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1/6/2016

iu khin cng sut tc dng


v phn khng trong HT
Ts.Nguyn ng Ton
Khoa K thut in
Trng i hc in lc
Email: toannd@epu.edu.vn
Mobile: 0932282229

Ti liu tham kho

Ti liu tham kho


Praha Kundur, Power system stability and control, McGrew-Hill -1994
Allen J. Wood, Power generation operation and control, John Wiley &
Sons, INC, 1996
Jan Machowski- Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, Janusz W.
Bialek,
James R. Bumby- University of Durham, Power System
Dynamics and Stability , John Wiley & Sons-1997
Thierry Van Cutsem, Voltage stability of Electrical power system , Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 1998
Carson W. Taylor, Power system Voltage stability, McGrew-Hill 1994
L Vn t, iu khin v n nh H thng in, NXB KHKT, 2000
Nguyn Hong Vit, Bo v r le v t ng ha trong HT, NXB i
hc quc gia TP HCM, 2003

Mt s qui nh
Khng dng in thoi
Thi ng v
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Evolution of Electric Industry

1752: Ben Franklin 1792: Alessandro


proves lightning is Volta invented the
electricity
battery.
1785: Charles Coulomb
1732: Stephen Gray 1745 Musschenbroek discovers relation
invents Leyden jar
discovers
between force and
(capacitor)
conduction..
charge.
1600: William
Gilbert invents the
compass.

1831: Michael
Faraday
discovered
Faradays law
and invented the
generator
1835: Johann
Gauss related
magnetic flux &
electric charge.

1736: James Watt


invents steam
engine.

1845: Gustav 1855: Wilhem


Kirchoff
Weber defined
developed laws units for current
enabling the
and resistance.
efficient
calculation of
currents in
complex circuits.

1873: James
Maxwell wrote
equations
describing electromagnetic fields,
and predicted the
existence of
electromagnetic
waves.

1820: Hans Oerstead 1820:Marie Ampere 1827: George


discovered magnetic discovered a coil of Ohm discovered
the relation
effects of a current on wire acts like a
between voltage,
a compass needle. magnet when
current, and
carrying current.
resistance.
1827: Joseph
Henry discovered
inductance.

1879: Edison invented the1888: Nikolai


incandescent lamp and inTesla patented
1882 supplied Pearl St the AC polyphase
(NY) with light from DC motor.
generator.
1888: H. Hertz
1886: William Stanley
experimentally
invented the transformer. verified Maxwells
equations

1895: George
Westinghouse
harnessed Niagara
Falls and
commercialized AC
generation,
transformation, and
3
transmission.

n tp 1. iu khin c phn hi
iu khin vi phn hi l g, ti sao phi iu
khin phn hi? xt VD sau:
Gi s chng ta mun mua 1kg go t ngi bn
l
Nu lng go ng khi lng bng qu cn th cn
s cn bng
Nu lng go khng ng bng khi lng qu cn
th bng vic quan st bng mt s mt cn bng,
ngi ta s thm vo hoc bt i mt lng go no
c s cn bng th s dng li
y l v d ca mt h thng iu khin th s
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V d:
Plant l thit b c
iu khin (chic cn)
Reference value l gi
tr t (l qu cn 1kg)
Sensor l cm bin
(mt)
Controller l b phn
iu khin chnh (b
no iu khin thm
hoc bt go c
cn bng)
Actuator l thit b
thc hin lnh iu
khin (tay)

n tp 1. Cc b phn ca mt h thng iu
khin c phn hi
VD, ta thy rng mt h iu khin c phn hi
c dng nhanh chng thc hin nhim v
(cn 1kg go).
l h thng phn hi n gin, trong con
ngi va l thit b ra lnh iu khin v thc
hin lnh iu khin
B phn iu khin nhn tn hiu t b phn cm
ng, s quyt nh hnh ng cn a ra iu
khin thit b. Thit b thc hin s bin lnh iu
khin thnh cc hnh ng tng ng.
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n tp 1. S khi mt h thng iu khin


c phn hi
S nguyn l mt h iu khin c phn hi

n tp 1. S khi mt h thng iu khin


c phn hi
Trong thit b iu khin t ng, cc hnh ng c
a ra l kt qu ca mt s hm ton hc, (c thc
hin bi my tnh hoc cc thit b in t). Cc hm ton
hc da trn cc tnh cht tnh v ng ca i tng
c iu khin.
Mc tiu chnh ca HT iu khin l m bo rng cc
gi tr xc lp ca cc bin l lun bng gi tr t
Loi iu khin ny gi l b phn iu chnh (regulator).
Ch : mt s h thng iu khin t ng khng cn iu
chnh cc gi tr xc lp nhng dng h thng phn hi
nng cao n nh
Ch : mt thit b iu khin t ng (mt hm ton hc) nu thit
k sai, c th lm xu i tnh cht n nh ca h thng. VD: trong
vic cn 1kg trn, nu ngi bn hng khng n lng
cn bng nh c ch bi chic cn, th ng ta s c phi cho
thm go vo, hoc ly ra cho n khi c c s cn bng.

V vy cc HT iu khin cn phi c thit k cn thn


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n tp 1 v d
Gi s rng ta phi iu
khin dng in trong
mch R-L ni tip bng
cch iu khin in p
u vo:

Gi s chng ta mun
Th chng ta cn t
Gi s ban u dng in
bng 0, chng ta t in
p vo mch th qu trnh
qu xy ra:

Phng trnh m t thit


b iu khin l:
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n tp 1
Loi iu khin ny l loi h mch ("open
loop) v khng yu cu tn hiu phn hi lin tc
ca dng in. Tuy nhin, vn chnh l R v L
xc nh th p ng qu l khng th iu
chnh c m ph thuc vo gi tr R, L (h s
m tt dn theo thi gian)

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n tp 1 : Thit b iu khin t l
Mt la chn m mch iu khin l dng h
thng iu khin phn hi trong in p u
vo E c iu khin lin tc da trn vic o
lng dng in
V d: gi s ta iu khin da trn lut sau:
Gi s rng: dng in c o lng khng b
tr, phng trnh vi phn c vit li nh sau:

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n tp 1: Thit b iu khin t l
p ng ca dng in nu nh b iu khin bt u tc
ng thi im t=0, v gi tr ban u ca dng in
bng 0 l:

ch xc lp,
Tuy nhin nu K l rt ln so vi R, th ch xc lp
th
iu ny m bo p ng s nhanh v c lp vi R
Trong thc t, K thng khng th c ch to qu ln,
v cc gi tr qu c th vt qu ngng o lng
ca cc thit b
Thit b m t nh trn c gi l b iu khin t l.

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n tp 1: B iu khin tch phn


Mt la chn s dng lut iu khin t l l
thay i gi tr u vo E theo lut sau l:

Vi b iu khin t l, trng thi xc lp


,
nu c s sai lch th E s tng ln theo hm trn
Do b iu chnh tch phn s m bo s
iu chnh trong ch xc lp

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n tp 1: B iu khin tch phn


Tuy nhin, p ng qu
th km, nu c mt s tng
ln gi tr t ca dng
in c th dn s dao
ng. iu ny c m t
hnh bn, vi nu dng
in tng ln t 0-1(A).
Ti t=1s. Dng in ban u
trong mch l 0 v R=1
Ohm, L=0,1 H.
R rng l mt gi tr khuch
i ln ca b iu khin
tch phn s to ra s dao
ng
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n tp 1: B iu khin t l -tch phn-o


hm
t c cht lng iu chnh tt, v c c tnh p
ng qu tt, cn phi kt hp gia b iu khin t l
v tch phn
C th dng lut iu khin sau:

Cn c thm mt thnh phn ca E, thay i t l vi mc


thay i ca dng in
B iu khin gi l b t l, tch phn, o hm (PID)
Ch : trong thc t, ch c th t c mt o hm xp
x.
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n tp 1: B iu khin t l -tch phn-o


hm
Vic chn cc gi tr khuch i K, Ki, Kp da
trn vic tha mn cc iu kin nh gi tr sai s
ln nht trong ch xc lp, tnh n nh, p
ng qu
Khi thit k, cn tham kho mt s ti liu v iu
khin:
(V d : Nagrath I J & Gopal M: Control System
Engineering New age International Publishers).

Ch : xem li bin i ton t LAPLACE

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n tp 1: Hm truyn t ca cc b iu
khin thng dng
Rt nhiu h thng iu khin c m t bi s hm
truyn t.
S biu din Hm truyn t c t vic bin i
Laplace ca cc bin v mi quan h gia chng
V d: nghin cu mch R-L
Phng trnh:

Bin i Laplace :

Hm truyn t I(s)v E(s) l:


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n tp 1: Hm truyn t ca cc b iu
khin thng dng
Ch rng: Nu
l bin i Laplace ca
th
l bin i Laplace ca
S khi tng ng (khng phi ch c duy
nht mt cch biu din) nh hnh v:

1. Hm truyn t bc 1, h s khuch
i ch xc lp =1

2. Hm truyn t vi b lc, h s
khuch i ch xc lp = 0
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n tp 1

3. Hm vt trc ( nu T1>T2) hoc


chm sau (nu (T2>T1). khuch i
ch xc lp = 1

4. B iu khin t l, tch phn vi


khuch i ch xc lp = v cng

khuch i xc lp ca mt hm truyn t
c khi thay th s=0 trong hm truyn t
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


C hai loi rng buc trong HT
Rng buc ca thit b
Mt thit b cn phi c vn hnh trong mt di thng s xc
nh, nu vi phm iu ny c th dn n hng hc
VD: Kh nng pht nng ca dy dn, in p chc thng cch in,
Cc thit b nh MP c kh nhiu cc gii hn (cng sut tc
dng, phn khng, pht nng, cch in, kch t).

Mt thit b c thit k vi kh nng gii hn ln s rt t tin


(v d kh nng mang ti ln, s km theo tit din dy dn ln).
V vy m cc k s thit k cn ht sc quan tm n cc gii
hn khi tnh ton thit k thit b.
nhng iu kin bt thng cc thit b c th s b qu ti,
vt qu gii hn th cc thit b bo v s tc ng cch ly
thit b khi HT

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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HTD


Rng buc v tnh n nh:
Mt HT khng th ti cng sut vt qu mt ngng no v
vi phm gii hn n nh
Mt h thng mt n nh l mt h thng m khng th chu ng
c cc kch ng v d nh khng th vn hnh mt v tr cn
bng
iu ny l do nhng tnh cht vt l ca thit b, h thng trong
iu kin qu
Vic nng cao kh nng n nh c th yu cu nng cp HT
(nh xy dng thm ng dy, nh my in ) hoc nng cp
cc h thng iu khin hin ti
Vic khng tha mn iu kin cn bng c th dn n vi phm
cc gii hn ca thit b, v dn n s tc ng ca cc thit b
bo v
Vic mt cc thit b do vi phm iu kin v n nh v gii hn
thit b trong nhng iu kin khn cp/nguy him c th dn n
vic dng cc HT
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HTD


Do cn phi xc nh r gii hn ca mt HT
xc nh lng ti v dng cng sut m HT
c th mang c

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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT- Gii hn


thit b
Gii hn thit b:
1) Gii hn nhit: s tng nhit vt qu gii hn
cho php ca dy dn c th lm dy dn b mm ra v
vng xung, hoc ph hy cch in trong cc thit b
in. Ph thuc vo hng s thi gian nhit (ch :
Nhit ko tng t ngt c), mt s thit b c th
c gii hn nhit kh cao.
2) bn cch in: S qu in p dn n trng
in t ln, v lm h hng cch in. S h hng
cch in cng do s gi ci, n mn ca cch in,
do qu nhit. Thng cho php s thay i in p
trong khong +/- 10%

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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b
i vi cc thit b c kh (v cc gii hn ny c th
nh hn nhiu so vi cc thit b khc), cc thng s
nh p sut kh, nhit cn phi c gim st, iu
khin khng vt qu nhit . S rung lc ca
cnh tuabin c th rt nguy him, v cn c gim
st khi c s sai lch khi tn s nh mc.
Ngi ta thng xem xt gii hn ca hai thit b in
ch yu sau:
(1) My pht in
(2) ng dy truyn ti
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b-MP
Cc gii hn ca MP:
Gii hn in p:
in p u cc mp b gii hn v cc l do:
1) Cch in
2) Pht nng ca li thp t. Tuy nhin gii hn
ny thng nh hn nhiu so vi gii hn v
cch in. Gii hn ny cng b hng bi tn
s, v t thng t l thun vi t s in p/tn
s).

Gii hn phn ng:


Gii hn pht nng cun dy phn ng do tn tht
trong in tr phn ng
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b-MP
Gii hn phn cm ( rotor)
Pht nng cun dy kch t (qu kch thchover excitation limit): Tn tht trong cun dy
kch t gii hn bi dng in kch t max,
v dng in t l vi in p kch t nn iu
ny tng ng vi gii hn in p kch
t=> Dng in kch t tng cao khi pht
nhiu cng sut phn khng (qu kch thch).
Gii hn km kch thch (under excitation
limit):
Do pht nng cc on cui ca cc
thanh dn
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b-MP
Xt mt MP cc n, ni vi thanh gp v cng
ln V=(1.0 pu) nh hnh v. in khng ca MP
l 2.0 pu.
Gii hn phn ng: I<Imax
G
0
V=1<0

Trong :VI<VImax ngha l S<VImax


V in p u cc V gn vi gi tr nh mc (1.0 pu)
do VImax l cng sut m ca MP
Nu P v Q biu din di h n v tng i:

Q2 1

Do gii hn phn ng l mt vng trn trong


mt phng P-Q.
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b-MP

Gii hn kch t: If<Ifmax


V dng kch t t l thun vi in p kch t, do sc in ng :
E<Emax

EV
EV
V2
P
sin v Q
cos
X
X
X

Nn

V V=1pu nn gii hn l:

Giao nhau gia gii hn phn ng, v kch t ti im c h s cng


sut nh mc (0,85). Vi X=2,0pu, th ng gii hn nh hnh v.

V 2 EV

P 2 Q

X X

1 E

P Q max
X X

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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b-MP

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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b-MP

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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b-MP

VD: in p cho php (ti fm) vi cc khong thi gian khc nhau:
V/Hz (pu)
Damage Time
(in min.)

