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RemotelyOperatedVehicleROV

2016

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1.0

2016

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3...................................................................................................................................................................................
5.........................................................................................................................................................................................
9..................................................................................................................................................................................
9......................................................................................................................................................................................
11..............................................................................................................................................TechnicalReport
13.....................................................................................................................................................................................
17.................................................................................................................................................................................
17................................................................................................................................................................PropulsionSystem
18..................................................................................................................................................PropulsionSystem
19....................................................................................................................................Propulsionsystems
19......................................................................................................................................
20...............................................................................................................................
) ( 22..........................................................................................................................
22............................................................................................................................................
23.....................................................................................................................................................................
24.................................................................................................................................................ThrusterTest
25.................................................................................................................................................................
25....................................................................................................................................HBridgeMotorDriver
DC 26.......................................................................................................ToggleSwitch
28......................................................................................................................................................................
) / / /( 28................................................................................................................
29................................................................................................VectoredThrusterDiagram
30.........................................................................................................................ThrusterControlBoard
30.......................................................................................................................................................PowerSystem
30...........................................................................................................................................................
31.............................................................................................................................................................
31................................................................................................................NavigationAndControlSystem
33...........................................................................................................................SurfaceControlConsole
35..........................................................................................................................................HandController
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35....................................................................................................................................................................Sensors
36..................................................................................................................................................................Cameras
36......................................................................................................................................................................
37.....................................................................................................................................................UmbilicalCord
39.............................................................................................................................................CableFloats
40......................................................................................................................VertebraeBendRestrictors
40..............................................................................Launch&RecoverySystemsLARS
42...........................................................................................................TetherManagementSystemTMS
43..............................................................................................................................................................
44..............................................................................................................................................................Frame
44.........................................................................................................................................................................Lights
44..................................................................................................................................................................Lift Bag
) 45....................................................................................................................( RoboticArm
46........................................................................................................SystemIntegrationDiagramSID
ROV 46....................................................................................
48.........................................................................................................................................................................
51................................................................................................................................................................................
53...................................................................................................................................................................................
53.................................................................................................................................................
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The first step in understanding any
technology is to understand the reason
why it exists. ROVs were developed
because there is no other practical, safe
and economically feasible way to perform
deep-sea exploration and/or intervention.
Throughout history, man has explored the
seas for such reasons as gathering food
and salvaging cargo of sunken ships. To
reach any significant depth or stay an
extended length of time, the development
of diving apparatus was required. The first
use of such technology was recorded in
the mid sixteenth century, when the first
diving "helmet" was used. Since then,
open water dives have been made to
nearly 2,000 feet, a depth which involves
an enormous amount of cost and risk to
human life.
Manned
submersibles
were
then
developed for deepwater exploration.
Unfortunately, these vessels still required
substantial support from above and still
put humans at risk of serious injury or
death. In addition, they were slow to
launch and recover and had limited
bottom time, making them economically
infeasible. The introduction of commercial
ROVs in the mid-seventies has made
manned submersibles virtually obsolete.
Although many groups have been
involved in the evolution of ROV
technology, the United States Navy is
credited with advancing the technology to
an operational state in its quest to develop
robots to recover underwater ordnance
lost during at-sea tests. Since then, ROVs
have been used for everything from
rescue and recovery efforts of downed
planes to the observation and repair of
subsea oil rigs, in addition to deep sea
exploration.



ROV

seas .
.
. Diving Helmet
( 600 )2000

.


.




.

ROV .
.

ROV

ROV .


.

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ROV

ROVs come in all shapes and sizes ROV


depending on what they are designed to
do but all ROVs have a few structures in .

common. ROVs have a rigid frame that


must withstand high pressure and extreme

temperatures as deepsea temperatures
. 400
can range from near freezing to over 400
Propulsion Motors
degrees Celsius. Mounted to the frame
Ballast Floatation
are motors to provide propulsion,
Neutral Buoyancy
floatation and ballast that combine to
provide neutral buoyancy, and a tether or Umbilical Cord Tether
umbilical cord linked to the ship that .

provides power and is used to control Cameras Lights


movement. Other equipment such as collecting Sensors
lights, cameras, sensors, and collecting
devices are often attached as well.

