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07/31/2013

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mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if

© mT];jpNuypa nghJey muR 2007 ,t;ntspaPL gjpg;Ghpik cilaJ. gjpg;Ghpik rl;lk; 1968 ,d; fPo; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l xU gad;ghl;bw;fd;wp ,jd; ve;jnthU gFjpAk; vt;tpjj;jpYk; nghJey murpd; mDkjpapd;wp kPs;gpuRupf;fg;glyhfhJ. kPs;gpuRuk; kw;Wk; cupikfs; gw;wpa Ntz;LNfhs;fs;> tprhuizfs; vd;gd mDg;gg;glNtz;ba Kftup: Commonwealth Copyright Administration Attorney General’s Department Robert Garran Offices, National Circuit Barton ACT 2600 my;yJ njuptpf;fg;gl Ntz;ba ,izajsk; www.ag.gov.au/cca ISBN 978 1 921446 55 9 xf;Nlhgh; 2007 ,y; gpuRupf;fg;gl;lJ ,g;gpuRuk; Mq;fpyj;jpYk; ,d;Dk; gy rKjha nkhopfspYk; ,izaj;jpy; cs;sJ. ,g;gpuRuj;jpd; gpujpfis ngWtjw;fhd Ntz;LNfhs;fis gpd;tUk; ,izajsj;jpy; Nkw;nfhs;syhk; www.immi.gov.au

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mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mwpKfk;

1

mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fs; gw;wpa thf;F%yq;fs; (Australian Values Statements)
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mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fs; gw;wpa thf;F%yq;fs;

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2

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mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fs; gw;wpa thf;F%yq;fs;

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3

mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fSk; nfhs;iffSk;
];jpukhd> mikjpahd kw;Wk; tskhd rKjhankhd;iwg; NgZtjw;fhf> mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpd; mbg;gilahf mike;J midj;NjhuhYk; gfpug;gLk; nfhs;iffisAk; tpOkpaq;fisAk; epiyepWj;j Ntz;Lnkd rfytpj gpd;dzpfisAk; nfhz;l mT];jpNuypah;fsplKk; vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. mT];jpNuypahtpd; Rje;jpukhd [dehaf rKjhaj;Jf;F mbj;jsj;ij ,t;tpOkpaq;fs; toq;Ffpd;wd. mtw;Ws; gpd;tUtd mlq;Fk;. • jdpeghpd; rkj;Jtkhd me;j];J> fz;zpak; kw;Wk; Rje;jpuk; vd;gtw;iw kjpj;jy; • Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpuk; • kjk; kw;Wk; kjrhh;gw;w murhq;fk; gw;wpa Rje;jpuk; • $l;bizAk; Rje;jpuk; • ghuSd;w [dehafj;jpw;Fk; rl;lj;jpd; Nkyhjpf;fj;jpw;Fk; Mjutspj;jy; • rl;lj;jpd; Kd; rfyUk; rkk; • Mz; ngz; rkj;Jtk; • rfyUf;Fk; rk re;jh;g;gk; • mikjp top • rfpg;Gj;jd;ik> gu];gu khpahij kw;Wk; my;yy;gLNthUf;F fUizfhl;Ljy; Nghd;wtw;iw cs;slf;fpa mNgjthj czh;T gy;NtW ehLfSk; VNjh xUtifapy; ,tw;iwg; gfph;e;Jnfhs;fpd;w NghjpYk; mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fSk;> nfhs;iffSk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; jdpj;Jt mikg;Gf;F cfe;jjhf ,iaGgLj;jg;gl;L> cyfpd; ehyhgf;fq;fspypUe;Jk; te;j kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd FbNawpf@lhf tbikf;fg;gl;Lk;> etPdkag;gLj;jg;gl;Lk; cs;sd. ntt;NtW kf;fshy; gy;NtW tpjkhf mit ntspg;gLj;jg;gbDk; mjd; mh;j;jk; xd;NwahFk;. mNghup[pdy; goq;Fb kf;fSk; nlhu]; jPtf kf;fSk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; G+h;tPff; Fbfshth;. mth;fsJ jdpj;Jtkhd fyhr;rhuKk;> ghuk;ghpaq;fSk; cyfpd; kpfg; goikahdtw;wpy; cs;sitahFk;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; Muk;gf; FbNawpfspy; mjpfkhNdhh; gphpj;jhdpah kw;Wk; mah;yhe;ijr; Nrh;e;jth;fs;. ,e;j Mq;fpNya – nfy;bag; ghuk;ghpak;> mT];jpNuypahtpd; tuyhW> fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; murpay; ghuk;ghpaq;fspy; mjpKf;fpakhd njhlh;e;Njh;r;rpahd nry;thf;ifr; nrYj;jp tUfpd;wJ. mjd; gpd;duhd FbtuT miy> Mg;gphpf;fh> Mrpah> mnkhpf;fh kw;Wk; [Nuhg;gpa ehLfspy; ,Ue;J fzprkhd njhifapdiu mT];jpNuypahtpy; nfhz;L te;J Nrh;j;jJ. ,th;fs; midtUk; mT];jpNuypahTf;Fk; mjd; tho;f;if Kiwf;Fk; jkJ jdpj;Jtkhd gq;fspg;ig toq;fpAs;sdh;. gfph;e;Jnfhs;sg;gLfpd;w ,t;tpOkpaq;fs; kw;Wk; nfhs;iffs; tptuj;jpd; Nehf;fk; vy;NyhiuAk; xNu ek;gpf;ifAs;s> xNu tpjkhdth;fshf khw;Wtjy;y. cz;ikapy;> Rje;jpu rpe;jidAs;s jdpkdpjDf;F kjpg;gspj;jYk;> NtWgl;Lf; fhzg;gLfpd;w chpikAk; mT];jpNuypa [dehafj;jpd; mbj;jsq;fshFk;. ];jpukhdJk;; capNuhl;lKs;sJk; Ntw;WikapYk; xd;Wgl;lJkhd rKjhankhd;iwf; fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;Fj; Jiz epd;w mbg;gil tpOkpaq;fisg; Ghpe;J nfhs;tjw;F Gjpa FbapUg;ghsh;fSf;F cjTtNj ,jd; Nehf;fkhFk;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; kf;fs; gy;NtW tpjkhd Rje;jpuq;fisg; ngw;Ws;sdh;. vdpDk; ,e;j Rje;jpuq;fis mDgtpg;gjpy; xt;nthUtUk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; rl;lq;fSf;F fPo;gbj;J elj;jy; mtrpak;. ,e;j rl;lq;fs; Kiwahd> Rje;jpukhd> ghJfhg;ghd xU rKjhaj;ijg; Ngzpg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhf> [dehaf Kiwapy; njhpT nra;ag;gl;l murhq;fq;fs; %yk; ,aw;wg;gLfpd;wd.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fSk; nfhs;iffSk;

4

• mbg;gilr; Rje;jpuq;fs;
rfy mT];jpNuypah;fSk; gy mbg;gil chpikfisg; ngw;Ws;sdh;. (rl;lj;jpd; tuk;GfSf;F cl;gl;L) Rje;jpukhfTk; gfpuq;fkhfTk; fUj;J ntspaply;> $l;likg;Gfspy; ,izjy;> $l;lq;fs; elhj;Jjy;> jhk; tpUk;Gk; kjj;ij topgly;> mT];jpNuypah KOtjpYk; fl;Lg;ghbd;wp rQ;rhpj;jy; Nghd;wd mtw;Ws; rpythFk;.

• jdpeghpd; rkkhd me;j];J> fd;zpak; kw;Wk; Rje;jpuj;ij kjpj;jy;
rfy mT];jpNuypau;fSk; Rje;jpuKk; rk me;j];JKilath;fs;. mth;fs; gu];guk;; xUtiunahUth; fz;zpakhfTk;> khpahijahfTk; elhj;j Ntz;Lk; vd vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpd;wdh;.

,d hPjpahd ghugl;r rl;lk; 1975 (Racial Discrimination Act 1975)> ghypd ghugl;r rl;lk; 1984 (Sex Discrimination Act 1984)> mq;ftPdh; ghugl;r rl;lk; 1992 (Disability Discrimination Act 1992) kw;Wk; taJg; ghugl;r rl;lk; 2004 (Age Discrimination Act 2004) Nghd;w rl;lq;fspd; fPo; nghJ tho;tpd; gy;NtW fl;lq;fspy; ,dk;> ghy;> mq;ftPdk;> taJ Nghd;wtw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; ghugl;rk; fhl;lg;gLtij nghJeytha rl;lq;fs; jLf;fpd;wd. ,e;j rl;lq;fspd; mbg;gilapyhd Kiwg;ghLfisf; ifahStjw;nfd> kdpj chpikfs; kw;Wk; rk tha;g;G Mizak; (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) xd;W cs;sJ.
ekJ rKjhaj;jpy; Kuz;ghLfisj; jPh;g;gjw;fhd topKiwfshf td;Kiw> mr;RWj;jy; my;yJ ,opTgLj;jy; Nghd;wd gpuNahfpf;fg;gLtij mT];jpNuypah;fs; epuhfhpf;fpd;wdh;.

,izaj;jpy; jfty;
kdpj chpikfs; kw;Wk; rk tha;g;G Mizak; www.hreoc.gov.au

• Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpuk;
rl;lj;jpd; tiuaiwfSf;F cl;gl;l tpjj;jpy;> mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; gw;wpNah> NtW ve;j tptfhuk; gw;wpNah rKfg; gpur;rpidfs; gw;wpNah jhk; rpe;jpg;gij vOjTk; NgrTk; vy;yh mT];jpNuypah;fSf;Fk; Rje;jpuk; cz;L. Mdhy; ,r;nray; Vida kf;fSf;F Mgj;J Vw;gLj;JtjhfNth ngha;ahd Fw;wr;rhl;Lfisr; Rkj;JtjhfNth my;yJ mLj;jtuJ fUj;Jr; Rje;jpuj;ijj; jLg;gjhfNth ,Uj;jy; $lhJ. ,J mT];jpNuypahtpd; nra;jpj; jhs;fs;> thndhyp> njhiyf;fhl;rp kw;WKs;s midj;J tif Clfq;fSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;. murhq;fj;jpd; nraw;ghLfis vjph;f;fTk;> rl;lq;fis khw;Wtjw;fhff; gpurhuk; nra;aTk; mT];jpNuypah;fSf;F Rje;jpuk; cz;L. Ngr;Rr; Rje;jpukhdJ> jkJ fUj;Jf;fis ntspaplTk;> fUj;Jfisf; fye;jhNyhrpf;fTk; kf;fSf;F ,lkspf;fpwJ. ngha;fs; kw;Wk; jg;ghd jfty;fspypUe;J jdpeghpd; ew;ngaiug; ghJfhg;gjw;fhd rl;lq;fs; cs;sd. fyhrhuk;> ,dk; my;yJ gpd;dzp mbg;gilapy; kw;wth;fSf;nfjpuhf ntWg;Gzh;itj; J}z;Ltijj; jLf;Fk; tpjj;jpyhd rl;lq;fSk; cs;sd.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fSk; nfhs;iffSk;

• kj Rje;jpuKk; kjr;rhh;gw;w murhq;fKk;
rfy mT];jpNuypah;fSf;Fk; jhk; tpUk;Gk; kjj;ij> mjd; eilKiwfs; mT];jpNuypahtpd; ve;jnthU rl;lj;ijAk; kPwhjtpjj;jpy; gpd;gw;Wk; Rje;jpuk; cz;L. ve;j kjj;ijAk; gpd;gw;whky; ,Uf;fTk; mT];jpNuypah;fSf;F Rje;jpuk; cz;L. kj hPjpahd rfpg;Gj;jd;ikapd;ik mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glhj xd;whFk;.

5

mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; kjr; rhh;gw;wJ. mq;F cj;jpNahfG+h;t my;yJ mur kjk; vd;W vJTk; fpilahJ. murhq;fq;fs; jk; gpuirfis vt;tpj rka NtWghLkpd;wp rkkhfNt elj;Jfpd;wd. mT];jpNuypahtpy; kjhPahd rl;lq;fs; rl;l me;j];Jiladty;y. ghuhSkd;wk; ,aw;wpa rl;lq;fs; kl;LNk mq;F eilKiwapy; ,Uf;Fk;;> cjhuzkhf tpthfuj;J tplaq;fs;. rpy kj hPjpahd my;yJ fyhrhu hPjpahd eilKiwfshd ,Ujhu kzk; (xNu Neuj;jpy; xd;wpw;F Nkw;gl;lth;fis kzKbj;jy;) Nghd;wd mT];jpNuypahtpd; rl;lq;fSf;F KuzhditahFk;.

• $l;Lr; NrUk; Rje;jpuk;
mT];jpNuypa rl;lj;jpw;F cl;gl;l tifapy;> xd;W Nrh;e;J murhq;fj;Jf;F my;yJ NtW epWtdq;fSf;Fj; jkJ vjph;g;igj; njhptpf;f mT];jpNuypah;fSf;F Rje;jpuk; cz;L. mj;jifa vjph;g;Gfs; mikjpahd Kiwapy; kdpjh;fSf;Nfh nrhj;Jf;fSf;Nfh vt;tpj NrjNkh fhaNkh Vw;gLj;jf;$bjhf mikjy; $lhJ. rl;l hPjpahd ve;j ,af;fj;jpYk; NrUk; my;yJ NruhjpUf;Fk; Rje;jpuj;ijAk; ,J cs;slf;FfpwJ. murpay; fl;rpfs;> njhopw; rq;fq;fs; kw;Wk; r%ff; FOf;fs; vd;gdTk; Nkw;gb ,af;fq;fs; my;yJ FOf;fspy; mlq;Ffpd;wd.

• ghuhSkd;w [dehafj;Jf;Fk; rl;lj;jpd; Nkyhjpf;fj;Jf;Fk; MjuT toq;Fjy;
mT];jpNuypah ghuhSkd;w [dehafj;ijf; nfhz;lJ. mjhtJ> ehL eph;tfpf;fg;gLtjpYk; mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;ij gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;JtjpYk; mT];jpNuypa kf;fs; gq;nfLf;fpd;wdu;. murhq;fq;fs; rfy kf;fSf;Fk; gjpyspf;f Ntz;Lk;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; rl;lq;fis tFf;Fk; mjpfhuk; my;yJ mj;jifa mjpfhuj;ij vtUf;Fk; toq;Fk; mjpfhuk; ngw;w epWtdq;fs; kf;fshy; njhpT nra;ag;gl;l ghuhSkd;wq;fNsahFk;. murhq;fq;fs; ];jhgpj;j rl;lq;fSf;F mT];jpNuypahtpYs;s xt;nthUtUk; fPo;g;gba Ntz;Lk;. mt;thNw> rfy mT];jpNuypah;fSf;Fk; rl;lj;jpd; Nkyhz;ik %ykhd ghJfhg;G fpilf;fpwJ. vtUk; mjhtJ murpay;thjpfs;> fhty; Jiwapdh; Nghd;w mjpfhug; gjtpfisg; ngw;wth;fSk; rl;lj;jpypUe;J tpjptpyf;F ngw;wth;fNsh> ‘rl;lj;jpw;F Nkk;gl;lth;fNsh’ my;yh;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fSk; nfhs;iffSk;

• rl;lj;Jf;F Kd; rfyUk; rkk;
vy;yh mT];jpNuypah;fSk; rl;lj;Jf;F Kd; rkkhth;. mjhtJ> vtUk; mtuJ rhjp> ,dk;> gpwe;j ehL> taJ> ghypdk;> Fbapay; epiy> mq;ftPdk; my;yJ murpay;> kj ek;gpf;iffs; vdgtw;wpd; mbg;ilapy; kw;wth;fspypUe;J NtWgLj;jp elhj;jg;glf;$lhJ. mur epWtdq;fSk; RahjPd tof;F kd;wq;fSk; rfyiuAk; rhprkkhf elj;j Ntz;Lk;. rhprkkhf elj;jg;gLjy; vd;gjd; mh;j;jk;> njhopy; tha;g;Gg; ngWjy;> juKah;j;jg;gLjy; vd;gd> rk;ge;jg;gl;ltuJ jpwik> Mw;wy;> mDgtk; Nghd;wtw;iw mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L mika Ntz;LNkad;wp> mJ mtuJ fyhrhug; gpd;dzpia my;yJ murpay; ek;gpf;iffis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;ljhf mikjy; $lhJ vd;gNjahFk;. NkYk; xUtuJ ,dk;> epwk;> kjk;> ghypdk; my;yJ tpthfkhd epiy Nghd;wtw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; xU tpahghu epiyaNkh> N`hl;lNyh my;yJ NtnwhU Nrit ikaNkh jkJ Nritia vtUf;Fk; toq;f kWj;jy; $lhJ.

• Mz; ngz; rkj;Jtk;
mT];jpNuypahtpy; Mz; ngz; ,UghyhUf;Fk; rk chpikfs; cz;L. njhopy;fisAk;> gjtpfisAk; Mz; ngz; NtWghbd;wp midtUk; ngwyhk;. ,uhZtj;jpYk; Mz;fSk;> ngz;fSk; gzpGhpa KbAkhapUg;gNjhL murhq;fj;jpYk; mth;fs; gjtp tfpf;fyhk;.

6

• rk tha;g;Gk; mNgjthj czh;Tk;
rktha;g;G toq;fg;gLtijAk; ‘fair go’ vd mbf;fb Fwpg;gplg;gLk; epaha topiaAk; mT];jpNuypah;fs; ntFthf kjpf;fpd;wdh;. mjhtJ xUth; jk; tho;tpy; milag;ngWfpd;w rhjidfs; mtuJ jpwik> Kaw;rp> fbd ciog;G vd;gtw;wpd; gpujpgydhf mika Ntz;LNkad;wp> mtuJ gpwg;G my;yJ gf;fr;rhh;ghd rYifia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L mikjy; $lhJ. mT];jpNuypah;fs; gu];gu khpahij> rfpg;Gj;jd;ik> epahak; Nghd;wtw;iw cs;slf;fpa mNgjthj czh;itf; nfhz;lth;fs;. ,jd; mh;j;jk; rfyUk; xNu khjpupahdth;fs; my;yJ rk mstpyhd nry;tk; my;yJ nrhj;jpidg; ngw;Ws;sdh; vd;gjy;y. mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpy; vt;tpj rk;gpujha tFg;G Ntw;WikfSk; ,Uj;jyhfhJ vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;JtNj ,jd; Nehf;fkhFk;.

• mikjp Ngzy;
mT];jpNuypah; jkJ mikjpahd rKjhaj;ijg; gw;wp ngUkpjk; nfhs;fpd;wdh;. vj;jifa khw;wq;fSk; mikjp topj; J}z;Ljy;> fye;Jiuahly; kw;Wk; [dehaf topKiwfspd; mbg;gilapNyNa ,lk; ngw Ntz;Lk; vd mth;fs; ek;Gfpd;wdh;. kf;fsJ mgpg;gpuhaq;fisNah my;yJ rl;lq;fisNah khw;Wtjw;F td;Kiwiag; gpuNahfpg;gij mth;fs; mq;fPfhpg;gjpy;iy. ,e;j tpOkpaq;fSld;> nghJ eyid ehLtNjhL my;yy; gLNthUf;F fUiz fhl;LtjpYk; mT];jpNuypah;fs; ek;gpf;if nfhz;Ls;sdh;. mT];jpNuypah;fs;; kj;jpapy; ,Wf;fkhd r%fg; gw;Wzh;T fhzg;gLtNjhL mth;fs; jhk; thOk; rKjhaj;ij Kd;Ndw;wp Nkk;gLj;j Kidfpd;wdh;. gy mT];jpNuypah;fs;; jkJ ehshe;j tho;tpy; rKjhaj;Jf;nfdj; jkJ gq;fspg;ig toq;Ffpd;wdh;. Rw;Wg; Gwr; #oiyg; ghJfhj;jy;> nghJ eyidf; fUj;jpw; nfhz;L NjitahdNghJ ifnfhLj;jy;> ,ize;J nraw;gly; Nghd;wtw;wpd; %yk; ,jid mth;fs; ntspf;fhl;Lth;. kw;wth;fSf;F> Fwpg;ghf my;yy;gLNthUf;F cjtpf; fuk; ePl;bj; Jiz epw;Fk; cWjpahd ‘Njhoikg;’ (mateship) ghuk;ghpak; mT];Nuypahtpy; cz;L. ,t;thW Jiz epw;gth; ngUk;ghYk; xU ez;guhf ,Ug;ghh;. vdpDk; mth; xU tho;f;ifj; JizahfNth> gq;fhsuhfNth> rNfhjuuhfNth> rNfhjhpahfNth> kfshfNth kfdhfNth$l ,Uf;fyhk;. mj;jifath; Xh; mwpKfkw;w Gjpatuhff;$l ,Uf;fyhk;. r%f Nrit> jd;dhh;tj; njhz;L Nghd;wd gw;wpa gykhd ghuk;gupaKk; mth;fsplj;jpy; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,q;F NkNy Fwpg;gplg;;gl;l tpOkpaq;fs; gy;yhz;L fhykhf mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpduhy; fye;Jiuahlg;gl;L Nkk;gLj;jg;gl;litahFk;. tpj;jpahrkhd ,dq;fisAk; fyhrhug; ghuk;ghpaq;fisAk; nfhz;l kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd kf;fis ntw;wpfukhf tuNtw;Wf; Fbakh;j;jp mth;fisr; r%fj;jpd; mq;fkha; khw;Wtjpy; ,t;tpOkpaq;fs; ngUk; Jizaha; mike;Js;sd. mT];jpNuypahtpd; fyhr;rhug; gd;Kfj;jd;ikahdJ capNuhl;lKs;s rKjhaj;ij cUthf;Ffpd;w xU rf;jpahFk;. mT];jpNuypa rl;lq;fSf;F cl;gl;l tifapy; jj;jkJ fyhrhuk; kw;Wk; ek;gpf;iffis ntspg;gLj;Jk; chpik rfy mT];jpNuypah;fSf;FKz;L. mNjNtis> mT];jpNuypahTf;Fk;> mjd; rl;lq;fSf;Fk;> tpOkpaq;fSf;Fk; kf;fSf;Fk; mjpAah;e;j gw;WWjpiar; nrYj;jNtz;Lnkd rfy mT];Nuypah;fsplKk; vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fSk; nfhs;iffSk;

7

mT];jpNuypah - xNu ghh;itapy;
Gtpapay;
cyfpd; kpfg; gz;ila epyg;gug;Gfspy; mT];jpNuypahTk; xd;whFk;. kf;fs; FbapUf;Fk; cyfpd; kpfg;nghpa jPthd ,J cyfpd; MwhtJ kpfg; nghpa ehlhFk;. mj;Jld; ,J kpfTk; tuz;l G+kpfspy; xd;WkhFk;. ,jd; MW tpOf;fhL epyg;gug;G kl;LNk gaph;r;nra;iff;F cfe;jJ. tprhykhd epyg;gug;ig cilajhy;> ,q;F tUNthh; mjd; gUkidAk; xU efuj;jpypUe;J ,d;ndhU efuj;Jf;Fr; nry;tjw;F vLf;Fk; ePz;l Neu ,ilntspiaAk; fz;L tpaf;fpd;wdh;. mT];jpNuypah fpof;F Nkw;fhf 4000fpNyh kPw;wh;fisAk; tlf;F njw;fhf 3700 fpNyh kPw;wh;fisAk; nfhz;lJ. rpl;dpapy; ,Ue;J Ngh;j; efUf;F tpkhdk; %yk; nry;tjw;F Rkhh; Ie;J kzp Neuk; nry;Yk;. mT];jpNuypah mjd; nkhj;jg; gug;gstpy; (myh];fh jtph;e;j) If;fpa mnkhpf;fhtpd; epyg; gug;Gf;Fr; rkkhdJ. ,e;jpahitg; Nghd;W ,uz;L klq;if tplg; nghpaJ kw;Wk; If;fpa uhr;rpaj;ijg; Nghd;W 32 klq;F tprhykhdJ.

kf;fs;
mT];jpNuypahtpd; G+h;tPff; Fbfshd mNghhp[pd; vdg;gLk; goq;FbapdUk; nlhu]; jPtf kf;fSk; Rkhh; 40000 Kjy; 60000 tUlq;fSf;F Kd;gpUe;Nj mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;e;J tUfpwhh;fs;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; cs;s Vida kf;fs; Fbte;Njhh; my;yJ Fbte;jth;fsJ guk;giuapdh; Mth;. 1788 Mk; Mz;by; INuhg;gpah;fsJ FbtuT Muk;gpj;jjpy; ,Ue;J ,Jtiu Rkhh; 200 ehLfisr; Nrhh;e;j kf;fs; ,q;F FbNawpAs;sdh;. 1945k; Mz;by; mT];jpNuypahtpd; rdj; njhif Rkhh; 7 kpy;ypad;fshf ,Ue;jJ. mjpypUe;J ,d;W tiu Rkhh; 675000 mfjpfs; mlq;fyhf 6.5 kpy;ypaDf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l Gyk;ngaHe;Njhh; mT];jpNuypahtpy; FbNawpAs;sdh;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; ,d;iwa kf;fs;njhif 21 kpy;ypad;fshFk;. ,th;fspy; 43 rjtPjkhNdhh; ntspehLfspy; gpwe;jth;fs; my;yJ mtu;fsJ ngw;Nwhhpy; xUth; ntspehLfspy; gpwe;jth; Mth;. vy;yh tpj kj> ,d> rhjp> r%fg; gpd;dzpfisf; nfhz;Ls;s mT];jpNuypahh;fs; If;fpakhfTk;> rkhjhdkhfTk; tho;fpd;wdh;.

