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: , ,

- -
, .
.
- .
- .
) - (transporters
) , .(...
-
, .
-
. , .
- "".



20- ?

?
Tm (oC)

Mw

-22

74

CH3CH2COOH

-50

73

CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2

253

75

NH2CH2COOH

233

68

NaHCO2

R
NH3 C COO-

R
I
H C- -


20 .
R -.
11

R
.1 ) (

Lys Arg His


.2 ) (

Asp Glu Cys Tyr

'

.3 )
(

Asn Gln Tyr Ser Thr


.4 ) (

Ile Ala Gly Val Leu

Phe Tyr Trp

Pro

Met Cys

)H3O+(aq)+ RCOO-(aq

)RCOOH(aq) + H2O(l

])[H3O(aq)+ ] [RCOO-(aq

= Ka

])[RCOOH(aq
Ka


pKa = -log Ka
pKa - ,
])[RCOO-(aq

Ka

])[H3O(aq)+ ] [RCOOH(aq
pH pKa -
) H3O+(aq ,Ka -:
])]RCOO -(aq)] = [RCOOH(aq
pKa = - log Ka = - log [H3O+(aq) ] =pH

)RCOOH(aq) + H2O(l

)H3O+(aq)+ RCOO-(aq
)[[RCOOH(aq)] = [RCOO-(aq

pH= pKa

pH - +H3O

RCOOH
pH< pKa

)RCOOH(aq

pH - +H3O

RCOO
pH > pKa )RCOO (aq

)H3O+(aq)+ RNH2(aq
])[RNH2(aq)] = [RNH3+ (aq

)RNH3+(aq) + H2O(l
pH= pKa

pH - +H3O

+
RNH3
pH< pKa

)RNH3+(aq

pH - +H3O

RNH2
pH> pKa

)RNH2(aq

-
)RNH3+(aq) + OH-(aq
pKb = - log Kb

)RNH2(aq) + H2O(l
])]RNH3+(aq)] [OH-(aq

= Kb

])[RNH2(aq
pH - )RNH2(aq
pH - )RNH3 +(aq
Kb
[ )] RNH2(aq] = [RNH3+(aq
pOH=pKb ])[RNH2] = [RNH3+(aq
+1/2


NH3- CH2 -COOH+
)OH- (aq

)H3O+(aq

NH3-CH2-COO+
)OH-(aq

?

pKa -

)H3O+(aq

NH2 - CH2 -COO

pKa= 2.34

pKa= 9.6

pH-
pKa= 9.6

pKa= 2.34

- -

pH

NH3- CH2 -COOH+

NH3-CH2-COO+

NH2 - CH2 -COO

pKa [RNH2] = [RNH3+]= 9.6

pKa [RCOOH(aq)]= [RCOO-]= 2.34

RNH3+( aq) - RCOOH(aq)

pH< pKa

RNH2 ( aq) - RCOO-(aq)

pH> pKa

pH-
pKa= 9.6

- -

pKa= 2.34

NH3- CH2 -COOH+

0
1/2-

NH3-CH2-COO+

NH2 - CH2 -COO


pKa [RNH2] = [RNH3+]= 9.6

+
+
-

2.34< pH

1/2+

1/2-

pH

2.34= pH
0

2.34>pH 9.6 >


9.6 = pH
-

9.6< pH

pKa [RCOOH(aq)]= [RCOO-]= 2.34

RNH3+(aq) - RCOOH(aq)

pH< pKa

RNH2 (aq) - RCOO-(aq)

pH> pKa

pI
pH - .
pI -

pH- + pH- -
9.6 + 2.34
= pI
= 5.97
2
pH pH<pI pH>pI pI-
pH


pH- ' " .
) ( " .
.Gly

- +

- +

pI
pH - .
pI -

pH- + pH- -
9.6 + 2.34
= pI
= 5.97
2
pH pH<pI pH>pI pI-
pH


pH- ' " .
) ( " .
.Gly

- +

- +

NH3

pKR= 10.53

(CH2)4
pKa = 8.95

NH3- CH-COOH

pKa= 2.18

pKa= 2.18

OH-(aq)

H3O+(aq)
+

pKa = 8.95
pKR= 10.53

NH3

(CH2)4
NH3 - CH -COO-

OH-(aq)