GEN

1.25

1.2

1.15

1.10

1.05

0.2

1.0

6.0

20.0

Infinity

Name Plate Data of a Generator 247 MVA :


MVA maximum continuous rating: 247 MVA
MW maximum continuous rating: 210 MW
Rated voltage: 15.75 kV
Rated stator current : 9050 A
Rated power factor : 0.85 lagging
Field current (at maximum continuous rating) : 2600 A
Field Voltage (at maximum continuous rating) : 315 V
Efficiency (at maximum continuous rating) : 98.55 %
Speed : 3000 rpm
Cooling System : Hydrogen at 3.5 kg/cm^2
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b - ng dy
Gii hn nhit ca /d:
Khi dng in ti ln, lm tng tn tht di dng
nhit, kt qu lm tng nhit ca dy dn. S qu
nhit c th lm dy dn mm ra v vng xung,
V hng s thi gian v nhit thng ln, nn cn phn
bit gia gi tr gii hn khi xc lp v gii hn khi qu

Gii hn nhit l mt hm s ca:

1) nhit xung quanh,


2) iu kin gi
3) iu kin dy dn,
4) loi dy dn
5) khong cch n mt t.
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b - ng dy
in p s thay i th no trn ng dy HVAC?
Vi cc ng dy khng tn tht (cc ng dy EHV
v UHV, thng b qua in tr)
in p dc theo ng dy nu nh c mt in tr R=
Zc c ni cui ng dy (SIL=surge impedance
load).
Trong iu kin ny, s khng yu cu cng sut phn
khng t u ng dy v cui ng dy.
Cc ti c xc nh bi khch hng ch khng xc nh
bi ngi vn hnh h thng, do , iu kin ny hu
nh khng c trong thc t
Nu in p c hai u ng dy c gi 1.0 ( bi
h thng iu khin kch t ca MP hai u ng
dy), th in p c xu hng gim khi chng ta i u
ng dy n gia ng dy, nu Ps > SIL. => ng
dy l hp th cng sut phn khng.
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b - ng dy
Nu Ps < SIL, th in p tng ln v ng dy sinh ra cng
sut phn khng
i vi mt ng dy, nu gi in p mt u l 1.0 pu, u
kia h mch, th s xut hin qu in p u kia
Vi ng dy cp, thng SIL ln. Dng in ti ti gi tr SIL
lun vt qu gii hn nhit ca cp. Do , cp thng ti
nh hn gi tr SIL. V vy cc cp in lun pht ra cng sut
phn khng, v in p c th rt cao khi m non ti, c bit l
cho ng cp di
Bn cnh , cc ng dy cp thng t hn so vi ng
dy trn khng, v vic qu ti l khng cho php do , chiu
di ng dy cp AC thng khng vt qu 30-50km
V vn ny, m nhng ng dy cp ngm di nc v
truyn ti in p i xa thng dng ng dy mt chiu

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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b - ng dy
Gii hn cch in
Khi vt qu gii hn cch in (gi tr cng in trng
max) s dn n h hng cch in, gy ra s c. in trng c
th tng cao (do qu in p) trong nhng iu kin non ti trn
cc ng dy AC di (hiu ng Ferranti) hoc trong cc iu
kin khng bnh thng nh l st nh vo ng dy.
S sai lch in p vt qu gii hn l vi phm tiu chun in
p cp cho khch hng. Vic in p thp hoc cao u gy hi
cho thit b in. in p v cng sut phn khng yu cu ca
ng dy ph thuc bi:
Thng s ng dy,
chiu di ng dy
v cng sut truyn ti.

i vi mt gi tr in p nh mc, cho php qu in p trong


khong 10% Cc khng in thng c ni song song vi
ng dy gim qu in p trong iu kin non ti. Nu ni c
nh vi ng dy th c th lm gim in p ca ng dy khi
m nng ti
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n tp 1: Cc rng buc trong HT


Gii hn thit b - ng dy
Thng s ng dy: Thng s ng dy ph thuc vo
kch thc ng dy, v cu trc ng dy. Thng s
tng tr sng ca cc ng dy trn khng l khong
250-350 m v 30-50 m i vi cp.
Gi tr in khng v dung khng th t thun i vi
ng dy 400kV trn khng L = 1,044mH/km, C = 12
nF/km. i vi ng dy EHV th t s X/R l rt ln.
in tr trn n v chiu di l = 0.0296 m / km
Vi ng dy 400 kV cch in bng giy b bc ch
(paper-insulated lead-covered(PILC) th gi tr th t
khng l: L = 0.78 mH/km, C = 0.95 uF/km.
Ch rng: dung khng ln hn so vi ng dy trn
khng.
Kh nng mang ti t nhin (Surge Impedance Loading
(SIL) ca ng dy trn khng v ng dy cp l bao
nhiu???
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Ni dung

iu khin cng sut tc dng v tn s h thng in


Khi nim chung
B phn iu tc tua bin
S thay i ca ti theo tn s
c tnh dc
Phn b cng sut ca hai t my song song

iu chnh cng sut u ra ca mt t my


iu chnh cng sut ca nhiu t my
iu khin t ng cng sut trong HT (AGC)
Mt vng
Lin vng
iu khin theo cng sut truyn ti trn ng dy lin lc

iu khin cng sut trong iu kin s c

iu khin CSPK v in p trong h thng in


Vai tr cng sut phn khng
iu khin cng sut phn khng trong mch in n gin
Cc phng php iu khin cng sut phn khng
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IU KHIN CNG SUT TC DNG


V TN S TRONG HT
Nguyn ng Ton
Email: toannd@epu.edu.vn
Tel: 0932282229

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1. Khi nim chung


Trong mn n nh
Mt MP p ng khi c s mt cn bng Ti-pht s
dn n tng tc /gim tc
Ti tng: my pht gim tc
Ti gim: my pht tng tc

Ti lin tc thay i, do nu MP ng b khng


c h thng iu chnh tc s dn n tn s HT
lin tc thay i v dn n vi phm cc tiu chun
vn hnh HT
Thc t , tn s thay i theo s mt cn bng ti do
c th dng tn s l tn hiu iu khin

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1. Khi nim chung


Tn s ca mt HT ng b l ging nhau trong ch
xc lp
Vic gi tn s gn gi tr nh mc khng i (hoc
c th thay i trong mt di nh quanh gi tr nh
mc) l vic ht sc quan trng trong vic vn hnh
HT
Tn s trong HT lin h mt thit n tc ng
b ca MP. S sai lch gia m men c v m men
in lm tng tc/gim tc r to ca MP.
Do duy tr mt tc khng i, cn phi gim
st lin tc cng sut c u vo v cng sut in
u ra.
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1. Khi nim chung


Ph ti in th thay i ngu nhin, nhng tng ti thay
i theo thi gian thng theo mt qui lut
V d v th ph ti theo ngy

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1. Khi nim chung


S thay i tn s ph thuc vo mt s yu t nh c
tnh ti, v h thng iu khin tua bin - my pht,
Vy ti sao li phi duy tr tn s h thng in gn gi tr
50Hz/60Hz:
Cc cnh tuabin hi c thit k vn hnh trong mt di hp
cc tn s. S sai lch khi di tn s ny c th dn dn hoc
tc th ph hy tua bin. Do phi c thit b bo v v iu khin
gi cho tn s khng vt qu cc di lm vic.
Mt tua bin hi lm vic vi tn s 50 Hz ch c th chu ng
c s sai lch tn s trong khong +2Hz n -2.5 Hz trong
khong hn 1 gi trong sut ton b tui th ca tua bin
Ti v cc thit b in khc thng c thit k vn hnh
mt tn s c nh. Vic vn hnh tn s khc nh mc c th
dn n s sai lch cng sut u ra khi gi tr nh mc v d
nh h thng bm, qut, trong NM lm gim CS u ra ca
NM
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1. Khi nim chung

Steam turbine partial or full-load operating limitations during


abnormal frequency, representing composite worst-case
limitations of five manufacturers ANSI/IEEE-1987
43

1. Khi nim chung

44

22

1/6/2016

1. Khi nim chung


Thi gian cho php s lm vic khi tn s gim

Trn nh Long: Bo v r le trong HT


45

1. Khi nim chung


Bng 1: Phm vi dao ng tn s ca HT quc gia
Ch vn hnh HT

Di tn s cho php

Bnh thng

49,8Hz n 50,2Hz

S c n l

49,5Hz n 50,5Hz

S c nghim trng v trng


thi khn cp

47Hz n 52Hz

Bng 2: Di tn s cho php v s ln cho php trong trng hp


s c nghim trng, trng thi khn cp
Di tn s f cho php (Hz)

S ln cho php theo chu k thi gian

51,25f52
50,5<f51,25
48,85<f49,5
48 <f 48,75
47f48

7 ln trong 01 nm
50 ln trong 01 nm
60 ln trong 01 nm
12 ln trong 01 nm
01 ln trong 02 nm
46

23

1/6/2016

1. Khi nim chung


Generation oscillations at the dead band frequency

1. Khi nim chung


VD n 50.5 - 49.0 Hz (www.wrldc.com).

48

24

1/6/2016

1. Khi nim chung


S khi ca h thng iu khin tn s

49

1. Khi nim chung


iu chnh tn s trong HT gm 3 cp
1. iu chnh cp 1 (Primary frequency control iu
chnh tc )
Tc ng tc thi (t ng) i vi s thay i nh ca ti
y l s iu chnh tc ca b phn iu tc tua bin khi
lch tn s trong di nh cho php ca b iu tc tuabin

2. iu chnh cp 2 (Secondary frequency control) Khi


phc tn s v gi tr nh trc
Phn b li cng sut pht ca cc t my
iu khin li dng cng sut trn cc ng dy lin lc
Bin php thc hin bi cc nhn vin vn hnh

3. iu chnh cp 3 (Tertiary control Phn b ti u


cng sut cc t my)
m bo cc t my vn hnh mt cch kinh t nht.
50

25

1/6/2016

1. Khi nim chung


Cn c s phi hp v thi gian tc ng ca cc
cp iu khin khc nhau
4. Phi hp iu khin thi gian
Mc tiu ca iu khin thi gian l gim st v hn
ch s khc bit quan st c gia thi gian ng b
v thi gian phi hp tng qut (UTC) trong khu vc
ng b.
c p dng trong sut thi gian hot ng lin tc
ca h thng ng dy lin lc, vi thi gian ng b
l nh nhau trong tt c cc vng iu khin.

51

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Khi nim v iu chnh tc tua bin c m
t nh trong hnh v di y:

Hnh 1: S khi iu khin tc MP


52

26

1/6/2016

S nguyn l b iu tc tuabin
1.
2.
3.

Con quay ly tm l phn t o v iu chnh tc


B phn van phn phi du p lc cao p vo servomotor
B phn tng gim cng sut pht iu chnh cng sut

I-iu chnh tc

6
A

1-Quay ly tm

A0

C0

B
B0

B0

A0

D0
D

E0
E

II: CTS

Du
p

7
~

Tua
bin

lc

2-Van

3-Secvomotor

8
U

III: CA

KT

Hi

53

S nguyn l b iu tc tuabin
Khi f=fm=> MP pht c/s PMP0 xc nh bi v tr ban u A0
Gi s f gim, hai qu t ca con quay ly tm h thp xung
Vnh A h xung A, tay n AB quay quanh im B
im C cng h t C0 xung C, D0 xung D, E0 xung E, im G c
nh

Piton ca van 2 i xung di, m ng cho du p lc i


vo pha di ca piton ca servomotor, lm piton chuyn ng
ln pha trn
Ca hi ca tuabin c m rng , hi vo nhiu hn, cng
sut tng ln lm tc tng nhanh , con quay quay mnh hn,
im A c y ln trn
Cc im B, C, D, E u chuyn ng ln trn cho n khi tr
v v tr ban u th van du ng li.
Qu trnh iu chnh kt thc, im B dng B v A dng
A v cng sut tng thm l PMP
54

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1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


2.1 p ng ca MP khi ph ti thay i
Khi ti thay i, th n phn nh tc thi bi m
men in u ra ca MP Te
iu ny to ra s sai lch v m men gia m
men c Tm v m men in Te, s sai lch ny
to ra s thay i tc c xc nh t
phng trnh chuyn ng MP
2H d
Tm Te
s dt

s=2f l tc quay ng b
Hng s H (s)

Phng trnh chuyn ng ca


MP
( Mn n nh HT)

55

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Khi nghin cu s ph thuc ca ti tn s,
thng biu din mi quan h trn theo cng sut
Mi lin h gia cng sut v m men

P r T

(1)

Hnh 2: Hm truyn t biu din mi lin h gia tc v m men

56

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1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Xt mt s thay i nh, k hiu bi , ta c th vit nh
sau:
P P0 P
T T0 T

r 0 r

T (1) v (2) ta c th vit


P0 P 0 r T0 T
Khai trin v b i sai s bc cao ta c
Do
P 0 T r T0
3
Nn: Pm 0 Tm rTm 0 v Pe 0 Te rTe 0

Pm Pe 0 Tm Te Tm 0 Te 0 r

4
57

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


ch xc lp (cha c s kch ng) ta c
mi lin h Tm0=Te0, v gi s tc ang nh
mc, biu din trong h n v tng i 0=1 th
Pm Pe Tm Te

Do hnh v 2 c th c v li nh sau:

Hnh 3: Hm truyn t biu din mi lin h gia tc v m men ca MP


58

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1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


2.2 p ng ca ti khi tn s thay i
Ti thay i theo tn s, ty thuc theo loi ti, thng
c biu din nh sau ( b qua tn tht)

Pe PL Dr

PL l thnh phn ti khng ph thuc tn s


Dr l thnh phn ti ph thuc tn s
D l h s cn ca ti.
D thng c din t l phn trm thay i ca ti khi
1% thay i tn s.
Gi tr ca D thng t (1-2)%. Nu D=2 ngha l khi tn
s thay i 1% th ti s thay i 2%
59

V d v ti ph thuc in p/tn s

Loi ti

cos

k_{pv}

k_{qv}

k_{pf}

k_{qf}

Refrigerator
Incandescent lights
Fluorescent lights
Industrial motors
Fan motors
Agricultural pumps
Arc furnace
Transformer
(unloaded)