gfph;e;J nfhs;sg;gLfpd;w tpOkpaq;fs;
mT];jpNuypahTf;Ff; Fbte;jth;fs; xd;Wf;nfhd;W tpj;jpahrkhd fyhrhu kw;Wk; rkag; gpd;dzpfisf; nfhz;bUe;j NghjpYk; mth;fs; xNu ehl;by; FbNawp> gue;Jgl;l xU rKjhaj;jpy; ntw;wpfukhf ,uz;lwf; fye;Js;sdh;. kWGwj;jpy; r%f> fyhr;rhu kw;Wk; nghUshjhu hPjpahf mth;fs; toq;fpa gq;fspg;gpy; mT];jpNuypah tskile;Js;sJ. ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpd; Kf;fpa rpwg;gk;rk;> mq;Fs;s kf;fspd; fyhrhu gy;ypdj; jd;ik kl;Lkd;wp> mT];jpNuypah kPjhd mghpkpjkhd> midj;ijAk; fle;j xU tpRthrg; gw;WWjp %yk; mth;fs; If;fpag;gl;bUf;Fk; tpjKkhFk;;. ey;y mayth;fshff; $btho Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf mT];jpNuypah;fs; jkJ jdpg;gl;;l NtWghLfis cjwpj;; js;spAs;sdh;. mT];jpNuypa rl;lj;jpd; tuk;GfSf;Fs; epd;W> jkJ fyhrhuj;ijAk; ek;gpf;iffisAk; ntspaplTk;> mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpa tho;tpy; Rje;jpukhfg; gq;nfLf;fTk; mT];jpNuypah; midtUk; chpik nfhz;Nlhuhth;. mNjNtis> mwpKfk; gFjpapy; tpsf;fg;gl;l> mT];jpNuypa tho;f;ifKiwf;F Mjhukhf mikfpd;w gfph;e;J nfhs;sg;glf;$ba tpOkpaq;fisAk; nfhs;iffisAk; Ngz Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; xt;nthUtuplKk; vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypah – xNu ghh;itapy;

8

RahjPd Njrk;
mT];jpNuypah rf;jp tha;e;j nghUshjhuj;ijf; nfhz;l RahjPdkhd ntspAyif Nehf;Fk; xU NjrkhFk;. mjd; [dehaf epWtdq;fs;> fyhrhu gy;ypdj;jd;ik> Mf;fG+h;tkhd rh;tNjr kw;Wk; gpuhe;jpa cwTfs; gw;wpa gjpTfs; vd;gd cyf tptfhuq;fspy; mjd; <Lghl;ilf; Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. fhj;jpukhd> rthy; kpf;f xU #oypy;> mT];jpNuypah jdJ cyfshtpa nghWg;Gfisf; Ngzpf; nfhz;L> jdJ Njrpa eyd;fis Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhf ,Ujug;G> gy;jug;G> kw;Wk; gpuhe;jpa cghaq;fis Nkw;nfhz;L tUfpwJ.

tYthd nghUshjhuk;
mT];jpNuypah> jpwe;jJk;> nefpo;r;rpAk; Nghl;bj; jd;ikiaAk; nfhz;l xU rf;jpkpf;f re;ijg; nghUshjhuj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. mjd; ];jpukhdJk; etPd epWtdkakhdJkhd fl;likg;G> th;j;jf eltbf;iffSf;F ek;gpf;ifAk;> rh;tNjr KjyPLfSf;F cw;rhfKk; mspf;Fk; #oiyAk; toq;Ffpd;wJ. mT];jpNuypah xU gpujhdkhd gpuhe;jpa nghUshjhu ikakhFk;. mJ> ek;gpf;iff;Fhpa cs;Sh; kw;Wk; ntspehl;L Nghf;Ftuj;J mikg;GfisAk;> rh;tNjr juj;jpyhd jfty; kw;Wk; jfty; ghpth;j;jid njhopy;El;gj;ijAk;> rpwg;Gj; jpwikAk; gd;nkhopg; ghz;bj;jpaKk; nfhz;l njhopyhsh;fisAk;> rl;l tpjpKiwfs; nfhz;l mikg;igAk; nfhz;ljha; tpsq;FfpwJ. mT];jpNuypahtpd; gq;Fr; re;ijahdJ (stock exchange)> re;ij %yjdk; %yk; gl;bayplg;gl;l cyfpd; vl;lhtJ gq;Fg; ghpth;j;jidahFk;. cyfshtpa th;j;jpfj;jpy; mT];jpNuypah Fwpg;gplj;jf;f gq;F tfpf;Fk; xU ehlhFk;. mjd; ruf;Ffs; kw;Wk; Nritfspd; ,U jug;G th;j;jfk; $400 gpy;ypad;fSf;Fk; mjpfk; vd kjpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. ,J cyf th;j;jfj;jpy; Rkhh; xU tpOf;fhl;bw;Fr; rkkhFk;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; gpujhd th;j;jfg; gq;fhsp [g;ghd; MFk;. mjidaLj;J rPdh> mnkhpf;fh> rpq;fg;G+h;> gphpj;jhdpah nfhhpaf; FbauR vd;gd ,lk; tfpf;fpd;wd.

,izaj;jpd; %yk; jfty;
• mT];jpNuypa Gs;sptpgu gzpafk; www.abs.gov.au • mT];jpNuypa murhq;f jfty; kw;Wk; Nritfs; www.australia.gov.au • mT];jpNuypa murhq;f nghOJNghf;F kw;Wk; fyhrhu Eiothapy; • ntspehl;L tptfhuq;fs; kw;Wk; th;j;jf jpizf;fsk; www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au

www.dfat.gov.au/geo/australia
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypah – xNu ghh;itapy;

9

rpy jfty; tptuq;fs;
Njrpa jiyefuk; epyg;gug;G gpujhd epyj;jpd; flw;fiuNahuk; ehl;bw;F mg;ghy; cs;s jPTfisAk; cs;slf;fpa fiuNahuk; gaphplj; jFe;j G+kpapd; rjtPjk; rdj;njhif ntspehLfspy; gpwe;Njhh; rjtPjk; nkhop tPl;by; ,uz;lhk; nkhopnahd;W NgRNthh; rjtPjk; gzk; gpujhd th;j;jfg; gq;fhspfs; fd;nguh 7.74 kpy;ypad; rJu fpNyh kPw;wh;fs; 35877 fpNyh kPw;wh; 59736 fpNyhkPw;wh;

6 tpOf;fhL 21 kpy;ypad; Rkhh; 22 tpOf;fhL Mq;fpyk; 15 tpOf;fhL

mT];jpNuypa lhyh; (A$) [g;ghd;> rPdh> If;fpa mnkhpf;fh> rpq;fg;G+h;> If;fpa uhr;rpak;> nfhhpa FbauR. 10.28 kpy;ypad; fpof;F: fpwPd; tpr; Neuk; + 10 kj;jpa: fpwPd; tpr; Neuk; + 9.5 Nkw;F: fpwPd; tpr; Neuk; + 8 gfw;fhyj;ij Nrkpf;Fk; Neukhw;wk; epA+ rt;j; Nty;]>; njd; mT];jpNuypah> j];Nkdpah> tpf;Nlhhpah kw;W Nkw;F mT];jpNuypah mfpait mf;Nlhgh; Muk;gj;jpy; my;yJ ,Wjpapy; ,Ue;J khh;r; KbAk; tiu filg;gpbf;fpd;wd.

njhopyhsh; gil Neuk; - mT];jpNuypahtpy; %d;W jsNeug; gFjpfs; cs;sd

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypah – xNu ghh;itapy;

gfw;fhyj;ij Nrkpf;Fk; Neukhw;wk; (jsNeuk; + 1)

Kf;fpa jpdq;fs; Njrpa jpdk; - mT];jpNuypa jpdk; <];lh; gz;bif md;nrf; jpdk; epidTj; jpdk; fpwp];k]; jpdk; [dthp 26 xt;nthU tUlKk; khh;r; ,Wjpf;Fk; Vg;uy; ,Wjpf;Fk; ,ilapy; Vg;uy; 25 etk;gh; 11 brk;gh; 25

10

Njrpa milahsq;fs;
mT];jpNuypahtpd; ngah;
‘njw;ifr; rhh;e;j’ vd;W nghUs; gLk; mT];jpNuyp]; (Australis) vDk; yj;jPd; nkhopr; nrhy;ypy; ,Ue;J mT];jpNuypah vDk; ngah; cUntLf;fpwJ. fz;lwpag;glhj ghupa njw;F epyg;gug;G (Terra Australis Incognita) xd;W ,Ug;gjhf xU goq;fij gy E}w;whz;L fhykhfNt epytp te;jJ. ,g;gpuhe;jpaj;ijg; gw;wp Muha;r;rp nra;tfw;fhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l flw; gpuahzq;fs; gw;wpa tpsf;fq;fspy; ,J gw;wp Fwpg;gpg;gl;Ls;sJ. mT];jpNuypahitr; Rw;wp flw;gpuahzk; Nkw;nfhz;l kj;jpt; gpypz;lh;]; (Matthew Flinders) jdJ mDgtq;fis ‘njw;F epyj;jpw;Nfhh; flw;gazk;’ (A Voyage to Terra Australis) vd;w ngaupy; 1814 ,y; ntspapl;ljpy; ,Ue;J mT];jpNuypah vDk; ngah; gpugy;ak; milaj; njhlq;fpaJ. mth; mT];jpNuypah vDk; gjj;ijg; gpuNahfpj;jpUe;jhh;. mjd; gpwF MSeh; nyf;yhd; kf;$hP (Lachlan Macquarie) jdJ cj;jpNahfG+h;t mwpf;iffspy; ,g; ngaiug; ghtpj;jNjhL ,g;ngaiu Vw;Wf; nfhs;sTk; rpghh;R nra;jhh;. ,e;jf; fz;lk; cj;jpNahfG+h;tkhf mT];jpNuypah vd;W ngahplg;gLtjw;F gphpj;jhdpaf; flw;Jiw eph;thfk; 1824 ,y; mq;fPfhuk; toq;fpaJ.

mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpaf; nfhb
mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpaf; nfhb Kjd; Kiwahf 1901k; Mz;L nrg;lk;gh; 3 Mk; jpfjpad;W nky;Ngh;dpy; Vw;wp itf;fg;gl;lJ. fLk; ePyg; gpd;dzpiaf; nfhz;l ,f; nfhbapd; ,lJ Nky; %iyapy;> mT];jpNuypahtpy; gphpj;jhdpaf; FbNaw;w tuyhw;iw mq;fPfhpf;Fk; tifapy;> gphpj;jhdpaf; nfhbapd; milahsk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. njw;Fr; rpYit el;rj;jpuf; $l;lj;jpd; Ie;J el;rj;jpuq;fs;> njd;diuf; Nfhsj;jpy; mT];jpNuypahtpd; Gtpapay; epiyia vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. 1908 ,y; MW khepyq;fisf; Fwpf;Fk; MW Kid el;rj;jpuk; ePf;fg;gl;L> mjw;Fg; gjpyhf VO Kid el;rj;jpuk; cs;slf;fg;gl;lJ. VohtJ Kid ,uz;L vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpfisAk; Fwpf;Fk;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; xt;nthU khepyKk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaKk; jkf;NfAhpa nfhbfisAk; nfhz;Ls;sd.

nghJeytha kuGupikr; rpd;dk;

(Commonwealth Coat of Arms)

mT];jpNuypa nghJeytha murpd; mjpfhuj;ijAk;> jd;ikiaAk; milahsg;gLj;Jk; nghJeytha kuGupikr; rpd;dk;> 1912 ,y; Ie;jhtJ N[hh;[; kd;duhy; toq;fg;gl;lJ. mT];jpNuypah MW khepyq;fisf; nfhz;l rk~;b vd;gijf; fhl;Lk; tifapy; mtw;wpd; rpd;dq;fisf; nfhz;l Nflak; mjpy; cz;L. jq;f nthl;y; (mT];jpNuypahtpd; kyh;r; rpd;dk;)> fq;fh&> vKA gwit vd;gtw;iwAk; mjpy; fhzyhk;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypah – xNu ghh;itapy;

Njrpa epwq;fs;
1984 Vg;uypy; ,Ue;J mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpa epwq;fshf gr;irAk; jq;f epwKk; ,Ue;JtUfpd;wd.

kyh;r; rpd;dk;
1988k; Mz;by; ,Ue;J ‘Mnfrpah gpf;ehe;jh’ (Acacia pycnantha) vDk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; kyh;r; rpd;dkhf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ. ngaiuf; nfhz;l jq;f nthl;y;>

Njrpa khzpf;ff; fy;
mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpa khzpf;fkhf 1993,y; Xgy; (Opal) gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

11

tpyq;Fr; rpd;dk;
mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpa tpyq;Fr; rpd;dkhf fq;fh&it mNefh; fUJfpd;wdh;. vdpDk; mt;thW vd;WNk cj;jpNahfG+h;tkhf gpufldg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy.

Njrpa jpdk;
KjyhtJ MSeh; Mh;jh; gpypg; 1788 ,y; rpl;dp rpWFlhtpy; te;jpwq;fpa epfo;it epidT+l;Lk; tifapy; Xt;nthU Mz;Lk; [dthp 26 Mk; jpfjp mT];jpNuypa jpdkhff; nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ.

Njrpa fPjk;
ml;thd;]; mT];jpNuypah /ngahh; (Advance Australia Fair) vDk; fPjj;ij 1878 ,y; gPlh; nlhl;]; nkf;Nfhh;kpf; vd;gth; ,aw;wpdhh;. 1970 fspy; mJ Njrpa ,irahfp gpd;dh; 1984 Vg;uypy; Njrpa fPjkhf mq;fPfhuk; ngw;wJ. Njrpa fPjj;jpd; thrfq;fs; tUkhW: Australians all let us rejoice, For we are young and free; We’ve golden soil and wealth for toil; Our home is girt by sea; Our land abounds in nature’s gifts Of beauty rich and rare; In history’s page, let every stage Advance Australia Fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair. Beneath our radiant Southern Cross We’ll toil with hearts and hands; To make this Commonwealth of ours Renowned of all the lands; For those who’ve come across the seas We’ve boundless plains to share; With courage let us all combine To Advance Australia Fair. In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair.

mT];jpNuypa tpUJfSk; nfsutq;fSk;
Njrj;Jf;Fk; kdpj rKjhaj;Jf;Fk; Mw;wg;gLk; Nritfis mq;fPfhpf;Fk; tifapyike;j ‘mT];jpNuypa Mh;lh;’ (Order of Australia), ‘mT];jpNuypa tPur; rpd;dk;’ (Australian Bravery Decorations) kw;Wk; ‘Njrpa tpUJ’ (National Medal) Nghd;wd 1975 ,y; cUthf;fg;gl;ljpy; ,Ue;J mT];jpNuypahtpd; jdpj;Jtkhd nfsutpg;G KiwAk; Muk;gkhfpaJ. mT];jpNupypahtpd; nfstpuf;Fk; Kiw murpay; nray;thf;Nfh NtW jiyaPLfNyh mw;wJ. ,e;j nfsutj;ijg; ngw ve;j mT];jpNuypaf; FbkfidAk; r%fj;jpYs;s vtUk; rpghh;R nra;ayhk;. Rje;jpukhd xU FO njhpTfisr; nra;Ak;. ,j;jifa nfsutq;fs; %yk;> Kd;Djhuzq;fs; milahsg;gLj;jg;gl;L> Njrpa mgpyhirfSk;> ,yl;rpaq;fSk; juq;fSk; J}z;lg;gl;L typAWj;jg;gLfpd;wd. khw;wk; Vw;gLj;Jfpd;w my;yJ jdJ KO Kaw;rpapd; %yKk; rhjid Ghpfpd;w my;yJ VidatUf;Fg; gzpGhpfpd;wth;fis ,dk; fz;L> nfhz;lhb mth;fSf;F ed;wp njhptpf;Fk; tifapy; mT];jpNuypah ,e;j nfsutq;fis toq;FfpwJ.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypah – xNu ghh;itapy;

,izaj; jfty;
• mT];jpNuypa tpUJfs; kw;Wk; rpd;dq;fs; www.itsanhonour.gov.au • gpujk ke;jphpapd; ,yhfh kw;Wk; ke;jphp rig www.dpmc.gov.au

12

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypah – xNu ghh;itapy;

13

NjrKk; kf;fSk;
mT];jpNupypah xd;Wf;nfhd;W Kuz;gl;l mk;rq;fs; gytw;iwf; nfhz;l jdpj;Jtkhd xU ehL. cs;sf gpuNjrq;fs; (outback) vd miof;fg;gLk; efuj;jpy; ,Ue;J J}uj;jpy; mike;Js;s fpuhkpag; gFjpfs;> mT];jpNuypa tuyhw;wpYk; goq;fijfspYk; Kf;fpa ,lk;ngWfpd;wd. vdpDk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; 21 kpy;ypad; rdj;njhifapy; 75 tpOf;fhl;bw;Fk; mjpfkhNdhh; efuq;fspYk; Fwpg;ghfj; jiyefuq;fspYk;> gRikahd fpof;Ff; fiuNahuj;ij mz;ba rkntspapYk;> njd;fpof;Ff; fiuNahuj;jpYk; tho;fpd;wdh;. mT];jpNuypah xU ‘,sk;’ ehL vdf; fUfg;gl;lhYk; $l> cyfpd; Vida gy ehLfs; Nghy mjd; ruhrup thOk; tanjy;iy mjpfhpj;Jf;nfhz;L nry;tjdhy;> tajhNdhupd; rdj;njhifAk; mjpfwpj;Jr; nry;fpwJ. 65 taJf;F Nkw;gl;Nlhhpd; rdj;njhif 2005 ,y; ,Ue;j 13.1 tpOf;fhby; ,Ue;J 2050 MFk; NghJ 25.7 tpOf;fhL MFk; vd vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ.

mT];jpNuypahtpd; khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa rdj;njhifg; guk;gy;
gpuhe;jpak;/khepyk; rdj;njhif (kpy;ypad;)
6.55 4.93 3.90 1.96 1.51 0.48 0.32 0.19

jiyefuk;

jiyefu rdj;njhif (kpy;ypad;)
4.12 3.59 1.76 1.45 1.11 0.20 0.32 0.11

epA+ rt;j; Nty;]; tpf;Nlhhpah FaPd;yhe;J Nkw;F mT];jpNuypah njw;F mT];jpNuypah j];Nkdpah mT];jpNuypa jiyefu vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpak; tl vy;iyg; gpue;jpak;
(%yk;: mT];jpNuypa Gs;sptpguq;fs; gzpkid)
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

rpl;dp nky;gd; gphp];gd; Ngh;j; mnliya;l; N`hghh;l; fd;nguh lhh;tpd;

jl;gntg;g epiy
mT];jpNuypah cyfpd; mjptuz;l ehLfspy; xd;whFk;. mjd; mNdf cs;sfg; gFjpfs; jl;ilahd> jhprhd> rd mlh;j;jp Fiwe;j gFjpfshFk;. vdpDk;> tl mT];jpNuypahtpd; ngUk; gFjp madkz;ly fhyepiyiaf; nfhz;lJ. FaPd;];yhe;jpd; rpy gFjpfs;> Nkw;F mT];jpNuypahtpd; tl gFjp> tlf;Fg; gpuhe;jpak; vd;gd [dthp Kjy; khh;r; tiuapyhd khhpfhyj;jpy; gUt kioia xj;j kio tPo;r;rpiag; ngWfpd;wd.

14

mT];jpNuypah xU Gwj;jpy; ciw gdpiaAk; kWGwj;jpy; mdy; jfpf;Fk; ntapiyAk; vd gy;NtW jl;gntg;g epiyfisAk; mDgtpf;Fk; msTf;F tprhykhd ehlhFk;. j];Nkdpahtpd; gFjpfSk;> mT];jpNuypa ngUepyg; gug;gpd; njd;fpof;F Nkl;L epyq;fis mz;ba my;igd; gFjpfSk; mjpfk; Fspuhd gpuNjrq;fshFk;. mt;thNw fz;lj;jpd; kj;jpa Nkw;Fg; gFjpapy; mjp$ba ntg;gg; gFjpfs; cs;sd. mT];jpNuypahtpd; gUtq;fs; tl miu Nfhsj;jpy; ,Ug;gjw;F Kw;wpYk; KuzhdjhFk;. Nfhil fhyk; brk;gh; Kjy; ngg;uthp tiuAk;> ,iyAjpu; fhyk; khh;r; Kjy; Nk tiuAk;> Fsph;fhyk; [{d; Kjy; Mf];l; tiuAk;> tre;j fhyk; nrg;lk;gh; Kjy; etk;gh; tiuapYk; fhzg;gLk;. mjp Fsph;e;j ruhrhp ntg;g epiy [{iyapy; tUk;. njw;F mT];jpNuypahtpd; ngUk;ghyhd gFjpfspy; gfy; Neu ruhrhp ntg;g epiy 10 kw;Wk; 20 ghif nry;ypa]; (50 kw;Wk; 68 ghif F) MfTk;> tl mad kz;lyj;jpy; mjp$baJ 20 MfTk; mjp Fiwe;jJ 30 ghif nry;ypa]hfTk; (70 kw;Wk; 80 ghif F) fhzg;gLk;. fiuNahug; gpuNjrq;fspy; ciw gdp nga;Ak; msTf;F ntg;gepiy FiwtJ mhpjhFk;. Mdhy;> cs;sfg; gFjpfs; gytw;wpy; Fsph;fhyj;jpy; es;spuTfspy; rpwpjsT ciw gdp nga;tJz;L. my;igd; kiyg; gFjpfspy; ntg;gepiy rhjhuzkhf 0 ghif nry;rpai] tplf; (32F) Fiwe;j mstpy; fhzg;gLk;. tUlj;jpd; gy khjq;fSf;F 1500 kPl;lUf;F Nkw;gl;l cauKila kiyg; gFjpfspy; gdpg;glyk; ciwe;J fhl;rpaspf;Fk;. njw;F mT];jpNuypa ntg;gk; $ba khjq;fs; [dthpAk; ngg;uthpAkhFk;. vdpDk; tlf;F mad kz;lyj;jpy; etk;gUk; brk;gUk; mjpfk; #lhd fhykhFk;. ruhrhp gfy;Neu ntg;gepiy ngUk;ghyhd cs;sf gFjpfspy; 30 ghif nry;rpa]pw;F NkyhFk; (80 my;yJ 90 ghif F) MFk;. ,J Nkw;F mT];jpNuypahtpd; gFjpfspy; 40 ghif nry;rpa]; (104 F) tiu mjpfhpj;Jr; nry;Yk;. njw;Ff; fiuNahuq;fspYk; Nkl;L epyg; gFjpfspYk; j];NkdpahtpYk; mit FspuhfNt (20s C/70s my;yJ 80s F) fhzg;gLk;.

,izaj;jpy; jfty; ngw
• thdpiyg; gzpkid www.bom.gov.au

Rw;Wr; #oy;
mT];jpNuypahthdJ xd;Wf;nfhd;W NtWgl;l epytikg;GfisAk; mrhjhuzkhd jhtu> caphpd tiffisAk; nfhz;lJ. ,e;jf; #oiyAk; mjd; jdpj;Jtkhd> tskpf;f caphpay; NtWghLfisAk; Ngzpg; ghJfhf;f ehk; gw;WWjp nfhz;Ls;Nshk;. mT];jpNuypaf; fz;l epyg;gug;gpy; Rkhh; 10 tpOf;fhL (Rkhh; 77 kpy;ypad; n`f;lahh;) ghJfhf;fg;gl;l gpuNjrkhFk;. tlFaPd;];yhe;J fiuNahuj;ij mz;ba fpNul; nghpah; flw;ghiwg; G+q;fhg; gFjp mlq;f Rkhh; 65 kpy;ypad; n`f;lahh; fly; gFjpAk; ghJfhf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

mT];jpNuypahtpd; gjpNdO gFjpfs; cyf ghuk;ghpaq;fspd; gl;baypy; ,lk;ngw;Ws;sd. fpNul; nghpah; flw;ghiw> j];Nkdpa fhLfs;> FaPd;];yhe;jpd; Nkw;Ff; fhLfs;> ff;fhL Njrpa tdk;> tl vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa cYU fhl;lh [_l;lh Njrpa tdk;> mT];jpNuypa kj;jpapy; fpof;fhf mike;Js;s kiof;fhLfs; kw;Wk; Nyhh;l; N`hNt jPTf; $l;lk; vd;gd mtw;wpy; rpy.

