You are on page 1of 11


The policy of one countrys

political, economic or cultural
domination over lands and

Connection to Previous
The Industrial Revolution- an economic
o European countries needed raw materials

and new markets, so they began to look for

new colonies in Asia and especially Africa.
o countries intended to exploit Africa for its
natural resources
o export of raw materials

Motives for Imperialism

Originally missionaries explored Africa
with the intention of spreading
Nationalism, a strong sense of national
pride, emerged
o building Empires established a nations


Motives for Imperialism

Concept of European superiority
o Racism (belief that race determines a

persons traits and capabilities)

o Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest in

European scientific and technological

progress made them superior, and it was
their duty to spread this to other lands

Characteristics of Africa
divided into hundreds of ethnic and
linguistic groups
religious beliefs varied; traditional or
converted to Christianity and Islam
armies, diseases and difficult navigation
of rivers discouraged European

Factors Promoting African

Technological superiority of Europeans
o 1884: Maxim Gun first automatic machine

o Steam Engine easier travel/navigation of
o communication between the colony and its
controlling nation improved with railroads,
cables, and steamboats

Factors Promoting African

improved medicine to combat diseases
such as quinine for malaria
lack of unity among the hundreds of
ethnic and linguistic groups
o easier for nations to divide them up and take


Division of Africa
Once countries realized the benefits of
Imperialism, they scrambled for control
a race that everyone wanted to join!
Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
o nations could claim land, as long as they

notified other nations and showed they could

control it.
o no African representation at Conference

Belgium and the Congo

Dr. David Livingstone*, a Scottish
missionary, explored Central Africa and
reported back on his discoveries
disappeared for a while, and the New York
Herald sent reporter Henry Stanley to find

Belgium and the Congo

Henry Stanley* carried out Livingstones
work after his death
o he was commissioned by King Leopold*
to set up the colony
claimed his primary goal was to abolish
slavery and spread Christianity
o instead violent exploitation of people
and rubber* industry


1. What were the motivations for


2. Were these motivations justified?

Why or why not?