0.80
1.00
0.90
0.88
0.87
0.85
0.70
0.64

0.77
1.55
0.96
0.07
0.08
1.40
2.30
3.40

2.5
0.0
7.4
0.5
1.6
1.4
1.6
11.5

0.53
0.00
1.00
2.50
2.90
5.00
-1.00
0.00

-1.5
0.0
-2.8
1.2
1.7
4.0
-1.0
-11.8
60

30

1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


M hnh MP+ Ti c th c m t nh hnh
v

Thu gn s ta c

Ph thuc vo
M=2H v D
Hnh 4: Hm truyn t biu din mi lin h gia tc v m men v ti

61

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Khi khng c b phn iu tc tua bin th h
thng p ng vi s thay i ca ti c xc
nh bng hng s qun tnh (H) v h s cn ca
ti (D)
S sai lch v tc ch xc lp khi m ph
ti thay i c b bng s thay i ca ti do
nhy theo tn s

62

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1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


2.3 M hnh tuabin MP
Ngun to ra cng sut c c gi l ng c s cp(
prime mover) , c th l tua bin thy lc, tua bin kh, hoc
tua bin hi nc
M hnh tua bin m t s thay i ca cng sut c Pm
theo s thay i ca v tr van PV( hi, nc)
C nhiu loi khc nhau, y gii thiu m hnh n
gin nht bi hm truyn t v s khi nh hnh v

63

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


V d:
Cho mt HT gm 4 t my ging nhau 500 MW
cp cho mt ph ti 1.020 MW. Hng s qun
tnh ca mi t my l H= 5.0 trong h n v
tng i vi Scb=500 MVA. Gi s ti thay i
1,5% khi tn s thay i 1% (D=1,5). Nu ti t
ngt gim xung 20MW
(a) Xc nh s khi hm truyn t vi hng s H,
D trong h n v tng i vi Scb = 2.000 MVA.
(b) Xc nh s thay i tn s gi s rng khng c
tc ng b phn iu tc tua bin
64

32

1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


a) Vi bn t my ta c H new H old . Sold n 5 500 4 5
Snew
2000
Do M=2H=2*5=10 (s)
Biu din hng s D theo lng ti cn li (102020)=1000MW ta c
P
1000
D D. old 1,5
0,75%
S base
2000

b) khi khng c tc ng ca b phn iu tc ta


c

Hoc c th din t di dng h s khuch i


v hng s thi gian
65

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Vi

K 1 / D 1 / 0,75 1,33
T M / D 10 / 0,75 13,33s

S thay i ca ti l:
PL=-20MW=-20/2000=-0,01(pu)
Vi s bin i ca ti l 0,01(pu) th bin i
Laplace ca s thay i ca ti l
0,01

PL (s)

V t s khi ta c

0,01 K
r (s)

s 1 sT
66

33

1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Ly bin i ngc Laplace ta c
r ( t ) 0,01Ke

t
T

r ( t ) 0,01333e

0,01K 0,01x1,333e
0 , 0075 t

t
13, 33

0,01x1,33

0,0133

p ng theo thi gian nh hnh v


Hng s thi gian T=13,33
sai lch tn s l

PL
0,0133( pu )
D
ss 0,0133x60 0,8 Hz
ss

60 0,8 60,8 Hz

67

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


2.4 B iu tc ng thi gian
Nhim v ca b iu tc ng thi gian l duy tr tc
khng i. Mt b iu tc ng thi gian s iu chnh
van hi/ca nc a tn s MP v gi tr nh mc
hoc t trc
S nh hnh v 6

Hnh 6: S khi b iu tc tua bin ng thi

68

34

1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Tc o c ca rotor r c so snh vi tc t
0 s sai lch tc c khuch i v ly tch phn
a vo lm tn hiu iu khin Y, (n thc ra l dng
hi hoc dng nc).
V l b iu khin tch phn, nn gi tr xc lp ca Y
ch t c khi r= r -0 =0
Nu c s tng ln ca ph ti th Pe cng tng ln b
cho s tng , v tn s gim mc c xc nh
bng hng s qun tnh ca rotor. Khi tc gim th
tuabin bt u tng cng sut c. iu ny lm gim qu
trnh suy gim tc v to nn s tng v tc tua bin
khi cng sut tuabin ln hn cng sut ti.
Tc ca tua bin s dn v gi tr t ban u v lng
cng sut c ca tua bin tng ln chnh bng lng cng
sut ti tng thm
69

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Loi iu tc ny ch tha mn iu chnh tn s khi mt
t my ni vi mt ti c lp, hoc trong mt h thng
m ch c mt t my chu trch nhim iu chnh tn s

Hnh 7: p ng ca mt t my vi b iu tc ng thi gian

70

35

1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


2.5 iu tc tua bin vi c tnh iu chnh dc
tc
B iu chnh ng thi gian khng th ng dng
trong HT c nhiu t my khc nhau, v chng
c c tnh iu chnh khc nhau, khi c s thay
i v ti, mi my s c gng iu chnh tn s
v gi tr t ca mi my theo cc cch ring,
iu ny gy ra mu thun gia cc t my vi
nhau
n nh s phn chia ti gia cc t my lm
vic song song, b iu tc cn c c tnh iu
chnh dc tc khi m ti tng
71

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


iu ny t c bng cch thm mt vng lp
phn hi ch xc lp xung quanh b tch
phn
S khi nh hnh v

Hnh 8: B iu tc tua bin vi vng lp phn hi

72

36

1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


y thc cht l b iu tc iu khin t l vi h
s khuch i 1/R

Hnh 9: S thay th v rt gn b iu tc tua bin vi phn hi

73

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Phn trm iu chnh tc - hay dc
Gi tr R xc nh tc ch xc lp khi m
ti thay i ca mt t my nh hnh v
NL= no load = khng ti

FL= full load


= y ti

Hnh 10: c tnh iu chnh l tng ca b


iu tc tua bin vi c tnh dc

74

37

1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


%R=(% thay i tc hay % thay i tn s )/(%
thay i cng sut u ra ca MP

Vi

FL
100
%R NL

NL l tc ch xc lp khi khng ti
FLl tc ch xc lp khi y ti
0 l tc nh mc

V d khi dc bng 5%, ngha l nu c 5%


lch tn s th s dn n 100% thay i v tr van
hoc cng sut u ra
R cng ln ( dc iu chnh),cng tt

75

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


f(p.u.)=f(HZ)/60.0, and P(p.u.)=P(MW)/ Sm.
VD cho MP 600 MW c p ng b iu tc l tn
s 59.9 HZ, l 20MW
R=f(p.u.)/P(p.u.)=(0.1/60)/(20/600)
=0.05 hoc 5% dc.
Khi bit R, th lng MW p ng khi tn s thay i c
xc inh l:
(P/f)=(1/R), or P=(1/R)*f.
Vi t my 600 MW vi R=5%
(P/600)=(1/0.05)*(f/60), hay P=200MW/HZ

76

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1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


S phn chia ph ti cc t my song song
Nu hai hoc nhiu t my vi c tnh iu chnh
dc ni vi mt HT, S c mt tn s duy
nht cc my pht s chia s cng sut thay
i khi ph ti thay i.
Gi s xt hai t my vi c tnh iu chnh nh
hnh v. Ban u hai t my vn hnh tn s f0,
vi cng sut u ra l P1 v P2.
Khi c mt s tng ln ca ti l PL dn n cc
tua bin t my b quay chm li , cc b iu tc
s tng cng sut u ra cho n khi t c
mt tn s chung mi l f
77

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


Lng ti m mi t my phi thay i ph thuc vo c
f
f
tnh dc:

P1 P'1 P1

P1 R 2
Hay P R
2
1

R1

v P2 P'2 P2

R2

P1 P2 PL

Hnh 11: Chia ti hai t my

78

39

1/6/2016

2. B phn iu tc tua bin


p ng thi gian
Khi c s tng ln ca ti v c c tnh dc nn s
tng ln ca cng sut u ra s i cng vi mt tc
xc lp hay s gim tn s (ss)

Hnh 12: p ng thi gian khi ti thay i

79

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


3.1 iu khin cng sut u ra 1 t my
Mi lin h gia tc v ti c th iu chnh c
bng cch thay i u vo nh mt gi tr t ca ti
nh hnh
Trong thc t, vic iu chnh gi tr t ca ti c
thc hin bng ng c thay i tc . Hnh v di
y ch ra vi nhiu gi tr t ca ti

80

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1/6/2016

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT

Hnh 13: M hnh b iu


tc tua bin khin ti
81

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


c tnh mt b iu tc ca mt HT vi f=60Hz nh
hnh v, C 3 ng c tnh trn hnh v tng ng vi
3 gi tr t ca ti.
c tnh A, kt qu l khng c cng sut u ra
c tnh B, kt qu l 50% cng sut u ra
c tnh C kt qu l 100% cng sut u ra

Do , cng sut u ra ca mt t my MP mt tc
cho trc c th iu chnh c bng cch thay i
gi tr t ca ti thng qua ng c iu khin tc
Cho mi gi tr t, c tnh ti tc c dc l 5%,
ngha l khi tc thay i l 5% (5%*60Hz= 3Hz) ko
theo 100% thay i cng sut u ra
82

41

1/6/2016

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


Khi hai hoc nhiu t my
vn hnh song song, c tnh
dc (tng ng vi mi
gi tr t ca ti) ca mi t
my s xc nh lng ti cn
tng thm khi m c s thay
i t ngt ca ph ti
C/s u ra ca mi t my
MP ti mt gi tr tn s cho
trc c th thay i ch khi
thay i gi tr t ca ti, kt
qu l s dch chuyn ng
c tnh ln hoc xung
Hnh 14: nh hng ca vic thay i tc da trn c tnh ca b iu tc tua bin
83

V d

84

42

1/6/2016

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


Vic phn tch iu khin ti-tn s (LFCs) ta quan tm
n vic vn hnh ca tt c cc MP trong HT. S dao
ng cng sut gia cc MP v h thng truyn ti c
th b qua
Gi s rng, p ng ca cc my pht khi c s thay i
ca ti c th c biu din bng mt my pht tng
ng
My pht tng ng c hng s qun tnh Meq l tng
ca tt c MP v c ko bi cng sut c tng hp
ca tng MP ring l, nh hnh v
Tng t, nh hng ca ti c biu din bng mt h
s cn D, Cc gi tr c biu din trong h n v tng
i
85

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


c tnh tng hp cng sut/tn s ca mt HT
ph thuc vo nh hng ca c tnh iu chnh
ca tng b iu tc ca cc MP. N cng ph
thuc vo c tnh tn s ca tt c cc ti trong
HT.

Hnh 15: M hnh tng ng nghin cu iu khin ti-tn s

86

43

1/6/2016

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


Vi 1 HT c n MP, v hng s cn ca ti D,
th lch tn s ch xc lp khi c s thay
i ti PL l
ss f ss

Vi

PL

PL

1 / R1 1 / R2 ... 1 / Rn D 1 / Req D
R eq

1 / R 1 1 / R 2 ... 1 / R n

Do c tnh p ng tn s tng hp ca mt
PL
HT l

1 / R eq D
9
f ss

87

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


c tnh p ng tn s tng hp thng c
din t bng MW/Hz. N cng lin quan n
cng ca mt HT
c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca mt HT l 1/
nh hng ca c tnh iu chnh tc b iu
tc tua bin ( dc) v mc nhy ca ti khi c
s thay i mt lng tn s c minh ha nh
hnh v

88

44

1/6/2016

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


Mt lng ti tng ln PL(ti fm) dn n s tng ln
cng sut u ra PG do nh hng ca b iu tc tua
bin v tng lng ti gim l PD do c tnh nhy theo
tn s ca ti

Hnh 16: c tnh tng hp ca b iu tc tua bin v ti

89

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


V d: Mt HT c tng ti l 1260MW ti 60Hz.
Ti thay i 1,5% khi tn s thay i 1% (D=1,5)
Hy tm lch tn s khi m ct t ngt ti mt
lng l 60MW trong cc trng hp sau
a) khi khng c iu chnh tc
b) HT c 240MW d tr nng, thm ch c th
n 500MW ca tng cng sut pht vi c tnh
iu chnh 5% da trn gi tr c bn ny. Tt c
cc MP ang vn hnh vi cc van m. Gi s
rng, nh hng thc t ca b iu tc tua bin
ch khong 80% ca p ng ca b iu tc i
vi s gim ca ti
90

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1/6/2016

Ch
Thay i ti khi tc / tn s thay i
P
f L PL fxD
D
f ss

PL
PL

1 / R 1 1 / R 2 ... 1 / R n D 1 / R eq D
R eq

1 / R 1 1 / R 2 ... 1 / R n

PL
1 / R eq D
f ss
91

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


Tng ti cn li l: 1260-60=1200MW
1,5

Hng s cn ca ti cn li l:
1200

100
30MW / Hz
60

100

A) Khi khng c b iu chnh tc ( R=0)

PL ( 60) MW

2,0 Hz f f 0 f 62 Hz
0 D 30 MW / Hz

B) v c s gim ti, => c s tng ln ca tn s, tt c


cc t my (ngoi tr nhng t my dnh cho d
phng) u c p ng
Tuy nhin, v nh hng thc t ch khong 80% tng
cng sut pht ra iu chnh tc
92

46

1/6/2016

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT

Do tng cng sut d phng l:


Ti+d phng =1260+240=1500MW
Cng sut ng gp cho iu chnh l
0,8x1500=1200MW
iu chnh bng 5% ngha l khi 5% tn s
thay i s dn n 100% cng sut u ra thay
i. Do
1
1

400 MW / Hz
R 5 / 100 x 60
1200
93

3. c tnh iu chnh tng hp ca HT


c tnh p ng tn s tng hp ca HT l

1
D 400 30 430MW / Hz
R

S tng ln ca tn s ch xc lp l
PL
(60) MW

0,1396 Hz
1

430
MW
/
Hz
D
R
f f 0 f 60,1396 Hz

PL

Kt lun: v c s iu chnh tc ca tua bin,


nn tn s khng tng nhiu (60,1396Hz so vi
62Hz ca trng hp a)
94

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1/6/2016

Bi tp 1: Cho ht gm 2 t my
T my 1: Csm l 600MW, R=6%,
T my 2: Csm l 500MW, R=4%

Hai t my lm vic song song vi ti l 900MW,


t my 1 ang pht 500MW, t my 2 ang pht
400 MW f=60Hz. Ti tng ln l 90MW
a) Hy tnh lch tn s v cng sut ca cc t
my khi D=0
b) Hy tnh lch tn s v cng sut ca cc t
my khi D=1,5
Gi s Scb=1000MVA
95