,izaj;jpy; jfty; ngw
• #oy; kw;Wk; ePh; tsq;fs; ,yhfh www.environment.gov.au

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Muk;g mT];jpNuypah;fs;
mT];jpNuypahtpy; Muk;gj;jpy; tho;e;J te;j G+h;tPff; Fbfs; mNghhp[pdpfs; vdg;gLk; goq;FbfSk; nlhu]; ePhpizj; jPtf kf;fSkhth;. ,th;fs; Rkhh; 40000 tUlq;fSf;F Nkyhf mjhtJ Rkhh; 60000 tUlq;fSf;F Kd;dh; ,Ue;Nj ,q;F tho;e;J te;Js;sdh;. KjyhtJ INuhg;gpa FbNawpfs; 1788 ,y; FbNawpa NghJ mT];jpNuypaf; fz;lj;jpy; ngUk;ghyhd gFjpfspy; Vwj;jho 750000 G+h;tPf kf;fs; gue;J tho;e;jjhff; fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. G+h;tPf RNjr mT];jpNuypah;fs; jkf;NfAhpa jdpj;Jtkhd Md;kPf ek;gpf;iffisAk;> g+kp kPjhd gf;jpAk;> tskhdJk; tpj;jpahrkhdJkhd fyhrhuKk;> cyfpd; kpfg;gioik tha;e;jtw;wpy; xd;nwdf; fUjg;gLk; njhlh;e;Jk; caph;thOk; fiyg; ghuk;ghpaj;ijAk; nfhz;lth;fshth;. mth;fs; tho;e;j ,lj;ijg; nghWj;J mth;fsJ tho;f;if Kiw> fyhrhu kuGfs; kw;Wk; nkhopfs; NtWgl;Lf; fhzg;gl;ld. INuhg;gpah;fsJ FbNaw;wk; njhlq;fpa fhyj;jpy; tho;e;j RNjr mT];jpNuypah;fs; kj;jpapy; Rkhh; 700 nkhopfSk;> nkhoptof;FfSk; Gof;fj;jpy; ,Ue;jd. flw;gpuahzpfSlDk;> th;j;jfh;fSlDk; xusTf;Fj; njhlh;G itj;jpUe;j NghjpYk; G+h;tPf mT];jpNuypah;fs;> INug;gpahpd; tUif tiu ngUk;ghYk; Gwj;njhlh;Gfs; mw;w epiyapNyNa tho;e;J te;jdh;. INuhg;gpah;fSf;Fk;> RNjr G+h;tPff; FbfSf;Fk; ,ilapyhd Muk;gj; njhlh;Gfspd; NghJ mth;fsJ ghuk;ghpa tho;f;if KiwfSk; gof;ftof;fq;fSk; ngUk; ghjpg;Gf;F cs;shfpd. 19 Mk; kw;Wk; 20 Mk; E}w;whz;Lfspy; RNjr kf;fspd; rdj;njhif ghhpa mstpy; tPo;r;rp fz;lJ. 1960fs; tiu g+h;tPf mT];jpNuypa fyhrhuj;Jf;Fk; tuyhw;wpw;Fk; mt;thNw mth;fSf;Fhpa FbAhpikAldhd chpikfs;> flikfs; vd;gtw;wpw;Fk; ve;j mq;fPfhuKk; toq;fg;gl;bUf;ftpy;iy. cjhuzkhf> ngluy; Njh;jypy; thf;fspf;Fk; chpik midj;J G+h;tPff; FbfSf;Fk; 1965 tiu toq;fg;gltpy;iy. vdpDk; 1967 ,y; ele;j kf;fs; mgpg;gpuha thf;nfLg;gpd;; NghJ> RNjr mT];jpNuypaUf;fhf rl;lk; tFf;fpd;w mjpfhuj;ij mT];jpNuypa murhq;fj;Jf;F toq;Ftjw;Fk; kw;Wk; Njrpa Fbrdf; fzf;nfLg;gpy; mth;fisAk; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk; gpNuuizf;Fk; Mjuthf 90 rjtPjj;Jf;Fk; Nkyhd mT];jpNuypah;fs; thf;fspj;jdh;. G+h;tPf kw;Wk; Vida mT];jpNuypah;fspd; gfPujg; gpuaj;jdq;fspd; tpisthfNt ,e;j thf;nfLg;gpy; mNkhf ntw;wp fpilf;fg; ngw;wJ. RNjr mT];jpNuypah;fspd; tho;f;if epiyfis Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhf mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; Neubahf nraw;gLtijf; fhz;gjw;F mT];jpNuypa kf;fs; nfhz;l Mh;tj;Jf;Ff; fpilj;j gykhd MizahfNt ,J ehnlq;Fk; Nehf;fg;gl;lJ. ,d;W mT];jpNuypahtpd; G+h;tPf RNjr kf;fspd; rdj;njhif Rkhh; 483000 my;yJ nkhj;j rdj;njhifapy; 2.3 tpOf;fhL MFk;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpa milahsj;jpy; G+h;tPff; Fbfspd; fyhrhu mk;rq;fs; ,d;wpaikahj ,lj;ij tfpf;fpd;wd. fiy> nra;jp Clfq;fs;> cah;fy;tp> tpisahl;L kw;Wk; tpahghuk; Kjypa gy;NtWgl;l Jiwfspy; G+h;tpff; FbapdUk;> nlhu]; jPtf kf;fSk; fzprkhd gq;fspg;ig toq;fp tUfpd;wdh;. rpy gFjpfspy; ,d;Dk; fhzg;gLfpd;w cah;Tjho;T ghugl;rq;fis Kwpabg;gjw;F RNjr kf;fSf;F cjTk; tifapyhd jpl;lq;fisAk;> nfhs;iffisAk; mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; Nkw;ghh;it nra;J tUfpd;wJ. Rfhjhuk;> fy;tp> tPl;L trjp> njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; mth;fsJ mgptpUj;jpiaf; fUj;jpw; nfhz;ljhf ,j;jpl;lq;fs; cs;sd. G+h;tPf kf;fs; jhk; ghuk;ghpakhfj; njhlh;Ggl;Ls;s epyq;fisg; ngWtij my;yJ jkJ nghUshjhu> fyhrhu> rKf mgptpUj;jpf;F JizGhpaf; $ba tpjj;jpyhd epyq;fisAk; nrhe;jkhfg; ngWtij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjpy; murhq;fk; gw;WWjp nfhz;Ls;sJ. mT];jpNuypahtpd; 16 tpOf;fhL epyg;gug;ig G+h;tPff; Fbfs; jkJ nrhe;jj;jpy; my;yJ fl;Lg;ghl;by; itj;Js;sdh;. mtw;wpy; mNdfkhdit kpfj; J}ug;gpuNjrq;fshFk;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

16

,izaj;jpy; jfty; ngw
• FLk;gq;fs;> r%f Nritfs; kw;Wk; G+h;tPff; Fbfs; tptfhuj; jpizf;fsk; www.facsia.gov.au • mT];jpNuypag; goq;Fbfs; kw;Wk; nlhu]; ePhpizj; jPtf kf;fs; Ma;T epiyak; www.aiatsis.gov.au

Muk;g INuhg;gpah;fs;
`hye;J> Nghh;j;Jf;Nfa> ];ghdpa flw;gpuahzpfs; fz;lwpag; glhj njd;dfj;jpd; (Terra Australis Incognita) ntt;NtW fiuNahug; gFjpfisf; fz;Zw;wjhf 1600fspy; ,Ue;Nj $wpte;jdh;. N[k;]; Ff; vDk; Mq;fpNyah; 1770,y; jdJ vd;Nlth; vDk; ngah; nfhz;l fg;gypy; mT];jpNuypaf; fpof;Ff; fiuapy; gazpj;J mg;gpuNjrj;ij gphpj;jhdpahtpd; Kbf;Fhpa G+kpahff; Nfhhpdhh;. ,e;jg; Gjpa FbNaw;wj;ij jkJ jz;lizf; ifjpfis mDg;Gtjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd njhiyJ}uf; fhty; muzhf cgNahjpg;gjw;F gphpj;jhdpah gpd;dh; jPh;khdpj;jJ. rpl;dp JiwKfj;Jf;F 1788 [dthp 26k; jpfjp te;jile;j 11 fg;gy; njhFjpAld; INuhg;gpah;fsJ FbNaw;wk; Muk;gpj;jJ. Kbf;Fhpa flw;gilapy; fg;ldhf ,Ue;j Mh;jh; gpypg; jiyikapy; te;j Kjw; fg;gy; njhFjpapy; Fw;wthspfs; cl;gl Rkhh; 1500 Ngh; ,g;Gjpa FbNaw;wj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;ldh;. ‘ept; rTj; Nty;]; nfhydp’ vd mg;NghJ miof;fg;gl;l mT];jpNuypag; ngUepyj;jpw;F KjyhtJ MSeuhdhh; gpypg;. mj;jpahtrpag; nghUl;fsJ gw;whf;Fiwahy; FbNaw;wj;jpd; Muk;g Mz;Lfs; gl;bdpf;Fk; gQ;rj;Jf;Fk; vjpuhd Nghuhl;lkhfNt fope;jd. ,Wjpapy; nghUl;fis Vw;wpf; nfhz;L fg;gy;fs; te;jile;jJk; epiyikfs; rPuile;jd. 1792 ,y; fg;ld; gpypg; mq;fpUe;J jpUk;gpr; nry;Yk; NghJ Kjw; FbNawpfs; trpj;j $lhuq;fs; Muk;gfhyf; fl;Lkhzq;fshfg; ghpzhkk; mile;J rpl;dp efuJ Kjy; tbtk; cUg;ngw;wpUe;jJ. rpy tUlq;fSf;Fs;shfNt> rpl;dp JiwKfkhdJ> J}u ,lq;fshd u~;ah> gpuhd;];> mnkhpf;fh Nghd;w ehLfspy; ,Ue;Jk; fg;gy;fs; te;J nry;fpd;w RWRWg;ghd JiwKfkhf khwpaJ. FbNaw;wq;fs; cl;gFjpf;Fk; gunkl;lh tiu tprhypj;jjhy; 1800 MFk; NghJ rdj;njhif 5000 Mf cah;e;jJ. 1810 Kjy; 1821 tiu yhf;yd; nkf;fhup (Lachlan Macquarie) vd;gth; MSeuhf te;jhh;. mT];jpNuypa Muk;gfhy tuyhw;wpy; mth; Kf;fpakhd jiyth;fspy; xUtuhthh;. Fw;wthspfspd; jz;lizf; $lk; vd;w epiyapy; ,Ue;J Fw;wthspfspd; ciog;ig Mjutha;f; nfhz;l Rje;jpu th;j;jf Kaw;rpfs; nfhz;l FbNaw;wkhf mJ khwpaJ. 1820k; Mz;L MFk;NghJ 30000 Fw;wthspfSk; RatpUg;gpy; FbNaWNthh; 4500 NgUk; ,f;fhydpapy; te;J FbNawpdh;. Rje;jpukhff; FbNawpNahh; gz;izfisAk; tpahghu Kaw;rpfisAk; njhlq;fpdh;. fhydp tsh;r;rp ngw;wJ. Fw;wthspfspd; Muk;g ehl;fs; kpfTk; fbdkhf ,Ue;j NghjpYk; tpahghuj;jpYk;> Vida njhopy; JiwfspYk; mth;fspy; gyUf;F ,Ue;j jpwik kw;Wk; fbd ciog;G Mfpatw;wpd; gpujpgydhf gy Fw;wthspfs; fz;zpakhd me;j];Jfisg; ngwyhapdh;. 1788,y; njhlq;fp ,Wjpahf 1868k; Mz;L Fw;wthspfis ehLflj;Jjy; iftplg;gl;l tiuahd fhyg;gFjpapy; Mz;fSk; ngz;fSkhf 160000 jz;lidf; ifjpfs; ,q;F nfhz;Ltug;gl;ldh;. FbNaw;wj;jpd; Muk;g tUlq;fspy; fz;lj;jpd; cl;gFjp gw;wpNah ePz;l tprhykhd fiuNahuk; gw;wpNah ahUf;Fk; mjpfk; njupe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. gaph;r; nra;iff;Fk;> MLfis Nka;f;fTk;> ey;y FbePiug; ngwTk;> kw;w FbNawpfis mkh;j;jTk; Gjpa epyg;gug;Gfisf; fz;Lnfhs;s Ntz;ba mOj;jk; Vw;gl;lJ. ,jdhy;> gyUk; Ma;Tg; gazq;fis Nkw;nfhz;L tlf;Fg; gf;fkhfTk; njw;Fg; gf;fkhfTk; fiuNahukhf fuLKulhd gFjpfisj; jhz;bg; gazpj;jdh;. Nkw;Fj; jpirapy; fhzg;gl;l ‘ghupa gpupNfhL’ (the Great Dividing Range) vd miof;fg;gl;l kiyj; njhliu ClWj;Jg; gazpf;f ,d;Dk; rpyh; Kaw;rp nra;jdh;. mjidaLj;J kw;Wk; rpyh; mT];jpNuypahtpd; guPl;rakw;w twz;l Ey;yNghh; (Nullarbor) gPlG+kp kw;Wk; kj;jpa> tlNkw;F mT];jpNuypah Nghd;w cl;gpuNjrq;fis Nehf;fpg; gazpj;jdh;. gyh; ,g;gpuahzq;fspd; NghJ khz;L Nghapdh;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

17

njhlh;e;J te;j %d;W jrhg;jq;fspy; Nkw;gb cs;sf Ma;Tfspy; <Lgl;NlhuJ mbr; RtLfisg; gpd;gw;wp FbNawpfs; ehl;bd; cl;Gwkhf efu;e;J ,f;fz;lj;jpd; kdpj tho;Tf;F cfe;j mNef gFjpfspy; gue;J FbNawpdh;. ntd; la;kdpd; G+kp (j];Nkdpah) 1825 ,y; jdpahd fhydpahhf khwpaJ. FaPd;];yhe;J> tpf;Nlhhpah> njd; mT];jpNuypah kw;Wk; Nkw;F mT];jpNuypah vd ,d;W mwpag;gLk; ,lq;fspy; Gjpa FbapUg;Gfs; cUthfpd. fk;gspf; ifj;njhopypy; Vw;gl;l tsh;r;rpAk; 1851 ,y; ept; rTj; Nty;rpYk; tpf;NlhpahtpYk; jq;fk; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;likAk; Ra tpUg;gpy; mT];jpNuypahtpw;Ff; FbNaw tUNthhpd; njhifiag; ghupa mstpy; ngUf;fptpl;lJ. 1851 ,y; 430000 Mf ,Ue;j mT];jpNuypahtpd; nkhj;j rdj;njhif 1871 MFk; NghJ 1.7 kpy;ypad; Mf Kk;klq;fhfpaJ. ,th;fspy; mjpfkhNdhh; gphpj;jhdpah;> MdhYk; mnkhpf;ff; fz;l ehLfs;> gpuhd;];> ,j;jhyp> N[h;kdp> Nghye;J kw;Wk; `q;Nfhp Nghd;w ehLfisr; Nrh;e;NjhLk; mth;fSs; mlq;fpdh;. jq;fk; Njb Vwj;jho 40000 rPdh; ,q;F te;J FbNawpdh;. gphpj;jhdpaUf;Fg; gpwF xNu jlitapy; ngUe;njhifapdh; te;jJ ,JNtahFk;.

xU Njrj;jpd; cjak;
ept; rTj; Nty;]; FbNaw;wk; Muk;gj;jpy; Vwj;jho fz;lj;jpd; fpof;Fg; gpuNjrk; KOtijAk; Mf;fpukpj;jpUe;jJ. gbg;gbahf> NtW FbNaw;wq;fSk;> %yf; FbNaw;wj;jpy; ,Ue;J NtWgl;L jdpj;jdp; FbNaw;wq;fshf cUntLf;fyhapd. 1852k; Mz;by; Gjpa FbNaw;wq;fSf;F Rahjpf;f mjpfhuk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. vdpDk; xt;nthU FbNaw;wKk; jdf;NfAhpa ghJfhg;G> jghy;> th;j;jfk; kw;Wk; Nghf;Ftuj;J Nghd;w gy Jiwfspy; jdpj;jdpahd Kiwfisf; nfhz;bUe;jjhy;> ,f; FbNaw;wq;fSf;fpilapy; gue;j mstpyhd xj;Jiog;G gw;wpa Njitia kf;fs; mjpfkhf czuj; jiyg;gl;ldh;. ,Nj Ntis> Njrpa czh;Tk; NkNyhq;fp tuyhapw;W. 19k; E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjpf; fl;lj;jpy; Fbapay; nfsutKk; nghUshjhur; nropg;Gk; jhuhskhff; fhzg;glyhapw;W. Njrj;jpd; KjyhtJ ,uapy; Nrit nky;gh;dpy; Muk;gpj;Jitf;fg;gl;lJ. mt;thNw kpd;rhu je;jpj;njhlh;G NritAk; Jtq;fpaJ. rpl;dpapYk; nky;gh;dpYk; rh;tfyhrhiyfs; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;ld. fz;fth; mofpa fl;llq;fSk; eph;khzpf;fg;gl;ld. mT];jpNuypah xU Rje;jpu Njrkhfg; ghpzhkk; ngWtjpy; NkYk; ,uz;L epfo;Tfs; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wd. 1870 ,y;> KjyhtJ fg;gw; njhFjp fiuapwq;fpajpy; ,Ue;J 80 Mz;Lfspy;> filrp gphpj;jhdpa JUg;Gf;fs; mT];jpNuypahtpy; ,Ue;J ntspNawpd. mNj Ntis Rna];; fhy;tha; jpwe;Jitf;fg;gl;lik INuhg;ghtpy; ,Ue;J gazpg;gjpy; ,Ue;J ePz;l J}u neUf;fbia epth;j;jp nra;jjhy; mT];jpNuypah Nehf;fp Gjpjhf FbtuTfs; gilnaLf;fyhapd. 1880,y; mT];jpNuypa rdj;njhif ,uz;L kpy;ypadhf mjpfhpj;jJ. NkNyhq;fp te;j Njrj;jpd; nghUshjhur; nropg;G 1890 ,y; Vw;gl;l tul;rp kw;Wk; Klf;fy; fhuzkhf tYtpoe;jJ. ept; rt;j; Nty;]; rl;l rigapd; rghehafh; vl;kd;l; ghh;ld; kw;Wk; rpyiug; nghWj;j tiuapy;> ,e;j nghUshjhu neLf;fbahdJ> th;j;jfk;> nfhs;if tFj;jy; kw;Wk; ghJfhg;G Kjypa ,d;Ndhud;d gpur;rpidfSf;F ehL jOtpa jPh;Tfis toq;Ftjw;F trjpahd Njrpa murhq;fk; xd;W gw;wpa rpe;jid kPjhd cWjpg;ghl;il NkYk; tYg;gLj;jpaJ. rk~;b Kiw Ml;rpf;F Mjuthf mT];jpNuypa kf;fs; 1898> 1900 Mz;Lfspy; thf;fspj;jdh;. mjd; gpufhuk; mT];jpNuypag; nghJeytha muR 1901 [dthp Kjyhk; jpfjp cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. MW khepyq;fSk; rk~;b Kiwapy; xNu ahg;gpd; fPo; nfhz;Ltug;gl;ld. rk~;b Kiw nfhz;Ltug;gl;l NghJ G+h;tPff; Fbfs; my;yhj rdj;njhif 3.8 kpy;ypad; Mf ,Ue;jJ. ept; rt;j; Nty;]py; rk~;b ,af;fj;ij topelhj;jpa vl;kd;l; ghh;ld; mT];jpNuypahtpd; KjyhtJ gpujk ke;jphpahdhh;. Njrj;jpd; KjyhtJ ghuhSkd;wk; 1901 Nk 9k; jpfjp nky;gh;d; fz;fhl;rpf; $lj;jpy; jpwe;Jitf;fg;gl;lJ.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

18

mT];jpNuypah nrs[d;aKk;> If;fpaKk;> mNgjthjKk; nfhz;ljhf mika Ntz;Lk; vd Gjpa Njrj;jpd; ];jhgfh;fs; tpUk;gpdh;. kdpj chpikfs;> [dehaf topKiwfisg; NgZjy; kw;Wk; ,ufrpa thf;fpd; kjpg;G Nghd;wit gw;wpa Kw;Nghf;fhd rpe;jidfis mth;fs; nfhz;bUe;jdh;. ngz;fSf;F thf;fspf;Fk; chpikiaAk; ghuhSkd;wj;Jf;Fj; njhpthFk; chpikiaAk; Kjd; Kjypy; toq;fpa ehLfspy; mT];jpNuypahTk; xd;whFk;. ,t;Thpikfs; 1895 ,y; njw;F mT];jpNuypahtpy; ngz;fSf;F toq;fg; gl;ld. 1902 Mk; Mz;by;> thf;fspf;Fk; chpikiaAk; nghJehytha ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; mkUk; cupikiaAk; rfy mT];jpNuypag; ngz;fSk; ngw;wdh;. rk~;b KiwahdJ ek;gpf;if epiwe;j xU fhyg; gFjpia cUthf;fpj; je;jJ. 1901 Kjy; KjyhtJ cyfAj;jk; eilngw;w 1914 Mk; Mz;L tiuahd fhyfl;lj;jpy; mT];jpNuypahtpd; nghUshjhuj;ij> Fwpg;ghf mjd; tptrha kw;Wk; cw;gj;jpj; jpwd;fis mgptpUj;jp nra;tjpy; fzprkhd Kd;Ndw;wk; Vw;gl;lJ. ah]; - fd;nguh gpuhe;jpak; 1908,y; Njrpa jiyefuk; mikg;gjw;fhd ,lkhfj; njhpT nra;ag;gl;lJ. Gjpa jiyefUf;fhd ,lk; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;lJk; efuj;ij tbtikg;gjw;fhd cyfshtpa Nghl;b xd;W 1911 ,y; elj;jg;gl;lJ. Nghl;bf;F rkh;g;gpf;fg;gl;l 137 khjphpfspy; ,Ue;J rpfhNfh fl;llf; fiyQh; Nthy;lh; gh;yp fphpgpd; rkh;g;gpj;j tbikg;G njhpT nra;ag;gl;lJ. fd;nguh 1913 khh;r; 12k; ehs; Kiwahf ngahplg;gl;lJ. ghuhSkd;wk; jw;fhypfkhf ,aq;Ftjw;fhd fl;blk; xd;W 1923 Mf];l; 23 ,y;> epue;ju ghuhSkd;wj;Jf;nfd fphpg;gpd; Kd;nkhope;j ,lj;Jf;F mz;ikapy; cUthfpaJ. fd;nguh efhpy; KjyhtJ ghuhSkd;w mkh;Tk; fl;llj; jpwg;G tpohTk; 1927 Nk 9 ,y; ,lk;ngw;wJ.

Aj;jj;jpd; jhf;fk;
mT];jpNuypah jdpahd xU Njrkhf Rje;jpuk; ngw;wpUe;j NghjpYk; gphpj;jhdpahTldhd FLk;g cwTfSk; gpizg;Gk; njhlh;e;Jk; epiyj;jpUe;jd. N[h;kdp 1914 ,y; ngy;[paj;ij Mf;fpukpj;jijaLj;J gphpj;jhdpah N[h;kdpf;F vjpuhf Nghh;g; gpufldk; nra;jNghJ mT];jpNuypah gphpj;jhdpahTf;F MjuT toq;Ftjpy; xd;Wgl;lJ. Kjyhk; cyf Aj;jk;; mT];jpNuypahtpd; kPJ fLikahd jhf;fj;jpid Vw;gLj;jpaJ. 1914,y; mT];jpNuypahtpd; KO rdj;njhif Vwj;jho 4.5 kpy;ypad; Mf ,Ue;jJ. ,jpy; Mz;fspd; vz;zpf;if mNdfkhf %d;W kpy;ypad;jhd; vd;whYk; Aj;jj;jpy; ,ize;J nfhs;s 417000 mT];jpNuypa Mz;fs; tpUg;gj;NjhL Kd;te;jdh;. Rkhh; 330000 NgUf;Fk; mjpfkhd njhifapdh; Nghhpy; fye;Jnfhz;ldh;. 1918 Mk; Mz;L Aj;jk; Kbtile;jNghJ Rkhh; 60000 Ngh; nfhy;yg;gl;Lk; 152000 NgUf;F Nkw;gl;Nlhh; fhakile;Jk; ,Ue;jdh;. JzpT> jplcWjp> gu];guk; Jiz epw;wy; Nghd;w tpOkpaq;fis Nghjpf;Fk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; gpugy;akhd md;]f; ngWkhdk; ,e;j mDgtj;jpy; ,Ue;J jhd; Njhd;wpaJ. md;]f;]; vdg;gLk; mT];jpNuypa epArpyhe;J ,uhZtKk; $l;Lg;gilfSk; 1915 ,y; JUf;fpapd; fypnghypapy; epfo;j;jpa tPukpf;f Mdhy; Njhy;tpapy; Kbe;j Nghuhl;lj;jpd; tPu epidTfis xt;nthU tUlKk; Vg;uy; khjk; 25k; jpfjpad;W mT];jpNuypah epidT $h;fpwJ. nfhd;];jhe;jpNdhgpisj; jhf;fp Dardanelles I ClWg;gjD}lhfj; JUf;fpiaj; Njhw;fbf;Fk; Nehf;fpy; md;]f; tPuh;fs;> (gphpl;b~;> gpuhd;];> ,e;jpa JUg;GfSld; ,ide;J) fypnghypapy; jiuapwq;fpdh;. vdpDk; fuLKulhd nrq;Fj;Jk; ghiwg; gs;sj;jhf;Ffisf; nfhz;l Gtpaikg;Gk; JUf;fpahpd; gykhd vjph;g;Gk; Nghh;tPuh;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij jilnra;jd. md;]f; tPuh;fs; 1915 brk;gh; 20k; jpfjp mq;fpUe;J gpd;thq;fpdh;. vl;L khjk; ePbj;j ,g;Nghhpy; Vwj;jho 8700 mT];jpNuypah;fs; Neub Aj;jj;jpy; my;yJ fhag;gl;Lk; Neha;tha;g;gl;Lk; kuzpj;jdh;. jw;NghJ> md;]f; jpdk; md;]f; Nghh;tPuh;fis kl;Lkd;wp mJ Kjy; Aj;jq;fspy; Nghhpl;l vy;yh mT];jpNuypa Nghh;tPuh;fisAk; epidT $h;fpd;wJ.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

19

,uz;L cyf Aj;jq;fSf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l fhyk; (1919 – 1939) rKf> nghUshjhu ];jpukpd;ik fhzg;gl;l fhykhFk;. Fwpg;ghf ghhpa nghUshjhu ke;j epiy Vw;gl;bUe;j ,f;fhyg; gFjpapy; mT];jpNuypahtpd; gy epjp epWtdq;fs; Njhy;tpaile;jd. (mT];jpNuypahtpd; gpujhd Vw;Wkjpfshd) fk;gsp kw;Wk; NfhJikapd; tpiy tPo;r;rp> Mq;fpNya %yjdk; thg]; ngwg;gl;lik kw;Wk; Vida Vw;Wkjpfspd; tpiy tPo;r;rp Nghd;wd fLikahd epjp neUf;fbia cUthf;fpaJ. Ntiyaw;Nwhh; njhif fzprkhf mjpfhpj;jJ. 1933,y; njhopyhsh; gilapy; %d;wpy; xU gq;F Ntiyaw;wpUe;jdh;. Njrpa tUkhdk; ngU tPo;r;rpiaf; fz;lJ. ‘Aj;jq;fis xopg;gjw;fhd Aj;jk;’ Xa;e;J 20 tUlq;fs; kl;LNk fope;j epiyapy;> ehL nghUshjhu ke;j epiyapypUe;J Rjhfhpj;Jf; nfhz;L vOe;J epw;fpd;w NghJ> 1939 ,y; cyfk; kPz;Lk; xU Aj;jj;jpy; ,wq;fpaJ. 1939,y; N[h;kdp Nghye;jpd; kPJ gilnaLj;jijaLj;J gphpj;jhdpah N[h;kdpf;nfjpuhf Nghh; njhLj;jJ. mT];jpNuypahTk; Aj;jj;jpy; fye;Jnfhs;tjhf mjd; gpujk ke;jphp nuhgh;l; nkd;]P]; mwptpj;;jhh;. Ner ehl;Lg; gilfs; INuhg;ghtpYk; MrpahtpYk; gRgpf;fpYk; ntw;wpngWtjpy; mT];jpNuypag; gilfs; ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghhpy; Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;Yk; msTf;F gq;fspg;ig toq;fpd. vdpDk; Nghhpd; ghjpg;G gykhfNt ,Ue;jJ. Rkhh; 40000 mT];jpNuypah;fs; nfhy;yg;gl;lNjhL ,d;Dk; gyh; fhakile;jdh;. Aj;jj;jpy; Nghhpl;L caph; gpioj;Njhh;; mT];jpNuypahtpd; Mw;wy;fs; gw;;wpa fk;gPuj;Jld; kPz;L te;jdh;. rpq;fg;G+hpd; tPo;r;rp> tl mT];jpNuypahtpy; G&k;> lhh;tpd; kw;Wk; lTd;];tpy; kPjhd [g;ghdpa Fz;L tPr;R> rpl;dp JiwKfk; kPjhd ePh;%o;fpj; jhf;Fjy;> gg;Gth ept; fpdpahtpy; md;iwa nfhNfhlh ghijapy; [g;ghdpa gilnaLg;Gf;F vjpuhd Nghh; Nghd;w epfo;r;rpfs; Aj;jj;ij mT];jpNuypahtpd; jiythrYf;Nf nfhz;L te;jpUe;jijAk; ehL czh;e;jJ. fypnghypiag; Nghd;Nw nfhNfhlhTk; Aj;jj;jpy; mT];jpNuypah;fsJ JzpitAk; jpahfj;ijAk; gpujpgypf;Fk; ,lkhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ. Nkhu;];gP JiwKfj;ijf; ifg;gw;Wk; Nehf;Fld; gGthtpd; tlf;fpy; jiuapwq;fpa [g;ghd; Mf;fpukpg;Gg; gilAld; xt;thj #o;epiyfisAk; kPwp ehd;F khjq;fshfg; nghUjpg; Nghuhbajpy; mT];jpNuypag; Nghh; tPuh;fs; 625 Ngh; nfhy;yg;gl;lNjhL NkYk; 1055 Ngh; fhag;gl;ldh;.