. devices

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:
.
.
.
)( .
.


.
The first step in designing our ROV was to select proper thrusters. Two reasons
behind this selection were impacts on overall cost and size of the ROV. Our final
decision for thrusters has been sea-scooter thrusters.

In the ROV structure the center of gravity and the center of buoyancy were intended to
happen in such a way that it became passively stable

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ROVProjectFlowchart

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Technical Report
:
Table of Contents
Expenses
Design Rationale
Frame
Electronics
Canister
Tether
Thrusters
Cameras
Control
Power
Lights
Mission Specific Tools
Safety
Troubleshooting
Challenges
Lessons Learned
Future Improvements
Reflections
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References
Acknowledgements
Appendix A: System Integration Diagram (SID)
Appendix B: Detailed Budget
Appendix C: Controller Diagram
Appendix D: Thruster Diagram
Appendix E: Safety Checklist

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http://www.homebuiltrovs.com/howtos/buoyancytips/buoyancyanim.gif

.
.
The#1RulewhenitcomestoRovbuoyancyis"It'seasiertoaddmoreWeightthanitistoadd
moreFloats."Rule#2is"YoualwayswanttheFloatsattheTopandtheWeightsatthe
Bottom."ThiskeepstheRovstablewhenitisinthewater.
) ( NeutralBuoyancy
:

: .

: .
ROV
.
:

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,
.

.
!

Neutral buoyancy
ThebiggestquestionIgetis"Howdoyouknowhowmuchtoadd?"Youcouldfigureout
displacement,weight,massandallthatfunstuffbutItaketheeasywayout.(Rememberyour
Rovshouldfloatfirst)IplacetheRovinthewaterandusingameshbagcenteredontheRovI
addweight(washersinthiscase)tothebaguntilIgettheRovasclosetoNeutralbuoyancyas
Ican.Ithendivideupthewashersinto2evenpilesandthreadthemontotwodowelsand
stuffoneineachskid.Ithenfinetuneeverythingontheactuallydive.


) (.
ThenextbiggestquestionIgetis"Neutral,Negative,orPositiveBuoyancy?"Wellitsamatter
ofpersonalpreference.

: Neutral Buoyancy Negative Buoyancy Positive


Buoyancy
Neutral Buoyancy Negative Buoyancy
Up Thruster
.

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: NeutralBuoyancy

.
: .
:
.
: Negative Buoyancy ,
.
:
.
.
:
.

: Positive Buoyancy ,
.
:
.
.
:
.


: .
: .

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Propulsion System

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Propulsion System

Propeller

The best choice for the thrusters of designed ROV are the brushless DC motors to achieve minimum
dimension for the same power rating.

Regarding the fact that in most industrial applications surge, heave and yaw motions are satisfactory, only
three thrusters would meet the demand. In the so called three-thruster arrangement two thrusters supply
parallel propulsion for surge motion which also give yaw moment in differential mode and one thruster to
propel the vehicle for heave motion. The other common distribution provides the same 3 degrees of
freedom with more actuators

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In general, ROVs in the water would have at most six degree of freedom; three rotations and
three translational motions.

Propulsion systems
. Electro-hydraulic
. Electric
.


Motor Maximum Current in Full Load (Amperes)

. Maximum Rotation Speed

Powerful, resistant to saltwater corrosion


Had the high torque and low speed needed for a marine propeller.
Thrustersoutput lbs(Newtons)

Gear , Direct Drive Thruster


. Multiple Output Gearbox Drive

Buoyancy System
In the design it was desirable to have 0.3m meta-centric height and no offset in the x or y axes
direction between center of gravity and center of buoyancy.