Tnh dc iu chnh ca tng t my h pu


6 1000
4 1000
x
0,1( pu ); R2
x
0,08( pu )
100 600
100 500
S thay i ti l: P 90 0,09( pu )
L
1000
R1

a)Vi D=0, s thay i tc / tn s ch


xc lp l:
f ss ss

PL
0,09
0,09

0,004( pu )
1
1
10 12,5
1
1

D
0,1 0,08
R1 R2

S sai lch tn s mi l:
f (0,004) x60 0,24 Hz f f 0 f 60 0,24 59,76 Hz
96

48

1/6/2016

Lng cng sut tng thm ca tng t my l:


P1

(0,004)

0,04( pu ) 40 MW
R1
0,1

P2

(0,004)

0,05( pu ) 50MW
R2
0,08

Cng sut pht ra ca cc t my l:


P1 P1 500 40 540 MW
P2 P2 400 50 450( MW )

97

b) khi D=1,5%
S sai lch tc /tn s l:
f ss ss

PL
0,09
0,09

0,00375( pu )
1
1
1
1

1,5 10 12,5 1,5


R1 R2
0,1 0,08

S sai lch tn s l:
f ( 0,00375) x60 0,225Hz
Tn s mi ca h thng l:
f f 0 f 60 0,225 59,775Hz 59,76 Hz

98

49

1/6/2016

Lng cng sut tng thm ca tng t my l:


P1

ss ( 0,00375)

0,0375( pu ) 37,5MW
R1
0,1

P2

ss (0,00375)

0,046875( pu ) 46,875MW
R2
0,08

Cng sut pht ra ca cc t my l:


P1 P1 500 37,5 537,5MW
P2 P2 400 46,875 446,875( MW )

Tng cng sut hai t my phi pht ra l:


P1 P2 37,5 46,875 84,375MW 90MW
99

V do tn s ang vn hnh 59,775 ln cng


sut ti gim i mt lng l
ss xD 0,00375 x1,5 0,005625( pu ) 5,625( MW )

100

50

1/6/2016

4. iu khin t ng cng sut MP


Vi b phn iu chnh s cp gm iu chnh
tc ca tua bin MP, khi c s tng i vi ti,
s dn n s gim tn s ch xc lp, v
mc gim ph thuc vo c tnh dc ca b
phn iu tc tua bin (R), v mc nhy theo
tn s ca ti (D)
Tt c cc t my MP s cng chia s lng ti
tng ln trong HT m khng quan tm n v tr
ti s tng ln
Vic khi phc tn s v gi tr nh mc s yu
cu cc hnh ng b sung iu chnh li gi
tr t ca ti
101

4. iu khin t ng cng sut MP


Mc ch c bn nht ca mt b t ng iu
chnh cng sut MP (Automatic Generation
Control=AGC) l iu chnh tn s v mt gi
tr nh mc, v duy tr s trao i cng sut gia
cc vng iu khin gi tr nh trc bng vic
iu khin u ra ca mt s t my.
Nhim v ny thng c xem nh l iu
chnh ti tn s (LFC= Load-Frequency-Control)
Mc ch th hai l phn b lng cng sut pht
cn phi tng thm gia cc t my gim chi
ph vn hnh cc t my
102

51

1/6/2016

4-1.AGC cho mt h thng in c lp


Vi 1 HT c lp, vic duy tr cng sut trao i
khng c cp, do , chc nng chnh ca
AGC l khi phc tn s v mt gi tr nh
mc. iu ny c thc hin bng cch thm
mt b iu khin tch phn, hot ng trn c s
thay i gi tr t ca ti ca b iu tc tua bin
ca cc t my c chn thc hin AGC
trong h thng nh hnh v
Hot ng ca b iu khin tch phn l m
bo s sai lch tn s ch xc lp bng
khng
103

4-1.AGC cho mt h thng in c lp


B phn iu khin b sung tc ng chm hn so vi
iu khin s cp tc c tc dng lm n nh tn s
h thng

Hnh 17: S AGC cho mt h thng c lp

104

52

1/6/2016

4-1.AGC cho mt h thng in c lp


Do , AGC iu chnh gi tr t ca ti ca cc
t my c chn (cc t my iu tn) iu
chnh tn s, tng ng vi cng sut u ra ca
cc t my, b qua nh hng ca c tnh iu
chnh tn s tng hp ca h thng,
thc hin iu ny, AGC s khi phc cng
sut ca cc t my khng tham gia AGC v gi
tr t ban u

105

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


to ra b phn iu khin ph ca HT c ng dy
lin lc, trc ht ta xt hot ng ca HT ch c b iu
chnh s cp tc .
Xt HT nh hnh v

106

53

1/6/2016

Hnh 18: S nguyn l v s thay th khi iu khin ng dy lin lc

107

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


iu tc 1 cm
nhn tc , c
gng cng sut
cPC1
+
C/ xc lp: tn
s mi (Gi tr
thp hn)

G M 1 s

PL1
PM 1 +

Tn s 1

GP1 s
-

CS trao i 12

PC 2
+

1
R1

iu tc 2cm
nhn tc , c
gng cng sut
c

P1 P12

1/ s

lch gc pha

GM 2 s

PM 2+

GP2 s

T12

-1

P2 P21

Tn s 2

1/ s

1
R2

PL 2

Ti

108

54

1/6/2016

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


Khi ti tng

Tn s gim
Trng thi xc lp t
c khi tn s ca hai
0
my pht in ging nhau

2
1
+

= Tng lng
thay i ti
PM

PM 1

PM 1 PM 2

PM 2

109

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


Tng ng ha mi HT thnh mt t my. Vic m
hnh l chp nhn c v ta khng quan tm n s
dao ng gia cc t my trong mt vng
Cng sut trn ng dy lin lc l

P12

E1E 2
sin 1 2
XT

Tuyn tnh ha t im lm vic ban u vi


1 =10 +10, 2 =20+ 20
Ta c P12=T12 (vi 12=1-2) .
H s ng b ha m men

T12

E1E 2
cos10 20
XT

10
110

55

1/6/2016

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


S khi bin din HT nh hnh v (18-c) vi mi vng
biu din bi mt hng s qun tnh tng ng M, h
s cn ti D, tua bin c b iu tc vi c tnh iu chnh
dc R.
ng dy lin lc c biu din bng h s ng b
ha m men T. Mt gi tr + ca P12 biu din mt s
tng cng sut t vng 1-2, iu ny tng ng nh
s tng ti vng 1 v gim ti vng 2, do phn hi
ca P12 c du (-) vng 1 v (+) vng 2
lch tn s ch xc lp (f-f0) l ging nhau hai
vng, nu c lng ti thay i l PL

f 1 2

PL
1 / R1 1 / R 2 D1 D 2

11
111

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


vng 1 , c s tng ln ca ti PL1 v ta c

Pm1 P12 PL1 f .D1

12

vng 2 ta c
13

Pm 2 P12 f .D 2

S thay i cng sut c ph thuc vo s iu chnh:

PG1 Pm1

f
R1

PG 2 Pm 2

f
R2

14

15
112

56

1/6/2016

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


vng 1 , c s tng ln ca ti PL1 v ta c
1

f D1 P12 PL1
R
1

f D2 P12
R2

16
17

Gii hai phng trnh trn ta c


f

PL1
PL1

1 / R1 D1 1 / R 2 D 2 1 2

18

V cng sut trn ng dy truyn ti


P12

PL1 1 / R 2 D 2
PL12

1 / R1 D1 1 / R 2 D 2 1 2

19

Trong , 1, 2 l c tnh p ng tn s tng hp ca


vng 1 v vng 2
113

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


Mi quan h c biu din nh hnh v
1 1 / R1 D1
2 1 / R2 D2

Hnh 19: Khi c s thay i ti vng I

114

57

1/6/2016

4-2 AGC trong HT c ng dy lin lc


S tng ti vng 1 PL1 s dn n s gim tn
s c hai vng, v trong ng dy lin lc s
xut hin thm dng cng sut P12
Nu du ca P12 l du m, ch cng sut chy
t nt 2 sang nt 1 v ngc li
Tng t nu c s thay i ti trong vng 2 PL2
ta c
f

PL 2
1 2

P12

20

PL 2 1
1 2

21

Mi quan h trn th hin vic iu khin ti - tn


s trong mt HT c ng dy lin lc
115

Bi tp v d
Cho mt ht gm hai vng ni vi nhau bi mt ng dy lin
lc, cc thng s cho di h n v tng i, Scb=1000MVA.
Vng

0,05 (5%)

0,0625(6,25%)

0,6

0,9

Sbaseb(MVA)

1000

1000

Hng s thi gian ca tua bin

tT1=0,5s

tT2=0,6s

Hng s thi gian ca b iu tc

tG1=0,2s

tG2=0,3s

Hai my pht lm vic song song tn s nh mc 60Hz,


1) Xc nh tn s, v cng sut trn ng dy lin lc, cng
sut cc vng khi m ti tng 187,5MW vng 1.
2) Xy dng simulink xc nh p ng tn s
116

58

1/6/2016

Gii
S thay i ca ph ti trong h n v tng i l:
PL1

187,5
0,1875( pu )
1000

S suy gim tn s do ph ti tng ln vng 1 l:


f

PL1
(0,1875)

0,005( pu )
1 / R1 D1 1 / R2 D2 1 0,6 1 0,9

0,05
0,0625

Tn s mi ca h thng l:
f f 0 f 60 0,005 x60 59,7 Hz
S thay i cng sut tc dng cc my pht 2 vng l:
Pvng1 f / R1 (0,005) / 0,05 0,1( pu ) 100( MW )
Pvng 2 f / R2 (0,005) / 0,0625 0,08( pu ) 80( MW )
117

S suy gim cng sut ti cc vng do tn s gim l:

vng1 : f .D1 0,005 x0,6 0,003( pu ) 3( MW )


vng 2 : f .D2 0,005 x0,9 0,0045( pu ) 4,5( MW )
S thay i dng cng sut chy trn ng dy l:
P12

PL1 1 / R2 D2
0,1875(1 / 0,0625 0,9)

0,0845( pu ) 84,5MW
1 / R1 D1 1 / R2 D2 (1 / 0,05 0,6) (1 / 0,0625 0,9)
Vng 1:

Ti tng: 187,5 MW
Pht tng: 100 MW

Vng 2

P12
-84,5 MW
(cng sut chy t vng 2
v vng 1

Ti tng: 0 MW
Pht tng: 80 MW

Ti gim do tn s suy
gim l: -3 MW

Ti gim do tn s gim: 4,5 MW

f=59,7Hz

f=59,7Hz
118

59

1/6/2016

S khi ca simulink

119

p ng

Pm1

Pm2

P12

120

60

1/6/2016

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
Mc ch ca vic iu khin b sung ny l khi phc
li s cn bng ti-pht trong mi vng
m bo tn s khng i
m bo cng sut trao i gia cc vng khng i

Vic iu khin b sung ny s b sung cho vng c ti


thay i. V d nu ch c s thay i ti vng 1 th s
c s thay i cng sut tng ng vng 1, vng 2
khng tc ng
T cng thc t 18-21 thy rng, mt tn hiu to ra s
sai lch v dng cng sut trn ng dy lin lc dn
n sai lch v tn s c trng s bi mt h s hm
Tn hiu iu khin ny c gi l sai s iu khin
vng (ACE=Area Control Error)
121

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
T 16,17, r rng l mt h s hm hp l cho mt vng
chnh l c tnh p ng tn s . Do , sai s cho iu
khin vng 2 l

ACE 2 P21 B2 f

B2 2

1
D2
R2

ACE1 P12 B1f


1
B1 1
D1
R1

Vy ACE din t s thay i ca cng sut pht trong mt


vng (MW), cn h s hm tn s din t di dng
MW/Hz

122

61

1/6/2016

Hnh 20 S nguyn
l iu khin b sung
Hnh v din t s
khi ca b iu khin
b sung. N c p
dng cho cc t my
iu tn trong vng

123

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
iu tc 1 cm nhn
tc , c gng
cng sut c
iu tc 1 cm nhn1
tc , c gng R
1
cng sut c

1
B1
+

ACE 1 = 0

ACE1

P+
12

GM 1 s

PM 1

ACE2

ACE 2 < 0

B2
2

GM 2 s
-

GP1 s

c/sut trao i 12
Thit lp cng sut iu
khin 2

K PC 2
2
s
+

Tn s 1
Tn s 1

Tua bin 2 cm nhn tc


1
gim , c gng
R
cng sut c
2
iu tc 2 cm
nhn tc , c
gng gim cng
sut c

1
+

P1 P12Sai lch gc pha


T12

C/ sut trao i 12

-1
P21+
+

K1 PC1
s
+

PL1

-1

PM 2

Sai lch gc pha

P2 P21

GP 2 s

PL 2 Ti 2

Tn s 2
Frequency 2

t/thi xc lp:
Duy tr tn s
Thit lp cng sut iu
khin 2 > 0
124

62

1/6/2016

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
Ti trong vng 2 tng ln

Tn s c hai vng s
gim
ACE iu khin lm cho

cng sut c hai vng 0


tng ln

= thay i ti vng 2

2
2
1

Trng thi xc lp t
c khi tn s tr li
im ang vn hnh v
MP vng 2 mang ti
ca n

= thay i ti vng 2

PM

PM 1 PM 1 PM 2

PM 2 PM 2

PM 1
125

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc

Cc yu t chn h s hm
Thc t, ch xc lp, chn h s hm
khng quan trng
Bt c s phi hp sai s iu khin (gm c
sai s cng sut trn ng dy lin lc v sai
s tn s) u c kt qu l s khi phc li
ch xc lp ca ng dy lin lc v tn
s t tc ng ca b iu khin tch phn
m bo ACE gim v 0.
minh ha cho iu ny, Xt v d vi h
thng 2 vng nh hnh v sau (hnh 20)
126

63

1/6/2016

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
Phng trnh trn s c P12, v f=0 vi cc gi tr khc
0 ca A1 ,A2, B1 ,B2,

