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Annotated Bibliography

The Antibiotic Resistance Issue

Amber Long
Professor Malcolm Campbell
English 1103
March 16, 2016

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Annotated Bibliography
"About Antimicrobial Resistance." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 08 Sept. 2015. Web. 15 Mar. 2016.
This source is from a reliable website that provides a plethora of information on antibiotic
and antimicrobial resistance. Tabs on the website include: About Antimicrobial
Resistance, Biggest Threats, Protecting Yourself and Your Family, Protecting
Patients and Stopping Outbreaks, Protecting the Food Supply, and Resources. Each
tab provides an easy way for the user to navigate the website and the topic of antibiotic
resistance. This website answers all of the questions that anyone could possibly have
about antibiotic resistance. The material on this website comes from a source that is
completely objective. The CDCs sole purpose is to provide factual information about
current health and disease issues and the ways in which we can prevent them. No
opinions are given because that is not the purpose of the CDCs objectives and goals. The
Center for Disease Control and Prevention is the United States leading public health
institute, so any information coming from them is notable and trustworthy. The intended
audience is the general public so that they can learn more about what is to come with
antibiotic resistance and the part that they can play in fighting against it. The information
in this source is more thorough and developed than the information in my CNN source.
There is a lot more data provided and it comes from a federal agency so its information is
a bit more plausible. This source will most likely prove to be the most helpful during the
duration of my project. It provides the general information I need on the way antibiotic
resistance works, its influence in the United States, and what the general public can do to
prevent it from ruining the lives of people in their community, family, or in the world. I

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will definitely be using this source in my project to answer any pressing questions that I
have. It will prove to be the most useful when I am searching for relevant data and
statistics on antibiotic resistance in the United States and in other countries around the
world.
Bresnahan, Samantha. "Arctic Bacteria Could Create Life-saving Drugs." CNN. Cable News
Network, 15 Jan. 2015. Web. 15 Mar. 2016.
This popular source states that we may be able to use bacteria from arctic waters in order
to create new antibiotics so that we can combat antibiotic resistance. Scientists believe
that because the bacteria live in extreme conditions, they must use extreme tactics in
order to survive. These scientists and researchers claim that the early results are
promising. Several compounds being tested in Norway and at a lab in Scotland are
showing initial signs of antibiotic properties. This source will be useful to my topic
because while researching the antibiotic resistance problem I also want to learn more
about ways we can prevent it in the future. The article is reliable because it is objective
and not biased, because there is not really anything for the author to be biased about.
However a reader could debate whether or not the recent discoveries of these scientists
are progressive or not, because opinions differ on exactly what progress is. Marcel
Jaspars is one of the people whose lab is being used for research. He is the founder of the
PharmaSea project, an EU-funded initiative to bring research groups together around the
world in search of new antibiotics. I cannot find too much on him outside of this article
but he is an experienced professional so I trust his credibility. The author of this article
(Samantha Bresnahan) is a producer for CNN International Special Products so her job
requires her to document facts without giving her personal opinion. The purpose of this

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source is to inform the general public about ways we can hinder the negative effects of
antibiotic resistance. This source is useful to me because it provides recent info on our
progress with solving antibiotic resistance. While I found a lot of information on
antibiotic resistance and how prevalent it will be in the future, I had difficulty finding
information on what researchers and biologists are doing to stop it. I will most likely use
this source in my project because it provides answers to some of the questions I have
about my topic. However, I will try to find more articles similar to this one in order to get
as much information as possible about the fight against antibiotic resistance.
Martinez, Jose Luiz, Alicia Fajardo, Leonor Garmendia, Alvaro Hernandez, Juan Linares, Laura
Martinez-Solano, and Maria Sanchez. "A Global View of Antibiotic Resistance." Oxford
University Press. Federation of European Microbiological Societies, 1 Jan. 2009. Web. 15 Mar.
2016.
This source is a peer-reviewed journal. Instead of focusing on the clinical definition of
resistance, this paper adopts the wider view that is represented by any mechanism that
reduces susceptibility to antibiotics. Whereas the clinical definition of resistance is based
on minimal inhibitory concentration breakouts. This paper states that while the Darwinian
view of the role of antibiotics is still valid, more recent work shows that antibiotics and
resistance mechanisms may play other ecological roles and strongly influence bacterial
physiology. The authors of this paper do their research in a laboratory and work for the
department of biotechnology in Spain. By reading this paper I feel that the authors are
objective and not biased. The research seems to have been done in another country so Im
not exactly sure how that impacts everything. I am sure that people research differently in
other countries, so that may also change how reliable the source is. However, I could still

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use it to get another perspective on antibiotic resistance. I think that the attended audience
of this paper is someone who has an extensive knowledge of biology. Possibly a
professor, scientist, or a researcher. I prefer the CDC source more than this one and I
dont find this source very useful. Although it provides a different perspective on
antibiotic resistance it doesnt really strike me as particularly necessary or interesting. I
most likely will not use this source for my project because it includes a lot of scientific
jargon that is unnecessary for the research Im doing. I am looking for information that is
concise and easier for the average person to understand.
McDermott, P. F., S. Zhao, D. D. Wagner, and R. D. Walker. "The Food Safety Perspective of
Antibiotic Resistance." Uncc.edu. Taylor & Francis, 1 May 2002. Web. 15 Mar. 2016.
This peer reviewed article focuses primarily on the role animals play in antibiotic
resistance in addition to humans. The other sources that I listed barely discussed the role
animals play in antibiotic resistance at all. It considers the debate surrounding
antimicrobial use in animals at length, and leans more toward the controversial side of the
antibiotic resistance issue. The paper centers on antimicrobial use in animals and
subsequent human health implications. Although this article includes a lot of scientific
terminology in the same way the A Global View of Resistance paper does, I find this
content to be a lot more interesting. The aspect of controversy is also more prevalent
which is something that I was looking for when looking for sources. I found it difficult to
find articles on different viewpoints on antibiotic resistance as far as treatment and
prevention go, and this paper gives me exactly what I was searching for in that area. I
used UNCCs library database to find this article so I know that its credible and that the
authors who collaborated to write it can be trusted. This article is biased because of the

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nature of debate throughout the discussion, but not so much so that it cant be used as a
reliable source. I will definitely be using this paper for my research, because animals play
a huge role in antimicrobial/antibiotic resistance, and I want to touch on that aspect of the
issue.