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ROV . Joystick Controller

http://www.electronicspoint.com/attachments/rovcircuitusing4relay4pushbuttonandand8diodesgif.6588/
ROVcircuitwhichuseajoystickasacontroller


Thrusters .
:
) ( . Magnetically Coupled Drive
) ( .
.
.
.

Shaft
) (
.

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Theres several ways to create a sealed shaft: you can use sealed bearings with grease or
you can use a magnetic coupling.

Notethatmagnetsareconfiguredinalternatingpolaritythisprovidesgreatertorquetransferbothallowingopposite
polarizedmagnetstoattracteachother,butpreventsskippingbyrepellingneighboringmagnets

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) (

)( .
.


Magnets
- .

) (
.
.
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.
.

Thruster
.
.

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Thruster Test

https://www.bluerobotics.com/images/gifs/tank-test.gif
ThrusterTestStand

Measure thrust, rpm, and power.


Force Of The Thruster Accurate Load Cell .
. Forward and Backward Directions

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H Bridge Motor Driver

http://www.next.gr/uploads/7/Animation%2BH%2BBridge%2Bmotor%2Bdriver%2Btheory%2B%26%2Bpractical%2Bcircuit%2Busing%2Btransistors%2Banimation%2Bsimulation%2BGetting%2Bstarted%2Bwith%2BRobotics%2Banimation1.gif

Clockwise DC Motor
. Counterclockwise

http://www.eleceng.adelaide.edu.au/Personal/nesimi/CircuitAni.gif

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H H Bridge ICs
. L293 dual H Bridge IC
:
Then transistor Q3 becomes ON since it is PNP, it needs LOW voltage to turn ON. But
transistor Q1 remains OFF, because it is NPN and requires HIGH potential at the base to turn
ON.
DC Toggle Switch

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DC
Toggle Switch
http://320volt.com/wpcontent/uploads/2010/01/taggle-switch-animasyonmotor-bagli.gif

ToggleSwitch

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) / / /(
M1

M2

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Vectored Thruster Diagram

Direction

No.
Forward

Crab Right

Reverse

Crab Left

Rotate/Turn Left - Forward /

Rotate/Turn Left - Forward /

Rotate/Turn Left - Forward /

Rotate/Turn Left - Forward

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Thruster Control Board


Change Direction /
. Vary Speed

4 H
. Motor Driver .

Power System
It is possible to charge the Batteries during operation through a pair of cable over the tether. To
provide regulated power for video camera and other electronics, a highly efficient DC/DC
converter MPW1033 is used. This converter provides a 12V for the Camera and feeds the
regulated 5V & 3.3V power supplies for other electronic parts.


Thrusters
. Lights
. Cameras
. Sensors
.

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.
. ROV

Navigation And Control System



.

.
.
ROV
.

/ . /
ROV Tether
.
Using an onboard autopilot with the given set of onboard sensors. In this case the operator
only sends high level commands. The autopilot is mainly based one Atmel AVR
microcontroller which is interfaced with all electronics modules and sensors in the ROV

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Schematicviewoftheautopilotsyst.em

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Surface Control Console

ROVControlConsole

SCC Graphical User Interface :


: Monitor the state of the ROV
.
: Activate or deactivate onboard controller
. Give trajectory commands

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ArianaIgraphicaluserinterface

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Hand Controller

PS2ROVControls

Sensors
: Pressure Sensor . Sensing Depth
: Temperature Sensor
: Inclinometer sensor
: Accelerometer
: IMU
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: Water Leakage Sensor ROV
Electronics Compartment
. Battery Box water conductivity
Operator
.
Water leakage sensors are devised in different location in the electronics compartment and
battery box. Sensors are operating based on water conductivity. In the case of water leakage
the conductivity of water drives a buzzer in surface control station, so that operator can shut
down the sensitive electronics and command the ROV upward quickly.
: Ethernet
.
A video camera is mounted in front of the ROV. Video Signal is converted to Ethernet and
transferred by a single cable between the ROV and control consol.

Cameras
:
. Power
). Visual Angle (Degrees
. Resolution
:


Waterproof .