ACE1 A1P12 B1f 0


ACE 2 A 2 P21 B 2 f 0
Tuy nhin ch ng th vic iu khin tn hiu sai s
ti-tn s l ht sc quan trng. iu ny c hiu nh
l mt qu trnh qu ca h thng iu khin cng sut
AGC khi c s thay i ti t ngt trong vng 1. S thay
i t ngt ca ti s dn n s gim tn s trong HT,
ko theo tc ng ca b iu tc tuabin, (iu khin s
cp ca cc t my trong 2 vng- v thng c thi gian
tc ng khng qu 10s) iu khin lch tn s v
gi tr fR xc nh t c tnh iu chnh f PL1
R

1 2

127

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
y c mt lch gia cng sut t v cng sut
thc trn ng dy lin lc. V vy vic thm mt b iu
khin b sung (thng tc ng chm hn iu khin s
cp ca b iu tc tua bin) s bt u p ng vi thay
i.
Xt nh hng ca b iu khin b sung vi cc gi tr
t khc nhau ca h s hm iu khin tn s vng tc
thi khi lch tn s l fR

128

64

1/6/2016

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
a) khi B1 =1 v B2 =2
ACE1 P12 1f R

PL1
PL1
1 2 1 2

ACE2 P12 2 f R

PL1
2 2 0
1 2

Nh vy l ch c b iu khin b sung ti vng


1 tc ng khi c s thay i PL1, v cng sut
pht trong vng 1 s thay i a gi tr ACE1
=0
Cn b iu khin b sung ti vng 2 th khng
tc ng
129

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
b), Nu nh B1= 2*1, B2= 2*2 c t gi tr gp i
c tnh iu chnh tn s vng tng ng th
ACE1 P12 1f R

PL1
1
2 21 PL1 1
1 2
2

ACE2 P12 2 2 f R

PL1

Nh vy th c hai vng u p ng khi c s thay i


cng sut ti mt vng. Nh vy kh nng khi phc li
tn s s nhanh hn, tuy nhin th lng cng sut pht
ra ca vng 2 s l phn nh n nh l mt thnh phn
ca ACE2 ,v s quay tr li gi tr xc lp

130

65

1/6/2016

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
c) Nu ta t gi tr hm (B) rt nh hn so vi
gi tr , s c mt trng hp ngc li . Tc l
b phn iu khin b sung trong vng 2 c xu
hng tr li cng sut tng thm bi cc MP
ca vng 2 do kt qu ca b phn iu khin tc
, kt qu l tn s s cng gim xung
Cng khng nn chn gi tr hm qu cao v n
c th lm HT iu khin mt n nh
Vic la chn ng gi tr hm cn c phi
nghin cu k lng v cn thn cho tng h
thng in.
131

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
Cho h thng 2 vng

PG( v01) PL(0v1) 1000 MW


R1 0,015 rad per sec/MW
( v1)
L

PG( v02) PL(0v 2 ) 10,000 MW


( v1)
L

(v2)
L

R2 0,0015 rad per sec/MW

10 MW

Hy tm s thay i tn s, ACE v hnh ng


iu khin tng ng
132

66

1/6/2016

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
T

PG( v1) DL( v1) f1 PL( v1) P12 PL( v1) P12
PG( v 2) DL( v 2) f 2 PL( v 2 ) P21 P21

v,
v

f f1 f 2

Ta c,
f

PG( v1)

1
f
R1

PG( v 2)

1
f
R2

PL( v1)
10

0,0136 rad per sec


1
1
1
1


0
,
015
0,0015
R
R
2
1
133

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
u tin, ta tnh P12 t
1
1
f
0,0136 0,9091 MW
R1
0,015
PL( v1) P12 P12 PG( v1) PL( v1) 0,9091 10 9,0909 MW
PG( v1)

PG( v1)

Do ,

P21 P12 9,0909 MW

1
1
f 9,0909
0,0136 10 MW
R1
0,015
1
1
ACE2 P21 f 9,0909
0,0136 0 MW
R2
0,0015
ACE1 P12

134

67

1/6/2016

4-3. iu khin c hm tn s ca HT c ng
dy lin lc
ACE ch ra tc ng ca mi vng khi ti thay i
ACE ca vng 2 bng 0, ngha l vng ny khng
c s thay i
ACE ca vng 1 nh hn 0, ngha l vng 1 cn
phi tng gi tr t ca b iu khin cng sut (-10) = 10 MW b cho lng ti tng.

135

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


Phng php iu khin k trn c th p dng
cho HT c nhiu vng
Cng sut trao i nh trc (scheduled
interchange) p dng cho mi vng l tng i s
ca dng cng sut trn cc ng dy lin lc
n cc vng khc
Khi mt vng c ni vi cc vng khc, cng
sut trao i t trc (scheduled interchange)
gia cc vng khng nht thit chy trc tip trn
cc ng dy lin lc ni cc vng, m dng
cng sut thc t c th phn chia theo cc
ng dy song song qua cc vng khc, ph
thuc vo in khng ca cc /d song song.
136

68

1/6/2016

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng

Hnh 21: S ba vng ni vi nhau qua ng dy lin lc

137

4-4 AGC trong ch bnh thng v s c


ch bnh thng: vi mi vng c th thc hin
nhim v iu khin ca n, hnh ng khc phc trng
thi n nh ca AGC c gii hn trong vng khi xy ra
thiu hoc tha cng sut pht. S truyn ti cng sut
lin vng c duy tr mc d kin v tn s h
thng c gi khng i
ch khng bnh thng, mt s vng khng th thc
hin cn bng pht-ti bi v s thiu ht cng sut d
phng trong h thng AGC. Cc vng khc s cho php
truyn ti cng sut khc vi cng sut d kin (actual
flow khc vi scheduled flow) iu chnh li tn s
HT. Mc iu chnh ty thuc vo kh nng iu
chnh ca tng vng so vi c vng.
138

69

1/6/2016

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


V d: Cho HT nh hnh v

Ti c ni tn s 60Hz l 20000MW, trong vng 1, v


40000MW trong vng 2, mi vng ti thay i 1% khi 1%
thay i tn s. Vng 1 ang nhp khu 1000MW t vng
2. dc iu chnh l 5% cho mi t my.
Vng 1 ang vn hnh vi d phng nng l 1000MW tri
u trong tng cng sut t d tr 4000MW ( c
1000MW d phng nng+3000MW d tr), v vng 2
ang vn hnh vi d phng nng 1000MW tri u trong
tng cng sut t d tr10000MW
Xc nh tn s xc lp trong cc trng hp sau:
139

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


1. Mt 1000MW ti trong vng 1, v khng c b iu
khin b sung
2. i vi mi s c sau, khi phn pht in ly cng sut
d phng nng trong mi vng, vi b iu khin b sung
vi h s hm tn s: 1 = 250MW/0,1Hz cho vng 1, v
2 = 500MW /0,1Hz cho vng 2
Khi mt 1000MW ti trong vng 1, ly cng sut d tr ( c
4000MW vng 1, 10000 MW vng 2) cho k b/sung
Mt 500MW pht trong vng 1, tin hnh ly cng sut d tr
Mt 2000MW pht, khng ly cng sut d tr (ch ly 1000MW
d phng nng, ko ly trong 3000MW d tr)
Ct mt ng dy lin lc, gi s rng khng c thay i i vi
lng cng sut t trc ca b iu khin b sung
Ct mt ng dy, gi thit rng cng sut t trc c t
bng khng khi mt ng dy

140

70

1/6/2016

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


1) Khi khng c b iu khin b sung
Gi thit tt c cc b iu tc tua bin u lm
vic bnh thng, tt c cc t my trong 2 vng
u p ng vi s thay i ti
Vi 5% iu chnh trong 20000MW pht ca vng
1 (bao gm 19000MW ang pht+1000MW d
phng nng trong vng 1) s p ng

141

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


Vi 5% iu chnh trong 42000MW pht trong
vng 2 (= 41000pht +1000 d phng nng)
vng 2 s p ng

Tng s iu chnh bi 62000MW ( pht ca 2


vng) trong hai vng l
H s cn ti ca 19000MW (=(20000-1000) cn
li sau khi mt 1000MW) trong vng 1 l:
142

71

1/6/2016

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


H s cn ti ca vng 2 (40000MW) l

H s cn ti tng ca c hai vng l:

S thay i tn s v mt 1000MW vng 1 l

143

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


Ti thay i do s tng ln ca tn s l

Cng sut thay i hai vng do vic iu chnh


tc l:

Tng hp ti mi, pht, v cng sut trn ng


dy lin lc l
144

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4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng

Cng sut trn ng dy lin lc t vng 2 n


vng 1 l 322.56MW, tn s ch xc lp l
60.04619Hz
P12

PL1 1 / R2 D2
( 1000)(14,000 666,67)

677.44( MW
1 / R1 D1 1 / R2 D2
20,666.67 983.33
145

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


B) Vi b iu khin b sung
i) Mt 1000MW ti vng 1:
Vng 1 c cng sut 4000MW iu khin b sung,
v s gim cng sut sao cho ACE1 =0, ng thi
vng 2 cng s gi ACE2=0

Do f=0, P12=0
Pht v ti Vng 1 gim 1000MW, do khng c s
gim cng sut pht/ti vng 2, hoc l dng cng
sut trn ng dy lin lc
146

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4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


ii) khi mt 500MW cng sut pht thc hin mt phn d
phng nng vng 1
Trc khi mt c/s pht, vng 1 c mt lng d phng
1000MW nng (tng cng sut d tr l 4000MW gm
3000MW +1000MW d phng nng (d phng nng tri
u trong 3000 MW))
1000 (MW) d phng nng trong tng s 3000MW
Trong X (MW) d phng nng trong 500 MW pht mt i
Ta c l thc:
X/500=1000/3000
Lng d phng nng b mt so vi lng cng sut pht
mt l
147

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


Lng
d
phng
cn
li
l:
1000166.67=833.33MW
Lng ny b cho 500MW pht b mt. Do
cng sut pht/ti trong hai vng c khi
phc nh gi tr trc khi s c
Ko c s thay i dng cng sut trn ng dy
lin lc hay tn s HT. Tuy nhin th lng cng
sut d phng vng 1 gim t 1000MW xung
833,33MW

148

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4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


iii, khi mt 2000MW pht trong vng 1, khng ly
cng sut d tr (Tc l mt 2000MW
19000MW ang pht, ko ly phn d tr ( m ch
ly d phng nng 1000MW trong 4000MW)
Mt na lng cng sut mt i s c b bng
lng cng sut d phng nng 1000MW ca h
thng iu khin b sung.
Khi t gii hn, vng 1 khng c kh nng iu
khin ACE na, m vng 2 s phi iu khin
ACE
Do
149

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


V c s suy gim tn s, dn n ti thay i mt
lng do s nhy ca ti theo tn s l:

S thiu ht cng sut pht ca vng 1c b


bng lng trao i t vng 2 (1000MW) v
lng gim ca ti (do s nhy theo tn s)

Gii ra ta c:
150

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4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


Lng ti thay i vng 1 l:

Lng thay i trn ng dy truyn ti l:

Lng ti thay i vng 2 l:

151

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


Tng kt

Tn s l: 60-0.1875=59.8125 Hz
Cng sut trao i l: 1000+937.5=1937.5MW

152

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4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


iv, Khi ct ng dy truyn ti, gi thit l khng
thay i gi tr t cng sut trao i ca b iu
khin b sung:
B iu khin s c gng gi lng cng sut
trao i l 1000MW,
Do :
Gii ra ta c:
Thay i lng ti vng 1

153

4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


Tng t:
V:
Tng kt:

154

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4-4.H thng c nhiu hn hai vng


v, Khi ct ng dy, v gim lng cng sut
truyn ti ca b iu khin b sung v 0.
Th cc b iu khin s tng thm cng sut
1000MW b cho lng thiu
Vng 2 s gim 1000MW
Tn s 2 min l 60Hz
Vng 1:

Vng 2

P12

Ti : gi nguyn 20000 MW

Ti : 40000 MW

Pht : 20000 MW ( tng ln 10000MW)

Pht : 40000 MW(gim 1000MW)

f=60Hz

f=60Hz

155

4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
Phn loi v n nh HT theo IEEE/ CIGRE 2004

Phn loi theo

n nh HT

n nh gc roto

Nhiu lon
nh

n nh tn s

Qu

Ngn hn

Ngn hn

n nh in p

Nhiu lon
nh

Di hn

Nhiu lon
ln

Ngn hn Di hn

Hin tng vt
l/ thng s h
thng chnh

Mc kch
ng/ s c

Khong thi
gian

156

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4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
Mc ch v c im ca sa thi ph ti
Vic duy tr tn s nh mc c m bo bi nhng b
iu chnh tn s v cng sut
Lng thiu ht cng sut tc dng c th c loi tr
khi c sn ngun d phng nng
Nu khng c ngun d phng th dn n vic thiu ht
mt lng P lm cho my mc quay chm li
Khi tn s gim lm lng thiu ht P cng gim i, lm
cng sut cc b phn c gim.
V d cng sut u ra ca b qut gi t l vi bnh phng ca
tn s v cng sut u ra ca cc bm gim theo bc 3 ca tn
s

157

4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
Mc ch v c im ca sa thi ph ti
H thng vn hnh tn s thp hn tn s nh mc s
nh hng n cht lng cung cp in v vi phm cc
iu sau y:
Nu vn hnh di 49,5 (58.5)Hz th mt vi b phn ca tua
bin hi (phn cnh tua bin di, p sut thp) s chu ng s rung
lc cc k nguy him, c th dn n ph hy bn kim loi,
gy v cnh tua bin (Hnh 23)
S lm vic ca cc h thng t dng c ko bi cc ng c
khng ng b, cc my bm nc nu di 49 (57)Hz th cng
sut u ra gim nghim trng v c th dn n ct t my
Ngoi ra, khi tn s gim, my pht kch thch gim tc (loi
DC) v sc in ng ca MP gim, lm in p ht gim. iu
ny c th ko theo hin tng sp in p v dn n ct
in mt vng rng ln

158

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4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
Mc ch v c im ca sa thi ph ti
Nhng s c nguy him trong h thng c th dn n
tan r h thng thnh cc o c lp
Nu mt o c lp thiu cng sut pht, s dn n s
suy gim tn s
Tr khi c ngun pht d phng nng, lc tn s suy gim
s c xc nh bng c tnh ti (Hnh 22)

Tn s suy gim s dn n cc bo v r le s ct cc t
my pht nhit in bo v h thng cnh tuabin: (hnh
23)
iu ny cng lm xu i tnh hnh, c th dn n sp tn s