,izaj; jfty;
• mT];jpNuypa Aj;j epidtfk; (Australian War Memorial) www.awm.gov.au

nropg;Gk; khw;wKk;
Aj;jj;ijj; njhlh;e;j fhyg;gFjpapy; mfjpfSk; FbNawpfSk; Mapukhapukhf mT];jpNuypahtpy; te;J FbNawpdh;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; cw;gj;jjpj; Jiwapy; njhopyhsh; gw;whf;Fiw epytpa fhyk; mJ. 1950 fspy; KOikahd njhopy;tha;g;Gld; nghUshjhuk;; gykhd tsh;r;rpaile;jJ. nghJthfNt mT];jpNuypah;fs; kj;jpapy; nry;tr; nropg;G fhzg;gl;lJ. 1947,y; ntWk; 40 rj tPjj;jpy; ,Ue;j nrhe;j tPL itj;jpUe;Njhhpd; njhif 1960 fspy; 70 rj tPjkhf cah;e;jJ. 1945 ,y; Vwj;jho 7.4 kpy;ypadhf ,Ue;j rdj;njhif 1960,y; 10.4 kpy;ypadhf mjpfhpj;jJ. gphpj;jhdpah; my;yhj FbtUNth; ngUe;njhifapy; tuj; njhlq;fpaJk; rdj;njhifapd; cs;slf;fj;jpy; ghhpa khw;wq;fs; epfoj; njhlq;fpd. 1970fshFk; NghJ> mT];jpNuypahtpd; gpujhd th;j;jfg; gq;fhsp vd;w epiyapy; ,Ue;J gphpj;jhdpah tpLgl;L mt;tplj;ij [g;ghd; gpbj;jjdhy;> th;j;jf cwTfSk; khw;wk; fz;ld.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

20

Vida JiwfSk; mgptpUj;jp fz;ld. murhq;fj;jpd; r%fg; ghJfhg;G jpl;lq;fs; fpukkhf tpahgpj;jNjhL 1956 ,y; njhiyf;fhl;rpr; NritAk; mwpKfkhfpaJ. mNj Mz;by; mT];jpNuypahtpy; Kjd;Kjyhf kpfg; nghpa rh;tNjr epfo;r;rpnahd;whf xypk;gpf; Nghl;bfis nky;gh;d; elhj;jpaJ. ,uz;lhtJ cyf Aj;jj;ijj; njhlh;e;J ypguy; kw;Wk; fpuhkpaf; fl;rpapdhpd; (jw;NghJ Njrpaf; fl;rp) $l;lurhq;fk; nkhj;jk; 40 Mz;Lfs; mT];jpNuypahtpy; muNrhr;rpaJ. mT];jpNuypa njhopw; fl;rp nkhj;jkhf 20 tUlq;fs; Ml;rp elhj;jpAs;sJ. r%f> nghUshjhu mgptpUj;jp njhlh;e;Jk; ,lk; ngw;w tz;zk; cs;sJ. fle;j ,uz;L jrhg;jq;fspy; gutyhd nghUshjhu rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. mz;ikf; fhyq;fspy; rpwg;ghd nraw;ghL nfhz;l cyfpd; tsh;e;j ehLfspy; xd;whf mT];jpNuypah jpfo;fpwJ. nghUshjhu tsh;r;rpAk;> Gjpa njhopy;tha;g;GfSk;> cw;gj;jpj; jpwDk; mT];jpNuypah;fSf;F cah;e;j tho;f;ifj; juj;ij cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

,izaj;jpy; jfty;
• mT];jpNuypa Njrpa E}yfk; www.nla.gov.au • mT];jpNuypa mur fyhrhu kw;Wk; nghOJNghf;F Eiothapy; www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au

mT];jpNuypahitj; jhakhff; nfhz;Nlhh;
mT];jpNuypahtpdJ Njrf; fl;Lkhdj;jpy; Fbtuntd;gJ Kf;fpa mk;rkhFk;. FbNawpfs; 1788,y; ,Ue;J mT];jpNuypahit te;jila Muk;gpj;jdh;. 19k; E}w;whz;bd; kj;jpag; gFjpapy;> jq;f miyf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; tUlhe;jk; ruhrhp 50000 Ngh; tiuapyhd FbtuT fhzg;gl;lJ. mT];jpNuypahtpYk; Vida ,lq;fspYk; mt;tplq;fspd; nghUshjhu r%f epytuq;isg; gpujpgypf;Fk; tz;zk; mT];jpNuypahtpdJ FbtuT mjidj; njhlh;e;j fhyq;fspYk; ,iltplhJ epfo;e;jJ. Muk;g fhyf; FbNawpfspy;; mjpfkhNdhh; gphpj;jhdpahitAk; mah;yhe;ijAk; Nrh;e;jth;fs; Mth;. mth;fsJ Mq;fpNya nfy;jpa kuGfs; Gjpa Njrj;ij cUthf;Ftjw;F mbg;gilahf mike;jd. ,uz;lhk; cyf Aj;j Kbtpy; kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd kf;fs; jk; nrhe;j ,lq;fspy; ,Ue;J ,lk; ngah;e;J fhzg;gl;ldh;. mr;rkaj;jpy;> mT];jpNuypahtpy; mjpfsT njhopyhsh; gw;whf;Fiw epytpaJ. mj;Jld; ehl;bd; vjph;fhyj;jpw;Ff; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f rdj;njhifg; ngUf;fk; mtruj; Njit vd;w ek;gpf;ifAk; mT];jpNuypahtpy; tYg;ngw Muk;gpj;jpUe;jJ. ,it Nghd;w gy fhuzq;fisg; gpd;dzpahff; nfhz;L 1945k; Mz;L ngluy; FbtuT jpizf;fsk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. gy;NtW ngah; khw;wq;fSld; ,e;jj; jpizf;fsk; ,d;W tiuAk; nraw;gl;L tUfpwJ. 1947 MFk;NghJ ghhpa vz;zpf;ifapy; FbtuT ,lk;ngwyhapw;W. murhq;f cjtpAld; gazpj;J te;j mNefUk; ,jpy; mlq;Fth;. ,t;thW Fbte;Njhupy; mjpfkhNdhh; INuhg;gpah; Mth;. Vnddpy; ‘nts;is mT];jpNuypa’ f; nfhs;if NtW ehLfisr; Nrh;e;Njhhpd; Fbtuitf; fl;Lg;gLj;jpaJ. ,e;epiy nglNurd; Muk;gkhfpa 1901 Kjy; 1970 fspd; Muk;g fhyk; tiu ePbj;jJ. 1945 ,y; ,Ue;J mT];jpNuypahTf;F te;J Nrh;e;j 6.5 kpy;;ypaDf;Fk; mjpfkhd kf;fs;> FLk;gg; nghWg;Gfs;> tWik> Aj;jj;jpypUe;J my;yJ mlf;FKiwapypUe;J jg;gpj;Jf; nfhs;sy; Nghd;w fhuzpfshy; J}z;lg;gl;Nl Fbngah;e;J te;jpUe;jdh;. jkf;Fk; jkJ FLk;gj;jpdUf;Fk; GjpanjhU tho;it cWjpg;gLtjw;fhf midj;J re;jh;g;gq;fisAk; gad;gLj;jp fbd ciog;ig Nkw;nfhs;s mth;fs; jplTWjp G+z;bUe;jdh;.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

21

cjhuzkhf> 30 ehLfisr; Nrh;e;j 100000 FbNwpfs; mT];jpNuypahtpd; njw;F kiyg; gFjpapy; eph;khzpf;fg;gl;l kpfg; nghpa ePh; kpd; cw;gj;jpj; jpl;lkhd ];Ndhtp kt;d;ld;]; (Snowy Mountains Scheme) jpl;lj;jpy; gzpahw;wpdh;. ,e;jj; jpl;lk; Kbtila 1949 Kjy; 1974 tiuapy; 25 tUl fhyk; vLj;jJ. INuhg;gpah;; my;yhNjhhpd; Fbtuitj; jLf;fpd;w fl;Lg;ghl;L eilKiwfs; 1970 fspd; eLg;gFjpahFk; NghJ ntw;wpfukhf ePf;fg;gl;ljd; gpwF mT];jpNuypaf; FbtuTf; nfhs;if ghFghlw;wjhf khwpaJ. tprh ngWtjw;fhd jFjpia eph;zapg;gjpy; xU jdpkdpjdpd; ,dk;> ghy;> rhjp my;yJ kjj;jpw;F vg;gq;Fk; ,y;iy.

,izaj; jfty;
• FbtuT kw;Wk; FbAhpikj; Jiw www.immi.gov.au

[dehafKk; murhq;fKk;
ehl;bd; Fbkf;fs; gq;nfLj;J jk; fUj;ij ntspaplty;y ghuhSkd;w murhq;f Kiwapyike;j gpujpepjpj;Jt [dehafj;ij mT];jpNuypah nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,J kj rpfpg;Gj; jd;ikiaAk; $l;Lr; NrUk; chpikiaAk; Cf;fg;gLj;Jk; [dehafg; ghuk;ghpaq;fis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l KiwahFk;. mT];jpNuypa Njrpa murhq;fj;jpd; ,jakhff; fUjg;gLk; mikg;G epWtdq;fSk; eilKiwfSk; gphpj;jhdpa kw;Wk; tlmnkhpf;fg; ghuk;ghpaq;fis xj;j gy;NtW rpwg;gk;rq;fisf; nfhz;ljhFk;.

mT];jpNuypa murpay; rhrdk;
1901 [dthp Kjyhk; jpfjpad;W mT];jpNuypa murpay; ahg;G eilKiwf;F te;jijaLj;J nghJeytha mT];jpNuypah (Commonwealth of Australia) xU ngluy; murhf cUntLj;jJ. mT];jpNuypa NjrPa murpw;fhd mbg;gilahf ,t;turpay; rhrdk; mikfpwJ. murpay; ahg;gpy; jpUj;jk; nfhz;Ltu KbAk;> Mdhy; mJ murpay; ahg;gpd; ruj;JfSf;F mika elhj;jg;gLk; Njrpaf; fUj;Jf;fzpg;G thf;nfLg;gpd; mbg;gilapy; ngwg;gLk; Mjuit mbg;gilahff; nfhz;ljhfNt mikAk;. vt;tpj jpUj;jq;fSk; ,uz;L tpj ngUk;ghd;ikfshy; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; - Njrpa mstpyhd thf;fhsh;fsJ ngUk;ghd;ikAk;> ngUk;ghd;ikahd khepyq;fspy; (Mwpy; Fiwe;jJ ehd;fpd;) ngUk;ghd;ikahd thf;fhsh;fsJ MjuTk; ,jw;Fj; Njitg;gLk;.

mT];jpNuypa rk~;b
murpay; ahg;ghdJ MW khepy murhq;fq;fisAk;> xU nghJeytha (my;yJ Njrpa) murhq;fj;ijAk; cs;slf;fpa rk~;b Kiw murhq;fj;ij cUthf;FfpwJ. ,jw;Fk; Nkyhf khepyq;fisg; NghyNt nraw;gLk; Rahjpf;fk; nfhz;l vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fSk; nghJeythag; ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; %yk; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. (G+q;fhf;fs;> cs;@h;g; ghijfs;> foptfw;wy; Nghd;w) cs;Sh; tptfhuq;fisf; ftdpg;gjw;fhf cs;Suhl;rp kd;wq;fis khepy> vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa murhq;fq;fs; cUthf;fpAs;sd. nghJeythag; ghuhSkd;wj;jpdhy; rl;lq;fs; ,aw;wg;gLtjw;fhd tplajhdq;fis mT];jpNuypa ahg;G gl;baypLfpwJ. ,tw;wpy;> ntspehl;L tptfhuk;> rh;tNjr kw;Wk; khepyq;fSf;fpilapyhd th;j;jfk;> ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; FbtuT vd;gdTk; cs;slq;Fk;. rpy tpjptpyf;FfSf;F cl;gl;L> khepyq;fSk;> vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fSk; jkf;Fg; nghUj;jkhd ve;j tplak; njhlh;ghfTk; rl;lq;ifs ,aw;wyhk;. Mdhy; nghJeytha rl;lq;fSld; Kuz;glf;$ba rl;lq;fis khepyq;fSk;> vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fSk; ,aw;w KbahJ. fy;tp> ghijfs;> nghyP];> jPaizg;G kw;Wk; nghJg; Nghf;Ftuj;J Nghd;wd khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa rl;lq;fSf;F cl;gl;l tplaq;fSf;F cjhuzq;fshFk;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

22

murhq;fk;> nghJeytha kw;Wk; khepy kl;lq;fspy; %d;W fpisfisf; nfhz;Ls;sd. mit rl;lthf;fk; (ghuSkd;wk;)> epiwNtw;W murhq;fk; kw;Wk; ePjpj;Jiw MfpadthFk;. mT];jpNuypag; ghuhSkd;wkhdJ gphpl;b~; ghuSkd;wk; $Lk; nt];l;kpd;];lh; muz;kidapd; ngaiuf; nfhz;l nt];l;kpd;];lh; ghuk;ghpaq;fisf; filg;gpbf;fpwJ. ,e;jg; ghuhSkd;w murhq;f Kiw gy E}w;whz;L fhykhf tsh;;r;rp fz;L te;Js;sJ. ehl;bd; jiyth; murhq;fj;jpd; jiytuy;yhjpUj;jYk;> ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; ,Ue;J njhpT nra;ag;gl;L ghuhSkd;wj;jpw;F Neubahfg; gjpy; nrhy;y Ntz;ba epiwNtw;W murhq;fj;jpidf; nfhz;bUj;jYk; mjd; Kf;fpa rpwg;gk;rq;fshFk;. ePjpj;JiwAk; ‘rl;lj;jpd; Nkyhd;ikAk;’ ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpLgl;L RahjPdkhf ,aq;Ffpd;wd. mT];jpNuypag; ghuhSkd;wq;fspd; mjpfhuk; khepy kw;Wk; nghJeytha murpay; ahg;G %yk; kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ vd;w tifapy; mit nt];l;kpd;];lh; khjpupapy; ,Ue;J NtWgLfpd;wd.

mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk;
Njrpa kl;lj;jpyhd rl;lq;fis ,aw;Wk; nghJeythag; ghuhSkd;wk; gpujpepjpfs; rig (House of Representatives) kw;Wk; nrdl; rig (Senate) Mfpa ,uz;L mitfisf; nfhz;lJ. ngluy; Njh;jy;fspd; NghJ ,t;tpU mitfSf;Fkhd gpujpepjpfis kf;fs; Neubahfj; njhpT nra;fpd;wdh;. gpujpepjpfs; rigapd;; mjp$ba gpujpepjpj;Jtf; fhyk; %d;W tUlq;fSk; nrdl; rigapy; mJ MW tUlq;fSkhFk;. (gpujpepjpfs; rigf;fhd ngluy; Njh;jy;fs; nghJthf ‘miuthrp nrdl;bw;fhd’ (half-senate) Njh;jy;fs; ,lk;ngWk; mNjNtisapy; eilngWtJz;L). nrdl; rig 76 mq;fj;jpdh;fisf; nfhz;lJ. xt;nthU khepyj;jpypUe;Jk; jyh 12 NgUk;> tlf;F kw;Wk; mT];jpNuypaj; jiyefu vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fs; Mfpa ,uz;bypUe;Jk; jyh ,UtUk; njhpthth;. gpujpepjpfs; rigapy; xt;nthU khepyj;jpdJk; rdj;njhiff;Nfw;g gpujpepjpfs; vz;zpf;if jPh;khdpf;fg;gLk;. gpujpepjpfs; rig cWg;gpdh; vz;zpf;if nrdl; cWg;gpdh; njhifia tpl ,ul;bg;ghf my;yJ mjw;Ff; fpl;ba rhj;jpakhd vz;zpf;ifapy; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. jw;NghJ ,r;rigapy; 150 gpujpepjpfs; cs;sdh;. xt;nthUtUk; Njh;jy; njhFjp (electorate) vdg;gLk; jj;jkJ gpuNjrq;fspy; cs;s Rkhh; 80000 thf;fhsh;fisg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;fpd;wdh;. gpujpepjpfs; rigapy; ngUk;ghd;ik Mrdq;fisg; ngWk; fl;rp my;yJ $l;lzp> (mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk;’ vd Fwpg;gplg;gLk;) murhq;fj;ij mikf;Fk;. mf;fl;rpapd; my;yJ $l;lzpapd; ghuhSkd;wf; FOj; jiyth; gpujk ke;jphp (Prime Minister) Mthh;. ,th; kf;fshy; mg;gjtpf;F Neubahfj; njhpT nra;ag;gLgtuy;y. gpujpepjpfs; rigapy; gyj;jpidg; ngWk; fl;rpNa mtiuj; njhpT nra;Ak;. nrdl;by; ngUk;ghd;ikg; gyj;ijg; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;ba mtrpak; murhq;fj;jpw;Ff; fpilahJ. ve;j kNrhjhTk; rl;lkhFtnjdpy;> ,uz;L mitfspdJk; mq;fPfhuk; Njit. rl;lthf;fj;ij ,uz;L mitfSk; Nkw;nfhs;syhk; vdpDk; rpy epjpj;Jiw gw;wpa rl;lq;fs; gpujpepjpfs; rigapNyNa ,aw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

Njh;jy;fs;
nghJthfNt Gjpa murhq;fq;fs; nghJj; Njh;jiyj; njhlh;e;J mikf;fg;gLfpd;wd. mT];jpNuypa murhq;fj;jpd; mjp $ba nraw;ghl;Lf; fhyk; Gjpa ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; KjyhtJ $l;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J %d;W tUlq;fshFk;. vdpDk; %d;whz;L fhyk; KbtilAk; Kd;dh; nghJj; Njh;jYf;F miof;FkhW Njrhjpgjpia gpujk ke;jphp Nfhuyhk;. KjyhtJ ghuhSkd;wk; 1901 Nk 9k; jpfjpad;W jpwe;Jitf;fg;gl;ljpy; ,Ue;J ,J tiu 40f;Fk; Nkw;gl;l Njh;jy;fs; gpujpepjpfs; rigf;fhf eilngw;Ws;sd.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

23

thf;F ,lhg;gpy; gjpjYk; thf;fspj;jYk;
mT];jpNuypahtpd; kj;jpa> khepy kw;Wk; ngUk;ghyhd cs;Suhl;rp Njh;jy;fspy; xUth; thf;fspg;gjw;F Kd;ghf mth; thf;fhsh; ,lhg;gpy; ,lk; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;;. mT];jpNuypag; gpuirahfTs;sth; 17 taij mile;jtuhf my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;ltuhapd; jd;id thf;fhsuhfg; gjpT nra;Jnfhs;syhk; kw;Wk; mth; 18 taij mile;jjpypUe;J thf;fspf;Fk; jFjpiag; ngWthh;. ,jw;fhd tpz;zg;gq;fis mT];jpNuypa Njh;jy; Mizaff; (Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) fhhpahyaq;fspYk;> jghy; epiyaq;fspYk;> AEC apd; ,izaj;jsj;jpYk; ngw;Wf;nfhs;syhk;. ntspehl;by;; tjptplj;ijg; ngWk; Xh; mT];jpNuypah;> ngluy; Njh;jh;fspy; thf;fspg;gjw;Fj; jFjpngw> jhk; ehl;iltpl;L ntspNawpa %d;W tUlq;fSf;Fs; fly;fle;j thf;fhsuhfg; gjpT nra;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW gjpT nratjd; %yk; MW tUlq;fSf;F thf;fhsh; gl;baypy; mth; ,lk; ngWthh;. Nkyjpfkhf ePbf;f tpUk;GNthh; tUlh tUlk; Mizafj;Jf;F tpz;zg;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;. thf;fhsh; ,lhg;gpy; gjpT nra;tJk;> thf;fspg;gJk; mT];jpNuypag; gpuirfSf;Ff; fl;lhakhFk;. thf;fspf;fhikf;F toq;fg;gLk; jz;lid kpfr; rpwpajhf ,Ug;gpDk; cyfpd; mjpf thf;fspg;G tPjj;ijf; nfhz;l ehLfspy; mT];jpNuypahTk; xd;whFk;. ,q;F nkhj;jk;; 90 rjtPjkhd thf;fhsh;fs; thf;fspg;gpy; fye;Jnfhs;fpd;wdh;. mT];jpNuypa thf;fhsh;fs; nghJeytha> khepy my;yJ vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa kw;Wk; cs;Suhl;rp Mfpa %tpj Njh;jy;fspy; thf;fspj;J gpujpepjpfisj; njhpT nra;fpd;wdh;. ngluy; Njh;jy;fs; eilngWfpd;wNghJ ntspehl;Lf;Fr; nry;fpd;w gjpTnra;ag;gl;l thf;fhsh;fs; thf;fspj;Jtpl;Lr; nry;yyhk; my;yJ Muk;g thf;fspf;Fk; fhyk; Muk;gkhfpapUg;gpd; Nghtjw;F Kd;Ng thf;fspf;fyhk;. ngluy; Njh;jy; Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf mT];jpNuypa thf;fhsh;fs; jkJ tpUg;G thf;fpy; 50 tpOf;fhl;bw;F ePf;fg;gl;L gpd;dh;> thf;fhsh;fspd; ehL gy Njh;jy; njhFjpfshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. gpujpepjpfs; rigj; Njh;jypy; njhFjpapy; Nghl;bapLk; mNgl;rfh;fSf;F thf;fspg;gh;. ve;j Ntl;ghsUk; KjyhtJ Nkyjpfkhd thf;Ffisg; ngwhjtplj;J> Mff; Fiwe;j thf;Ffisg; ngw;Nwhh; ,uz;lhtJ tpUg;gj; njupT thf;F cupa mNgl;rfh;fSf;F gfpug;gLk;.

xU Ntl;ghsUf;F 50 tpOf;fhbw;F Nky; thf;Ffs; NrUk; tiuapy; ,e;eilKiw njhlUk;. nrdl; rigf;fhd Njh;jypYk; tpUg;G thf;Ffs; gpuNahfpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. mjpy; jhk; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; NfhUfpd;w khepyj;jpw;F my;yJ vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaj;jpw;Fupa Fwpg;gpl;l ‘gq;F tPj’ thf;Ffis Ntl;ghsh; ngw Ntz;Lk;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; ghuhSkd;w mq;fj;Jth;fspy; mNdfh; murpay; fl;rpfisr; rhh;e;Njhuhth;. mbg;gilapy; fl;rpfs; vd;gd> ehl;bd; tptfhuq;fs; vt;thW ifahsg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ gw;wp nghJthd rpe;jidfisAk;> jj;Jtq;fisAk; nfhz;Ls;s kf;fspd; mikg;GfshFk;. murpapy; fl;rpapy; ,iztJ> mjd; ,yf;FfisAk; fl;rpf; nfhs;iffisAk; eph;zapg;gJ kw;Wk; Njh;jy; gpurhuf; fsj;jpy; jkJ fl;rpapd; Ntl;ghsh;fSf;F MjuT toq;FtJ vd;gd gw;wpa Rje;jpuk; mT];jpNuypahtpy; midtUf;Fk; cz;L.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

mT];jpNuypag; ghuhSkd;wj; Njh;jypy; Nghl;bapLgth;> mT];jpNuypa gpuirahf ,Ug;gJld; NtW gpurhThpikfspy; ,Ue;J jk;ik tpyf;fpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd rhj;jpakhd midj;J Kaw;rpfisAk; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa murhq;fk;
xt;nthU khepyKk; mk;khepyj;jpd; murhq;fk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l KbTfis vLf;Fk; mikg;ghd mjw;NfAhpa ghuhSkd;wj;ijf; nfhz;lJ. FaPd;];yhe;J ghuhSkd;wj;ijj; jtpu> rfy khepy ghuhSkd;wq;fSk; ,uz;L mitfisf; nfhz;Ls;sd. khepy ghuhSkd;wq;fSf;Fj; njhpT nra;ag;gLgk; gpujpepjpfs; cWg;gpdh;fs; vd miof;fg;gLth; - rl;l rig cWg;gpdh;fs; (Legislative Assembly) (MLA) my;yJ muRg; Nguit cWg;gpdh;fs; (House of Assembly) (MHA)

