Edge Preparation - Need
Poor penetration Poor access at root Poor strength Good penetration Good access at root Good joint strength

Basic Joint Types
butt lap tee

corner edge

Applicable Welds for Butt joint
Square Groove weld V Groove weld

Bevel Groove weld

U Groove weld

J Groove weld

Applicable Welds for Butt joint
Double V Groove weld Double Bevel Groove weld

Double U Groove weld

Double J Groove weld

Applicable Welds for Tee joint

Applicable Welds for Lap joint
Fillet weld

Plug / slot weld

Spot / seam weld

Applicable Welds for Corner Joint

Butt joint
Single V Groove weld Groove angle E

Root face Root gap Double V Groove weld Groove angle Single U Groove weld Root gap Root radius Root face

Weld Reinforcement

Correct reinforcement Minimum cost Good joint strength

Excess reinforcement High cost Poor joint strength

Under reinforcement

Poor joint strength

Butt joint Complete Joint penetration

Weld from face side

Backing weld from root side

Back gouging

Back gouging from face side

Back weld

Weld from face side

Tee Joint










Flat profile

Convex profile

Concave profile

Tee Joint

Full penetration joint

Groove angle

leg = throat

leg = throat

Welding Position



2G 4G

Welding Position







Welding Position
1F 2F




Welding Position




Area A

Area B Dilution is the amount of base metal present in the weld metal and given by (Area B / (Area A + Area B)) Dilution depends on the welding process and heat input. High dilution alters the chemical composition of weld metal

Weld Metal Requirements
‡ Matching strength with the parent metal ‡ Good notch toughness at the operating temperature ‡ Corrosion resistance ‡ Creep resistance for elevated temperature application ‡ Resistance to wear, erosion etc

Filler Metal Selection
‡ Mechanical / chemical properties required ‡ Welding process ‡ Type of electrode, current, power range ‡ Metal to be joined and its thickness ‡ Weld joint design and welding position ‡ Shop or Field weld / surface condition ‡ Number of passes / amount of weld metal

Welding Procedure Specification
It is a written document that provides direction to the welder for making production welds in accordance with code requirements. Any WPS must be qualified by the manufacturer. WPS specifies the condition (ranges) under which welding must be performed called variables. WPS addresses essential, supplementary essential and non essential variables

Purpose of WPS Qualification
To determine that the weldment is capable of providing the required properties for the intended application. WPS establishes the properties of the weldment and not the skill of the welder.

Procedure Qualification
PQR is a record of welding data to weld a test coupon. It also contains test results. Completed PQR shall document all essential variables including ranges. PQR to be certified accurate and shall not be subcontracted. If more than one process is employed then weld deposit thickness for each process and filler metal to be recorded.

Base Metal Classification
Base metals classified into various P Nos depending on composition, weldability & mechanical properties. P1 - P11 P21 - P25 Steel Al alloys etc.

Group nos within P nos classify metals for procedure qualification where notch toughness requirements are specified.

Filler Metal Classification
F Numbers are based on usability characteristics i.e ability of welders to make satisfactory welds with given filler e.g. F1 - E XX20, F2 - E XX12, F3 - E XX10, F4 - E XX18 etc. A Numbers are based on chemical composition e.g. A1 - Mild steel A2 - C - Mo steel etc.

Essential variables Change in qualified Thickness Change in P no Change in F no of filler metal Change in A no of filler metal Change in deposited metal thickness Decrease of more than 100° F in preheat Change in PWHT

Welded Qualified Px ± Px Px ± Px Px ± Py Px ± Py P3 ± P3 P3 ± (P3 / P1) P4 ± P4 P4 ± (P4 / P3 / P1) P5A ± P5A P5A ± (P5A / P4 / P3 / P1) P5A ± (P4 / P3 / P1) P5A ± (P4 / P3 / P1) P4 ± (P3 / P1) P4 ± (P3 / P1)

Procedure Qualification Thickness limits
T (mm) <1.6 1.6 ± 10 10 - 19 19 - 38 >38 Range of T max t T - 2T 1.6 - 2T 4.8 - 2T 4.8 - 2T 4.8 - 203 Tests

2t 2T, 2 FB, 2 RB 2t -do2t -do2t if t<19 2T, 4 SB 2T if t>19 2t if t<19 -do203 if t>19

Welding Performance Qualification
The performance qualification tests are intended to determine the ability of welders to make sound welds A welder is qualified by radiography of a test coupon or by radiography of initial production welding or by bend tests taken from a test coupon

Welding Performance Qualification
Variables for SMAW Removal of backing Change in Pipe diameter Change in P number Change in F Number Change in thickness of weld deposit Change in welding position Change in vertical welding

Welding Performance Qualification
Thk (mm) Max tk of dep. Metal <13 2t >13 Max to be welded Test 1FB, 1RB 2SB

OD of test coupon Range of OD qualified <25 Size welded - unlimited 25 - 71 25 - unlimited > 71 71 - unlimited

Welding Performance Qualification
Welded Without Backing Fx With Backing F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Qualified Fx F1 F2, F1 F3, F2, F1 F4, F3, F2, F1 F5, F1

Welding Performance Qualification
Weld Plate 1G Plate 2G Plate 3G Plate 4G Pipe 1G Pipe 2G Pipe 5G Pipe 6G Plate & pipe >610 mm OD F F, H F, V F, O F F, H F, V, O All Pipe of OD 71- 610 mm F F, H F F F F, H F, V, O All

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