159

4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
Mc ch v c im ca sa thi ph ti

Hnh 22: Tn s suy gim do s suy gim


cng sut pht (L)

Hnh 23: S hn ch lm vic tng phn


hoc y ti ca tua bin hi nc trong
di tn s gii hn

160

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4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
Bo v tn s tua bin

Mt s tiu chun ca bo v tn s tuabin


1 Thit lp tn s ct (ngng tn s) v thi gian tr
da trn cc gii hn tn s khng bnh thng ca
tua bin
2. Phi hp r le tn s thp ca MP tua bin hi vi
chng trnh t ng ct ti ca h thng
3. Li ca mt r le tn s thp n l khng gy nh
hng nguy him cho ton th s bo v
4. H thng bo v tn s thp ca tua bin phi lm
vic bt c khi no MP lm vic khng ng b vi
h thng, hay tch ra khi HT nhng vn cn cung
cp cho h thng t dng
161

4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
T ng sa thi ph ti

Tiu chun ct ti
1. Chng trnh ct ti nn trnh s sai lch tn s
di 46,5Hz trong hn 30 chu k v tn s c th khi
phc tr li.
2. Tn s h thng phi khi phc nhanh c mt
thi gian d tr so vi s bo v tua bin
3. Tn s tng qu do s ct ti phi c gii hn
nh hn 51Hz trnh gii hn tn s cao ca tua bin

162

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4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
T ng sa thi ph ti

ngn chn hot ng m rng ca o


c lp tn s thp, mt c cu sa thi
ph ti c xut nh sau
10% sa thi ti khi tn s gim xung 59,2 Hz
15% sa thi ti khi tn s gim xung 58,8 Hz
20% sa thi ti khi tn s t 58,0 Hz?
Nu lng thiu ht cng sut ln hn, th c cu
phi tnh n s suy gim tn s v mc suy
gim tn s nng cao tnh chn lc
Ontario Hydro s dng xu hng r le bo v
tn s kiu ny
163

4.5 Bo v tn s - t ng sa thi ph ti
T ng sa thi ph ti

Hnh 24: Logic tc ng ca bo v r le sa thi ph ti theo tn s

164

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Tan r h thng in 2003


Ngy 28 thng 9 nm 2003
Tnh trng trc s c (Ch nht, 3:00 sng):
Tng ti l 27.700 MW, vi 3638 MW ti ng c bm
Tng cng sut nhp khu t cc nc chu u khc
l 6651 MW

165

Trc khi c s c ti ,
C s c ti USA 14/8/2003

166

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167

Tan r h thng in 2003


Trnh t s c:
Do phng in t ng dy vo cy dn n ct
mt ng dy lin lc gia v Thy S (MettlenLavorgo 380 kV ) lc 03:01:22
R le kim tra ng b ngn vic ng lp li t
ng v bng tay do s lch pha ln gia cc cc
ca my ct (42)
Kt qu l lm qu ti trn mt ng dy song song
cn li
Cc c gng gim lng qu ti ca tt HT
Thy s khng thnh cng
168

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Tan r h thng in 2003

Lc 03:21, lng nhp khu in ca Italy


gim 300 MW nhng khng gim lng
qu ti trn ng dy cn li (380 kV SilsSoazza), sau b ct do dy vng v
phng in vo cy trn hnh lang tuyn lc
03:25:22
Qu trnh sp c xu hng tip tc v lng
cng sut thiu ht ca Italia lm qu ti v
ct tip cc ng dy lin lc vi France,
Austria v Slovania
Vic mt cc ng dy lin lc ny lm h
thng Italy thiu 6400 MW
169

Tan r h thng in 2003


Tn s suy gim nhng khng c iu khin v
gim st kp thi bng h thng sa thi theo tn s thp
Kt qu l sau vi pht, ton b h thng sp lc
3:28:00

Hu qu

60 triu ngi b nh hng


Tng in nng mt l 180 GWh
Ti t nht trong lch s ngnh in Italy
Mt 3 gi khi phc min bc, v mt mt ngy
khi phc hon ton HT Italia
Nhiu t usd
170

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Tan r h thng in 2003

171

S c ngy 4/11/ 2006 ti chu u


HT lin kt chu u
24 quc gia, 29 TSOs (= Transmission System Operators)
H thng in phn tn (DG)

B chia tch thnh 3 min nh, vi tn s khc nhau


nhng khng c tan r v c h thng sa thi tn s
lm vic tt

172

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S c ngy 4/11/ 2006 ti chu u

Bn cht: Duy tr s cn bng


gia nhu cu cng sut tc dng
ca ti v kh nng cung cp
cng sut tc dng ca ngun
173

S c ngy 4/11/ 2006 ti chu u


Tnh trng trc s c:
Mt s /dy b ct ra, lng
cng sut trao i NG-TY
(EST-WEST) ln
E.ON Nezt c k hoch ct
/d: Conneforde-Diele. E.ON
Nezt thng bo vi RWE TSO
v TenneT. Tha mn tiu
chun N-1
Yu cu li l ct /d sm hn
3 gi, E.ON thc hin phn
tch theo tiu chun N-1- tha
mn, nhng thng bo n
RWE TSO v TenneT chm
n lc 7pm-November, 4
2006
174

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S c ngy 4/11/ 2006 ti chu u


Trnh t s c:
Lc 9.38pm, ng dy Conneforde-Diele b ct ra.
T 9.38pm to 10.08pm, h thng b qu ti nng .
Lc 10.10pm, E.ON thay i cu hnh thanh gp TBA
Landesbergen
Nhng dn n ct ng dy Landesbergen- Wehrendorf
do qu ti
Dn n qu ti cc ng dy khc ko theo s ct mt
lot cc ng dy truyn ti.
Lc 10.10 pm v 30 s sau, h thng b chia tch thnh 3
vng ring r bi s sai lch tn s

175

S c ngy 4/11/ 2006 ti chu u

TS. Nguyn ng Ton

176

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S c ngy 4/11/ 2006 ti chu u


Vng 2: Lng cng sut tha l 6000 MW
Vng 1: tn s gim xung 49Hz, do h thng t ng sa
thi ph ti.

177

178

89

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179

180

90

1/6/2016

Cu hi
S kin tan r HT min Nam ca Vit Nam
ngy 22/5/2013 , din ra trong khong 1 pht
30 giy???
Nguyn nhn c th l: Sp in p + sp
tn s
Hy tm hiu phn sp tn s??? Bi tp iu
kin 2 tun sau np

181

Tm tt ni dung
Khi nim chung
Cc cp iu chnh tn s trong HT: gm 3 cp
1. iu chnh s cp (cp 1)- iu chnh tc tua bin
Tc ng tc thi (t ng) i vi s thay i ca ti - iu
chnh tc ca b phn iu tc tua bin- theo c c tnh
iu chnh dc

2. iu chnh th cp (cp 2) iu chnh tn s


Phn b li cng sut pht ca cc t my
iu khin li dng cng sut trn cc ng dy lin lc

3. iu chnh cp 3 Phn b li cng sut


m bo cc t my vn hnh mt cch kinh t nht.

182

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Tm tt ni dung
T ng iu chnh cng sut pht i vi ht
n l (AGC for single system)
Ti thay i khi f thay i: f PL P fxD
L
D
Tn s ht thay i l:
f ss

PL

PL

1 / R1 1 / R2 ... 1 / Rn D 1 / Req D

T tnh c/s ca MP thay i P1


Vi

PL
1 / R eq D
f ss

R eq

f ss
f ss
; P2
R1
R2

1 / R 1 1 / R 2 ... 1 / R n
183

Tm tt ni dung
T ng AGC cho ht c ng dy lin lc:
Cng sut t my thay i :P f ; P f
m1
m2

R1

Thay i tn s:

PL1

1 / R1 D1 1 / R 2 D 2

R2

PL1
1 2

Cng sut trn ng dy lin lc (thay i ti vng 1)


PL1 1 / R 2 D 2
PL12
P12

1 / R1 D1 1 / R 2 D 2 1 2
Cng sut ti thay i khi tn s thay i

PL fxD
184

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Tm tt ni dung
AGC c iu khin b sung, ngha ca vic iu
khin ACE?
Xem li cc bi tp v d

185

IU KHIN CNG SUT PHN


KHNG V IN P TRONG HT
Nguyn ng Ton
toannd@epu.edu.vn

93

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3. IU KHIN CNG SUT PHN KHNG V IN P TRONG HT

Phn loi v n nh HT
n nh HT

n nh tn s

n nh gc roto
- Kh nng duy tr s ng b ha
- S cn bng m men c/inca MP ng b

Nhiu lon
nh

n nh in p

Kh nng duy tr tn s - Kh nng duy tr m un


trong di cho php
in p ti cc nt
S cn bng cng sut - S cn bng cng sut
tc dng ca MP v
Q v kh nng /k in
ti
p

Nhiu lon
nh

Qu

Ngn hn

Phn loi theo

Ngn hn

Di hn

Ngn hn

Nhiu lon
ln

Di hn

Hin tng vt
l/ thng s h
thng chnh

Mc kch
ng/ s c

Khong thi
gian

187

187

1. Khi nim v cng sut phn khng


Cng sut phn khng dng thit lp nn t trng
hoc in trng, n c cha trong in cm hoc t
in
Thng thng Q lin quan n :
Ti in cm: Tiu th Q
Ti in dung: Sinh ra Q

My in ng b:
Khi b qu kch thch, s sinh ra cng sut phn khng
Khi km kch thch s hp th Q

188

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1. Khi nim v cng sut phn khng


Mc d Cng sut phn khng lin quan n cc phn t m
c gi tr trung bnh bng 0, tuy nhin n li rt lin quan n
cng sut tc dng -thc yu cu
cha v phng nng lng t trng trong cun cm v in
trng trong t in hai ln trong mt chu k.

Trong mt HT, vic trao i nng lng din ra gia ngun v


in cm/t in
Cng sut tc dng lin quan n cng sut phn khng l tng
ca cc nng lng cha trong in cm v t in

nng cao hiu qu, vic iu chnh v qun l in p/Q l


rt quan trng trong vic vn hnh cc HT.
So snh vi iu khin cng sut tc dng mang tnh ton h
thng, th iu khin in p/Q mang tnh a phng / cc b

189

1. Khi nim v cng sut phn khng


Cc ng dy truyn ti trong thc t th:
Dng cng sut tc dng xc nh ch yu bng lch gc pha in
p cc nt(P chy t nt c gc ln v nt c gc b)
Dng cng sut phn khng xc nh bng lch m un in p
cc nt ( Q chy t nt c V ln v nt c V b)

Cng sut tc dng c cung cp bi cc MP :


Vic nhn c dng cng sut tc dng t cc MP c thc hin
bng vic iu chnh tua bin m men c

Cc ngun cng sut phn khng


Cc MP ng b (qu kch thch )/ thit b b ngang / dung dn ca
cc ng dy truyn ti

Tiu th cng sut phn khng :


MP ng b (km kch thch)/ng c khng ng b /ti cm tnh
in khng ca cc ng dy truyn ti MBA/ (cc b bin i
AC/DC v DC/AC) ca ng dy HVDC , ti
190

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2 n nh in p trong HT n gin
Xt HT n gin c s thay th 1 pha nh
hnh v:

Z R jX Y G jB ( B 0)

S12 P12 jQ12

R=0, Z=jX, => Y=1/Z = -jB


V1

V2

Nt 1
+

Z=R+jX

Nt 2
+
V22

V11 ~

_
S12

SD=-S21

191

2. n nh in p trong HT n gin
Khai trin ta c
P12 | V1 |2 G | V1 || V2 | G cos(1 2 ) | V1 || V2 | B sin(1 2 )
Q12 | V1 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos(1 2 ) | V1 || V2 | G sin(1 2 )

Gi s ng dy l khng tn tht, R=0 hay


G=0 P12 | V1 || V2 | B sin(1 2 )
Q12 | V1 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos(1 2 )

192

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2. n nh in p trong HT n gin
Gi s rng: 12=1-20, th sin12 12 , cos12 1

P12 | V1 || V2 | B(12 )
Q12 | V1 | B| V1 | | V2 |
C/s tc dng P ph thuc gc cng sut 12 v,c/s tc
dng chy t ni gc ln v ni gc nh
C/s phn khng Q ph thuc vo m un in p v chy
t ni c in p cao v ni c in p thp

193

2. n nh in p trong HT n gin
Ngi ta mong mun gim Q truyn ti v
Tn tht cs tc dng/phn khng trn ng dy:
P I 2 R v Q I 2 X
2
2
P jQ P jQ P Q
2
*

I
.
I

Ta c:
*
V2
V V

Do tn tht
l:2
2

P Q
P2 Q2
P
R v Q
X
V2
V2

=> Gim Q s gim tn tht P, v tn tht Q


=>Gi V cao s gim tn tht, nng cao n nh
in p
194

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2. n nh in p trong HT n gin
Thc t ng dy c vn hnh kh gn in
p nh mc (5-10)% mi im trn ng
dy, do s rt kh truyn ti Q v ng
dy nhn chung l tiu th Q. Ngoi ra ngi ta
khng mun truyn ti nhiu Q trn ng dy v
cc l do sau:
Cho d ng dy khng tn tht (R=0) th vn c tn
tht Q=> rt kh truyn ti Q i xa
Gim Q truyn ti trn ng dy s gim tn tht P
Gim Q truyn ti trn ng dy cng gim tn tht
Q( tit kim chi ph u t)
Vn n nh in p
Gy ra qu in p tm thi khi m mt ti t ngt 195

3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
pha ti: ta c SD=PD+jQD=-(P21+ jQ21)
PD P21 | V1 || V2 | B sin( 2 1 )
| V1 || V2 | B sin(1 2 )
Q D Q 21 | V2 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos( 2 1 )
| V2 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos(1 2 )

t: 12=1-2
PD | V1 || V2 | B sin 12
Q D | V2 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos 12

196

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3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
Gi l gc cng sut l gc lch pha gia V2 v
I V2 I Vi >0 l I chm sau V, <0 l I vt trc V
Cng sut ti c tnh nh sau
SD V2 I* | V2 || I | e j

| V2 || I | (cos j sin )
| V2 || I | cos (1 j

sin
)
cos

PD (1 j tan )
t =tan ta c:

