(1, -1) l trung im ca cnh BC v G(2/3, 0) l trng tm ca tam gic
ABC. Tm ta cc nh A, B, C
p s: A(0, 2), B(4, 0), C(-2, -2)

A(0, 2), B(-2, -2), C(4, 0)


88.

Bi 48/39 - HDGT HHGT - HVC - H Hng Hi 1995

Cho 3 trung im ca 3 cnh ca tam gic ln lt l M(2, 1), N(5, 3), P(3,
-4). Hy lp phng trnh 3 cnh ca tam gic .
p s: AB: 7x - 2y - 12 =0
AC : 5x + y - 28 = 0
BC : 2x - 3y - 18 = 0
89.

(chy sai)

Bi 49/39 PPGT HHGT HVC H Hng Hi 1995 +

Bi 48/44 HDGT HGT12 -NNT


Lp phng trnh cc cnh ca tam gic ABC bit B(2, -1)
ng cao h t A xung BC l : 3x 4y + 27 = 0
ng phn gic h t C c phng trnh : x + 2y 5 = 0
p s: BC: 4x + 3y 5 = 0
AC: y = 3
AB : 4x + 7y 1 = 0 (khng ging kt qu)
90.

Bi 75/66 HDGT HGT 12 NNT

Vit phng trnh cc cnh tam gic ABC c A(2,-7) v cc ng cao k


t B, C ln lt c phng trnh 3x + y + 11 = 0, x + 2y + 7 = 0.
p s: (AC): x 3y 23 = 0
(AB): 2x y 11 = 0
(BC): x y - 11 = 0
91.

Bi 76/66 HDGT HGT 12 NNT

Cho tam gic ABC c A(-4, 2) v cc trung tuyn v t B v C ln lt c


phng trnh 5x 2y +12 = 0 v 3x 2y + 2 = 0. Vit phng trnh cc
cnh ca tam gic ABC.
p s: (AB): 13x 4y + 60 = 0
(AC): x 10y +24 = 0

(BC): 53x 26y + 12 = 0 (kt qu sai)


92.

Bi 79/67 HDGT HGT 12 NNT

Cho ng thng (d): y 4 = 0 v im A(1,2).


Tm im B trn ng thng (d) v C trn trc honh sao cho tam gic
ABC u.
p s: B(2 cn 3 + 1, 4) v C( 2 cn 3 + 1, 0)
B( 1 - 2 cn 3, 4) v C( 1 - 2 cn 3 + 1, 0).

93.

Bi 80/67 HDGT HGT 12 NNT

Cho tam gic ABC c B(2, 6), phng trnh 1 ng cao v 1 ng phn
gic v t cng mt nh ln lt l x 7y + 15 = 0 v 7x + y + 5 = 0. Tm
phng trnh cc cnh tam gic.
p s: x 4y + 10 = 0 , 7x + y 20 = 0, 3x + 4y - 5 = 0
(khng ging kt qu)
94.

Bi 81/67 HDGT HGT 12 NNT

Cho tam gic ABC c A(3, -1), phng trnh 1 ng phn gic v 1 trung
tuyn v t 2 nh khc nhau ln lt l x 4y + 10 = 0 v 6x + 10y - 59 =
0. Tm phng trnh cc cnh tam gic.
p s: 2x + 9y 65 = 0 , 6x - 7 y 25 = 0, 18x + 13y - 41
=0
95.

Bi 83/68 HDGT HGT 12 NNT

Cho tam gic ABC c A (3,4), B(2, -2), C(5,2).


Vit phng trnh ng thng (d) qua A v chia tam gic ABC ra lm 2
phn c t s din tch l 3.
p s: 12x + 5y - 56 = 0, 6x y 14 = 0

V. Cc bi ton chng minh(100 129): Lp bi ton 3


100.

Bi 4/9 HDGT HGT12 NGT

Cho 3 im A (2, 1), B (3, -1), C (-2,-3).


a) Chng minh 3 im A, B, C to thnh tam gic.
b) Cho D (2, 4). Biu din vecto AD theo hai vecto AB v AC.
101.

Bi 5/11 HDGT HGT12 NGT

Cho 3 im A (-1, 2), B (2, 0), C (3, 4).


a) Tm ta trng tm G, trc tm H, tm J ca ng trn ngoi tip
tam gic ABC.
b) Cm: vecto HG = 2. vecto G J. Nhn xt v 3 im H, G, J.
102.

Bi 8/14 HDGT HHGT Luyn thi HVC

Trn mp phng Oxy, cho A(4, 1), B(2, 4), C(2, -2).
a) CM: A, B, C khng thng hng.
b) Tnh cos(CBA)
c) Tnh chu vi v din tch tam gic A,B,C. Suy ra bn knh ng trn ni
tip tam gic.
d) Tm M sao cho 2vectoMA + 3vectoMB vectoMC = 0.
p s: b) cos(CBA) = sqrt(5)/5
c) chu vi = 6(sqrt(5)+1); S = 18
d) M(-1,4)
VI. Cc bi lien quan n tham s.(130 150)
130.

Bi 1/7 HDGT HHGT Luyn thi HVC

Cho cc im A(2, 3), B(9, 4), M (5, m), P(n -2).


a) Tm m tam gic AMB vung ti M.

b) Tm n ba im A, P, B thng hng.

p s: m = 0, m = 7, n = -33
131.
132.

Bi 2/7 HDGT HHGT Luyn thi HVC

Cho 3 im A(2, 1), B(2, -1), C(-2, -3)


a) Tm ta im D ABCD l hnh bnh hnh
b) Tm ta tm M ca hnh bnh hnh ABCD

CC BI TNG T
Bi 14/19 HDGT HHGT HVC - H Lut H Ni 1998
Cho A(1,-2), B(-3,3). Tm C nm trn ng thng x + y + 2 = 0 sao cho
tam gic ABC vung ti C.
p s: C(1,3) ; C(-13/4, -5/4)
Bi 22/21 PPGT HHGT HVC
Cho tam gic ABC c M(-1,1) l trung im ca cnh BC, 2 cnh cn li c
phng trnh l (AC): x + y - 2 = 0 v (AB): 2x + 6y +3 = 0.
Xc nh to cc nh ca tam gic .
p s: A(15/4,-7/4), B(), C(-9/4,1/4),B(1/4,7/4)