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Umbilical Cord

ROV

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Tethers supply the vital link from the ROV to


the surface or control module. Either directly
or via the tether management system through
the main lift umbilical. The total services
provided by the tether are power, CCTV,
signal, & communications via optical, coaxial,
or twisted pair conductors.

ROV

. Tether Management System
Power
Twisted
Coaxial Pair Conductors
. Optical Fiber

Mechanical strength is normally incorporated


into the design using aramid fibers by multi-
layer braids or center strength cords of aramid
.
fibers.
ROV tether
ROV tethers are a strategic component in the
supporting performance of the cubicle, so the
design & construction has to address, crucial
factors such as small diameter, flexibility,
ruggedness, buoyancy, depth & handling
requirements.

Cubicle

Small
Ruggedness Flexibility Diameter
Depth Buoyancy
. Handling Requirements

. Neutrally Buoyant

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Cable Floats

CableFloats

ROV Umbilical ( Tether )


.
CablefloatsarespecificallydesignedforuseonROVtethersandumbilicals.Umbilical
buoyancyisusedinconjunctionwithROVstokeeptherequiredlengthofumbilicalbuoyant
underwater.

Thetetherneedstohavefloatsattachedtohelpkeepitfromdragging.Thefloatsaremadeof
foamandareattachedusingvelcro.
.

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Vertebrae Bend Restrictors

VertebraeBendRestrictor

Launch & Recovery Systems LARS

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Tether Management System TMS

TetherManagementSystem TMS

The benefits of a TMS system include:

: TMS

Operations to greater depths


.
Elimination of the effect of considerable
drag forces on the umbilical at greater

depths
.

Protection of the ROV during launch


and recovery through the splash zone
. Splash Zone

Faster deployment to the working depth
governed only by the speed of the Winch
winch, rather than the rate at which a

free swimming ROV could dive using Vertical
its vertical thruster(s).
Thruster
A safe haven at depth for the ROV
between tasks.
.

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Frame
,
Modular .
. Limiting Obstructions To Thrust
.
Less material equates to less bulk, less drag, and allows for easier access to components.

Lights

. LED .

Lift Bag
Lift
Bag

.

.


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) ( Robotic Arm

Grabber
. .

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System Integration Diagram SID

ROV

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. MATE ROV COMPETITION
. /http://www.marinetech.org
. ROV Egypt Competition

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English

AUV

Center of Buoyancy

Center of Gravity

Degrees Of Freedom DOF

Free Swimming

Heave Motion

Manipulator

Negative Buoyancy
Neutral Buoyancy

Onboard Sensor
Operator

Passively Stable ROV

Pitch Rotation

Positive Buoyancy

Propulsion System

Remotely Operated
Vehicles
ROV
Roll And Pitch Stability

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Roll Rotation
Splash Zone
Surface Control Console
(SCC)

Surface Control Station

Surge Motion

Sway motion

Tether

Tether Management
System TMS
Thruster Control Board
Thrusters
Umbilical Bend Control
Umbilical Cord
Vertical Thruster


- ( )

Water Proof

Yaw Motion

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http://www.homebuiltrovs.com/howtobuoyancytips.html

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262565789_Design_Construction_and_Control_of_a_Remotely_Operate
d_Vehicle_ROV

http://www.marinetech.org/files/marine/files/ROV%20Competition/International%20Competition/2014%20tech%2
0reports/EXPLORER/EXPLORER/Alpena%20Community%20College/ACC_Technical_Report.pdf


TheROVManual:AUserGuideforRemotelyOperatedVehicles

RobertDChristRobertL.Wernli,Sr
http://www.libramar.net/news/the_rov_manual_a_user_guide_for_remotely_operated_vehicles/201401
121131

3
Author(s)

Robert D. Christ, Robert L.


Wernli, Sr.

Publisher

Elsevier Science

Date

2013

Pages

679

Format

pdf

Size

68.3 Mb

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" " .
" .


. Instruments
Simulation .

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