SD PD jQ D PD (1 j)
197

3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
Do , ta c cc phng trnh sau:
PD | V1 || V2 | B sin 12
Q D | V2 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos 12

SD PD jQ D PD (1 j)
Nu biu din theo PD v QD ta c:

Q D PD | V2 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos 12

PD | V1 || V2 | B sin 12

PD | V2 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos 12

Bnh phng hai v ca P, Q ta c

198

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3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
2

PD ( PD | V2 |2 B) 2 | V1 |2 | V2 |2 B2 (sin 2 12 cos 2 12 )
2

PD (PD | V2 |2 B) 2 | V1 |2 | V2 |2 B2

Rt gn ta c:
2

P
2P

| V2 | D | V1 |2 | V2 |2 D2 1 2 0
B
B

y l phng trnh bc 2 ca |V2|2 do c


nghim l:

2 2

| V1 |4 PD PD
| V1 |2 PD

| V2 |


| V1 |2
2
B
BB

4
2

199

3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
Gi s rng in p u ngun |V1|=1pu v B=2
pu
1 PD 1 PD (PD 2)
| V2 |2
2
Ta c th v ra ng cong P-V nh on m
sau:
% pf = 0.97 lagging
beta=0.25
pdn=[0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.78];
v2n=sqrt((1-beta.*pdn - sqrt(1-pdn.*(pdn+2*beta)))/2);
pdp=[0.78 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0];
v2p=sqrt((1-beta.*pdp + sqrt(1-pdp.*(pdp+2*beta)))/2);
pd1=[pdn pdp];
v21=[v2n v2p];
% pf = 1.0
beta=0
pdn=[0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.99];
v2n=sqrt((1-beta.*pdn - sqrt(1-pdn.*(pdn+2*beta)))/2);
pdp=[0.99 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0];
v2p=sqrt((1-beta.*pdp + sqrt(1-pdp.*(pdp+2*beta)))/2);
pd2=[pdn pdp];
v22=[v2n v2p];

% pf = .97 leading
beta=-0.25
pdn=[0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
1.3];
v2n=sqrt((1-beta.*pdn - sqrt(1-pdn.*(pdn+2*beta)))/2);
pdp=[1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0];
v2p=sqrt((1-beta.*pdp + sqrt(1-pdp.*(pdp+2*beta)))/2);
pd3=[pdn pdp];
v23=[v2n v2p];
plot(pd1,v21,pd2,v22,pd3,v23)

200

100

1/6/2016

3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
ng cong P-V vi cc h s cng sut khc nhau

|V2|

in p vn hnh

Pf=power factor = h
s cng sut = cos

d tr n nh

201

3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
Mt s nhn xt v ng cong PV
Biu din quan h ca in p ti theo cng sut tc dng ca ti
Mi ng cong c mt gi tr ti ln nht => gi l gi tr mang ti
ln nht. Nu ti tng qu gi tr ny, th in p s gim thp, mt
kh nng iu khin
Vi mt gi tr ti, c hai gi tr in p: Gi tr ln l in p vn
hnh, cn gi tr thp ch c ngha v mt ton hc.
iu kin PF =1 hoc chm sau th khi P ti tng s lm in p
gim xung, do bng vic quan st s suy gim in p ngi
vn hnh s nhn thc c tnh trng nguy him, v cn c bin
php tng ng trc khi sp in p
Trng hp PF vt trc, th khi P ti tng, thm ch in p cn
tng ln mt cht, do rt kh pht hin ra hin tng sp
in p. Trng hp ny xy ra khi truyn ti lng cs ln, v c
b cng sut phn khng
202

101

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3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
Gi s vn trong HT nh hnh v
PD | V1 || V2 | B sin 12
Q D | V2 |2 B | V1 || V2 | B cos 12

Gi s V1=1pu, v gi tr PD v V2 cho trc, tnh


12 t p/t u, v Q t p/t th 2. Lp li cho cc
gi tr khc nhau ca V2 ta s c ng cong Q-V
cho mt gi tr PD cho trc
ng cong Q-V c th c tnh bi Matlab:
v1=1.0;
b=1.0;
pd1=0.1
v2=[1.1,1.05,1.0,.95,.90,.85,.80,.75,.70,.65,.60,.55,.50,.45,.40,.35,.30,.25,.20,.15];
sintheta=pd1./(b*v1.*v2);
theta=asin(sintheta);
qd1=-v2.^2/b+v1*b*v2.*cos(theta);
plot(qd1,v2);

203

3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
ng cong Q-V

|V2|

QD
204

102

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3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
Trong thc t: cc ng cong ny c th c tnh t
cc chng trnh tnh ton LF:
1. M hnh ha ti cc nt cn tm mt my b ng b, (P=0) v
Q v cng ln
2. t |V| mt gi tr mong mun
3. Gii bi ton LF
4. Ly gi tr Q ca my b ng b ti nt quan tm
5. Lp li bc 2-4 trong mt di in p

ng cong VQ/QV c mt s u im sau so vi PV:


D dng c c nu c mt chng trnh tnh ton LF
Cc chng trnh tnh ton LF s kh hi t khi kt qu gn im
gii hn ca ng cong PV nhng vn s hi t khi im vn
hnh gn im gii hn ca ng cong QV

205

3. ng cong PV v VQ/QV
Nu quay ng cong
QV i mt gc 900 theo
chiu kim ng h, ta
c ng cong VQ
u im
Xc nh c d tr
cng sut phn khng
Giao im ca ng
cong v trc V xc nh
in p lm vic ca HT
D dng c c nu c
mt chng trnh tnh
ton LF

Q
(MVAr)

V
(pu)

D
tr Q

206

103

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4. iu khin cng sut phn khng


Mc tiu iu khin: nng cao hiu qu v
tin cy trong vn hnh h thng in-> tnh a
phng
in p ti cc thit b trong gii hn chp nhn c
C thit b ca cng ty in lc v khch hng c thit k
vn hnh mt di in p
Vic ko di thi gian in p nm ngoi khong cho php c
th dn n h hng thit b

Tha mn iu kin n nh
Vic iu khin in p v cng sut phn khng c nh
hng ln n n nh ht

Hn ch cng sut phn khng truyn ti s gim tn


tht tc dng I 2R v phn khng I 2X
m bo ng dy truyn ti vn hnh hiu qu
207

4. iu khin cng sut phn khng


Mt cch hiu qu iu khin in p v qun l
ngun cng sut phn khng trong h thng truyn
ti l dng mtcu trc iu khin:
Kt qu l nng cao hiu qu, an ninh, linh hot vn
hnh h thng in.
c bit quan trng cho h thng mch vng, v h thng
lin lc
Nng cao n nh in p bng cch s dng tt nht ngun
VAr

iu khin in p h thng c phn chia thnh ba


cp: S cp, th cp v cp 3
Ba cp iu khin c phi hp vi nhau v thi gian v
khng gian
Khong thi gian khc nhau m bo rng ba cp ca
c cu iu khin khng c nh hng xu n nhau

Cu trc iu khin c pht trin v dng Chu


u,
208

104

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4. iu khin cng sut phn khng


A iu khin s cp :
Lin quan n hnh ng iu khin t ng ca cc
thit b ring l da trn h thng o lng ti ch
Cc thit b dng trong iu khin s cp:
My pht in
Thit b b VAr ng nh: SVC, STATCOM (SVC-Plus), my
b ng b
Cc thit b t b, khng in ng ct
Cc b phn t ng iu p di ti ca MBA (ULTC)

Cch iu khin ny thng xuyn c dng trong


cc HT

209

4. iu khin cng sut phn khng


B iu khin in p th cp :
H thng truyn ti c phn chia thnh cc vng khng
tng tc
nhy thp ca cc nt in p trong mt vng i vi vic pht Q
trong vng khc
in p trong mi vng c iu khin c lp

Cc ngun iu khin Q-V trong mi vng c iu khin


theo cch c phi hp trong khong thi gian t mt n
vi pht
Mc ch iu khin l duy tr an ninh h thng v c vn hnh
kinh t/ hiu qu : nng cao n nh in p v gim tn tht

iu khin th cp in p t ng iu chnh li ngun


cng sut phn khng, c th l Q u ra ca cc MP,
iu khin in p ti mt im c th trong vng c
hiu l in p nt xa "pilot node"
in p nt xa (voltage at pilot node) c din t l in p ti cc
im trong vng iu khin
210

105

1/6/2016

4. iu khin cng sut phn khng


Qu trnh x l tt c cc thng tin yu cu gim st tt c cc
bin cn thit trong vng iu khin v thc hin cc phn tch cn
thit t c mc ch mong mun:
V d, EDF p dng cho h thng in Php, s dng m hnh ma
trn nhy tnh ton bng my tnh trung tm iu khin vng.

An ninh h thng yu cu cn nhc cc tiu chun v phn tch s


c ngu nhin (contingencies) v yu cu d phng
V hiu qu, iu khin in p th cp thc hin iu khin/iu
chnh theo thi gian thc cc gi tr t ca h thng iu khin s
cp v qun l iu khin cc ngun cng sut phn khng
tha mn cc iu kin vn hnh v cc yu cu
Cc chc nng iu khin b sung c th c thm vo nh l
mt phn ca h thng in khin in p th cp nng cao an
ninh h thng :
My pht in khi ng/tt my, gim s phn b in p, kha
cc u ULTC ca MBA, v sa thi ph ti
211

4. iu khin cng sut phn khng


C) iu khin cp 3:
Mc ch l t c s phi hp iu khin in
p trn mt mc ton b h thng: nh mt vng rng
ln hoc mt quc gia
Da trn h thng o lng thi gian thc

Tin hnh trong khong thi gian t 10 pht hoc hn


Xc nh in p ti u nht ca h thng v tin hnh
li gi tr t ca iu khin in p cp 2

212

106

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4. iu khin cng sut phn khng


My pht in ng b
C th pht ra hoc tiu th Q ty theo ch ca kch t
c tnh lm vic gii hn bi dng in kch t, dng in phn
ng, v gii hn nhit ca cc vng u cui ca cc thanh dn
H thng t ng iu chnh in p AVR s lin tc iu chnh
dng kch t iu khin in p phn ng.
L ngun chnh cung cp chnh iu khin in p

ng dy trn khng
Khi mang ti di gi tr ti t nhin (SIL) s sinh ra Q
Khi mang ti gi tr trn cng sut t nhin(SIL) tiu th Q

Cc ng dy cp ngm
C gi tr SIL cao, do c dung khng ln
Lun mang ti di gi tr SIL, nn lun pht ra Q
213

4. iu khin cng sut phn khng


MBA
Lun tiu th Q v in khng mch t ha, v in khng ca
MBA

Ti
Mt nt ti in hnh thng bao gm nhiu thit b tiu th
c tnh ti tng hp thng l tiu th Q
Cc ti cng nghip c th cc t b ngang nng cao cos().

V dng cng sut lun thay i, cng sut phn khng


yu cu ca h thng truyn ti cng lun thay i
V rt kh truyn ti Q i xa, do vic iu khin in
p phi dng nhng thit b c bit, phn tn trong h
thng in
214

107

1/6/2016

5.Cc bin php iu khin in p


iu khin in p c thc hin thng qua vic iu
khin vic sn xut, tiu th, v dng cng sut phn
khng ti cc mc khc nhau ca h thng in
iu khin MP l mt trong nhng bin php c bn
iu khin in p (iu khin h thng kch t)
Cc bin php khc thng yu cu iu khin in p
trong ton b h thng :
Cc ngun sinh ra hoc tiu th Q nh t b ngang, khng b
ngang, my b ng b, v SVC
Cc thit b b dc trn trn ng dy
Cc MBA c b phn iu chnh in p di ti ( ULTC)
215

5.Cc bin php iu khin in p


T b ngang hoc khng b ngang l loi b th ng
C th ni c nh hoc ng ct c trong h thng truyn ti
hoc phn phi
iu khin in p bng cch thay i c tnh ca h thng in

Thit b b ng b v SVC l cc thit b b tch cc,


chng c th iu khin cng sut phn khng pht ra
hoc hp th vo mt cch t ng duy tr m un in
p ca cc nt m n kt ni
Cng vi cc MP, chng iu khin in p ti cc im c th
trong h thng
in p ti cc a im khc trong h thng c xc nh bi
dng cng sut tc dng v phn khng thng qua cc yu t
mch khc nhau, bao gm c cc thit b b th ng

216

108

1/6/2016

5-1. ng dy
iu khin in p hoc nng cao kh nng ti cng
sut
Nhn c bng cch thay i cc thng s ng dy
mt cch hiu qu
ZC
Tng tr c tnh
Chiu di in, = l

L
C

in p c xc nh bi ZC
Cng sut ln nht c th truyn ti cng ph thuc vo
ZC v

217

5-2. Khng in b ngang


c s dng b nhng tc ng in p khng mong
mun lin quan n dng in dung
hn ch in p tng trn ng dy h mch hoc non ti

B ngang vi khng in
Tng ZC
Gim ti t nhin,
Chng c kt ni bng mt trong hai cch:
Trc tip vi ng dy ti cc u
cun dy th ba ca MBA, thun tin chuyn sang nh cc
yu cu khc nhau VAr

Gim qu in p khi ng ct
Trong ng rt di, yu cu t nht mt s in khng
phi c kt ni vi ng dy
218

109

1/6/2016

5-3.T in b ngang
c s dng trong h thng truyn ti b cho lng tn
hao I2X
Ni trc tip n thanh gp cao p hoc cun th 3 ca MBA
Thng phn b phn tn trn ton h thng gim thiu tn
tht in p
Thng ng ct: mt cch thng thng iu khin / p
B t b ngang b cho ng dy c tc dng
Gim ZC
Tng gc , ngha l, tng chiu di in

/im: chi ph thp v tnh linh hot trong lp t v vn hnh


Nhc im: lng Q t l vi bnh phng ca in p, v vy
sn lng Q gim in p thp?
T b ngang c s dng rng ri trong cc h thng phn
phi, b h s cos v iu khin in p trung p
219

5-4.T b dc
1

P12

Ni ni tip vi ng dy
Dng gim in khng ca ng dy

Nng cao cng sut ti ln nht P12=[V1*V2/(XL-XC)]sin(12)


Gim tn tht cng sut phn khng I 2X

T b dc c hiu qu c trong hai hin tng:


Thay i in khng ZC, v
Chiu di in

Cng sut phn khng c sinh ra cng tng khi tng


cng sut truyn ti
T iu chnh

p dng ch yu
Nng cao kh nng truyn ti
Thay i s phn chia ti trn cc ng dy song song
iu chnh in p
220

110

1/6/2016

(a) Cng sut truyn ti l mt hm ca gc

(b) in p gia ng dy l mt hm ca cng sut truyn ti

Figure 11.56 Performance of 600 km line with and


without passive compensation
221

5-5. My b ng b

My b ng b l my in chy khng c tua bin,

Ph thuc vo dng in kch t, n c th hp th hoc pht ra cng


sut phn khng

Vi mt b iu chnh in p, n c th t ng iu chnh cng sut


phn khng VAr duy tr in p khng i

Khi ng nh mt ng c khng ng b, sau c ng b


ha

Thng ni vi cun dy th 3 ca my bin p

Khng ging nh SVC, my b ng b c in p trong (s)

Tc p ng khng nhanh bng SVC

222

111

1/6/2016

My pht in ng b v b gii hn kch t


c tnh lm vic MP
Gii hn kch t do gii hn nhit v
Do tc dng ca b gii hn kch t If.