24

my;yJ rl;l kd;w cWg;gpdh;fs; (Legislative Council) (MLC). khepy murpd; jiyth; Kjy;th; (Premier) vd miof;fg;gLthh;. tlf;Fg; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaKk;> mT];jpNuypa jiyefu vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaKk; NtWtpjkhd Xh; Vw;ghl;ilf; nfhd;Ls;sd. xt;nthU vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpag; ghuhSkd;wKk; rl;l kd;wk; (Legislative Assembly) vd miof;fg;gLk; xU mitiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa murpd; jiyth; Kjyikr;rh; (Chief Minister) vd miof;fg;gLthh;. khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa murhq;fg; ngWg;Gfspy; rl;lk; xOq;ifg;; Ngzy;> Efh;Nthh; tptfhuq;fs;> Rfhjhuk;> fy;tp> td guhkhpg;G> nghJg; Nghf;Ftuj;J kw;Wk; gpujhd rhiyfs; vd;gdTk; mlq;Fk;.

cs;Suhl;rp
cs;Suhl;rp eph;thfj;jpy; jPh;khdk; Nkw;nfhs;Sk; epWtdq;fs; nghJthf efu my;yJ gpuNjr rig (city or shire council) vd miof;fg;gLk;. efuj;jpd; my;yJ cs;@h; kf;fspd; Fwpg;gpl;l Njitfisg; gw;wpf; ftdpg;gjw;fhf khepy murhq;fq;fs; ,j;jifa rigfis cUthf;fpAs;sd. ,r;rigfSf;Fj; njhpT nra;ag;gLk; kf;fs; gpujpepjpfs; efuhl;rp kd;w cWg;gpdh;fs; my;yJ fTd;rpyh;fs; vd miof;fg;gLth;. ,j;jifa rigfspd; jiyth;fs; Nkah; my;yJ efuhl;rp kd;wj; jiyth; (mayor or shire president) vd miof;fg;gLth;. cs;Sh; ghij guhkhpg;G> fopTg;nghUl;fis mfw;wy;> fl;ll eph;khz tpjpKiwfs; kw;Wk; fhzpg; gq;fPL> nghJr;Rfhjhuk; cl;gl ePr;ry; jlhfq;fs; Nghd;w nghOJ Nghf;F mk;krq;fs; Mfpa nghWg;Gfis mit nfhz;Ls;sd.

ahg;G hPjpahd KbauR
mT];jpNuypah xU RahjPd Njrk;> vdpDk; If;fpa ,uhr;rpaj;jpd; 2 Mk; vyprngj; kfhuzpahUld; ahg;G hPjpahd njhlh;Gfisg; Ngzp tUfpwJ. mtNu mT];jpNuypahtpd; kfhuhzpahthh;. kfhuhzpahh;> jdJ gpujpepjpahf gpujk ke;jphpapd; rpghh;rpd; gb Njrhjpgjpia (Governor-General) epakpg;ghh;. Njrhjpgjp gpujk ke;jphpapd; MNyhridapd; gpufhuk; mikr;rh;fis epakpg;ghh;. kuGg;gb> nghJthf rfy tptfhuq;fspYk; mikr;rh;fspd; MNyhridfspd;gbNa mth; nraw;gLthh;.

ngluy; rl;l mikg;G
mT];jpNuypa rl;lj; JiwahdJ> eilKiw ePjp kw;Wk; rl;lj;jpd; Kd; rfyUk; rkk; Mfpad gw;wpa mbg;gilf; Nfhl;ghLfisg; gpujpgypf;fpwJ. rl;lq;fis vLj;Jiuf;Fk; kw;Wk; eilKiwg; gLj;Jk; nghWg;G mT];jpNuypahtpy; ePjpj;JiwiaNa rhUk;. ,e;jg; nghWg;ig epiwNtw;Wtjpy; ePjpgjpfs; murhq;f nry;thf;fpy; ,Ue;J tpLgl;L RNar;irahf ,aq;Fth;. vy;yhtpj rl;l hPjpahd Kuz;ghLfspd; NghJk; ,Wjpahd Nkd;KiwaPl;L ePjpkd;wkhf mT];jpNuypa cah; ePjpkd;wk; (High Court of Australia) tpsq;FfpwJ. cah; ePjpkd;wj;jpd; gpujhd nraw;ghLfspy; xd;W mT];jpNuypa murpay; ahg;ig tpahf;fpahdk; nra;tjhFk;. ghuhSkd;wk; ,aw;Wk; xU rl;lj;ij mJ ahg;Gf;F KuzhdJ vd - mjhtJ ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; mjpfhuj;jpw;F mg;ghw;gl;lnjdj; - jPh;g;gspj;jhy; mr;rl;lk; nraypoe;J tpLk;.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | NjrKk; kf;fSk;

,izaj;jpy; jfty;
• mT];jpNuypag; ghuhSkd;wk; www.aph.gov.au • mT];jpNuypaj; Njh;jy; Mizak; www.aec.gov.au • mT];jpNuypa cah; ePjpkd;wk; www.hcourt.gov.au

25

,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;
,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpd; Kf;fpakhd rpwg;gk;rq;fspy; xd;W> mjd; kf;fsJ fyhr;rhug; gy;ypdj;jd;ikAk;> mT];jpNuypah kPjhd midj;ijAk; kpifj;j jkJ gw;WWjpapy; mth;fs; xd;Wgl;bUf;Fk; jd;ikAk; MFk;. mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpd; kw;WnkhU rpwg;gk;rk; mjd; Ngjk; Ngzhj> midj;NjhUk; rknkd;w jd;ikahFk;. xt;nthUtUk; xNu khjpupahdth;fs; vd;gNjh my;yJ vy;NyhUk; rkkhd msTs;s nry;tj;ijNah> nrhj;JfisNah itj;jpUg;gh; vd;gNjh ,jd; mh;j;jky;y. kf;fs; jkJ fbd ciog;ghYk;> gw;WWjpahYk;> cah;kl;lj; njhlh;Gfs; my;yJ nry;thf;F kpf;Nfhhpd; rpghh;Rfs; vJTk; ,d;wp vjidAk; rhjpf;fyhk; vd;gijAk; ,J Fwpf;Fk;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; rl;ltuk;Gf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl;Lj; jkJ fyhrhuj;ijAk;> ek;gpf;iffisAk; ntspg;gLj;jTk;> mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpa tho;tpy; Rje;jpukhfg; gq;F nfhs;sTk; mT];jpNuypah;fshy; ,aYkhfpwJ. vtUk; mtuJ gpwe;j ehL> fyhrhug; ghuk;ghpak;> nkhop> ghypdk; kw;Wk; kj ek;gpf;iffs; Nghd;wit fhuzkhf ghugl;rk; fhl;lg;glf;;$lhJ vd mT];jpNuypah cWjpahf ek;GfpwJ. ];jpukhd> mikjpahd kw;Wk; nropg;ghd rKjhankhd;iwg; NgZtjw;fhf mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpd; mbehjkhf tpsq;Fk; gfph;e;J nfhs;sg;gLk; nfhs;iffisAk; tpOkpaq;fisAk; fl;bf;fhf;f Ntz;Lk; vd rfy gpd;dzpfisAk; nfhz;l xt;nthU mT];jpNuypadplkpUe;Jk; vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ.

mT];jpNuypa tpOkpaq;fs; kw;Wk; nfhs;iffis gf;fk; 4 ,y; ghh;f;fTk;.

rl;lq;fSk;> r%fg;; gof;ftof;fq;fSk;
mT];jpNuypahtpd; r%f ed;dlj;ijia Kiwahd rl;lq;fSk; kw;Wk; Kiwrhuh r%fg; gof;f tof;fq;fSk; epHtfpf;fpd;wd. mT];jpNuypahtpy; kf;fs; midtUk; Njrj;jpd; rl;lj;jpw;Ff; fl;Lg;gly; Ntz;Lk; md;Nwy; Fw;wtpay; kw;Wk; rptpy; tof;Fj; njhLf;fg;gl;L mtHfs; jz;bf;fg;gLk; rhj;jpak; cz;L. mT];jpNuypahtpd; rKf kuGfs;> gof;ftof;fq;fs; kw;Wk; eilKiwfis> mit Kiwahd rl;l flg;ghL mw;witahdpDk;> kf;fs; kjpj;J elf;f Ntz;Lnkd vjpg;ghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. mT];jpNuypahtpd; rl;lq;fis mT];jpNuypag; nghJeytha> khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpag; ghuhSkd;wq;fs; ,aw;Wfpd;wd. rKjhaj;jpy; rl;lj;ijAk; xOq;ifAk; NgZk; nghWg;igf; fhty; JiwapdH Rke;J rl;lj;ij kPwpath; vd mth;fs; ek;GNthiu ePjpkd;wj;jpd; Kd; epWj;Jtijj; jkJ flikaha;f; nfhz;Ls;sdH. gpur;rpidfs; Vw;gLk; NghJ cs;@h; kf;fs; kw;Wk; mayth;fs; gu];guk; cjtpf;nfhs;tNjhL VjhapDk; re;Njfkhd my;yJ mrhjhuz epiyikfis cs;@h; nghyP]{f;F mwpag;gLj;Jth;.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

mT];jpNuypahTf;nfd ngluy; nghyP]; (Australian Federal Police) vd miof;fg;gLk; Njrpa mstpyhd nghyP]; gil cz;L. ngluy; rl;lq;fSf;F vjpuhd Fw;wr;nray;fs; gw;wp mJ tprhuiz nra;Ak;. Nghijg;nghUs; flj;jy;> rl;l tpNuhjf; FbtuT> Njrpag; ghJfhg;Gf;F vjpuhd Fw;wq;fs;> Rw;Wr;#oYf;F vjpuhd Fw;wq;fs; Nghd;wd mtw;Ws; mlq;Fk;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; vy;yh khepyq;fSk;> tlf;F vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaKk; khepy my;yJ vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa rl;lq;fSf;Ff; fPo;tUk; Fw;wq;fs; gw;wp eltbf;if vLf;Fk; jkf;NfAhpa nghyP]; gilfisf; nfhz;Ls;sd. mT];jpNuypaj; jiyefug; gpuhe;jpaj;jpy; fhty; eltbf;iffis mT];jpNuypa ngluy; nghyP]; Nkw;nfhs;fpwJ. nghyP]; mjpfhhpfs; ifJ nra;jy; kw;Wk; ePjpkd;wj;jpy; rhl;rp nrhy;jy; Nghd;w tplaq;fis Nkw;nfhs;tnudpDk; kf;fs; Fw;wk; nra;jhh;fsh ,y;iyah vd;gJ gw;wpj; jPh;g;G toq;f khl;lhh;fs;. ,ij ePjpkd;wk; jPh;khdpf;Fk;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; nghyP]{f;Fk; r%fj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapy; RKfkhd njhlh;G fhzg;gLfpwJ. Fw;wq;fis nghyP]{f;F mwptpj;J mth;fspd; cjtpiag; ngw cq;fshy; KbAk;. nghyP]; tprhhpj;jhy; mikjpahfTk;> gz;GlDk; xj;Jiof;fTk;.

ePjp kd;wq;fSk; rl;lKk;
ePjpia eph;tfpf;Fk; nghWg;G ePjpkd;wq;fisr; rhUk;. rl;lk; kPwg; gl;Ls;sjh vd;gijAk; Fw;wk; Ghpe;jjhf ep&gpf;fg;gLNthh; kPJ vd;d eltbf;if vLg;gJ vd;gJ gw;wpAk; ePjpkd;wq;fNs jPh;khdpf;Fk;.

26

rpy tof;Ffspy; Fw;wtpay; eLth; tof;if tprhhpj;J jPh;g;G toq;Fthh;. NtW rpy tof;Ffspy; Fbkf;fisf; nfhz;l eLth; FOnthd;W (jury)> ePjpgjpapd; topfhl;lypy; jPh;g;gspf;Fk;. epahag;gLj;jf;$ba re;Njfj;jpw;F ,lk; ,y;yhj Kiwapy; gpujpthjp Fw;wthsp vd eP&gpf;fg;gLk; tiuapy; epuguhjpahfNt fUjg;gLthh;. gpujpthjpfSf;F jkJ rhh;ghf tf;fPy;fis mkh;j;jpf; nfhs;Sk; chpikAk; cz;L. rpy tof;Ffspy;> tf;fPy;fis mkh;j;jpf; nfhs;s trjpapy;yhNjhUf;F ,ytr rl;l cjtp toq;fg;gLk;. rpy jw;fhypf tprhf;fspy; jq;fpapUg;gth;fs;> jhk; mf;fhy vy;iyiaj; jhz;b mT];jpNuypahtpy; jq;fpapUe;jhy; Fw;wtpay; jPh;g;Gf;F cl;gl;L mjd; tpisTfisr; re;jpf;f Ntz;b tuyhk; vd;gijj; njhpe;Jitj;Js;shh;fs; vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.

fphpkpdy; Fw;wr; nray;fs;
nfhiy. fhag;gLj;jy;> ghypay; td;Kiw> rpwhh; J~;gpuNahfk;> nghJkf;fSf;F my;yJ nrhj;Jf;F vjpuhd td;Kiw> MAjKidapy; nfhs;is my;yJ fsT> Mgj;Njw;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpy;; Nkhl;lhh; tz;b Xl;Ljy;> rl;ltpNuhj Nghijg; nghUl;fis itj;jpUj;jy; kw;Wk; cgNahfpj;jy;> Nkhrb my;yJ rl;lG+h;t ,zf;fj;jpw;fhd tajpYk; (,J mT];jpNuypahtpy; khepyj;jpw;F khepyk; NtWgLk;) Fiwe;j ,sk;gpuhaj;jpdUld;; ghypay; cwT itj;Jf;nfhs;sy; Nghd;wd ghuJ}ukhd fphpkpdy; Fw;wq;fshFk;. mT];jpNuypah fyhrhu gy;ypdj;jd;ikia kjpj;Jg; NgZfpwJ. vdpDk; midj;J rka fyhrhu nraw;ghLfSk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; eilKiwapYs;s rl;lq;fSf;F ,zf;fg;ghlhdjhf mikjy; Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzkhf gpwg;G cWg;Gf;fis cUf;Fiyj;jy; kw;Wk; tPl;L td;Kiw Nghd;w nraw;ghLfis khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpar; rl;lq;fs; jil nra;fpd;wd.

FLk;g td;Kiw
Vida ehLfspYs;sJ Nghd;Nw mT];jpNuypahtpYk; ,d;ndhUth; kPjhd td;Kiw rl;l tpNuhjkhdJld; mJ kpfg; ghuJ}ukhdjhfTk; fUjg;gLfpwJ. tPlbw;Fs; kw;Wk; jpUkz ge;jj;jpw;Fs; elf;fpd;w cs; tPlL my;yJ FLk;g ; ; td;Kiw ,jpy; mlq;Fk;. xUtuJ nray; fhuzkhf ,d;ndhUth; cly;> ghypay; my;yJ cstpay; hPjpahd ghjpg;gpw;Fk;> J~;gpuNahfj;jpw;Fk; cs;shjy; my;yJ mt;thW Vw;gLnkd mQ;Rjy;> gyte;jkhd ghypay; ty;YwTfs;. ; gyte;jkha;j; jdpikg;gLj;jy;; my;yJ nghUshjhu hPjpahf Klf;Fjy; Nghd;wd tPlL td;Kiwahff; fUjg;gLk;. ;

Nghijt];J> Gifj;jy; kw;Wk; kJghdk; mUe;Jjy;
rl;ltpNuhj> fs;sj;jdkhd> jilnra;ag;gl;l> Nghij t];Jf;fis itj;jpUj;jy; my;yJ tpepNahfpj;jy; Nghd;w Fw;wq;fSf;fhd jz;lid kpff; fLikahdjhf ,Uf;Fk;. mtw;iw cw;gj;jp nra;jy;> toq;Fjy; my;yJ tpw;;gid nra;tjpy; <Lgl;Lf; Fw;wthspfshff; fhzg;gLNthUf;fhd jz;lid ,ij tplf; fLikahdjhapUf;Fk;. Gif gpbj;jYk;> kJghdk; mUe;JtJk; rl;ltpNuhjkhditay;yhj NghjpYk; nghJ ,lq;fspy; mtw;iw cgNahfpg;gJ rk;ge;jkhd gy fl;Lg;ghLfs; cs;sd. ngUk;ghyhd murhq;f fhhpahyaq;fs;> Rfhjhu epiyaq;fs;> njhopyfq;fs; cl;gl ehshe;jk; mjpfhpj;J tUk; gy ,lq;fspy; Gif gpbj;jy; jil nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. %ba nghJ ,lq;fshfpa czT tpLjpfs;> fspahl;l tpLjpfs;> ,uT tpLjpfs;> ghlrhiyfs; kw;Wk; tpw;gid epiyaq;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; Gifgpbg;gij> ngUk;ghyhd khepyq;fSk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fSk; jilnra;Js;sd. rpy khepyq;fspYk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fspYk; ntspauq;f nghJ ,lq;fs; gytw;wpYk; Gifj;jy; jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. rpy;yiw tpahghhpfs;> Gifapiy cw;gj;jpfis 18 taJf;Ff; Fiwthd vtUf;Fk; tpw;gid nra;tJ Fw;wkhFk;. kJ mUe;JtJ mT];jpNuypahtpy; rl;lG+h;tkhapDk; mJ Fwpg;gpl;l ,lq;fspy; Fwpg;gpl;l Neuq;fspy; kl;LNk mDkjpf;fg;gLfpwJ. 18 taJf;Ff; Fiwe;j xUtUf;F kJghdj;ij tpw;gJ my;yJ toq;FtJ rl;l tpNuhjkhFk;. 18 taJf;Ff; Fiwe;j vtUk; jkJ tPL Nghd;w jdpg;gl;l ,lq;fspy; md;wp Ntnwq;Fk; kJghdk; mUe;JtJ
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

27

rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhdjhFk;. kJghdg; ghtidapd; cly;ey jPikfs; gw;wp Nkyjpf; jfty;fisg; ngw mT];jpNuypa kJghd topfhl;liy (Australian Alcohol Guidelines) thrpf;fTk;.

,izaj; jfty;
• www.alcohol.gov.au

Nghf;Ftuj;J rl;lq;fs;
Nkhl;lhh; thfdk; xd;iwr; nrYj;Jjy; vd;gJ khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa murhq;fq;fshy; newpg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. mT];jpNuypahtpy; thfdk; Xl;Ltjhapd;> FbapUg;ghsh;fs; cs;ehl;L Xl;Leh; mDkjpg;gj;jpuk; itj;jpUg;gNjhL> thfdk; mtrpak; gjpT nra;ag;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. Nghf;Ftuj;J tpjpKiwfis kPWtJk;> gpd;gw;whjpUg;gJk; ngUk; mguhjj;jpw;Fk;> Xl;Leh; mDkjpg; gj;jpu ,og;gpw;Fk; my;yJ rpiwj;jz;lidf;Fk; ,l;Lr;nry;yf;$Lk;. Nkhl;lhh; tz;bapy; gpuahzk; nra;Ak; midtUk; ,Uf;ifg; gl;bfis mzpjy; fl;lhakhFk; (my;yJ rpWth;fs;> Foe;ijfs; tplaj;jpy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l ghJfhg;G Vw;ghLfs; Ngzg;gly; Ntz;Lk;). rhujp (Xl;Leh;) mDkjpg;gj;jpuq;fis gf;fk; 42 ,y; ghh;f;fTk;. Ntff; fl;Lg;ghL kw;Wk; kJNghijapy; thfdk; Xl;Ljy; Mfpa tplaq;fspy; Nghf;Ftuj;J tpjpKiwfs; kpff; fLikahdit. thfdj;ij Xl;br; nry;ifapy; ifalf;f nry;yplj; njhiyNgrpapy; fijg;gJk; rl;ltpNuhjkhFk;.

kpUfq;fs; kPJ fhUz;ak;
kpUfq;fis tijg;gNjh> myl;rpag;gLj;JtNjh rl;l tpNuhjkhdjhFk;. tPl;L tpyq;fhapDk;> td tpyq;fhapDk; vy;yh kpUfq;fs; kPJk; fUiz fhl;l Ntz;Lnkd kf;fsplk; vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpwJ. RNjr mT];jpNuypa kpUfq;fs; gy ghJfhf;fg;gLtNjhL Ntl;ilahLtJ rk;ge;jkhff; fLikahd rl;lq;fSk; cs;sd. jkJ kw;Wk; gpwuJ ,Ug;gplq;fspy; kpUfq;fisf; nfhy;tJ jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ mj;Jld; vj;jifa kpUfq;fis tPLfspy; itj;jpUf;fyhk; vd;gJ gw;wpa cs;ehl;L rl;ltpjpfSk; cs;sd. ngUk;ghyhd mT];jpNuypah;fs; eha;> G+id my;yJ gwitfisj; jkJ tPl;bd; gpd;Gwj;jpy; (nfhy;iyg;Gwj;jpy;) tsh;f;fpd;wdh;.

Jg;ghf;fpfSk; Vida MAjq;fSk;
fj;jp> Jg;ghf;fp Nghd;w Majq;fisf; nfhz;L jphptJ mT];jpNuypahtpy; rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhFk;. Ntl;ilahly;> Fwpghh;j;J RLk; tpisahl;L kw;Wk; gz;izfspd; NjitfSf;nfd Jg;ghf;fp itj;jpUf;f tpUk;Ggth; mjw;Fhpa mDkjpg; gj;jpuj;ijg; ngw Ntz;Lk;. mDkjpg; gj;jpuk; ngwhikAk; mDkjpg; gj;jpukw;w Jg;ghf;fpia itj;jpUj;jYk; rl;lj;Jf;F KuzhditahFk;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

Vida rl;lq;fs;
mRj;jg;gLj;jy;> khrilar; nra;jy; my;yJ Kd; mDkjpapd;wp Fg;igfis mfw;wy; kw;Wk; mjpf rg;jk; Vw;gLj;jy; Nghd;wtw;Wf;F vjpuhfTk; rl;lq;fs; cs;sd. mT];jpNuypahtpy; kuz jz;lid fpilahJ.

r%fg; gof;ftof;fq;fs;
mT];jpNuypahtpy; kl;LNk gpd;gw;wg;gLk; r%f gof;ftof;fq;fs; kpfr;rpyNtahFk;. vdpDk; rpy tplaq;fisg; nghWj;jkl;by; mT];jpNuypahtpy; Vida ehLfis tpl mZFKiw kw;Wk; eilKiw Mfpatw;wpy; NtWghLfs; fhzg;glyhk;. Mifahy; mJ gw;wp re;Njfk; Vw;gLkplj;J ez;gh;> mayth; my;yJ rf Copahplk; tprhhpj;Jj; njhpe;J nfhs;tJ ey;yJ. cjhuzkhf> ngUk;ghyhd mT];jpNuypah;fs; jk;NkhL ghpr;raKs;NshUlDk;> rf cj;jpNahfj;jh;fSlDk; rk;gpujhakw;w rhjhuz el;ig itj;jpUg;gJ nghJthFk;. Ntiyaplq;fspYk;> ez;gh;fs; kj;jpapYk; mT];jpNuypah;fs; xUtiunahUth; jkJ Kjw;ngaiuf; nfhz;Nl miog;gh;.