H3O+(aq)
+

NH3

NH2

(CH2)4

OH-(aq)

(CH2)4

NH2 - CH -COO-

H3O+(aq)

NH2 - CH -COO-

pI
+

NH3

(CH2)4

- -

+2

+1.5

-1/2

NH3- CH COO-

+1

NH3

+1/2

+1/2

NH3- CH -COOH
+

NH3

(CH2)4
+

-R

(CH2)4
NH2- CH COONH2
(CH2)4
NH2- CH COO-

-1/2

+1/2

-1

pH
pH> 2.18

pH= 2.18
2.18< pH<8.95
pH = 8.95
8.95<pH<10.53
pH= 10.53
pH< 10.53

COOH

pKR = 4.25

(CH2)2
pKa = 9.67

NH3- CH-COOH

pKa = 2.19

OH-(aq)

H3O+(aq)

Glu
pKa= 2.19
pKa = 9.67
pKR = 4.25

COOH
(CH2)2
NH3 - CH -COO-

OH-(aq)

H3O+(aq)
COO-

COO-

(CH2)2

OH-(aq)

(CH2)2

NH3 -CH -COO-

H3O+(aq)

NH2 - CH -COO-

Glu pI
-

COOH
(CH2)2
+

NH3- CH -COOH
COOH
(CH2)2

NH3- CH COO-

COO-

-R -

+1

+1/2

-1/2

-1/2

-1/2

(CH2)2
NH3- CH COO-

-1

COO(CH2)2

-1.5

+1/2

-2

NH2- CH COO-

pH

pH< 2.19
pH= 2.19
2.19< pH<4.25
pH = 4.25
4.25 < pH< 9.67

pH= 9.67
pH> 9.67

? ) ( ' pH
COOH

NH2

NH2

2)CH2 (

NH3 - CH COO
+

C=NH2

NH
3
-

NH2 - CH -COO

)CH2 (

NH2 - CH -COO

CONH2
2

)CH2 (

CONH2

)CH2 (

NH3+ - CH -COOH

2
-

)CH2 (

NH3+ - CH COO

.Glu -

Lys
pH ?
+

Lys

Glu

Lys .Glu -
pH ?
+

Lys

pH Lys

? Glu-

pH Asp

? Glu-

Glu


=
R
+

NH3- CH COO

NH3- CH COO

'
R

NH- CH COO

+-

N -NH3- CH CO

Gly?Ala -
20 , ,
?


.1

Asp-Phe-Arg-Asn-Glu-Ala

.2 pKa- :
. pKa- ) ( pKa-
.
. pKa - COOH- C 3.6
pKa - NH3

N 8

3.9
12.5
4.25
Asp - Phe - Arg - Asn - Glu 8-Ala

pKa3.5
.3 - pH--

.4

3.9
8
pH

Asp - Phe - Arg - Asn - Glu -Ala


R -R --

3.5 -
3.5
3.5 -3.9 -
3.9
3.9 -4.25 -
4.25
4.25 -8 -
8
8 -12.5 -
12.5

12.5

pI - ?

4.25
3.5
-

-
.
S-S ) S (3SO-
S-S ) S (SH
.
HS

SH

S-S

.

- 6M HCl C 1100
"

2Asn: 2Phe: Arg: Cys

SH

Asn-Phe-Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe

.1 . ) (
FDNB DNP -

Asn-Phe-Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe

DNP

Cys

Asn

Arg

DNP Asn

Phe

Phe

Asn-Phe-Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe
Phe
Cys

Asn

Arg

Asn

Phe


Met
Asn-Gly
Lys Arg
Phe Trp Tyr
Tyr Trp Phe

Asn-Phe-Arg

Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe

Asn-Phe-Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe

Asn-Phe

Asn-Cys- Phe

Asn-Phe-Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe

Asn-Phe-Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe




Phe-Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe

Asn

.
Phe-Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe


)
Arg-Asn-CysPhe
Phe

(PTH

Arg-Asn-Cys- Phe

Asn-Cys- Phe

Arg


.
.

? Phe
Asn-Phe-Arg-Asn-CysPhe
Asn-Phe-Arg
Asn-Phe
Asn-Cys

Arg-Asn
Phe-Arg

Asn-Cys- Phe
Cys- Phe
Asn