Q
Qmax

Ga tr xp x
dng tnh LF

Gii hn dng in phn ng do


gii hn nhit phn ng, do tc
dng iu khin ca P v If.

P
Qmin

Gii hn do n nh tnh (gi tr in p u


cc nh E dn n |E||V|Bsin nh), v do gii
hn nhit stator do dng in xoy gy pht
nng phn cui cc thanh dn
223

5-6 MP ng b v b gii hn kch t


1. S mt n nh in p c nguyn nhn t vic MP t n
gii hn pht cng sut phn khng.
2. Cc chng trnh tnh ton LF thng m t MP vi Qmax
c nh. Thc th Qmax khng c nh. ng c tnh Q ch ra
rng Qmax l mt hm ca P v b gii hn khi P tng.
3. Qmax c thit lp theo b gii hn kch t (Over-eXcitation
Limiter (OXL-OEL). Dng in kch t c gi tr ch 2 xc
lp If-max . T t gi tr gii hn. V nhit t l vi t qu taiI f dt
Cc OEL thng t thi gian l mt hm t l nghch vi t l
If/Im
2.0
c tnh OEL
4. Khi OEL tc ng gii hn If,
If
th MP khng th tng thm Q.
Im
Do v c tnh PV hay QV,
1.0
10 Thi gian qu120
ti (sec)
th c s gim t ngt trn ng cong
224

112

1/6/2016

5-6 MP ng b v b gii hn kch t


nh hng ca OEL trn ng cong PV
Khi MP t n gii hn Q

|V|
Khi khng c
gii hn v Q

P
(ti)

225

5-7.Thit b b tnh (SVC)


Thit b b tnh cng sut phn khng ni song song pht
ra hoc hp th cng sut phn khng iu khin in
p ti im ni thit b
Khi nim tnh -static hm khng c phn quay,
Cc loi SVC c bn:
Khng in iu khin bng thyristor
T in ng ct iu khin bng thyristor
Khng in bo ha

Mt h thng b tnh l s tch hp ca SVC v t


in/khng in ng ct bng c kh hoc bng thyristor
Khi vn hnh gi tr in dung ti hn, SVC hot ng
ging nh mt t in thng thng
226

113

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Figure 11.41 c tnh tng hp ca SVC

Figure 11.44 S dng cc t b ng ct m rng di iu khin lin tc

227

Figure 11.52 Mt h thng


SVC in hnh

Figure 11.53 SVS


c tnh xc lp

228

114

1/6/2016

5-8.Thit b STATCOM

C th vn hnh nh b bin
i ngun in p hoc b bin
i ngun dng
Hnh v di l dng b bin
i ngun p

Hiu qu nh mt ngun in
p sau mt in khng ghp ni
C th iu khin bin in
p

c iu khin bi mt b
ngun p mt chiu l t in

C th vn hnh gi tr cao
hn gi tr dng in nh mc,
thm ch ti gi tr rt thp ca
in p (0.2 pu)
Yu cu t b lc sng hi v t
in so vi mt SVC, khng c
in khng
Rt nh gn

229

(a) c tnh V-I

(b) c tnh P b im
gia

Source: N.G. Hingorani and L. Gyugi, "Understanding FACTS", IEEE Press, 1999

230

115

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5-9.B t ng iu p di ti -ULTC
MBA vi b phn iu chnh u phn p l mt phng
php quan trng dng iu chnh in p trong h
thng in
Vic iu chnh mt my bin p s dn n thay i in
p cc cc ca n
iu ny s nh hng n dng cng sut phn khng
Kt qu l s c nh hng n in p ca cc nt khc trong h
thng ty theo cu hnh h thng v mi quan h TI/PHT

Vic phi hp iu khin ca b u phn p ca cc


my bin p phn phi t c hiu qu chung mong
mun ca ton h thng
Trong iu kin nng ti, in p ca h thng c gi
gi tr thc t cao nht
Gim yu cu cung cp cng sut phn khng
Tng hiu qu cc cc t b v t b sinh ra trn ng dy
231

5-9.B t ng iu p di ti -ULTC
in p vn hnh cao nht cho php ca ng dy
truyn ti ph thuc vo:
Yu cu v cch in ca cc thit b
Xem xt n trng hp ng ct khi vn hnh v khi s c.

Trong iu kin non ti, ULTC c yu cu lm gim


i in p ca h thng:
Gim cng sut phn khng sinh ra t cc ng dy
Trnh trng hp vn hnh km kch thch ca cc my pht in

MBA vi b phn t ng iu chnh in p di ti


c dng p ng s thay i ca ti trong h thng,
tng pht ,hng gi hoc hng ngy
MBA c u phn p c nh c dng theo ma ( Fixed
tap)
232

116

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5-9.B t ng iu p di ti -ULTC
V ULTC dng iu chnh in p pha ph ti, mt khi
in p cao p gim, th in p pha ti khng c thay
i. Do ch xc lp th cho d ti pha h p l
Z khng i th i vi pha cao p lun coi ti l P khng
i.
C hai tiu chun
1. Khi in p gim thp vi tc nhanh pha h p v nu s
gim in p thp th /C c th dng quay dn n s gim
tc thi ph ti (v ULTC thng tc ng trong khong thi gian
c vi pht- ULTC khng kp iu chnh)
2. Nu khi ULTC t n gi tr gii hn (u phn p nh nht),th
in p pha h p bt u gim thp, lc cn phi m hnh s
nhy ca ph ti theo in p

233

5-9.B t ng iu p di ti -ULTC
V1 v t trong
n v
tng i

t:1
HV

V1

V1/t

LV

Trong h vt, th t s l: t:1


Trong : t thay i t 0,85-1,15 pu
Mi bc c th thay i t 0,005 pu (thng thng
5/8%=0,00625)
Thi gian dch chuyn mi bc khong 5s
C khong thi gian tr t 2-3 ln khong thi gian
dch chuyn trnh b ULTC dch chuyn qu nhiu.

Trong iu kin in p thp pha cao p th


ULTC s gim t s t tng t s V1/t= V2.
234

117

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5-9 B t ng iu p di ti -ULTC
M hnh ha thit b ULTC

235

5-9 B t ng iu p di ti -ULTC

236

118

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6. Mt s s c do sp in p
S c ti cc bang min ty nc M (Western
Systems Coordination Council -WSCC) 2 /7/1996:
Vng Wyoming v Idaho lc 14h24 37: HT nng ti,
nhit trong vng cao, khong 38C.
Lng CS truyn ti t vng Pacific NW v California
kh cao c th nh sau:
/d lin lc AC: 4300MW (gii hn l 4800MW)
/d lin lc DC: 2800MW ( gii hn l 3100MW)

Sau c mt s c ngn mch mt pha trn ng


dy 345 kV t nh my in 200MW Jim Bridger trong
vng Wyoming n Udaho do phng in t ng
dy vo cy trong hnh lang tuyn.
237

6. Mt s s c do sp in p
S c ny dn n vic ct mt ng dy mch kp khc do s
tc ng sai ca bo v r le.
Vic ct 2 trong bn t my ca nh my in Jim Bridger theo
tiu chun n nh l ra s lm n nh li HT.
Tuy nhin vic s c ct ng dy 220kV trong min ng
Oregon lm in p gim thp trong vng min nam Idaho, v
s suy gim dn dn trong vng trung tm Oregon.
Khong 24 giy sau, mt ng dy 220kV kh di khc t vng
min ty Montana n min nam ca Idaho b ct ra do vng ba
ca bo v khong cch, iu ny lm cho mt ng dy kp
161kV khc b ct ra sau dn n vic suy gim kh nhanh
in p trong vng Idaho v Oregon.
Khong 3 giy sau, 4 ng dy 220kV t Hells Canyon n
Boise cng b ct ra, 2 giy sau, h thng truyn ti lin lc vi
vng Pacific b ct ra.
238

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6. Mt s s c do sp in p
S tan r HT xy ra sau khong 35 giy t s c u
tin. Khong 2,2 triu ngi b nh hng, lng ti
b mt vo khong 11900MW.
Nguyn nhn chnh l s sp in p [1], [10].

Hnh v II-2: Qu trnh sp in p trn h thng 500kV

239

6. Mt s s c do sp in p

240

120

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TSAT was used to Replicate Disturbance in


Time Domain

241

6. Mt s s c do sp in p
S c HT ngy 12/01/1987 min ty nc
Php:
Trong khong 50 pht, bn t my ca nh my nhit
in Cordemais b ct ra, dn n in p trong HT
gim thp ko theo 9 t my nhit in khc cng b
ct ra trong vng 7 pht sau trong c 8 t my do
bo v qu kch thch tc ng.
Tuy nhin th in p vn c gi n nh gi tr rt
thp (trong khong t 0.5 pu n 0.8 pu).
Trong khong thi gian 6 pht in p gim thp
phi ct mt lng ti l 1500 MW cu vn s sp
hon ton HT.
Nguyn nhn chnh l do sp in p trong khong
thi gian di hn.
242

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6. Mt s s c do sp in p

Hnh v : Sp in p trong h thng in php ngy 12/1/1987


243

6. Mt s s c do sp in p
Min nam Vit Nam
14 gi 15 ngy 22/5/2013 s c ng dy 500 kV Di Linh - Tn nh gy
mt in ti cc tnh pha Nam.
15 gi 54, EVN vn hnh tr li ng dy 500 kV Bc - Nam.
22 gi 40, EVN khi phc li ton b h thng in ca min Nam

Ti Campuchia
in b mt lc 2 gi chiu phn ln Phnm Pnh, n ti mi c in
tr li

Nguyn nhn
Nguyn nhn ca s c l do mt chic xe cu ch cy g vng vo
ng dy ti in 500kV lm gy nhy tt c t my pht in, dn ti
h thng in min Nam mt ton b (vi tng cng sut khong 9.400
MW)=> Vi phm hnh lang tuyn

nh hng
15 nh my in vi 43 t my phi tch ra khi li in. Tng thi gian
khi phc ko di 8 ting. Hu qu ca v vic c nh gi l rt
nghim trng
Thit hi ch i vi ngnh in c tnh ban u l 14 t ng
244

122

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Pleiku

Di Linh
DakNong
Tn nh

Ph Lm

245

246

123

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247

7 M phng s sp in p
Vng Pht

HT BPA

G1

C5

G2

G3

C8

Vng ti

P, Q
1

C6

C7

11

10

C9

ULTC

C11

Gm c:
10 nt, 2 vng
3 MP, 5MBA, 1MBA c ULTC, 6 t b
M hnh: G1 HT v cng ln, G2, G3 m hnh MP chi tit
GENROU, kch t SEXS, MP G3 c OEL
Ti tnh v ng c ti nt 8
Kch bn: Khi

t=5s, ct 1 mch 6 - 7
248

124

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7 M phng s sp in p

MP

249

7 M phng s sp in p

Kch t

250

125

1/6/2016

7 M phng s sp in p

Gii hn kch t

251

7 M phng s sp in p

B iu p di ti ULTC

252

126

1/6/2016

7 M phng s sp in p

ng c in

253

7 M phng s sp in p

Khi ch c ULTC
T/H C: c ULTC

in p

u phn p ln/nh nht

ULTC tc ng
ln u

Cc bc iu chnh u phn p tip


theo

T/H B: khng c ULTC

254

127

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7 M phng s sp in p

Ch c OEL
T/H B: khng c OXL G3
in p
T/H D: vi OEL ti G3

255

7 M phng s sp in p
Cng sut phn khng ca G3
Qu trnh qu (sau 5s)

Tc ng ca ULTC (at t=35 s)


Tc ng ca OEL(t=65s)

Sp in p (lc t=80s)

in p ca nt 11

0 5

35

65

80

100(s)

256

128

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M phng sa thi ph ti theo in p thp


Nguy kch
Vng pht
G

Load area

Khng
nguy him

Ti

H thng
G

truyn ti

Q(MVAr)

ULTC

Ngun Q d phng

C tc dng tr hon mt khong thi


gian n sp

Nhc ca bin php phng nga

UVLS da trn kinh


nghim ca

=> Bin php hiu chnh

S c: nguy him
Ngun Q d phng: hu nh HT

(C.W. Taylor and D. Lefebvre)

Sa thi l bin php cui cng


257

Ci t r le UVLS
in p (pu)
1.05

Tiu chun vn hnh


0.95
0.93 Ngng u tin
Tc ng ca RL UVLS
0.90

D phng n im sp in p
im ti
hn

Khi ng sau 120s sau s c


0.93 pu: sa thi 5% ti trong khong 8s
0.92 pu: sa thi 5% ti trong khong 5s
0.90 pu: sa thi 5% ti trong khong 3,5s

5% n 8% mi bc
Ln nht c th t n
20% tng lng ti

Thi gian khi ng RL

P (MW)

Lng ti b sa thi mi
bc

Cn nhc nh hng ca
ULTC v OEL

Thi gian mi bc

3-10 giy

258

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M phng R le sa thi theo in p thp


vi li in Bc u
Kch bn sp in p: Ct mt MP nt 4047
1.0

0.9

in p (Pu)

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

259

in p ti nt 41 khi khng c v c RL sa thi


ph ti theo in p thp (UVLS)

V tr ca AGC trong h thng EMS

260

130

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QUESTION?

261

131