28

vdpDk; ,r; rk;gpujhakw;w gof;fk; clw; njhLif tiu nry;yhJ. Kjd; Kjy; re;jpf;Fk;; ,Uth; jj;jkJ tyf;fuq;fisf; nfhLj;J ifyhF nra;Jnfhs;th;. ghpr;rakpy;yhjth;fs; fl;baizj;jy;> Kj;jkply; vDk; msTf;Fr; nry;y khl;lhh;fs;.

gzpthd elj;ij
mLj;N;jhUld; njhlh;Gnfhs;tjpYk;> nghUl;fs; my;yJ Nritfsg; ngWjy; vd;gtw;wpYk; ‘gpsP];’ (Please) kw;Wk; ‘Njq;f; A+’ (thank you) Nghd;w gjq;fisg; gad;gLj;JtJ nghpJk; JizahapUf;Fk;. cq;fsplk; NjePh; Nghd;w ‘VjhtJ tpUk;GfpwPh;fsh?’ vdf; Nfl;fg;gl;lhy;> ePq;fs; tpUk;Gtjhapd; ‘na];> gpsP];’ my;yJ ‘gpsP];’ vd;Wk; ePq;fs; mjid tpUk;ghjtplj;J ‘Neh> Njq;f; A+’ (,y;iy ed;wp) vdTk; $WtJ gzptlf;fkhFk;. ePq;fs; VjhtJ xd;iw vtuplkpUe;jhtJ ngWfpd;w nghOJ> mjidf; nfhLg;gtUf;F ‘cq;fSf;F ed;wp’ (thank you) vdf; $wp ed;wp nrhy;tJ khpahijahFk;. xUtuJ ftdj;ij <h;g;gjw;F ‘vf;];fpa+]; kp’ (excuse me) vd;Wk; ,ilQ;ryhf elf;fNth my;yJ NkhjNth Neh;e;jhy; ‘]hhp’ (sorry) vd;Wk; mT];jpNuypah; $Wth;. mt;thNw nghJ ,lq;fspy; my;yJ NtnwhUtuJ tPl;by; Vg;gkpl Neh;e;jhy; ‘vf;];fpA+]; kP’ my;yJ ‘ghh;ld; kP’ (pardon me) vdf; $Wth;. tpahghu epiyak;> tq;fp> mur jpizf;fsk;> rpdpkh my;yJ gyUk; xNu Neuj;jpy; Nritiag; ngwf; fhj;jpUf;Fk; midj;J ,lq;fspYk; thpirapy; epw;gJ mT];jpNuypahpd; toik. jkJ Neuk; tUk; tiu fhj;jpUg;gJ nghJthf mth;fsJ tof;fk;. mLj;jth;fSf;F mth;fs; fhl;Lk; khpahijia ,J Rl;bf;fhl;LtNjhL> xt;nthUtUk; jkJ Njitiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhd epahakhd topAk; ,JthFk;. $l;lq;fs; my;yJ Vida re;jpg;GfSf;F chpa Neuj;jpy; r%fkspg;gJ kpf Kf;fpakhFk;. ePq;fs; jhkjkhfg; Nghtjhf czh;e;jhy; chpatiuj; njhlh;G nfhz;L mwptpf;f Kaw;rpf;fTk;. itj;jpah; Nghd;w cj;jpNahfG+h;t re;jpg;Gfspd; NghJ ,J kpf Kf;fpakhFk;. Vnddpy; cq;fs; jhkjj;jpw;fhfTk; my;yJ Kd; mwptpj;jy; ,d;wp re;jpg;igj; jtwtpl;likf;fhfTk; ePq;fs; fl;lzk; nrYj;j NehpLk;. ngUk;ghyhd mT];jpNuypah; jkJ %f;if rpe;Jtjw;F iff;Fl;il my;yJ jpRitg; gad;gLj;JthNuad;wp eilghijia mRj;jg;gLj;jkhl;lhh;fs;. NkYk; nghJ ,lq;fspy; Jg;g khl;lh;fs;. ePq;fs; Jk;Ktijf; fz;lhy; ngUk;ghyhNdhh; ‘g;ns]; A+’ (bless you) vd;gh;. ,t;thh;j;ijf;F vt;tpj kj hPjpahd Nehf;fKk; fpilahJ.

jdpg;gl;l Rfhjhuk;

(Personal hygiene)
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

cq;fisAk;> cq;fsJ FLk;gk; kw;Wk; VidNahiuAk; Neha;fspy; ,Ue;J ghJfhg;gjw;F rpwe;j top cq;fsJ jdpg;gl;l Rfhuj;ijg; NgZtjhFk;. mT];jpNuypah;fs; czT jahhpf;Fk; Kd;Dk;> rhg;gpLKd;Dk;> Jk;ky; my;yJ ,UkYf;Fg; gpd;Dk;> foptiwfis cgNahfpj;j gpd;Dk;> kpUfq;fisf; ifahz;l gpd;Gk;> my;yJ jkf;Nfh gpwUf;Nfh Rfhjhu Mgj;Njw;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpy; fpUkpifsg; gug;gf; $ba nraw;ghLfspy; <Lgl;ljd; gpd;Gk; iffisf; fOtpf; nfhs;tjd; %yk; jk;ikAk; gpwiuAk; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;th;. czT ghpkhwg;gLk; NghJ fpUkpfs; njhw;Wtijf; jtph;g;gjw;fhf mjw;Fhpa cgfuzq;fis cgNahfpj;Jg; ghpkhWtJ toikahFk;. mJ nfSf;fp> fuz;b> Kl;fuz;b> kuf;Fr;Rfs; (chopsticks) my;yJ rnyj; rh;th; (salad server)> Nghd;w vJthfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;.

cil
kf;fs; mzpfpd;w cil tiffs; fhyepiyfisg; gpujpgypg;gJ Nghd;Nw mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpd; gy;ypdj;jd;ikiaAk; gpujpgypf;fpd;wd. cil tplaj;jpy; vt;tpj rl;lNkh tpjpKiwNah fpilahJ. vdpDk; Ntiy epiyikfSf;F chpa cilfis mzpjy; mtrpakhFk; - mNdf Ntiyj;jyq;fs; cil rk;ge;jkhd eilKiwfisf; nfhz;Ls;sd.

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njhopy; GhpAk; ,lj;Jf;F ntspNa cil mzptJ jdpeghpd; njhpTf;F cl;gl;ljhFk; - mNdfkhNdhh; fhyepiy> r%f #o;epiy my;yJ nrsfhpak; vd;gtw;wpw;F Vw;g cilazpth;. fspahl;l tpLjpfs;> rpdpkhf;fs; Nghd;w ,lq;fSf;F Rj;jkhd cilazpe;J nghWj;jkhd ghjzpAld; nry;y Ntz;Lk;. gy mT];jpNuypah;fs; flw;fiuf;Fk;> flYf;Fk; mUfhikapy; tho;fpd;wdh;. ntg;gk; mjpfkhd ehl;fspy; flw;fiuapYk; mz;ba gFjpfspYk; mth;fs; ePr;rYilia my;yJ Fiwe;j Milfis mzpth;. flw;fiuf;Nfh ePr;rYf;Nfh nry;tjw;fhd cilazpNthh; xOf;f newpapy; Fiwe;Njhh; vd;gJ ,jd; nghUshfhJ. flw;fiuapYk; mz;ba ,lq;fspYk; mT];jpNuypah; ,jidNa mq;fPfhpf;fpd;wdh; vd;gNj ,jd; nghUshFk;. rpy mT];jpNuypa khepyq;fspy; vz;zpf;ifapy; Fiwe;j> xJf;fg;gl;l Milf;fisg;Gf; flw;fiug; gFjpfs; cs;sd. mtw;wpy; vj;jifa cilAkpd;wp kf;fs; ePr;rypy; <Lglyhk;. Vida ehLfisr; Nrh;e;jth;fs; mtutH fyhrhuj;jpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd Milfis mzpayhk;.

miog;Gfs;
gfYzT> ,uTzT> ghh;gfpA+> cgrhuk;> jpUkz itgtk;> gpwe;j ehs; tpUe;J my;yJ ,J Nghd;w xU epfo;r;rpf;F ePq;fs; miof;fg;gl;lhy;> mt;tplj;jpNyNah> fbjk; %ykhfNth> njhiyNgrpapNyh> kpd;dQ;rypNyh mjw;Fhpa gjpiy ePq;fs; nrhy;tJ toikahFk;. ehspd; eLg;gFjpapyhd czT gfYzT (lunch) vdTk; ehspd; khiyg; nghOjpd; czT ,uTzT (dinner) vdTk; miof;fg;gLk;. khiyAzit rpy mT];jpNuypah; ‘NjePh;’ (tea) vdTk; ‘fg;gh’ (cuppa) vdTk; miog;gJz;L. ,g;gpuNahfk; ,uTzitNah my;yJ nkhop hPjpahf NjePiuNah (cuppa) Fwpf;fyhk;. Mjyhy; ePq;fs; NjePUf;F miof;fg;gLk; Neuj;jpypUe;J mJ NjePh; tpUe;jh my;yJ ,uT czth vd;gijj; jPh;khdpf;fyhk;. gpw;gfy; 6 kzpf;Fg; (1800 kzp) gpwFs;s miog;ghapd; ngUk;ghYk; mJ ,uT czitNa Fwpf;Fk;. ePq;fs; tpUe;Jf;fhd miog;ig Vw;gjhapd; ePq;fs; cl;nfhs;s tpUk;ghj czitg; gw;wpAk; miog;gthplk; nrhy;tJ tof;fkhFk;. ePh; VJk; tpNrl czT Ntz;Ljy;fs; my;yJ czTf;fl;Lg;ghLfis cilatuh vd tpdtg;glf; $Lk;. ePh; khkprk; mUe;jhj nt[pNlhpad; vd;Nwh my;yJ gd;wp ,iwr;rp rhg;gplhj K];ypk; my;yJ A+jh; vd;Nwh mth;fsplk; nrhy;YtJ Kw;wpYk; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l tplakhFk;. tpUe;J jUgth; mUe;jpdhYk; $l ePq;fs; tpUk;ghtpl;lhy; ePq;fs; kJghdk; mUe;j Ntz;bajpy;iy.

FLk;gq;fsJ khwptUk; gq;F
ghuk;ghpa mT];jpNuypaf; FLk;gk; je;ij> jha; kw;Wk; gps;isfisf; nfhz;ljhFk;. Vida FLk;gq;fs; ntt;NtW mikg;GfisAk; msitAk; nfhz;bUf;Fk;. ngw;Nwhhpy; xUtiu kl;Lk; nfhz;l FLk;gq;fs;> ,uz;lhk; jhu kw;Wk; fyg;Gf; FLk;gq;fs;> xhpdr; Nrhbfs;> Kiwahd jpUkzkpd;wp xd;whf thOk; Nrhbfs; (B ngf;Nlh cwT - de-facto relationships) vd gytiff; FLk;gq;fs; ,q;F cs;sd. Kiwahd jpUkzkpd;wp jk;gjpah; ,ize;J thOk; B ngf;Nlh cwTKiwfs; mT];jpNuypa rl;lj;jpy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;litahFk;. mT];jpNuypa FLk;gq;fSf;Fs; gq;fspg;GfSk; NtWglyhk;. rpy FLk;gq;fspy; gpujhd ciog;ghsp jhahf ,Uf;f je;ij tPl;by; ,Ue;J gps;isfisg; guhkhpg;gtuhapUg;ghh;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; jpUkzk; vd;gJ ,Ujug;gpdUk; jpUkzk; Kbf;f tpUk;gpdhNyNa eilngWk;. jpUkzj;Jf;Fhpa Mff; Fiwe;j tanjy;iy 18 MFk;. vdpDk; mij tplf; Fiwe;j 16 my;yJ 17 taJila xUthpd; jpUkzj;ij mrhjhuz epiyapy; ePjpkd;wk; mq;fPfhpf;fyhk;. xNu rkaj;jpy; xd;wpw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l fzth;fisNah> kidtpaiuNah itj;jpUg;gJ rl;ltpNuhjkhdJ.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

Kd;khjphp mT];jpNuypad; ahh;?
mT];jpNuypaUf;Nf cupj;jhd milahsk; gw;wpAk;> chpa gz;Gfisf; nfhz;l ‘Kd;khjphpahd’ mT];jpNuypah; cz;lh vd;gJ gw;wpAk; mz;ikf; fhykhf epiwaNt Ngrg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ. gpugykhd khjphpfSf;Ff; (stereotypes) Fiwtpy;iy. Mdhy; rpyNghJ mit xd;Nwhnlhd;W Kuz;gLk; NghJ Fog;gkilar; nra;fpwJ.

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cjhuzkhf: • mT];jpNuypah; Nkyhjpf;fk; gw;wp Mo;e;j Iak; nfhz;l jiytzq;fh mNgj thjpfs; - vdpDk; nghJthf rl;lj;ij kjpj;J mDrhpj;J elg;ghh;fs;. • ehl;Lg; Gwq;fspYk;> fpuhkg; gFjpfspYk; tho;fpd;w Fiwthfg; NgRk; jd;ikAilath;fs; mT];jpNuypah; - mNj Ntis mth;fspy; mNefh; efuq;fspd; efu tho;f;if elj;Jgth;. • mT];jpNuypah;fs; efuthrpfshapDk; ehl;LthrpfshapDk; mth;fs; jpwe;j kdg;ghd;ikAs;sth;fs; - jhk; nrhy;y tpUk;Gtij Neubahfr; nrhy;gth;fs;. • kf;fSf;F chpa epahakhd tha;g;ig toq;Fjy; (fair go) vDk; nfhs;if kPJ mT];jpNuypah; ek;gpf;if nfhz;Ls;sdh;. (mT];jpNuypa Mq;fpyk; (Australian English) vDk; jiyg;gpd; fPo; ‘/ngah; Nfh’ gw;wpa tiutpyf;fzj;ij thrpf;fyhk;) ghh;f;f gf;fk; 32. • mT];jpNuypah; jkJ rfghb (ez;gh;) fSf;fhfTk;> tha;g;gw;w kw;Wk; Njhy;tpAWk; epiyapYs;NshUf;fhfTk; (underdog) Mjutspg;gh;. (xUtUf;F vjpuhfg; Nghl;bapl;L ntw;wp ngWk; re;jh;g;gkw;wtH vd ek;gg;gLk; Nghl;bahsiuNa ‘underdog’ vd;w ,g;gjk; Fwpf;Fk;. • mT];jpNuypah;fs; gq;Nfw;gtHfshfTk;> ghh;itahsh;fshfTk; ,Ue;J jkJ tpisahl;Lfspy; Mh;tk; nrYj;Jfpd;wdh;. jkJ gphpj;jhdpag; ghuk;gupak; my;yJ mz;ikf; fhykhf mnkhpf;fhTldhd gykhd cwTfs; my;yJ Aj;jj;Jf;Fg; gpe;jpa Afj;jpy; mT];jpNuypahTf;Ff; Fbngah;e;j kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd Gjpa FbNawpfshy; mT];jpNuypah; ve;j msTf;F nry;thf;Ff;F cl;gl;Ls;sdH vd;gJ gw;wpAk; fUj;JNtWghLfs; epyTfpd;wd. Mrpa - gRgpf; gpuhe;jpaj;jpy; mike;Js;s jkJ Gtpapay; epiyAld; xj;Jg;Nghf Kaw;rpf;Fk; INuhg;gpah;fshf mT];jpNuypah;fs; rpy Ntisfspy; Nehf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;. Mdhy;> mNjNtis Gtpapay; epiyapd; fhuzkhf Mrpa nkhopfisg; NgRk; ngUe;njhifapduhd mT];jpNuypah;fisf; nfhz;l mT];jpNuypah Mrpaf; fz;lj;jpd; EiothapyhfTk; Nehf;fg;gLfpwJ. th];jtk; vd;dntdpy; Vida ,lq;fspYs;s kf;fisg; Nghd;Nw mT];jpNuypah;fis xU khjphpf;Fs; nfhz;Ltu KbahJ. gpugy;akhd rpy Njhw;wg;ghLfis mth;fs; nfhz;bUg;gJ cz;ikNa. mj;jifa rpy Njhw;wg;ghLfSldhtJ ngUk;ghd;ik mT];jpNuypah;fs; xj;Jg;Nghfpd;wdH. vdpDk; vtw;iw ve;j msTf;Fg; gpujpgypf;fpd;wdh; vd;gJ jdpegiug; nghWj;j tplakhFk;.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

mT];jpNuypaNuhL kpf neUf;fkhf cs;s rpy gz;Gfshff; fUfg;gLfpd;w Njhoik (el;G [mateship])> epahak; Ngzy; (fair go) Nghd;wd cyfpd; gy ghfq;fspYk; cs;s kf;fshy; gfph;e;J nfhs;sg;gLk; gz;GfshFk;. kpifahd fUiziAk;> epaha czh;Tk;> ez;gh;fSf;fhd tpRthrKk; mT];jpNuypah;fSf;Nf cupj;jhdJ vd;W nrhy;tjw;fpy;iy. ,t;tplaq;fisg; gw;wpa mT];jpNuypa rpwg;gk;rk; vd;dntdpy; ,it mT];jpNuypa tuyhw;wpYk; mT];jpNuypa kdg;ghq;fpYk; Mog; gjpe;Js;sd vd;gNjahFk;. mT];jpNuypahTf;F te;j Muk;gf; FbNawpfs; vjph;nfhz;l ghpr;;rakw;w> fLikahd> ngUk;ghYk; tpNuhjkhd #o;epiyia vjph;nfhs;tjw;fhd Nghuhl;lj;jpd; Clhf Njhoik kw;Wk; epahak; Ngzy; Nghd;w Nfhl;ghLfs; tsh;r;rpaile;jd. mit mT];jpNuypahtpd; cl;Gwq;fspy; tho;e;j gpd;te;j guk;giufspd; Mz; ngz; ,U ghyuhYk; nts;sk;> jP> tul;rp Nghd;w ,lh;fspd; NghJ xj;Jiog;G kw;Wk; MjuT %yk; kPsg; gyg;gLj;jg;gl;ld. epa+ rt;j; Nty;rpd; fpnud;/ngy; jq;ftay;fspy; 1867 ,y; gpwe;j n`d;wp Nyht;rd;> me;j Afj;jpd; tuyhw;iwj; njhFj;j kpfg; gpujhdkhdth;. mT];jpNuypa ehl;Lg;Gw tho;f;ifapy; Njhoik Fwpj;J vspik> ,uf;fj; jd;ikAld; mth; vOjpdhh;. mT];jpNuypa ehl;Lg;Gwg; gFjpfspy; Mz;fs;> ngz;fspd; tho;f;if epiy gw;wpAk;> khdpluJ nfsutk; gw;wpAk; mth; vOjpdhh;.

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khngUk; Nghh; vd rpyNtisfspy; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;w Kjyhk; cyf Aj;jk; kw;Wk; fypNghypapy; md;]f; tPuh;fsJ Nghh; Nghd;wtw;wpy; mT];jpNuypah;fs; ngw;w mDgtq;fshy; Njhoikg; gz;Gk;> tpRthrKk; mth;fspd; cs;sq;fspy; Mog;gjpe;J tsk; ngw;wd. Muk;gfhyk; njhl;L mT];jpNuypah;fs; Ngzpf;fhj;Jte;j ,J Nghd;w ,d;Dk; gy gz;Gfs; gpw;fhyq;fspy; INuhg;gh> mnkhpf;fh> Mrpah> Mg;gphpf;fh kw;Wk; kj;jpaf; fpof;F ehLfspy; ,Ue;J te;J FbNawpa kpy;ypad; fzf;fhNdhhpd; nry;thf;fpdhy; Glkplg;gl;L> ts%l;lg;gl;L ,d;Wk; caph; tho;fpd;wd. mz;ikf;fhyj;jpy; tjptpl me;j];J ngw;wth;fSk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; gz;ghl;Lf;Fk; fyhrhuj;Jf;Fk; ts%l;bdh;. Gjpa ghuk;ghpaq;fSk; kdg;ghq;FfSk; cUthf ,tHfs; Jiz epd;wdh;. tpahghuk; Kjy; fiy tiu> rikay; Kjy; tpflk; tiu vd mT];jpNuypa tho;tpd; midj;J mk;rq;fSf;Fk; nkU$l;Ltdthf mth;fsJ gq;fspg;G fhj;jpukhdjha; mike;jJ.

njhz;lh; Nrit

eilKiwj; Njhoik

vj;jifa rk;gsKk; ,d;wp> rKfg; gzpfspy; Ra tpUg;gj;Jld; njhz;L Gupgth;fs; vd ngah; ngw;wth;fs; mT];jpNuypah;fs;. 18 taJf;F Nkw;gl;l MW kpy;ypaDf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l mT];jpNuypah;fs; RatpUg;gj; njhz;lh;fshfr; nraw;gLfpd;wdh;. mtrufhy Nritfs;> r%f eyd;> #oy;; ghJfhg;G> epjp Nrfhpg;G> Kfhikj;Jtk;> fw;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; eph;thfk; vd gy;NtW Jiwfspy; mth;fs; cjtp tUfpd;wdh;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; fhl;Lj; jPaizg;ghsh;fs; kw;Wk; mtrufhy cjtp toq;Fk; mjpfhhpfspy; mNdfkhNdhh; njhz;lh;fshth;. xU fzpg;gPl;bd; gb njhz;L nra;Nthhpy; 47 rjtPjkhNdhh; r%fj;jpw;Fg; gzp Gupa Ntz;Lk; vd;w czh;Tf;fhfTk; 43 rjtPjkhNdhh; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; mjpy; ngWk; kdj;jpUg;jpf;fhfTk; mj;jifa gzpfspy; <LgLtjhff; $wpAs;sdh;.

,izaj; jfty;
• mT];jpNuypa njhz;lh; gzp www.volunteeringaustralia.org

mT];jpNuypa Mq;fpyk;
Mq;fpyk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; Njrpa nkhopahf cs;s mNjNtis> gutyhd cgNahfk; fhuzkhf rpy nrhw;fSk;> nrhw;nwhlh;fSk; mT];jpNuypahTf;Nf chpa jdpj;Jtkhd gpuNahfq;fshff; fUjg;gLfpd;wd. mtw;wpy; rpy> Gjpjhf tUgtUf;F Mr;rhpakhdjhf my;yJ Fog;gkhdjhfj; Njhd;wyhk;. ,j;jifa Ngr;Rtof;fpYs;s my;yJ nfhr;irahd nrhw;fs; gy;NtW %yq;fspy; ,Ue;J cUntLj;jit. mtw;wpy; rpy ePz;l nrhw;fspd; RUf;fq;fshFk;. ngUk;ghyhdit> tlf;F ,q;fpyhe;jpy; ,Ue;J te;J FbNawpath;fs; Vw;fdNt cgNahfpj;j nrhw;nwhlh;fs;. mit gpd;dh; mT];jpNuypa tof;fpy; ,ize;J nfhz;ld. mT];jpNuypah;fs; nrhw;fis RUf;fpr; nrhy;Yk; gof;fk; cilath;fs;. cjhuzkhf fhy;g; ge;jhl;lj;ij ‘/Gl;b’ (footy) vd;Wk; nlyptp~id ‘nly;yp’ (telly) vd;Wk; ghh;ngfpA+ vd;gij ‘ghh;gp’ (barbie) vd;Wk; $Wth;. mT];jpNuypaUf;Nf chpj;jhd jiytzq;fhikAk;> Jd;gpay; mDgtq;fSk; fye;j eifr;RitAld; ,j;jifa rpy thh;;ijfs; cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;w NghJ rpyNtis Fog;g%l;lf;$bajhfj; Njhd;wyhk;. nrhy;yg;gl;l thh;j;ij Ghpatpy;iynadpd;> nrhd;dthplNk mjid tpsf;ff; NfhUtjpy; jg;gpy;iy. ePq;fs; mbf;fb nrtpkLf;f Neuplf; $ba rpy gpuNahfq;fis ,q;F jUfpNwhk;. Arvo: ,J afternoon vd;w nrhy;ypd; RUf;fk; – drop by this arvo vd;why; gpd;gfy; te;J re;jpAq;fs; vd;W nghUs;. Barbecue, BBQ, Barbie: nghJthf ,iwr;rpia ,Uk;Gj; jl;lj;jpy; my;yJ cNyhfj; jl;by; itj;J thA my;yJ fhp ghtpj;J tPl;Lf;F ntspNa Rl;Lr; rikg;gijf; Fwpf;Fk;. ,e;j ,iwr;rp ryhJ my;yJ ghZld; (nuhl;bAld;)

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

32

ghpkhwg;gLk;. ghHngf;A+Tf;F miof;fg;gl;lhy; jhDk; VjhtJ nfhz;Ltu Ntz;Lkh vd tprhhpg;gJ tpUe;jhspapd; toik. Snag vd;gJ ghh;gf;fpa+tpy; rikf;fg;gLk; xU tif nrhN][; (sausage) MFk;. mJ gd;wp> khl;L my;yJ Nfhop ,iwr;rpahNyh fha;fwpfshNyh my;yJ jhdpaq;fshNyh nra;ag;gl;bUf;fyhk;. Barrack for: Mjuthspj;jy;> cw;rhf%l;ly; (Fwpg;ghf xU tpisahl;Lf; FOtpw;F) Bloke: xU kdpjidf; Fwpf;Fk;. rpyNtiy ePq;fs; xUthplk; cjtp Nfhhpdhy; mth; ‘mNjh me;j kdpjiu (bloke) ehlTk;’ vd gjpyspf;ff; $Lk; Bring a plate: ePh; xU tpUe;Jf;F my;yJ rlq;fpw;F miof;fg;gl;L ‘bring a plate’ vd;Wk; $wg;gl;lhy;> tpUe;jspg;gtUlDk;> tpUe;jpdh;fSlDk; gfph;e;Jnfhs;tjw;fhf VjhtJ xU jl;L czit ePq;fSk; nfhz;L thUq;fs; vd;gJ mjd; nghUshFk;. ghlrhiy> Ntiy ,lq;fs;> fofq;fs;> Nghd;w r%f xd;W$ly;fspy; ,t;toik nghJthFk;. vijf; nfhz;L nry;tJ vd;gJ gw;wpa njspT ,y;yhj NghJ mioj;jthplNk Nfl;Lg; Ghpe;Jnfhs;syhk;. BYO: cq;fSf;F te;j miog;gpjopy; ‘BYO’ vdf; Fwpf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy; mjd; nghUs;> cq;fSf;Fupa Fbghdq;fis ePq;fs; nfhz;L tuNtz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;. ePq;fs; kJghdk; mUs;Jtjpy;iynadpy;> nkd;ghdk;> Nrhlh> gor;rhw;iw my;yJ jz;zPiu ePq;fs; vLj;Jr; nry;yyhk;. rpy czT tpLjpfs; ‘BYO’ Kiw nfhz;lit. ckf;Fupa kJghdq;fis ePq;fs; mq;F vLj;Jr; nry;yyhk;. MapDk; Gl;bfisj; jpwj;jy;> ghpkhWjy;> fpz;zq;fis toq;Fjy;> Rj;jk; nra;jy; Nghd;wtw;wpw;;fhf ‘fhh;f;Nf[;’ (corkage) vdg;gLk; Nritf;fl;lzk; mwtplg;gLk;. Cuppa: ,J NjePh; my;yJ fhg;gpiaf; Fwpf;Fk;. ‘Drop by this arvo for a cuppa’ vd;why; ‘,d;W gpw;gfy; NjePh; my;yJ fhg;gp mUe;j thUq;fs;.’ vd;gJ nghUs;. Digger: Xh; mT];jpNuypa ,uhZt tPud;. Go for your life: Mkhk;> Kd;Nd nry;Yq;fs;. G’day: `Nyh> vg;gb Rfk;? Fair go: rkkhf elj;Jjy;. tho;f;ifapy; xUth; vjidAk; milag; ngWtjhapd; mJ mtuJ jpwikfs;> ciog;G> Kaw;rp vd;gdtw;wpd; tpisthf md;wp gpwg;ghNyh my;yJ rpghh;rpdhNyh ngw;wjhf ,Uj;jy; $lhJ vd;gJ ,jd; nghUs;. Fortnight: ,g;gjkhdJ ,uz;L thu fhyj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk.; No worries: ve;jg; gpur;rpidAk; ,y;iy. Ntiy my;yJ Ntz;LNfhs; vt;tpj ,ilQ;rYkpd;wp RKfkhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;. Ocker: xU Kul;Lj;jdKs;s> gz;G eakw;w> jPtpu ehl;Lg; gw;W nfhz;l xU mT];jpNuypad; / my;yJ mT];jpNuypaDf;NfAhpa gz;Gfshd tpflk;> cjtp Ghpjy;> Mf;fG+h;tj; jd;ik Mfpatw;iwg; gpujpgypf;Fk; xU mT];jpNuypad;. Shout: xUtUf;fhf Fbghdk; thq;Fjy;. kJghdk; mUe;Jk; tpLjpfspy; ez;gh;fs; re;jpj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; xt;nthUtUk; xU Kiw ‘shout a round’ nra;tJ> mjhtJ xU Rw;W kJghdk; thq;fp xt;nthUtUf;Fk; nfhLg;gJ toikahFk;. To be crook: Neha;tha;g;gl;L my;yJ RftPdKw;wpUj;jy;. mT];jpNuypa Ngr;R nkhop kw;Wk; nfhr;irahd gpuNahfq;fs; gw;wpa gy Gj;jfq;fs; cs;sd. Macquarie Dictionary Book of Slang mtw;wpy; xd;whFk;.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

nfhz;lhl;lq;fSk; tpLKiwfSk;
Njrpa Kf;fpaj;Jtk; my;yJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;f Nehf;fj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l rpy ehl;fis xt;nthU tUlKk; mT];jpNuypah;fs; epidT $h;fpd;wdh;.

33

mNdfkhd mT];jpNuypaj; njhopyhsh;fs; mth;fsJ tUlhe;j tpLKiwfSf;F Nkyjpfkhf 12 Njrpa kw;Wk; khepy / vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa tpLKiw jpdq;fisg; ngWfpd;wdh;. ,tw;wpy; rpy jpdq;fs; toikahf vy;yh khepyq;fspYk;> vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fspYk; xNu ehspy; midtuhYk; mD~;bf;fg;gLfpd;w tpLKiw jpdq;fshFk;. ,tw;wpy; rpy Njrpa kl;lj;jpy; tpNrl itgtq;fSld; nfhz;lhlg;gLk;. rpy cs;@h; tpLKiw jpdq;fs; Fwpg;gpl;l khepyq;fspy; my;yJ vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fspy; khj;jpuk; mD~;bf;fg;gLk;.

fpwp];k]; kw;Wk; <];lh;: fpwp];jt fhyz;lhpy; cs;s kpf Kf;fpa ,U jpdq;fs; mT];jpNuypah KOtJk;
nghJ tpLKiwahf mD~;bf;fg;gLfpd;wd. fpwp];k]; xt;nthU brk;gh; 25 ,Yk; <];lh; jpdk; khh;r; ,Wjpapy; my;yJ Vg;uy; Muk;gj;jpYk; tUk;.

ghf;rpq; jpdk;
ghf;rpq; jpdkhfpa brk;gh; 26 Mk; jpfjp nghJ tpLKiw jpdkhFk;. ,e;j ehspy; ghf;rpq; - Fj;Jr; rz;ilg; Nghl;bfs; ele;jpUf;fyhk; vdTk; my;yJ ngl;bfspy; ghpRg; nghUl;fs; nfhLf;fg;gl;bUf;fyhk; vdTk; gyh; fUJfpd;wdh;. fpwp];k]; gz;bifapidr; rhh;e;jjhfNt ghf;rpq; jpdKk; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

GJ tUl jpdkhfpa [dthp khjk; 1 Mk; jpfjp nghJ tpLKiw jpdkhFk;. brk;gh; eLg;gFjpapypUe;J
[dthp KbAk; tiuahd fhyg;gFjpapy; ngUk;ghyhd mT];jpNuypah;fs; jkJ tUlhe;ju tpLKiwfis vLj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;.

,d;Dk; rpy Kf;fpa Njrpa jpdq;fshtd: mT];jpNuypah jpdk;
mT];jpNuypahtpy; 1788 ,y; KjyhtJ INuhg;gpa FbNaw;wk; epfo;e;j ehshfpa [dthp 26 Mk; jpfjpia mT];jpNuypa jpdk; vd mT];jpNuypah;fs; mD~;bf;fpd;wdh;. ,J Njrpa nghJ tpLKiw jpdk;. Gjpjha;f; FbNawpNahh;fs; mT];jpNuypa jpd itgtq;fspy; fye;Jnfhz;L Vida mT];jpNuypah;fisr; re;jpf;fyhk;.

md;]f; jpdk;
Kjyhk; cyf Aj;jj;jpd; NghJ mT];jpNuypa epA+rpyhe;J ,uhZtj; JUg;Gf;fs; (md;rf;];) JUf;fpapd; fypnghyp jPtpy; 1915> Vg;uy; 25 Mk; jpfjp jiuapwq;fpaij md;]f; jpdk; Fwpf;fpwJ. mT];jpNuypahTf;fhf Nghu; Gupe;jtHfisAk;> Nghupy; kbe;jth;fisAk; epidT $h;tjw;nfd ,e;ehs; xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,J Njrpa nghJtpLKiw jpdk;. ,uhZt mzptFg;Gfs;> kyh;tisak; itj;jy; kw;Wk; NtW itgtq;fSld; ,e;ehs; mD~;bf;fg;gLk;.

kfhuhzpapd; gpwe;j jpdk;
Nkw;F mT];jpNuypah jtpu vy;yh khepyq;fspYk;> vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fspYk; [{d; khj ,uz;lhk; jpq;fl; fpoik tUlhtUlk; kfhuzpahtpd; gpwe;j jpdk; nfhz;lhlg;gLk;. ,J nghJtpLKiw jpdkhFk;. Nkw;F mT];jpNuypahtpy; ,J nrg;lk;gh; my;yJ mf;Nlhghpy; nfhz;lhlg;gLk;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

mT];jpNuypa FbAhpikj; jpdk;
mT];jpNuypa FbAhpikj; jpdk; 2001 nrg;lk;gh; 17k; jpfjp cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. 1948 Mk; Mz;bd; Njrpak; kw;Wk; FbAhpikr; rl;lkhdJ 1973k; Mz;by;; mT];jpNuypa FbAhpikr; rl;lk; (Australian Citizenship Act) vd ngah; khw;wk; nra;ag;gl;lijf; Fwpg;gjw;fhf ,J Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,j;jpdk;> mT];jpNuypa FbAhpikapd; mh;j;jj;ijAk; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; Ghpe;J nfhs;sTk;> ek;ikg; gpizj;jpUf;Fk; tpOkpaq;fisf; nfhz;lhlTk; mT];jpNuypah;fSf;F re;jh;g;gk; toq;FfpwJ. vdpDk;> ,J nghJ tpLKiw jpdkd;W.

nky;gh;d; Nfhg;ig jpdk;
xt;nthU tUlKk; etk;gh; khj KjyhtJ nrt;tha;f; fpoik nky;gh;d; Nfhg;ig jpdkhFk;. ,J cyfg; gpurpj;jp ngw;w Fjpiug; ge;jaf; Nfhg;igahFk;. ngUk;ghyhd kf;fs;> Ntiyj; jsj;jpy;> ghlrhiyapy; my;yJ tPl;by; ,Ug;gpDk; njhiyf;fhl;rpapy; ,g;ge;jaj;ijf; fhz;gh;. Nky;gh;d; khefupy;; ,J nghJtpLKiw jpdkhFk;. NtW

34

,lq;fspy;> Fwpg;ghf njhopy; ghh;f;Fk; ,lq;fspy; gyh; xd;W $b gfYzT mUe;jp my;yJ tpUe;Jz;L fspj;J nky;gh;d; Nfhg;igiaf; nfhz;lhLth;.

tpisahl;L> nghOJNghf;F kw;Wk; fiyfs;
gy mT];jpNuypah;fs;; tpisahl;il tpUk;Gfpd;wdh; kw;Wk; mNefh; mj;Jiwapy; rpwe;j gy rhjidfisAk; Gupe;Js;sdh;. 2004k; Mz;L vnjd;]; xypk;gpf; Nghl;bfspy;> nkhj;jg; gjf;fg; gl;baypy; mnkhpf;fh> rPdh kw;Wk; u~;ahTf;F mLj;jgbahf ehd;fhtJ ,lj;ij mT];jpNuypah ngw;wJ. fhy;ge;jhl;l cyff; Nfhg;igf;fhd 2006 Mk; Mz;L Nghl;bfspy; ,Wjp 16 ehLfs; tiu mT];jpNuypah Kd;NdwpaJ. cah; kl;l mT];jpNuypah;fs; kl;Lk; tpisahl;Lfspy; kfpo;gth;fsy;yh;. mz;ikapy; elj;jg;gl;l Njrpa kl;lf; fzpg;gPnlhd;wpd; gb gjpide;Jf;Fk; mjw;F Nkw;gl;l taijAk; nfhz;l 11 kpy;ypad; mT];jpNuypah;fs; thuj;jpw;F Fiwe;jJ xU Kiw clw;gapw;rpapYk;> nghOJNghf;fpYk;> tpisahl;LfspYk; <LgLtjhfj; njhpate;Js;sJ. <LghL nfhs;Nthupd; rjtPjk; fpl;lj;jl;l 70 tpOf;fhlhFk;. elj;jy;> jpwe;jntsp clw;gapw;rp/cly;eyk;> ePr;ry;> irf;fpNshl;lk;> nldp];> Fopg;ge;jhl;lk; (golf)> Xl;lk;> fhl;by; elj;jy;> fhy;ge;J> tiyg;ge;J vd;gd kpfg;; gpugy;akhd 10 clw;gapw;rpfshFk;. fphpf;nfl;;> `hf;fp> gdpr; rUf;fy; vd;gdTk; Vida gpugy;akhd tpisahl;LfshFk;. mT];jpNuypah;fs;> uf;gp yPf;> uf;gp a+dpad; kw;Wk; mT];jpNuypa tpjpfs; fhy;ge;J (Australian Rules Football) Nghd;wtw;wpy; <LgLtjpYk; – kw;Wk; urpg;gjpYk; – Mh;tk; fhl;Lth;. mT];jpNuypa tpjpfs; fhy;ge;jhdJ uf;gp kw;Wk; Nfypf; fhw;ge;J (Gaelic football) tpisahl;Lfspd; Muk;g epiyikfspy; ,Ue;J cUg; ngw;w> mT];jpNuypahTf;Nf jdpj;Jtkhd xU tif tpisahl;lhFk;. ntspauq;f tpisahl;LfSf;F mT];jpNuypah kpfg; nghUj;jkhd ,lk; vdpDk; gpd;tUk; rpy ghJfhg;G tpjpfis epidtpy; itj;jpUg;gJ eyk;. • flw;fiuNahuq;fspy;> caph; fhg;ghsh;fs; Nuhe;jpy; <LgLk; ,lq;fspy; khj;jpuk; ePr;rypy; ,wq;fTk;. vg;NghJk; nfhbfSf;F ,ilg;gl;l gFjpapy; ePe;jTk; kw;Wk; vy;yhf; fiuNahuq;fspYk; caph;f; fhg;ghsh;fs; ,y;iy vd;gij epidtpy; nfhs;sTk;. • Fwpg;ghf xJf;Fg; Gwkhd ,lq;fspy; jdpahf ePe;JtijNah> kPd; gpbg;gijNah jtph;f;fTk;. • njhg;gp> Fsph;f; fz;zhb> (Nkw;rl;il Nghd;w) ghJfhg;G Mil Nghd;wtw;iw mzpaTk;. epoyhd ,lj;ij ehlTk;. ntg;gk; mjpfKs;s ehl;fspy; #upa vupT> Njhy; Gw;WNeha; vd;wtw;wpypUe;J fhj;Jf; nfhs;s fhg;G kUe;Jfisj; jltpf; nfhs;sTk;. • rfy tpj jP %l;LjYk; jilnra;ag;glLs;sjhf mwptpf;fg;gLk; ehl;fspy; jpwe;j ntspfspy; jP %l;LtNjh> ghh;ngf;A+ nra;tNjh mDkjpf;fg; gLtjpy;iy vd;gijf; ftdj;jpw; nfhs;sTk;.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

fhj;jpukhd fiyj; Jiw
Njrj;jpd; G+h;tPff; FbfsJ fyhrhug; ghuk;ghpaq;fisAk;> FbNawpfsJ fyhrhuq;fsJ fyitiaAk; gpujpgypf;fpd;w cw;rhfkhd fyh eltbf;iffs; mT];jpNuypahtpy; jhuhskhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd. rpdpkh> mofpay; fiy> ehlfk; kw;Wk; rq;fPjk; cl;gl rfy fhl;rp kw;Wk; ehlf fyh tbtq;fs; midj;Jk; kf;fsplk; ngUk; tuNtw;igg; ngWfpd;wd. xU fzpg;gPl;bd;gb 13 kpy;ypad; taJ te;j mT];jpNuypah;fs;> my;yJ 88 rjtPjkhNdhh; tUlj;jpy; Fiwe;jJ xUKiwahtJ fyhrhu epfo;r;rpnahd;wpidf; fz;L urpf;fpd;wdh;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; ,yf;fpag; ghuk;ghpaKk; gyk; tha;e;jJ. mT];jpNuypa G+u;tPff; Fbfspd; fijnrhy;Yk; tof;fj;jpy; Muk;gpj;j ,g; ghuk;ghpak; 18 Mk; E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjpg; ghfj;jpy; ,q;F te;j jz;lidf; ifjpfspd; tha;topf; fijfs; %yk; njhlh;e;jJ.

35

,yf;fpaj;Jf;fhf toq;fg;gLk; Nehgy; ghpir 1973k; Mz;by; mT];jpNuypauhd gl;hpf; itl; vDk; ehtyhrphpah; ntd;whh;. gPlh; nfhP> gpiu]; nfhl;dP> nfhyPd; kf;Y}> nkhhP]; nt];l; kw;Wk; bk; tpd;ld; Nghd;Nwhh; 20 Mk; E}w;whz;ilr; Nrh;e;j gpugy;akhd mT];jpNuypa ehtyhrphpah;fshth;.

,izaj; jfty;
• njhlh;ghly;> jfty;> njhopy; El;gk; kw;Wk; fiyfs; jpizf;fsk; www.dcita.gov.au • mT];jpNuypah fTd;rpy; www.ozco.gov.au • mT];jpNuypa tpisahl;L Mizak; www.ausport.gov.au

mwptpay; rhjidahsh;fSk; fz;Lgpbg;ghsh;fSk;
mT];jpNuypah;fs;> Fwpg;ghf kUj;Jtk;> njhopy; El;gk;> tptrhak;> Ruq;fj; njhopy; kw;Wk; cw;gj;jpj; Jiw Nghd;wd cl;gl mwptpay; tpQ;Qhdj; JiwapYk;> Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;GfspYk; gykhd gy rhjidfisg; Gupe;Js;sh;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; KjyhtJ Gjpd cUthf;fpfs; G+u;tPff; Fbfshth;. cyfpd; Guhjd fy; fUtpfs;> G+kuhq;F (boomerang), (Kiwg;gb vwpe;jhy; vwpe;jth; iff;Nf kPsTk; te;J NrUk; xU tif tisjb) kw;Wk; T+nkuh (woomera) (<l;b vwptjw;Fg; gad;gLk; gpb) Nghd;wtw;iw mth;fs; tbtikj;jdh;. mz;ikf; fhyf; fz;Lgpbg;Gfspy; xd;whf nghypkh; (polymer) tq;fpg; gj;jpuq;fis (gz Nehl;Lfs;) tbtikj;jikiaf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,it cs;shh;e;j ghJfhg;G mk;rq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sNjhL Vida tq;fpg; gj;jpuq;fis tpl ehd;F klq;F mjpf fhyk; ePbf;fty;yJ. cyfpd; gaph;fsJ cw;gj;jpj; jpwid mjpfhpf;Fk; jhtu kugZitf; fz;Lgpbj;jikAk; Kf;fpahkhdJ. kUj;Jtj; Jiw rhh;e;j rhjidfspYk;> ntbf;fhj ntbkUe;JfisAk; fz;zp ntbfisAk;; fz;lwptjw;fhd xU njhopy; El;gj;ij mgptpUj;jp nra;jjpYk; mT];jpNuypah;fs; Kd;dzp tfpf;fpd;wdh;. cyfpd; KjyhtJ ,d;/GYtd;rh (influenza) fha;r;rYf;F vjph;g;G kUe;jhd Relenza it cw;gj;jp nra;jikAk;> R+upa xspahy; Njhypy; Vw;;gl;l Gw;WNeha; gFjpfisj; Njbf; fz;Lgpbf;Fk; rhjdKk;> fh;g;gg; igapd; fOj;Jg; gFjpapy; Vw;gLk; Gw;WNeha;f;fhd jLg;G kUe;Jk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f rpy mz;ikf;fhy kUj;Jt rhjidfshFk;. kUj;Jt my;yJ tpQ;Qhd hPjpahd rhjidfSf;fhf xd;gJ mT];jpNuypah;fs; Nehgy; ghpR ngw;Ws;sdh;. kpf mz;ikapy; Nguhrphpah; nghp khh;~y; kw;Wk; lhf;lh; uhgpd; Nthud; MfpNahh; tapw;W mow;rpiaAk; Fly; mow;rpiaAk; Njhw;Wtpf;Fk; gf;Bupahitf; fz;Lgpbj;jikf;fhf Nehgy; ghpir 2005 ,y; ngw;wdh;. Neha;f;fhg;Gj; Jiwapy; rhjid epfo;j;jpaikf;fhf Nguhrphpah; gPlh; Nlhn`h;b 2006 ,y; Nehgy; ghpR ngw;whh;. xt;nthU tUlKk; mT];jpNuypa jpdj;jpy; tUlj;jpd; ‘rpwe;j mt];jpNuypah;’ ahh; vd;gJ mwptpf;fg;gLk;. 2005> 2006 kw;Wk; 2007Mk; Mz;Lfspy; tUlj;jpd; rpwe;j mT];jpNuypauhfj; njhpthNdhh; tpQ;Qhdpfs; Mth;. jPf;fhak; Vw;gl;Nlhhpd; clypy; G+rf; $ba xUtif njsp kUe;ij Gul;rpfukhf cw;gj;jp nra;j lhf;lh; gpNahdh T+l; 2005 ,y; ,t;tpUijg; ngw;whh;. fh;g;gg; ig fOj;Jg;gFjpapy; cz;lhFk; Gw;WNeha;f;fhd jLg;G kUe;ij fz;Lgpbj;jikf;fhf 2006 ,y; Nguhrphpah; ,ad; /gpNu]Uf;F ,t;tpUJ toq;fg;gl;lJ. 2007 Mk; Mz;by;; Kd;dzp Rw;Wg;Gwr; #oy; ghJfhg;G tpQ;Qhdpahd bk; gpnsdhp rpwe;j mT];jpNuypauhfj; njhpT nra;ag;gl;lhh;. lhf;lh; T+l; kw;Wk; Nguhrpah; /gpNurh; Mfpa ,UtUk; Kd;dhs; gphpj;jhdpa FbNawpfshth;. Nguhrpah; /gpNurUld; fz;Lgpbg;gpy; fye;J nfhz;l ,iz tpQ;Qhdp rPdhtpy; ,Ue;J te;J mT];jpNuypahtpy; FbNawpa fhyQ;nrd;w lhf;lh; [pahd; rpa+ Mthh;. ,th; ,wg;gjw;F Kd;dh; mT];jpNuypag; gpuirahfp ,Ue;jhh;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | ,d;iwa mT];jpNuypa rKjhak;

,izaj; jfty;
• fy;tp> tpQ;Qhd kw;Wk; gapw;Wtpj;jy; ,yhfh www.dest.gov.au • mT];jpNuypa Mw;wYf;F MjuT www.innovation.gov.au • nghJeytha tpQ;Qhdk; kw;Wk; njhopy;Jiw Ma;T epWtdk; www.csiro.au

36

mT];jpNuypahtpy; trpj;jy;
njhopy;tha;g;Gk; Ntiyr; #o;epiyfSk;
mT];jpNuypahtpd; njhopyhsh; re;ij Nghl;b epiwe;jJ. Gjpjhf tUgth;fs; vt;tsT tpiutpy; mT];jpNuypahtpy; xU njhopiyj; Njbf; nfhs;s ,aYk; vd;gJ nghUshjhuf; fhuzpfs;> xUtuJ jFjpfs;> jpwikfs;> NjLk; njhopy; tif> ehl;bd; gy ghfq;fspYk; Fwpg;gpl;l njhopy;tha;g;gpy; jhf;fk; tpistpf;Fk; Fwpg;gpl;l rpy #o;epiyfs; Nghd;wtw;iw nghWj;Nj mikAk;. mT];jpNuypahTf;F tUtjw;F Kd;dNu> FbNawpfs; jkf;Fhpa njhopy;tha;g;Gfs; gw;wpAk; jhk; nra;a tpUk;Gk; njhopy; rk;ge;jkhd tpNrl epge;jidfis gw;wpAk; Njb mwpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy; mT];jpNuypahtpy; gy njhopy;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; tpz;zg;gjhupfs; mT];;jpNuypahtpd; khepy my;yJ vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa njhopy;rhH ,irT ikaj;jpy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;ltuhf my;yJ mjdplkpUe;J mDkjp ngw;wtuhf ,Uj;jy; my;yJ cah; njhopy; my;yJ ifj;njhopy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l epUtdq;fspy; mq;fj;Jtk; ngWk; jFjpiag; ngw;wpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; Ntiy nra;NthUf;fhd rk;gsk; kw;Wk; #o;epiyfs;> gpd;tUk; tplaq;fshy; jPh;khdpf;fg;glyhk;. • Fwpg;gpl;l njhopypw;Fupa eph;zapf;fg;gl;l rk;gsk; • xU rl;l uPjpahd cld;gbf;if (mT];jpNuypag; gzpapl cld;gbf;if my;yJ $l;L cld;gbf;if) my;yJ • xU nghJthd rl;l cld;ghL. mT];jpNuypahtpy; rfytpj njhopy;fSk; cj;jpNahfq;fSk; Mz;> ngz; ,UghyhUf;Fk; fpl;lty;yd. xUtuJ ghypdk;> ,dk;> mq;ff; FiwT> kjk;> ghypay; ghq;F Nghd;wtw;iw mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L njhopyhsh;fSf;F ghugl;rk; fhl;lg;gLtij my;yJ mePjpahf elhj;jg;gLtijj; jLf;Fk; rl;lq;fs; cs;sd. Ntiyj;jsq;fspy; tha;g;Gfs;> juKah;j;jy;fs;> gapw;rp vd;gd njhopyhsuJ jpwik> Mw;wy; kw;Wk; mDgtk; vd;gtw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; md;wp ghugl;rkhfNth NtW Kd;Dhpik mbg;gilfspNyh ,lk; ngwhikia rkj;Jtkhd njhopy;tha;g;Gr; rl;lq;fs; cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wd. mT];jpNuypa rl;lj;jpd;gb njhopw; rq;fq;fspy; ,iztjw;F (my;yJ ,izahkypUg;gjw;F) njhopyhsh;fSf;F cupikAz;L. ePq;fs; mT];jpNuypahTf;F ntspNa gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l epue;ju tjptpl me;j];J cilatuhapd; fly;fle;j jpwikfis mq;fPfhpf;Fk; Njrpa mYtyfk; (National Office of Overseas Skills Recognition - NOOSR) cq;fSf;F cjtyhk;. Fwpg;gpl;l njhopy;fs; njhlh;ghd kw;Wk; jpwikfs; mq;fPfhuk; gw;wpa jfty;fis gpd;tUk; ,iza jsq;fspy; ngwyhk;.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypahtpy; trpj;jy;

• mT];jpNuypahtpy; njhopy; tha;;g;Gfs;> jpwikfs; gw;whf;Fiw kw;Wk; cj;jpNahfq;fs;: www.jobsearch.gov.au • mT];jpNuypa Ntiyaplk; www.workplace.gov.au • jpwikrhypfs; FbtuT www.skilledmigrant.gov.au • njhopy;rhh; jifikfis mq;fPfhpj;jy; www.workplace.gov.au/tra • AEI–NOOSR www.aei.dest.gov.au.

thp tpjpg;G
rfy mT];jpNuypah;fSk; mth;fsJ tUkhdk; Fwpg;gpl;l njhifia tpl mjpfkhff; fhzg;gbd; tUlhe;jk; chpa thpfisr; nrYj;JkhW Nfhug;gLth;. njhopy; %yk; fpilf;Fk; rk;gsk;> tpahghuk; %yk; rk;ghjpj;jit> tq;fpapy;

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itg;Gr; nra;Js;s gzj;Jf;Ff; fpilf;Fk; tl;b my;yJ NtW KjyPLfshy; fpilf;Fk; tUkhdk; Kjypad thp mwtplg;glf; $ba tUkhdq;fshFk;. ngUk;ghyhd nghUl;fSk; NritfSk; mtw;wpd; tpiyapNyNa xU rpW thpia cs;slf;fpAs;sd. ,J nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; Nritfs; kPjhd thp (Goods and Services Tax - GST ) vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. Nrkey Nritfs;> Rfhjhu Nritfs;> ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; neLQ;rhiyfs; Nghd;w fl;likg;G trjpfs; Nghd;wtw;iw toq;Ftjw;fhf> mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; mwtpLk; thpfs; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. khepyq;fSk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fSk; rpy nfhLf;fy;thq;fy;fs; kPJk; Nritfs; kPJk; Kj;jpiu thp (stamp duties) vdg;gLk; thpia mwtpLfpd;wd. nghyP]; gil> M];gj;jphpfs; kw;Wk; khepy cs;@h;g; ghijfs; Kjypa khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa Nritfs; kw;Wk; fl;likg;GfSf;fhf ,t;thpfshy; ngwg;gLk; gzk; nrytplg;gLk;. mT];jpNuypahtpd; thp kjpg;gPl;L tUlk; [{iy Kjyhk; jpfjp Kjy; [{d; 30k; jpfjp tiuahFk;. mT];jpNuypa rl;lj;jpd; gb ngUk;ghyhNdhh;> jhk; rfy topfspYk; rk;ghjpj;j tUkhdk; kw;Wk; nrYj;jpa thpfs; Mfpad mlq;fpa thp kPsg;ngwiy (tax return) tUlhe;jk; rkh;g;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;. ngUk;ghYk;> njhopYf;F mkh;j;jpapUg;gth; xt;nthU njhopyhsuJ rk;gsj;jpy; ,Ue;Jk; thpiaf; fopj;J> gpd;dh; mjid mT];jpNuypa thptpjpg;G mYtyfj;Jf;F (Australian Taxation Office - ATO ) nrYj;Jthh;.

Xa;Tfhy Cjpak;
Xa;T+jpa epjpak; vd;gJ njhopyhsh; Xa;T ngWfpd;w NghJ jhk; tho;tjw;F cjTk; gzj;ij itj;jpUg;gjw;fhf Nrkpf;Fk; jpl;lkhFk;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; njhopypy; mkh;j;jg;gl;Ls;s xt;nthUtUk; ,e;j epjpaj;jpy; fl;lhak; Nru Ntz;Lk;. jkJ njhopyhspapd; Xa;T+jpa epjpaj;Jf;Fg; gq;fspg;Gr; nra;AkhW njhopy; jUeiu rl;lk; gzpf;fpwJ. njhopy; jUeh; Xa;T+jpa fhg;G (Employer Superannuation Guarantee) vd ,J miof;fg;gLfpwJ. thpkjpg;G kw;W Xa;T+jpa epjpak; gw;wpa Nkyjpfj; jfty;fis mT];jpNuypa thpkjpg;gPl;L mYtyfj;jpy; ngwyhk;. njhiyNgrp: ,izak;: 132 861 www.ato.gov.au

tPl;L trjp
jq;Fkplj;ij ,lk; tpl;L ,lk; khw;WtJ vg;NghJNk ngUk; nryitf; nfhz;lJ. mT];jpNuypahTf;F gpuahzk; nra;jy;> tPl;Lr; rhkhd;fisf; nfhz;L tUjy; kw;Wk; Gjpa tPnlhd;wpy; Fbakh;jy; vd;gd fzprkhd nrytpdq;fisf; nfhz;lJ. tPLfSk;> njhlh;khb tPLfSk; (,it mT];jpNuypahtpy; A+dpl;]; my;yJ FbapUg;G khb vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ) xg;gPl;lstpy; mT];jpNuypahtpy; Fwpg;ghf rpl;dp> ngh;j;> nky;gh;d; kw;Wk; fd;nguhtpy; tpiy $baitahFk;. mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l xU epyr; nrhj;J tpw;gidahsh; %ykhf tPL my;yJ njhlh;khbg; gpupnthd;wpid thq;Fjy; my;yJ thliff;Fg; ngwy; Nghd;wd ,lk; ngWfpd;wd. nrhj;Jfis jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; thq;fNth> tpw;fNth> Fj;jiff;F toq;fNth KbAkhapDk; mjw;F Kd;ghf rl;lty;Yeh; xUthpd; MNyhridiag; ngWtJ Gj;jprhypj;jdkhFk;. tpw;gidf;F my;yJ thliff;F tplg;gLfpd;w nrhj;J tpguq;fs; ehshe;j gj;jphpiffspYk;> nghJthf rdpf; fpoikfspy;> my;yJ ,izaj; jsq;fspYk; my;yJ nrhj;J Kfth;fs; %ykhfTk; tpsk;gug;gLj;jg;gLk;. thliff;F tPl;ilg; ngWfpd;w NghJ gpizg;gzkhf xU khj thliff;Fr; rkkhd njhifiaAk;> xU khj thlifia Kw;gzkhfTk; toq;FtJ toikahFk;. thliff; FbapUg;ghsh; ,lj;ijtpl;Lr; nry;Yk; NghJ gpizg; gzk; kPs toq;fg;gLk;. jpUj;jq;fs; my;yJ Rj;jk; nra;jy; Nghd;wd nra;a mtrpag;gbd; mg;gzj;jpy; ,Ue;J mtw;wpw;fhd nryTfs; fopj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLk;.

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypahtpy; trpj;jy;

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r%fg; ghJfhg;G
nrz;lh;ypq;f; (Centrelink) mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpdUf;F gy;NtW NritfisAk;> nfhLg;gdTfisAk; toq;Fk; mT];jpNuypahtpd; murhq;f epWtdkhFk;. Fiwe;j tUkhdk; cilath;fs;> Xa;T ngw;Nwhh;> mq;faPdh;fs;> njhopy; NjLNthh;> jdpahd ngw;Nwhh;> VidNahh; guhkupg;gpy; <Lgl;Ls;Nshh; cl;gl ,d;Dk; gyUf;Fk; ,jd; %yk; cjtp toq;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;jr; NritfisAk;> nfhLg;gdTfisAk; ngWtjw;Fhpa xUtuJ jFjp mtuJ jdpg;gl;l re;jh;g;g #o;epiyfisg; nghWj;jjhFk;. kpfr; rpwe;j tho;thjhukhdJ xUth; Cjpak; ngWk; njhopypd;%yk; fpilf;fg; ngWtjhFk; vd mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; ek;GfpwJ. jkJ Fwpg;gpl;l re;jh;g;g #o;epiy fhuzkhf Ntiy nra;a Kbahj epiyapYs;s kf;fSf;Fg; nghUshjhu cjtpfis toq;fp mth;fs; Ntiynahd;iwg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s cjTk; tifapy; Centrelink mj;jifa kf;fis cjtpr; NritfSld; njhlh;GgLj;jp tpLfpwJ. jkf;Fj; jifik ,Uf;Fkhapd; njhopnyhd;iwj; Njbf;nfhs;SkhWk; my;yJ vjph;fhyj;jpy; njhopy; xd;iwg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s VJthf jkJ jpwikfis tsh;j;Jf; nfhs;SkhWk; nrd;lh;ypq;f; jk;kplk; nfhLg;gdT ngWk; kf;fisf; Nfhuf; $Lk;. mT];jpNuypahTf;F mfjpfs; my;yJ kdpjhgpkhd tprh %ykhf tUif jUNthh; nghJthf nrd;lh;ypq;f; NritfisAk;> cjtpj; jpl;lq;fisAk; KOikahfg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;. nghJthf> Gjpjhf tUif je;j VidNahh;> ngUk;ghyhd nrd;lh;ypq;;f; cjtpfisg; ngw epue;ju tjptpl tprhtpy; ,uz;L tUlq;fs; mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;e;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,f;fhyg; gphptpy; jkJk;> jkJ Mjutpy; jq;fpapUg;NghuJk; Njitfisg; G+h;j;jp nra;ag; Nghjpa gzj;ij mth;fs; ifapUg;gpy; itj;jpUg;gij cWjp nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Njitg;gLk; cjtp kw;Wk; xUtuJ jdpg;gl;l re;jh;g;g #o;epiyfisg; nghWj;J cjtpf;fhff; fhj;jpUf;Fk; fhyg;gFjp NtWglyhk;. njhopy; NjLtjw;fhd cjtp> gps;is tsh;g;Gr; nryTfSf;fhd nfhLg;gdT cs;spl;l FLk;g cjtp Nghd;w kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l cjtpfs; rpy Gjpa FbNawpfSf;Ff; fpilf;Fk;. FLk;gq;fSf;fhd cjtpfs; gw;wpa Nkyjpfj; jfty;fis mT];jpNuypa murhq;fj;jpd; FLk;g cjtp mYtyfj;jpy; (Family Assistance Office) ngwyhk;. Gjpa FbNawpfs;> ,q;F te;jJk; $ba tpiutpy;> nrd;lh;ypq;f; kw;Wk;/my;yJ FLk;g cjtp mYtyfk; Mfpatw;Wld; njhlh;Gnfhz;L jkf;F fpilf;ff; $Lkhd cupikfs; kw;Wk; cjtpfs;> cjhuzkhf Ntiy NjLjy; vd;gd gw;wpj; njhpe;Jnfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;. njhlh;Gf;Fhpa tpguq;fs;: nrd;lh;ypq;f; ,izak;: FLk;g cjtp mYfyfk;: ,izak;: Mq;fpyk; jtph;e;j nkhopfSf;F: 13 2850 www.centrelink.gov.au 13 6150 www.familyassist.gov.au 13 1202
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypahtpy; trpj;jy;

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M];gj;jphp kw;Wk; kUj;Jt nryTfs;
nkbnfah; mT];jpNuypah (Medicare Australia) vdg;gLk; jpl;lj;jpd; Clhf mbg;gil M];gj;jphp kw;Wk; kUj;Jt nryTfis mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; toq;FfpwJ. nkbnfah; trjp ngWNthUf;F kUe;jhf;f gyd; jpl;lj;jpd; (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme - PBS) fPo; ngUk;ghyhd kUe;Jtiffis murhq;fk; khdpa tpiyapy; toq;FfpwJ. Gjpjhf tUif jUk; FbNawpfs;> jkJ gh];Nghh;l;> tprh MfpaitAld; nkbnfah; mYtyfj;Jf;Fr; nrd;W nkbnfah; jpl;lj;jpy; ,ize;J nfhs;s jkf;Fs;s jFjp gw;wpj; njhpe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. nkbnfah; ,izaj; jsj;;jpy; (fPNo ghh;f;f) gy nkhopfspYk; nkhopngah;f;fg;gl;Ls;s jfty; ifNaL xd;W cz;L. ngUk;ghyhd jw;fhypf tprh ngw;Ws;Nshh; nkbnfah; jpl;lj;jpy; ,izAk; jFjpiag; ngwkhl;lhh;fs;. MapDk; rpy tpjptpyf;Ffs; cz;L. cjhuzkhf epue;ju tjptpl tprhTf;fhd jFjpfisg; G+h;j;jp nra;J> mjw;fhf tpz;zg;gpj;jpUf;Fk; jw;fhypf tprh ngw;Ws;Nshiuf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. njhlh;Gf;Fhpa tpguq;fs;: njhiyNgrp ,izak;: 13 2011 www.medicareaustralia.gov.au

nkbnfahpy; cs;slf;fg;glhj> jdpahh; kUj;Jtkidapy; rpfpr;ir ngwy;> gy; kw;Wk; fz; itj;jpak;> mk;Gyd;]py; nfhz;L nry;yy; Nghd;w NritfSf;fhd nryTfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;nfd rpy jdpahh; Rfhjhu fhg;GWjpj; jpl;lq;fSk; cs;sd. jdpahh; Rfhjhu jfty;fs; kpd;dQ;ry;: ,izak;: privatehealth@health.gov.au www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/private-1

Mq;fpy nkhop tFg;Gfs;
Gjpa FbNawp xUth; jkJ Gjpa rKjhaj;jpy; ntw;wpfukhff; FbakUtjw;Fk;> jkJ jdpg;gl;l> r%f kw;Wk; nghUshjhu ,yf;Ffis milaTk; Nkw;nfhs;fpd;w KjyhtJ mjpKf;fpa Kaw;rpahf Mq;fpy nkhopiaf; fw;Wf; nfhs;tij mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; fUJfpwJ. cq;fsJ Mq;fpy nkhopg; Gyik ‘eilKiw’ mstpYk; Fiwthapd;> FbNawpa taJte;Njhh; Mq;fpy nkhopj; jpl;lj;jpd; (Adult Migrant English Programme – AMEP ) fPo; ,ytr Mq;fpy nkhopg; ghlnewpiaf; fw;Wf;nfhs;s jFjpngWfpwPh;fs;. cq;fsJ jFjpiag; gw;wpAk;> cs;@h; AMEP Nritiag; gw;wpAk; Nkyjpfj; jfty; ngw> ePq;fs; te;jpwq;fpaJk; FbtuT kw;Wk; FbAhpik ,yhfhit njhlh;G nfhs;sTk; my;yJ cs;@h; AMEP Nrit toq;Feiu juprpf;fTk;. ePq;fs; cs;ehl;by; ,Ug;gpd; epue;ju tjptpl me;j];J fpilj;J %d;W khjj;jpw;Fs; my;yJ ePq;fs; ntspehl;by; ,Ug;gpd; ,q;F te;jjpypUe;J %d;W khjj;jpw;Fs; Mq;fpy nkhop tFg;Gf;fhf ePq;fs; cq;fisg; gjpT nra;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. njhlh;Gf;Fhpa tpguq;fs;: njhiyNgrp: ,izak;: 131 881 www.immi.gov.au/amep
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mT];jpNuypa murpd; Vida Mq;fpy nkhopf; fw;gpj;jw; jpl;lq;fs;
mT];jpNuypahtpd; fy;tp> tpQ;Qhd> gapw;Wtpj;jy; jpizf;fsk; (Department of Education, Science and Training) eph;tfpf;Fk; NtW %d;W Mq;fpy nkhopg; gapw;rpj; jpl;lq;fSk; cs;sd. gzpapl Mq;fpy nkhop kw;Wk; vOj thrpj;jy; jpl;lk; (Workplace English Language and Literacy programme - WELL)> njhopy; NjLNthUf;fhd nkhop> vOj thrpj;jy; kw;Wk; vz;zpay; epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lk; (Language, Literacy and Numeracy Programme LLNP)> ghlrhiy nry;Yk; taJila gps;isfSf;nfd Gjpa FbNawpfSf;fhd Mq;fpyk; ,uz;lhk; nkhopj; jpl;lk; (English as a second language – New Arrivals - ESL – NA) vd;gdNt mit. Nkyjpfj; jfty; ngw ghh;f;fTk;: www.dest.gov.au

ciungah;g;G kw;Wk; nkhopngah;g;Gfs; cjtp
ciungah;g;G cjtp ngw ciungah;g;G> nkhopngah;g;G Nritia (Translating and Interpreting Service National - TIS National) 131 450 ,yf;fj;jpy; (mT];jpNuypahtpy; vq;fpUe;J mioj;jhYk; cs;@h;f; fl;lzk; mwtplg;gLk;) miof;fyhk;. TIS National thuj;jpy; VO ehl;fSk; ehshe;jk; 24 kzpj;jpahyKk; ciungah;g;G Nritiag; toq;FfpwJ. mT];jpNuypahtpd; gpuirahf my;yJ tjptplf;fhuuhfj; jFjp ngw;NwhUf;F> FbNaw;wk; njhlh;ghd jdpg;gl;l j];jhNt[{fis RUf;fkhf Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhopngah;g;gjw;fhd ,ytr trjpAk; cz;L.

,izaj;js tpguk;:
• www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/help-with-english/learn-english/client/translation_help.htm

fy;tp
mT];jpNuypa rl;lj;jpd; gpufhuk;> gps;isfs; nghJthf Ie;J Kjy; 15 taJ tiu ghlrhiyf;Fr; nry;y Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j tanjy;iy rpy khepyq;fspYk;> vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaq;fspYk; rpwpjsT NtWglyhk;. mur gs;spfspy; murhq;fk; ,ytr fy;tpia toq;FfpwJ (jw;fhypf tprh ngw;Ws;s khzth;fs; KOikahd ghlrhiyf; fl;lzj;ijr; nrYj;JkhW Nfl;fg;glf; $Lk;). Njthyaq;fs; kw;Wk; NtW FOf;fshy; elhj;jg;gLk; jdpahh; ghlrhiyfSf;Fk; khzth; nry;th;. mq;F mth;fs; fl;lzk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. mT];jpNuypa fy;tpj; jpl;lk; midtUf;Fk; nghJthdJ. rfy tajpdUf;Fk; vj;jifa jpwikg; gbj;juq;fisf; nfhz;NlhUf;Fk; mJ re;jh;g;gj;ij toq;FfpwJ. mur ghlrhiyfis khepy/vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa murhq;fq;fs; eph;tfpf;fpd;wd. ghlrhiy mDkjp Fwpj;j jfty;fis khepy/vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa fy;tpj; jpizf;fsj;jpNyh> mUfhikapy; cs;s gs;spapNyh ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;. ,uz;L tifahd %d;whk; epiyf; (tertiary) fy;tpj; jpl;lq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mit> njhopw; fy;tp kw;Wk; gapw;rpj; JiwapYs;s epWtdq;fshYk; njhopw;rhiyfshYk; toq;fg;gLgit (VET) kw;Wk; gy;fiyf;fofq;fshYk; kw;WKs;s cah; fy;tp epWtdq;fshYk; toq;fg;gLgitahFk;. %d;whk; epiyf; fy;tpf;fhd mDkjp tpz;zg;gjhhpapd; tprhtpYs;s epge;jidfisg; nghWj;Nj mikayhk;.
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypahtpy; trpj;jy;

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rpy re;jh;g;gq;fspy;> %d;whk; epiyf; fy;tp ,lq;fSf;fhd (nghJeytha cjtp ngWk;; ,lq;fs;) ngUk;gFjpr; nryTfis mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; toq;FfpwJ. vQ;rpa njhifia khzth;fs; nrYj;Jth;. cah;fy;tp cjtpj; jpl;lk; (Higher Education Contributory Scheme -HECS)> my;yJ cah; fy;tpf; fld; jpl;lk; (Higher Education Loan Programme - HELP) Nghd;wtw;wpw;;F %d;whk; epiy khzth; tpz;zg;gpf;fyhk;. ,it nghJeytha cjtp ngWk; ,lq;fspy; mDkjp ngw;Ws;s jFjpahd khzth;fSf;FupajhFk;. Nkw;gb HECS – HELP %yk; fpilf;Fk; cjtpj; njhifahy;> khzth; nrYj;Jk; njhifia KOikahfNth> gFjpahfNth G+h;j;jp nra;a KbAk;.

,izaj;jpy; Nkyjpfj; jfty;:
• fy;tp> tpQ;Qhd> gapw;Wtpj;jy; ,yhfh www.dest.gov.au • gy;fiyf;fofk; nry;yy; www.goingtouni.gov.au

thfd Xl;Leh; mDkjpg; gj;jpuk;
Xl;Leh; mDkjpg; gj;jpuq;fs; khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpa murhq;fq;fshy; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. nghJthf tpz;zg;gjhupfs; nghJ mwpTg; ghPl;ir> nrad;Kiwg; ghPl;ir kw;Wk; fz;ghh;itr; Nrhjid vd;gtw;wpy; rpj;jp ngw Ntz;Lk;. nry;YgbahFk; Xl;Leh; mDkjpg; gj;jpukpd;wp vtUk; thfdk; nrYj;j KbahJ. epue;ju tjptpl tprh itj;jpUg;Nghh;> mT];jpNuypah te;j Kjy; %d;W khjq;fspYk;> NtW xU ehl;bd;> Mq;fpy nkhopapyhd my;yJ nkhopngah;g;Gld; $ba> nry;YgbahFk; Xl;Leh; mDkjpg; gj;jpuj;ij itj;jpUg;ghuhapd; thfdk; nrYj;j mDkjpf;fg;gLthh;fs;. ,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;;jpd; gpd;dh;> nghUj;jkhd Xl;Leh; mDkjpg; gj;jpuj;ij mth; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

Kf;fpakhd njhlh;G tpguq;fs;
• caph; Mgj;jhd mtru epiy (jP> nghyP];> mk;Gyd;];) – njhiyNgrp: 000 • ciungah;g;G> nkhopngah;g;Gr; Nrit (TIS National) – njhiyNgrp: 131 450 • FbtuT> FbAhpik ,yhfh (DIAC) – njhiyNgrp: 131 881 • mT];jpNuypa murhq;f ,iza Eiothapy;: www.australia.gov.au • ‘mT];jpNuypahtpy; trpj;jy;’ (yptpq; ,d; mT];jpNuypah) ,izag; gf;fq;fs;: – www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/index.htm • ‘mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;itj; Jtq;Fjy;’ ifNaLfs; – www.immi.gov.au/living-in-australia/settle-in-australia/beginning-life/index.htm
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | mT];jpNuypahtpy; trpj;jy;

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Xh; mT];jpNuypag; gpuirahjy;
jFjp ngw;w epue;ju tjpthsh;fs; mT];jpNuypa FbAhpikiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;SkhW mT];jpNuypa murhq;fk; tYtha; Cf;Ftpf;fpwJ. mT];jpNuypa gpuirahFtjw;F ePq;fs; jPh;khdpg;gjd; %yk;> mT];jpNuypahTf;Fk; mjd; kf;fSf;Fkhd cq;fsJ jdpg;gl;l tpRthrj;ijAk;> gw;WWjpiaAk; gpufldg;gLj;JfpwPh;fs;. xU tifapy;> ,J FbtuTg; gazj;jpdJk;> mT];jpNuypahitj; jdJ ,y;ykhff; nfhs;tjpdJk; ,Wjpf; fl;lkhFk;. mT];jpNuypahtpy; epue;jukhf tho;tjd; %yk; midj;J kf;fSk; rkkhd re;jh;g;gq;fisg; gfph;e;J nfhs;fpd;w NghjpYk;> gpuirahtjd; %yk; mT];jpNuypa rKjhaj;jpy; G+uz mq;fj;Jtj;ij Kiwahfg; ngWk; re;jh;g;gk; toq;fg;gLfpwJ. thf;fspg;gJ> ghuhSkd;wj;Jf;fhfg; Nghl;bapLtJ kw;Wk; murhq;f gjtpfis tfpg;gJ Nghd;w Njrj;jpd; [dehaf eilKiwfspy; KOikahff; fye;J nfhs;tjd; %yk; mT];jpNuypahtpw;F gyDs;s gq;fspg;ig toq;Ftjw;fhd tha;g;ig ,J kf;fSf;F toq;FfpwJ. ekJ Njrj;jpd; ,jakhfj; jpfOfpd;w mT];jpNuypaf; FbAhpikahdJ ek; midtiuAk; xd;wpizf;Fk; rf;jpahFk;. mT];jpNuypaf; FbAhpikahdJ mjw;Nf cupj;jhd flikfisAk; chpikfisAk; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

FbAhpikapdhy; fpilf;Fk; rpwg;Ghpikfs;
vy;yh mT];jpNuypa gpuirfSk; gpd;tUk; chpikfisg; ngWth;. • mT];jpNuypa murhq;fq;fisj; njhpT nra;a cjTk; Njh;jypy; thf;fspj;jy; • ghuhSkd;wj; Njh;jypy; Nghl;baply; • mT];jpNuypaf; flTr; rPl;ilg; ngw tpz;zg;gpj;jYk; jq;Fjilapd;wp mT];jpNuypahTf;Fs; tUjYk; • ntspehLfspy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ mT];jpNuypa J}Jtuhyaq;fspd; fd;rpA+yh; Nritfis KOikahfg; ngWjy; • ntspehLfspy; gpwf;Fk; jkJ gps;isfis kuGtopapy; mT];jpNuypag; gpuirahfg; gjpT nra;jy; • mT];jpNuypa ghJfhg;Gg; gilapYk; mT];jpNuypa mur NritapYk; midj;J tpj njhopy;tha;g;GfisAk; ngWk; re;jh;g;gk;

flikfs;
mT];jpNuypa FbAhpikapd; %yk; gpd;tUk; nghWg;GfSk; te;J NrUfpd;wd:
mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | Xh; mT];jpNuypag; gpuirahjy;

• nghJeytha> khepy kw;Wk; vy;iyg; gpuhe;jpaj; Njh;jy;fspYk; kf;fs; mgpg;gpuha thf;nfLg;Gf;fspYk; thf;fspj;jy;* • miof;fg;gLkplj;J [{hpahfr; (jury) nray;gLjy; • NjitNaw;gLk; NghJ mT];jpNuypahitg; ghJfhj;jy; (mT];jpNuypahtpy; gpwe;j gpuirfSf;fhd mNj flikfs; kw;Wk; tpjptpyf;Ffs; nghUe;Jk;). *mgpg;gpuha thf;nfLg;Gfs; vd;gJ rl;l ahg;gpy; khw;wk; nra;tjw;fhd rl;l Kd;nkhopT gw;wpa thf;fhsh;fspd; mgpg;gpuhaj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk;.

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mNdfkhd epue;ju tjpthsh;fs; mT];jpNuypa gpuirahFtjd; Kjw;gb> FbAhpikg; ghPl;irapy; Njh;r;rpailtjhFk;. mg;ghPl;irf;Fj; jahuhFtjw;F tpz;zg;gjhupfs; fPo;tUk; ,izaj;jsj;jpy; cs;s Xh; mT];jpNuypag; gpuirahFjy; (Becoming an Australian citizen) vd;w FbAhpikj; jfty; ifE}iy thrpj;jwpa Ntz;Lk;. mth;fs; ghPl;irpapy; Njwp> mth;fsJ FbAhpik tpz;zg;gk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJk;> gfpuq;f FbAhpik epfo;tpd; NghJ gpd;tUk; gw;WWjpg; gpufldj;ij Nkw;nfhs;SkhW mtu;fs; Nfhug;gLth;. ‘,j;jUzj;jpy; ,Ue;J> ,iw ehkj;jhy; *mT];jpNuypahTf;Fk; ‘From this time forward, under God,* mjd; kf;fSf;Fk; tpRthrg; gpukhzkspf;Fk; ehd; I pledge my loyalty to Australia and its people mth;fsJ [dehaf ek;gpf;iffisg; gfph;e;J nfhs;fpd;Nwd; Whose democratic beliefs I share, mth;fsJ chpikfisAk; Rje;jpuq;fisAk; kjpf;fpd;Nwd; Whose rights and liberties I respect, and mth;fsJ rl;lq;fisg; Ngzp xOFNtd;’. Whose laws I will uphold and obey’. *People may choose whether or not to use the * ‘,iwtdpd; ehkj;jhy;’ vd;W $Wtjh ,y;iyah vd;gij mtuth; jPh;khdpf;fyhk;;. words ‘under God’.

vy;yhtpj fyhrhuq;fisAk;> kjq;fisAk; nfhz;l mT];jpNuypah;fs; xNu rKjhaj;jtuhf xw;Wikg;gl;bUf;Fk; mNjNtis jj;jkJ ek;gpf;iffisAk;> ghuk;ghpaq;fisAk; Ngz KbAk;. mT];jpNuypag; gpuirahFtjd; %yk; mT];jpNuypahTf;F ckJ tpRthrj;ijj; njhptpg;gNjhL> ckJ fyhrhuj;jpd; %yk; mT];jpNuypahit tsg;gLj;Jk; mNjNtis gykhd> xd;Wgl;l> RKfkhd xU Njrj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;F Vida mT];jpNuypaUld; NjhNshL Njhs; epd;W ciog;gjw;F ck;ik mh;g;gzpf;fpd;wPh;. Xh; mT];jpNuypa gpuirahtJ gw;wpa Nkyjpfj; jfty;fis> mT];jpNuypa FbAhpik ,izak; %ykhfNth> FbAhpikj; jfty; njhiyNgrp %ykhfNth ngw;Wf;nfhs;shyhk;.

Nkyjpf ,izaj; jfty;:
• ghh;f;fTk; www.citizenship.gov.au my;yJ njhiyNgrpapy; miof;fTk;: 131 880

mT];jpNuypahtpy; tho;f;if | Xh; mT];jpNuypag; gpuirahjy;

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